The Graphene Report

0

cover2017

Future Markets has published a market report on graphene since 2010 and is uniquely positioned to provide the most in-depth study on these remarkable materials, their applications and markets.

The Graphene Report is a comprehensive analysis of the market and commercial opportunities for these remarkable materials.

The graphene market continues to expand in 2017, with weekly announcements on new multi-million dollar investments, new products (especially in the Asia market) and innovative production processes.

A growing number of products are integrating graphene across a range of markets including consumer electronic devices, wearables, flexible RF devices,  supercapacitors, conductive inks, sensors and coatings.

Graphene is a ground-breaking 2D material that possesses extraordinary electrical and mechanical properties that promise a new generation of innovative devices. Beyond graphene, emerging elementary 2D materials such as transition metal dichalcogenides, group V systems including phosphorene, and related isoelectronic structures will potentially allow for flexible electronics and field-effect transistors that exhibit ambipolar transport behaviour with either a direct band-gap or greater gate modulation.

Published August 2 2017 | 600 Pages | Table of contents

Report contents include:

  • 50 additional pages from previous edition.
  • Global production capacities for 2017.
  • Current graphene products.
  • Stage of commercialization for graphene applications, from basic research to market entry.
  • Market drivers, trends and challenges, by end user markets.
  • In-depth market assessment of opportunities for graphene including potential revenues, growth rates, pricing, most likely applications and market challenges.
  • In-depth company profiles, including products, capacities, and commercial activities.
  • Detailed forecasts for key growth areas, opportunities and user demand.
  • Over 200 company profiles.
  • Companies profiled in the report include 3D Graphtech Industries, Applied Graphene Materials, Cealtech, Directa Plus , Enanotec,  Graphenano S.L., Graphentech, Hanwha Chemical, Metalysis, Talga Resources and many more.
The Graphene Report
The Graphene Report
Instant PDF download to desktop, tablet or smartphone.
The Graphene Report
The Graphene Report
Print edition. 5-7 working days delivery. Price includes postage and packing plus couriered delivery.
The Graphene Report
The Graphene Report
PDF and Hard copy including postage and packing.
The Graphene Report
The Graphene Report
Multi-user licence.

To purchase by invoice (bank transfer or cheque) contact info@futuremarketsinc.com.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1    RESEARCH METHODOLOGY………………………………………………………. 40

1.1        Applications assessment…………………………………………………………………………………………… 40

1.1        Market opportunity analysis………………………………………………………………………………………. 41

1.2        Market challenges rating system……………………………………………………………………………….. 42

2    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY………………………………………………………………… 45

2.1        Two-dimensional (2D) materials……………………………………………………………………………….. 45

2.2        Graphene…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 45

2.2.1     The market in 2016……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 46

2.2.2     Products………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 46

2.2.3     Short-term opportunities………………………………………………………………………………………… 47

2.2.4     Medium-term opportunities……………………………………………………………………………………. 48

2.2.5     Remarkable properties………………………………………………………………………………………….. 55

2.2.6     Global funding and initiatives………………………………………………………………………………… 56

2.2.6.1      Europe…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 56

2.2.6.2      Asia……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 56

2.2.6.3      United States…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 57

2.2.7     Products and applications…………………………………………………………………………………….. 57

2.2.8     Production……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 59

2.2.9     Market drivers and trends……………………………………………………………………………………… 61

2.2.9.1      Production exceeds demand………………………………………………………………………… 61

2.2.9.2      Market revenues remain small……………………………………………………………………… 61

2.2.9.3      Scalability and cost……………………………………………………………………………………….. 62

2.2.9.4      Applications hitting the market………………………………………………………………………. 63

2.2.9.5      Wait and see?……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 63

2.2.9.6      Asia and US lead the race…………………………………………………………………………….. 64

2.2.9.7      China commercializing at a fast rate…………………………………………………………….. 64

2.2.9.8      Competition from other materials………………………………………………………………….. 65

2.2.10       Market and technical challenges………………………………………………………………………. 65

2.2.10.1    Inconsistent supply quality……………………………………………………………………………. 65

2.2.10.2    Functionalization and dispersion………………………………………………………………….. 66

2.2.10.3    Cost……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 66

2.2.10.4    Product integration………………………………………………………………………………………… 66

2.2.10.5    Regulation and standards…………………………………………………………………………….. 67

2.2.10.6    Lack of a band gap……………………………………………………………………………………….. 67

3    PROPERTIES OF NANOMATERIALS…………………………………………… 68

3.1        Categorization…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 69

4    OVERVIEW OF GRAPHENE………………………………………………………….. 71

4.1        History……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 71

4.2        Forms of graphene…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 72

4.3        Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 73

4.4        3D Graphene…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 75

4.5        Graphene Quantum Dots…………………………………………………………………………………………… 75

4.5.1     Synthesis……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 76

4.5.2     Applications…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 77

4.5.2.1      Optoelectronics, electronics and photonics………………………………………………….. 77

4.5.2.2      Energy…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 77

4.5.2.3      Biomedicine and healthcare…………………………………………………………………………. 78

4.5.2.4      Other……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 78

4.5.2.5      Pricing…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 79

4.5.3     Producers………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 79

5    CARBON NANOTUBES VERSUS GRAPHENE…………………………… 81

5.1        Comparative properties…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 82

5.2        Cost and production………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 83

5.3        Carbon nanotube-graphene hybrids…………………………………………………………………………. 84

5.4        Competitive analysis of carbon nanotubes and graphene……………………………………….. 85

6    OTHER 2-D MATERIALS……………………………………………………………….. 86

6.1        Black phosphorus/Phosphorene……………………………………………………………………………….. 87

6.1.1     Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 88

6.1.2     Applications…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 89

6.2        C2N…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 90

6.2.1     Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 91

6.2.2     Applications…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 91

6.3        Carbon nitride……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 91

6.3.1     Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 91

6.3.2     Applications…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 92

6.4        Germanene……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 92

6.4.1     Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 93

6.4.2     Applications…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 93

6.5        Graphdiyne………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 93

6.5.1     Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 94

6.5.2     Applications…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 95

6.6        Graphane…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 95

6.6.1     Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 96

6.6.2     Applications…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 96

6.7        Hexagonal boron nitride……………………………………………………………………………………………. 97

6.7.1     Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 98

6.7.2     Applications…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 99

6.7.3     Producers………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 99

6.8        Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2)……………………………………………………………………………………. 99

6.8.1     Properties……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 100

6.8.2     Applications…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 100

6.9        Rhenium disulfide (ReS2) and diselenide (ReSe2)……………………………………………….. 103

6.9.1     Properties……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 103

6.9.2     Applications…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 104

6.10      Silicene……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 104

6.10.1       Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 105

6.10.2       Applications…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 105

6.11      Stanene/tinene………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 107

6.11.1       Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 108

6.11.2       Applications…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 108

6.12      Tungsten diselenide………………………………………………………………………………………………… 109

6.12.1       Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 109

6.12.2       Applications…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 110

6.13      Comparative analysis of graphene and other 2-D nanomaterials………………………….. 111

7    GRAPHENE SYNTHESIS……………………………………………………………. 113

7.1        Large area graphene films………………………………………………………………………………………. 113

7.2        Graphene oxide flakes and graphene nanoplatelets……………………………………………… 114

7.3        Production methods………………………………………………………………………………………………… 114

7.3.1     Production directly from natural graphite ore………………………………………………………. 116

7.3.2     Alternative starting materials……………………………………………………………………………….. 116

7.3.3     Quality…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 117

7.4        Synthesis and production by types of graphene……………………………………………………… 118

7.4.1     Graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs)…………………………………………………………………………. 118

7.4.2     Graphene nanoribbons……………………………………………………………………………………….. 119

7.4.3     Large-area graphene films………………………………………………………………………………….. 120

7.4.4     Graphene oxide (GO)………………………………………………………………………………………….. 121

7.5        Pros and cons of graphene production methods…………………………………………………….. 122

7.5.1     Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD)……………………………………………………………………… 123

7.5.2     Exfoliation method………………………………………………………………………………………………. 124

7.5.3     Epitaxial growth method……………………………………………………………………………………… 124

7.5.4     Wet chemistry method (liquid phase exfoliation)………………………………………………… 125

7.5.5     Micromechanical cleavage method…………………………………………………………………….. 126

7.5.6     Green reduction of graphene oxide…………………………………………………………………….. 126

7.5.7     Plasma………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 126

7.6        Recent synthesis methods………………………………………………………………………………………. 127

7.6.1     Ben-Gurion University of the Negev (BGU) and University of Western Australia.. 127

7.6.2     Graphene Frontiers……………………………………………………………………………………………… 127

7.6.3     MIT and the University of Michigan……………………………………………………………………… 128

7.6.4     Oak Ridge National Laboratory/University of Texas/General Graphene……………. 128

7.6.5     University of Florida/Donghua University……………………………………………………………. 128

7.6.6     Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST) and Case Western Reserve University   129

7.6.7     Trinity College Dublin………………………………………………………………………………………….. 129

7.6.8     Sungkyunkwan University and Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology (SAIT) 129

7.6.9     Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST), Chonbuk National University and KRICT     129

7.6.10       NanoXplore…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 129

7.6.11       Carbon Sciences Inc……………………………………………………………………………………….. 129

7.6.12       California Institute of Technology……………………………………………………………………. 130

7.6.13       Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology…………………….. 130

7.6.14       Oxford University…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 130

7.6.15       University of Tokyo………………………………………………………………………………………….. 130

7.6.16       Argonne National Laboratory………………………………………………………………………….. 131

7.6.17       Rutgers University…………………………………………………………………………………………… 131

7.6.18       FAU…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 132

7.6.19       University of Exeter…………………………………………………………………………………………. 132

7.6.20       Abalonyx…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 132

7.6.21       Vortex Fluidic Device (VFD)……………………………………………………………………………. 132

7.7        Synthesis methods by company……………………………………………………………………………… 132

8    GRAPHENE MARKET STRUCTURE AND ROUTES TO COMMERCIALIZATION 135

9    REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS…………………………………………… 139

9.1        Standards………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 139

9.2        Environmental, health and safety regulation…………………………………………………………… 139

9.2.1     Europe…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 140

9.2.2     United States……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 140

9.2.3     Asia……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 140

9.3        Workplace exposure……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 141

10 PATENTS AND PUBLICATIONS………………………………………………… 142

10.1      Fabrication processes……………………………………………………………………………………………… 142

10.2      Academia………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 142

10.3      Regional leaders…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 143

11 TECHNOLOGY READINESS LEVEL………………………………………….. 147

12 GRAPHENE INDUSTRY NEWS 2013-2016………………………………… 149

12.1      JANUARY 2013………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 149

12.2      FEBRUARY 2013……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 149

12.3      APRIL 2013……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 150

12.4      MAY 2013………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 150

12.5      JUNE 2013………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 150

12.6      JULY 2013………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 151

12.7      AUGUST 2013…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 151

12.8      SEPTEMBER 2013………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 152

12.9      OCTOBER 2013………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 152

12.10        NOVEMBER 2013……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 152

12.11        DECEMBER 2013……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 153

12.12        JANUARY 2014…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 154

12.13        FEBRUARY 2014………………………………………………………………………………………………… 155

12.14        MARCH 2014………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 156

12.15        APRIL 2014…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 157

12.16        MAY 2014……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 158

12.17        JUNE 2014………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 159

12.18        JULY 2014…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 160

12.19        AUGUST 2014…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 160

12.20        SEPTEMBER 2014……………………………………………………………………………………………… 161

12.21        AUGUST 2014…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 162

12.22        SEPTEMBER 2014……………………………………………………………………………………………… 162

12.23        OCTOBER 2014………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 163

12.24        NOVEMBER 2014……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 163

12.25        DECEMBER 2014……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 164

12.26        JANUARY 2015…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 166

12.27        FEBRUARY 2015………………………………………………………………………………………………… 166

12.28        MARCH 2015………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 167

12.29        APRIL 2015…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 167

12.30        MAY 2015……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 168

12.31        JUNE 2015………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 169

12.32        JULY 2015…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 170

12.33        AUGUST 2015…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 171

12.34        SEPTEMBER 2015……………………………………………………………………………………………… 172

12.35        OCTOBER 2015………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 172

12.36        NOVEMBER 2015……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 173

12.37        DECEMBER 2015……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 175

12.38        JANUARY 2016…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 176

12.39        FEBRUARY 2016………………………………………………………………………………………………… 176

12.40        MARCH 2016………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 177

12.41        APRIL 2016…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 178

12.42        MAY 2016……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 181

12.43        JUNE 2016………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 183

12.44        JULY 2016…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 183

12.45        AUGUST 2016…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 184

12.46        SEPTEMBER 2016……………………………………………………………………………………………… 184

12.47        OCTOBER 2016………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 185

12.48        NOVEMBER 2016……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 186

12.49        DECEMBER 2016……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 188

12.50        JANUARY 2017…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 189

12.51        FEBRUARY 2017………………………………………………………………………………………………… 189

13 END USER MARKET SEGMENT ANALYSIS…………………………….. 191

13.1      Graphene production volumes 2010-2027……………………………………………………………… 191

13.2      Graphene pricing…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 192

13.3      Graphene producers and production capacities…………………………………………………….. 193

14 ADHESIVES…………………………………………………………………………………. 199

14.1      MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………………………………………. 199

14.2      PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………………. 199

14.3      GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY……………………………………………………….. 201

14.4      MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………………. 204

14.5      PRODUCT DEVELOPERS……………………………………………………………………………………… 204

15 AEROSPACE……………………………………………………………………………….. 206

15.1      MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………………………………………. 206

15.2      PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………………. 207

15.2.1       Composites……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 208

15.2.2       Coatings………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 208

15.3      GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORUNTIY…………………………………………………………. 210

15.4      MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………………. 213

15.5      PRODUCT DEVELOPERS……………………………………………………………………………………… 214

16 AUTOMOTIVE………………………………………………………………………………. 216

16.1      MARKET DRIVER AND TRENDS…………………………………………………………………………… 216

16.2      PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………………. 217

16.2.1       Composites……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 218

16.2.2       Thermally conductive additives………………………………………………………………………. 219

16.2.3       Tires………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 219

16.3      GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY……………………………………………………….. 221

16.4      MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………………. 224

16.5      PRODUCT DEVELOPERS……………………………………………………………………………………… 226

17 LIFE SCIENCES AND MEDICAL…………………………………………………. 228

17.1      MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………………………………………. 229

17.2      PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………………. 230

17.2.1       Cancer therapy……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 234

17.2.1.1    Graphene oxide for therapy and drug delivery…………………………………………… 234

17.2.1.2    Graphene nanosheets………………………………………………………………………………… 234

17.2.1.3    Gene delivery……………………………………………………………………………………………… 234

17.2.1.4    Photodynamic Therapy……………………………………………………………………………….. 234

17.2.2       Medical implants and devices…………………………………………………………………………. 235

17.2.3       Wound dressings…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 235

17.2.4       Biosensors………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 236

17.2.4.1    FRET biosensors for DNA detection…………………………………………………………… 237

17.2.5       Medical imaging……………………………………………………………………………………………… 237

17.2.6       Tissue engineering…………………………………………………………………………………………. 238

17.2.7       Dental……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 238

17.2.8       Electrophysiology……………………………………………………………………………………………. 238

17.3      GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY……………………………………………………….. 238

17.4      MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………………. 242

17.5      PRODUCT DEVELOPERS……………………………………………………………………………………… 245

18 COATINGS……………………………………………………………………………………. 247

18.1      MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………………………………………. 247

18.1.1       New functionalities and improved properties………………………………………………….. 248

18.1.2       Need for more effective protection………………………………………………………………….. 249

18.1.3       Sustainability and regulation…………………………………………………………………………… 250

18.1.4       Cost of corrosion……………………………………………………………………………………………… 250

18.1.5       Need for improved hygiene…………………………………………………………………………….. 251

18.1.6       Cost of weather-related damage…………………………………………………………………….. 251

18.1.7       Increased demand for coatings for extreme environments…………………………….. 252

18.2      PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………………. 252

18.2.1       Anti-corrosion coatings……………………………………………………………………………………. 254

18.2.1.1    Marine…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 255

18.2.2       Anti-microbial………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 255

18.2.3       Anti-icing…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 256

18.2.4       Barrier coatings……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 257

18.2.5       Heat protection………………………………………………………………………………………………… 258

18.2.6       Anti-fouling………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 259

18.2.7       Wear and abrasion resistance………………………………………………………………………… 260

18.2.8       Smart windows………………………………………………………………………………………………… 261

18.3      GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY……………………………………………………….. 261

18.3.1       Thermal barrier coatings…………………………………………………………………………………. 266

18.3.2       Barrier coatings……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 266

18.3.3       Anti-microbial coatings……………………………………………………………………………………. 266

18.3.4       De-icing or anti-icing coatings………………………………………………………………………… 266

18.3.5       Abrasion and wear resistant coatings…………………………………………………………….. 266

18.3.6       Anti-corrosion coatings……………………………………………………………………………………. 267

18.4      MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………………. 269

18.4.1       Dispersion……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 269

18.4.2       Production, scalability and cost………………………………………………………………………. 269

18.5      PRODUCT DEVELOPERS……………………………………………………………………………………… 270

19 COMPOSITES INCLUDING THERMOPLASTICS AND RUBBER 271

19.1      MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………………………………………. 272

19.2      PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………………. 274

19.2.1       Polymer composites………………………………………………………………………………………… 275

19.2.2       Barrier packaging……………………………………………………………………………………………. 278

19.2.3       Electrostatic discharge (ESD) and electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding 278

19.2.4       Wind turbines………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 278

19.2.5       Ballistic protection…………………………………………………………………………………………… 279

19.2.6       Cement additives…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 279

19.3      GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY……………………………………………………….. 279

19.4      MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………………. 283

19.5      PRODUCT DEVELOPERS……………………………………………………………………………………… 284

20 ELECTRONICS AND PHOTONICS……………………………………………… 287

20.1      FLEXIBLE ELECTRONICS, WEARABLES, CONDUCTIVE FILMS AND DISPLAYS. 287

20.1.1       MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS………………………………………………………………… 287

20.1.2       PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………. 289

20.1.2.1    Transparent electrodes in flexible electronics…………………………………………….. 292

20.1.2.2    Electronic paper………………………………………………………………………………………….. 294

20.1.2.3    Wearable electronics………………………………………………………………………………….. 294

20.1.2.4    Wearable sensors……………………………………………………………………………………….. 298

20.1.3       GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY……………………………………………….. 303

20.1.4       MARKET CHALLENGES………………………………………………………………………………… 310

20.1.4.1    Manufacturing……………………………………………………………………………………………… 311

20.1.4.2    Competing materials…………………………………………………………………………………… 311

20.1.4.3    Cost in comparison to ITO…………………………………………………………………………… 311

20.1.4.4    Problems with transfer and growth……………………………………………………………… 311

20.1.4.5    Improving sheet resistance…………………………………………………………………………. 312

20.1.4.6    Difficulties in display panel integration……………………………………………………….. 313

20.1.5       PRODUCT DEVELOPERS……………………………………………………………………………… 314

20.2      TRANSISTORS AND INTEGRATED CIRCUITS……………………………………………………… 315

20.2.1       MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS………………………………………………………………… 315

20.2.2       PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………. 317

20.2.2.1    Integrated circuits………………………………………………………………………………………… 317

20.2.2.2    Transistors…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 319

20.2.2.3    Graphene Radio Frequency (RF) circuits…………………………………………………… 319

20.2.2.4    Graphene spintronics………………………………………………………………………………….. 320

20.2.3       GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY……………………………………………….. 321

20.2.4       MARKET CHALLENGES………………………………………………………………………………… 324

20.2.4.1    Competition from other materials………………………………………………………………… 324

20.2.4.2    Lack of band gap………………………………………………………………………………………… 324

20.2.4.3    Transfer and integration……………………………………………………………………………… 325

20.2.4.4    Contact resistance………………………………………………………………………………………. 325

20.2.5       PRODUCT DEVELOPERS……………………………………………………………………………… 326

20.3      MEMORY DEVICES………………………………………………………………………………………………… 328

20.3.1       MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS………………………………………………………………… 328

20.3.2       PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………. 329

20.3.3       GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY……………………………………………….. 331

20.3.4       PRODUCT DEVELOPERS……………………………………………………………………………… 332

20.3.5       MARKET CHALLENGES………………………………………………………………………………… 333

20.4      PHOTONICS……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 333

20.4.1       MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS………………………………………………………………… 334

20.4.2       PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………. 334

20.4.2.1    Si photonics versus graphene…………………………………………………………………….. 334

20.4.2.2    Optical modulators………………………………………………………………………………………. 335

20.4.2.3    Photodetectors……………………………………………………………………………………………. 336

20.4.2.4    Saturable absorbers……………………………………………………………………………………. 338

20.4.2.5    Plasmonics………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 338

20.4.2.6    Fiber lasers…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 338

20.4.3       MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY………………………………………………………………. 339

20.4.4       PRODUCT DEVELOPERS……………………………………………………………………………… 340

20.4.5       MARKET CHALLENGES………………………………………………………………………………… 340

20.4.5.1    Need to design devices that harness graphene’s properties……………………… 340

20.4.5.2    Problems with transfer………………………………………………………………………………… 340

20.4.5.3    THz absorbance and nonlinearity………………………………………………………………. 341

20.4.5.4    Stability and sensitivity………………………………………………………………………………… 341

21 ENERGY STORAGE, CONVERSION AND EXPLORATION………. 342

21.1      BATTERIES……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 343

21.1.1       MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS………………………………………………………………… 343

21.1.2       PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………. 345

21.1.2.1    Lithium-ion batteries (LIB)…………………………………………………………………………… 345

21.1.2.2    Lithium-air batteries…………………………………………………………………………………….. 346

21.1.2.3    Lithium–sulfur batteries (Li–S)……………………………………………………………………. 346

21.1.2.4    Sodium-ion batteries…………………………………………………………………………………… 347

21.1.3       GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY……………………………………………….. 347

21.1.4       PRODUCT DEVELOPERS……………………………………………………………………………… 351

21.1.5       MARKET CHALLENGES………………………………………………………………………………… 355

21.2      SUPERCAPACITORS……………………………………………………………………………………………… 355

21.2.1       MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS………………………………………………………………… 356

21.2.2       PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………. 356

21.2.3       GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY……………………………………………….. 359

21.2.4       PRODUCT DEVELOPERS……………………………………………………………………………… 361

21.2.5       MARKET CHALLENGES………………………………………………………………………………… 362

21.2.5.1    Low energy storage capacity of graphene………………………………………………….. 362

21.3      PHOTOVOLTAICS…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 363

21.3.1       MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS………………………………………………………………… 363

21.3.2       PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………. 365

21.3.2.1    ITO replacement………………………………………………………………………………………….. 365

21.3.2.2    Graphene–silicon (Gr–Si) Schottky junction solar cells……………………………… 366

21.3.2.3    Halide perovskites/graphene hybrids…………………………………………………………. 366

21.3.3       GLOBAL MARKET SIZE………………………………………………………………………………….. 366

21.3.4       PRODUCT DEVELOPERS……………………………………………………………………………… 369

21.3.5       MARKET CHALLENGES………………………………………………………………………………… 370

21.4      FUEL CELLS…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 371

21.4.1       MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS………………………………………………………………… 371

21.4.2       PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………. 373

21.4.2.1    Electrocatalyst supports………………………………………………………………………………. 373

21.4.3       GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND GRAPHENE OPPORTUNITY………………………….. 374

21.4.3.1    Graphene opportunity…………………………………………………………………………………. 375

21.4.4       MARKET CHALLENGES………………………………………………………………………………… 376

21.4.5       PRODUCT DEVELOPERS……………………………………………………………………………… 376

21.5      LED LIGHTING AND UVC……………………………………………………………………………………….. 377

21.5.1       MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS………………………………………………………………… 377

21.5.2       PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………. 378

21.5.3       GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY……………………………………………….. 378

21.5.4       PRODUCT DEVELOPERS……………………………………………………………………………… 378

21.6      OIL AND GAS………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 379

21.6.1       MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS………………………………………………………………… 379

21.6.2       PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………. 380

21.6.2.1    Sensing and reservoir management…………………………………………………………… 380

21.6.2.2    Coatings……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 381

21.6.2.3    Drilling fluids……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 383

21.6.2.4    Sorbent materials………………………………………………………………………………………… 384

21.6.2.5    Catalysts……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 384

21.6.2.6    Separation…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 384

21.6.3       GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY……………………………………………….. 385

21.6.4       MARKET CHALLENGES………………………………………………………………………………… 386

21.6.5       PRODUCT DEVELOPERS……………………………………………………………………………… 387

22 FILTRATION AND SEPARATION……………………………………………….. 388

22.1      MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………………………………………. 388

22.2      PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………………. 390

22.2.1       Water filtration…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 392

22.2.2       Gas separation………………………………………………………………………………………………… 392

22.2.3       Photocatalytic absorbents……………………………………………………………………………….. 393

22.2.4       Air filtration………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 393

22.3      GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY……………………………………………………….. 394

22.4      MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………………. 396

22.5      PRODUCT DEVELOPERS……………………………………………………………………………………… 397

23 LUBRICANTS………………………………………………………………………………. 398

23.1      MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………………………………………. 399

23.2      PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………………. 399

23.3      GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY……………………………………………………….. 400

23.4      MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………………. 401

23.5      PRODUCT DEVELOPERS……………………………………………………………………………………… 402

24 SENSORS…………………………………………………………………………………….. 402

24.1      MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………………………………………. 403

24.2      PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………………. 404

24.2.1       Infrared (IR) sensors……………………………………………………………………………………….. 406

24.2.2       Electrochemical and gas sensors…………………………………………………………………… 406

24.2.2.1    Graphene foam…………………………………………………………………………………………… 407

24.2.3       Pressure sensors…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 407

24.2.4       Biosensors………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 408

24.2.5       Optical sensors……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 410

24.2.6       Humidity sensors…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 411

24.2.7       Strain sensors…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 411

24.2.8       Acoustic sensors……………………………………………………………………………………………… 411

24.2.9       Wireless sensors…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 411

24.2.10     Surface enhanced Raman scattering……………………………………………………………… 411

24.3      GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY……………………………………………………….. 412

24.4      MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………………. 414

24.4.1       Selectivity………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 414

24.4.2       Scaling and manufacturing……………………………………………………………………………… 415

24.4.3       Sensor recovery………………………………………………………………………………………………. 415

24.5      PRODUCT DEVELOPERS……………………………………………………………………………………… 415

25 SMART TEXTILES AND APPAREL……………………………………………. 418

25.1      MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………………………………………. 418

25.2      PROPERTIES AND APPLICATONS……………………………………………………………………….. 421

25.2.1       Conductive coatings……………………………………………………………………………………….. 422

25.3      GLOBAL MARKET SIZE………………………………………………………………………………………….. 423

25.4      PRODUCT DEVELOPERS……………………………………………………………………………………… 427

26 CONDUCTIVE INKS…………………………………………………………………….. 428

26.1      MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………………………………………. 428

26.2      PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………………. 429

26.3      GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY……………………………………………………….. 431

26.4      PRODUCT DEVELOPERS……………………………………………………………………………………… 436

27 3D PRINTING……………………………………………………………………………….. 437

27.1      MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………………………………………. 438

27.2      PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………………. 438

27.3      GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY……………………………………………………….. 440

27.4      CHALLENGES………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 441

27.5      PRODUCT DEVELOPERS……………………………………………………………………………………… 441

28 GRAPHENE PRODUCERS…………………………………………………………. 443

28.1      TYPES OF GRAPHENE PRODUCED, BY PRODUCER…………………………………………. 443

28.2      2D CARBON GRAPHENE MATERIAL CO., LTD…………………………………………………….. 445 to XOLVE, INC…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 515 (115 company profiles including products and production capacities)

29 GRAPHENE PRODUCT AND APPLICATION DEVELOPERS…… 516

29.1      GRAPHENE INDUSTRIAL COLLABORATIONS AND LICENCE AGREEMENTS….. 517

29.2      2-D TECH………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 519 to 29.93        ZAPGOCHARGER LTD………………………………………………………………………………………. 571 (82 company profiles

30 REFERENCES……………………………………………………………………………… 572

TABLES

Table 1: Consumer products incorporating graphene……………………………………………………………….. 46

Table 2: Potential market penetration and volume estimates (tons) for graphene in key applications. 49

Table 3: Market opportunity assessment matrix for graphene applications………………………………. 50

Table 4: Graphene target markets-Applications and potential addressable market size………….. 58

Table 5: Main graphene producers by country and annual production capacities……………………. 60

Table 7: Categorization of nanomaterials………………………………………………………………………………….. 69

Table 8: Properties of graphene………………………………………………………………………………………………… 74

Table 9: Graphene quantum dot producers……………………………………………………………………………….. 79

Table 10: Comparative properties of carbon materials……………………………………………………………… 82

Table 11: Comparative properties of graphene with nanoclays and carbon nanotubes…………… 84

Table 12: Competitive analysis of Carbon nanotubes and graphene by application area and potential impact by 2027.    85

Table 13: Electronic and mechanical properties of monolayer phosphorene, graphene and MoS2.     88

Table 14: Markets and applications of phosphorene…………………………………………………………………. 89

Table 15: Markets and applications of C2N……………………………………………………………………………….. 91

Table 16: Markets and applications of hexagonal boron-nitride……………………………………………….. 93

Table 17: Markets and applications of graphdiyne……………………………………………………………………. 95

Table 18: Markets and applications of graphane………………………………………………………………………. 96

Table 19: Markets and applications of hexagonal boron-nitride……………………………………………….. 99

Table 20: Markets and applications of MoS2……………………………………………………………………………. 101

Table 21: Markets and applications of Rhenium disulfide (ReS2) and diselenide (ReSe2)…… 104

Table 22: Markets and applications of silicene………………………………………………………………………… 106

Table 23: Markets and applications of stanene/tinene…………………………………………………………….. 108

Table 24: Markets and applications of tungsten diselenide…………………………………………………….. 110

Table 25: Comparative analysis of graphene and other 2-D nanomaterials…………………………… 111

Table 26: Large area graphene films-Markets, applications and current global market…………. 113

Table 27: Graphene oxide flakes/graphene nanoplatelets-Markets, applications and current global market. 114

Table 28: Main production methods for graphene…………………………………………………………………… 114

Table 29: Graphene synthesis methods, by company…………………………………………………………….. 132

Table 30: Graphene market structure………………………………………………………………………………………. 135

Table 31: Published patent publications for graphene, 2004-2014………………………………………… 143

Table 32: Leading graphene patentees…………………………………………………………………………………… 144

Table 33: Industrial graphene patents in 2014………………………………………………………………………… 145

Table 34: Global production of graphene, 2010-2027 in tons/year. Base year for projections is 2015. 191

Table 35: Graphene producers and production capacity (Current and projected), prices and target markets.            193

Table 36: Market drivers for use of graphene in adhesives…………………………………………………….. 199

Table 37: Graphene properties relevant to application in adhesives………………………………………. 200

Table 38: Applications and benefits of graphene in adhesives……………………………………………….. 201

Table 39: Market size for graphene in adhesives……………………………………………………………………. 201

Table 40: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in adhesives…………………………………….. 202

Table 41: Market challenges rating for graphene in the adhesives market…………………………….. 204

Table 42:  Graphene product and application developers in the adhesives industry……………… 204

Table 43: Market drivers for use of graphene in aerospace…………………………………………………….. 206

Table 44: Applications and benefits of graphene in aerospace………………………………………………. 209

Table 45: Market size for graphene in aerospace……………………………………………………………………. 210

Table 46: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in aerospace……………………………………. 211

Table 47: Market challenges rating for graphene in the aerospace market…………………………….. 214

Table 48: Graphene product and application developers in the aerospace industry……………… 214

Table 49: Market drivers for use of graphene in the automotive sector…………………………………… 216

Table 50: Applications and benefits of graphene in the automotive industry………………………….. 220

Table 51: Market size for graphene in the automotive industry……………………………………………….. 221

Table 52: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in the automotive industry……………….. 221

Table 53: Applications and commercialization challenges in the automotive sector………………. 225

Table 54: Market challenges rating for graphene in the automotive sector…………………………….. 225

Table 55: Graphene product and application developers in the automotive sector………………… 226

Table 56: Market drivers for use of graphene in the life sciences and medical market…………… 229

Table 57: Graphene properties relevant to application in biomedicine and healthcare………….. 231

Table 58: Applications and benefits of graphene in life sciences and medical……………………….. 231

Table 59: Market size for graphene in biomedical and healthcare………………………………………….. 239

Table 60: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in biomedical & healthcare markets… 240

Table 61: Potential addressable market for graphene in biomedical & healthcare markets…… 241

Table 62: Market challenges in graphene in biomedicine and healthcare……………………………… 243

Table 63: Market challenges rating for graphene in the biomedical and healthcare market…… 244

Table 64: Graphene product and application developers in the biomedical and healthcare industry.  245

Table 65: Properties of nanocoatings………………………………………………………………………………………. 247

Table 66: Graphene properties relevant to application in coatings…………………………………………. 253

Table 67: Markets for nanocoatings…………………………………………………………………………………………. 263

Table 68: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in the coatings market……………………… 267

Table 69: Market challenges rating for graphene in the coatings market………………………………… 270

Table 70: Graphene product and application developers in the coatings industry…………………. 270

Table 71: Market drivers for use of graphene in composites…………………………………………………… 272

Table 72: Graphene properties relevant to application in polymer composites………………………. 275

Table 73: Applications and benefits of graphene in composites……………………………………………… 276

Table 74: Market size for SWNTs in composites……………………………………………………………………… 279

Table 75: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in the composites market…………………. 280

Table 76: Market challenges rating for graphene in the composites market…………………………… 284

Table 77: Graphene product and application developers in the composites industry…………….. 284

Table 78: Market drivers for use of SWNTs in flexible electronics and conductive films…………. 287

Table 79: Applications and benefits of graphene in flexible electronics and conductive films… 289

Table 80: Comparison of ITO replacements…………………………………………………………………………….. 291

Table 81: Wearable electronics devices and stage of development……………………………………….. 295

Table 82: Graphene properties relevant to application in sensors………………………………………….. 301

Table 83: Market size for graphene in flexible electronics and conductive films…………………….. 303

Table 84: Global market for wearables, 2014-2021, units and US$………………………………………… 308

Table 85: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in flexible electronics, wearables, conductive films and displays. 308

Table 86: Market challenges rating for graphene in the flexible electronics, wearables, conductive films and displays market.     313

Table 87: Graphene product and application developers in transparent conductive films……… 314

Table 88: Market drivers for use of graphene in transistors, integrated circuits and other components.           315

Table 89: Comparative properties of silicon and graphene transistors…………………………………… 319

Table 90: Applications and benefits of graphene in transistors, integrated circuits and other components.     320

Table 91: Market size for graphene in transistors, integrated circuits and other components…. 322

Table 92: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in transistors, integrated circuits and other components.     323

Table 93: Market challenges rating for graphene in the transistors and integrated circuits market. 325

Table 94: Graphene product and application developers in transistors and integrated circuits. 326

Table 95: Market drivers for use of graphene in memory devices…………………………………………… 328

Table 96: Market size for graphene in memory devices………………………………………………………….. 331

Table 97: Graphene product and application developers in memory devices………………………… 332

Table 98: Applications and commercialization challenges for graphene in the memory devices market.        333

Table 99: Market drivers for use of graphene in photonics……………………………………………………… 334

Table 100: Graphene properties relevant to application in optical modulators……………………….. 335

Table 101: Applications and benefits of graphene in photonics……………………………………………… 339

Table 102: Market size for graphene in photonics…………………………………………………………………… 339

Table 103: Graphene product and application developers in photonics…………………………………. 340

Table 104: Market challenges rating for graphene in the photonics market……………………………. 341

Table 105: Market drivers for use of graphene in batteries……………………………………………………… 343

Table 106: Market size for graphene in batteries…………………………………………………………………….. 348

Table 107: Potential addressable market for thin film, flexible and printed batteries………………. 349

Table 108: Graphene product and application developers in the battery industry………………….. 352

Table 109: Market challenges rating for graphene in the batteries market……………………………… 355

Table 110: Market drivers for use of graphene in supercapacitors………………………………………….. 356

Table 111: Comparative properties of graphene supercapacitors and lithium-ion batteries…… 357

Table 112: Applications and benefits of graphene in supercapacitors……………………………………. 358

Table 113: Market size for graphene in supercapacitors…………………………………………………………. 359

Table 114: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in supercapacitors…………………………. 361

Table 115: Graphene product and application developers in supercapacitors………………………. 361

Table 116: Market challenges rating for graphene in the supercapacitors market………………….. 363

Table 117: Market drivers for use of graphene in photovoltaics………………………………………………. 363

Table 118: Market size for graphene in photovoltaics……………………………………………………………… 367

Table 119: Market size for graphene in photovoltaics……………………………………………………………… 367

Table 120: Potential addressable market for photovoltaics…………………………………………………….. 368

Table 121: Graphene product and application developers in photovoltaics…………………………… 369

Table 122: Market challenges for graphene in solar……………………………………………………………….. 370

Table 123: Market challenges rating for graphene in the solar market……………………………………. 371

Table 124: Market drivers for use of SWNTs in fuel cells and hydrogen storage…………………….. 371

Table 125: Applications and benefits of graphene in fuel cells and hydrogen storage…………… 374

Table 126: Market size for graphene in fuel cells and hydrogen storage………………………………… 375

Table 127: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in fuel cells and hydrogen storage… 375

Table 128: Market challenges rating for graphene in the fuel cells market……………………………… 376

Table 129: Graphene product and application developers in fuel cells………………………………….. 376

Table 130: Market drivers for use of graphene in LED lighting and UVC………………………………… 377

Table 131: Market size for graphene in LED lighting and UVC……………………………………………….. 378

Table 132: Graphene product and application developers in the LED and UVC lighting market. 379

Table 133: Market drivers for graphene in oil and gas…………………………………………………………….. 380

Table 134: Application markets, competing materials, graphene advantages and current market size in oil and gas.          386

Table 135: Market challenges rating for graphene in the oil and gas market………………………….. 387

Table 136: Graphene product and application developers in the oil and gas market…………….. 387

Table 137: Market drivers for use of graphene in filtration………………………………………………………. 389

Table 138: Applications and benefits of graphene in filtration and separation……………………….. 391

Table 139: Market size for graphene in filtration……………………………………………………………………… 394

Table 140: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in the filtration and separation market. 395

Table 141: Market challenges rating for graphene in the filtration and separation market……… 397

Table 142: Graphene product and application developers in the filtration industry………………… 397

Table 143: Market drivers for use of graphene in lubricants……………………………………………………. 399

Table 144: Applications of carbon nanomaterials in lubricants……………………………………………….. 400

Table 145: Market size for graphene in lubricants…………………………………………………………………… 400

Table 146: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in lubricants…………………………………… 401

Table 147: Market challenges rating for graphene in the lubricants market……………………………. 402

Table 148:  Graphene product and application developers in the lubricants industry…………….. 402

Table 149: Market drivers for use of graphene in sensors………………………………………………………. 403

Table 150: Applications and benefits of graphene in sensors…………………………………………………. 404

Table 151: Graphene properties relevant to application in sensors………………………………………… 405

Table 152: Comparison of ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) and graphene biosensor.   410

Table 153: Market size for graphene in sensors……………………………………………………………………… 412

Table 154: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in the filtration and separation market. 413

Table 155: Market challenges rating for graphene in the sensors market………………………………. 415

Table 156: Graphene product and application developers in the sensors industry………………… 415

Table 157: Types of smart textiles……………………………………………………………………………………………. 418

Table 158: Smart textile products…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 418

Table 159: Market drivers for use of graphene in smart textiles and apparel………………………….. 419

Table 160: Desirable functional properties for the textiles industry afforded by the use of nanomaterials.       421

Table 161: Applications and benefits of graphene in textiles and apparel……………………………… 423

Table 162: Global market for smart clothing and apparel, 2014-2021, units and revenues (US$). 424

Table 163: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in smart textiles and apparel…………. 426

Table 164:  Graphene product and application developers in the textiles industry…………………. 427

Table 165: Market drivers for use of graphene in conductive inks…………………………………………… 428

Table 166: Comparative properties of conductive inks……………………………………………………………. 429

Table 167: Opportunities for graphene and 2D materials in printed electronics……………………… 432

Table 168: Potential addressable market for graphene in conductive inks…………………………….. 433

Table 169: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in conductive inks………………………….. 435

Table 170: Graphene product and application developers in conductive inks……………………….. 436

Table 171: Market drivers for use of graphene in 3D printing………………………………………………….. 438

Table 172: Graphene properties relevant to application in 3D printing…………………………………… 439

Table 173: Market size for graphene  in 3D printing………………………………………………………………… 440

Table 174: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in 3D printing…………………………………. 440

Table 175: Market challenges rating for nanotechnology and nanomaterials in the 3D printing market.          441

Table 176: Graphene product and application developers in the 3D printing industry…………… 441

Table 177: Graphene producers and types produced…………………………………………………………….. 443

Table 178: Graphene industrial collaborations, licence agreements and target markets……….. 517

 

FIGURES

Figure 1: Demand for graphene, by market, 2015……………………………………………………………………… 48

Figure 2: Demand for graphene, by market, 2027……………………………………………………………………… 49

Figure 3: Global government funding for graphene in millions USD to 2015……………………………. 57

Figure 4: Global market for graphene 2010-2027 in tons/year………………………………………………….. 61

Figure 5: Global consumption of graphene 2016, by region……………………………………………………… 64

Figure 6: Graphene layer structure schematic…………………………………………………………………………… 71

Figure 7: Graphite and graphene………………………………………………………………………………………………. 72

Figure 8: Graphene and its descendants: top right: graphene; top left: graphite = stacked graphene; bottom right: nanotube=rolled graphene; bottom left: fullerene=wrapped graphene. …………………………………………………………. 73

Figure 9: Schematic of (a) CQDs and (c) GQDs. HRTEM images of (b) C-dots and (d) GQDs showing combination of zigzag and armchair edges (positions marked as 1–4)………………………………………………………………………….. 76

Figure 10: Green-fluorescing graphene quantum dots……………………………………………………………… 78

Figure 11: Graphene quantum dots…………………………………………………………………………………………… 79

Figure 12: Graphene can be rolled up into a carbon nanotube, wrapped into a fullerene, and stacked into graphite.          81

Figure 13: Black phosphorus structure………………………………………………………………………………………. 88

Figure 14: Structural difference between graphene and C2N-h2D crystal: (a) graphene; (b) C2N-h2D crystal.         90

Figure 15: Schematic of germanene………………………………………………………………………………………….. 93

Figure 16: Graphdiyne structure………………………………………………………………………………………………… 94

Figure 17: Schematic of Graphane crystal…………………………………………………………………………………. 96

Figure 18: Structure of hexagonal boron nitride………………………………………………………………………… 98

Figure 19: Structure of 2D molybdenum disulfide……………………………………………………………………. 100

Figure 20: Atomic force microscopy image of a representative MoS2 thin-film transistor……….. 101

Figure 21: Schematic of the molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) thin-film sensor with the deposited molecules that create additional charge………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 102

Figure 22: Schematic of a monolayer of rhenium disulphide…………………………………………………… 103

Figure 23: Silicene structure…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 104

Figure 24: Monolayer silicene on a silver (111) substrate……………………………………………………….. 105

Figure 25: Silicene transistor……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 107

Figure 26: Crystal structure for stanene…………………………………………………………………………………… 107

Figure 27: Atomic structure model for the 2D stanene on Bi2Te3(111)…………………………………… 108

Figure 28: Schematic of tungsten diselenide…………………………………………………………………………… 109

Figure 29: Graphene synthesis methods…………………………………………………………………………………. 116

Figure 30: TEM micrographs of: A) HR-CNFs; B) GANF® HR-CNF, it can be observed its high graphitic structure; C) Unraveled ribbon from the HR-CNF; D) Detail of the ribbon; E) Scheme of the structure of the HR-CNFs; F) Large single graphene oxide sheets derived from GANF…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 117

Figure 31: Graphene nanoribbons grown on germanium……………………………………………………….. 120

Figure 32: Methods of synthesizing high-quality graphene…………………………………………………….. 122

Figure 33: Roll-to-roll graphene production process……………………………………………………………….. 127

Figure 34: Schematic of roll-to-roll manufacturing process……………………………………………………… 128

Figure 35: Microwave irradiation of graphite to produce single-layer graphene…………………….. 131

Figure 36: Schematic of typical commercialization route for graphene producer……………………. 135

Figure 37: Published patent publications for graphene, 2004-2014……………………………………….. 144

Figure 38: Technology Readiness Level (TRL) for graphene…………………………………………………. 148

Figure 39: Global market for graphene 2010-2027 in tons/year……………………………………………… 192

Figure 40: Graphene pricing 2017…………………………………………………………………………………………… 193

Figure 41: Graphene Adhesives………………………………………………………………………………………………. 200

Figure 42: Potential addressable market for graphene in adhesives………………………………………. 203

Figure 43: Potential addressable market for graphene in aerospace……………………………………… 212

Figure 44: Potential addressable market for graphene-enabled applications in aerospace…… 213

Figure 45: Graphene-based automotive components……………………………………………………………… 218

Figure 46: Antistatic graphene tire…………………………………………………………………………………………… 219

Figure 47: Potential addressable market for graphene in the automotive sector…………………….. 223

Figure 48: Potential addressable market for graphene in the automotive sector…………………….. 224

Figure 49: Graphene-based E-skin patch………………………………………………………………………………… 230

Figure 50: Graphene Frontiers’ Six™ chemical sensors consists of a field effect transistor (FET) with a graphene channel. Receptor molecules, such as DNA, are attached directly to the graphene channel…………………………. 236

Figure 51: Graphene-Oxide based chip prototypes for biopsy-free early cancer diagnosis……. 237

Figure 52: Potential addressable market for graphene-enabled applications in the biomedical and healthcare market.     242

Figure 53: Heat transfer coating developed at MIT………………………………………………………………….. 253

Figure 54: Water permeation through a brick without (left) and with (right) “graphene paint” coating.   258

Figure 55: Four layers of graphene oxide coatings on polycarbonate…………………………………….. 261

Figure 56: Global Paints and Coatings Market, share by end user market……………………………… 262

Figure 57: Potential addressable market for graphene in the coatings market……………………….. 268

Figure 58: Potential addressable market for graphene in the coatings market……………………….. 269

Figure 59: Potential addressable market for graphene in composites…………………………………….. 281

Figure 60: Potential addressable market for graphene in the composites market…………………… 283

Figure 61: Flexible graphene touch screen……………………………………………………………………………… 289

Figure 62: Flexible organic light emitting diode (OLED) using graphene electrode……………….. 291

Figure 63: Graphene electrochromic devices. Top left: Exploded-view illustration of the graphene electrochromic device. The device is formed by attaching two graphene-coated PVC substrates face-to-face and filling the gap with a liquid ionic electrolyte…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 293

Figure 64: Flexible mobile phones with graphene transparent conductive film………………………. 294

Figure 65: Foldable graphene E-paper……………………………………………………………………………………. 294

Figure 66: Covestro wearables………………………………………………………………………………………………… 296

Figure 67: Softceptor sensor……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 299

Figure 68: BeBop Media Arm Controller………………………………………………………………………………….. 300

Figure 69: LG Innotek flexible textile pressure sensor…………………………………………………………….. 300

Figure 70: Wearable gas sensor……………………………………………………………………………………………… 302

Figure 71: Global touch panel market ($ million), 2011-2018…………………………………………………. 305

Figure 72: Capacitive touch panel market forecast by layer structure  (Ksqm)………………………… 305

Figure 73: Global transparent conductive film market forecast (million $)……………………………….. 306

Figure 74: Global transparent conductive film market forecast by materials type, 2015, %…….. 306

Figure 75: Global transparent conductive film market forecast by materials type, 2020, %…….. 307

Figure 76: Global transparent conductive film market forecast by materials type, 2027, %…….. 307

Figure 77: Global market revenues for smart wearable devices 2014-2021, in US$………………. 308

Figure 78: Potential addressable market for graphene in flexible electronics, wearables, conductive films and displays.   309

Figure 79: Potential addressable market for graphene in the flexible electronics, wearables, conductive films and displays market…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 310

Figure 80: Schematic of the wet roll-to-roll graphene transfer from copper foils to polymeric substrates.         312

Figure 81: The transmittance of glass/ITO, glass/ITO/four organic layers, and glass/ITO/four organic layers/4-layer graphene.     313

Figure 82: Graphene IC in wafer tester……………………………………………………………………………………. 318

Figure 83: A monolayer WS2-based flexible transistor array…………………………………………………… 318

Figure 84: Schematic cross-section of a graphene based transistor (GBT, left) and a graphene field-effect transistor (GFET, right)…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 320

Figure 85: Potential addressable market for graphene in transistors and integrated circuits….. 323

Figure 86: Potential addressable market for graphene in the transistors and integrated circuits market.         324

Figure 87: Graphene oxide-based RRAm device on a flexible substrate……………………………….. 329

Figure 88: Layered structure of tantalum oxide, multilayer graphene and platinum used for resistive random access memory (RRAM)………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 330

Figure 89: A schematic diagram for the mechanism of the resistive switching in metal/GO/Pt… 331

Figure 90: Hybrid graphene phototransistors………………………………………………………………………….. 337

Figure 91: Wearable health monitor incorporating graphene photodetectors…………………………. 337

Figure 92: Flexible PEN coated with graphene and a QD thin film (20nm) is highly visibly transparent and photosensitive.           338

Figure 93: H600 concept car……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 348

Figure 94: Anion concept car…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 348

Figure 95: Potential addressable market for graphene in the thin film, flexible and printed batteries market.  351

Figure 96: Skeleton Technologies ultracapacitor…………………………………………………………………….. 357

Figure 97: Zapgo supercapacitor phone charger…………………………………………………………………….. 359

Figure 98: Solar cell with nanowires and graphene electrode………………………………………………… 366

Figure 99: Potential addressable market for graphene in photovoltaics…………………………………. 369

Figure 100: Schematic of boron doped graphene for application in gas sensors…………………… 381

Figure 101: Directa Plus Grafysorber………………………………………………………………………………………. 384

Figure 102: Nanometer-scale pores in single-layer freestanding graphene membrane can effectively filter NaCl salt from water…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 385

Figure 103: Degradation of organic dye molecules by graphene hybrid composite photocatalysts.     393

Figure 104: Graphene anti-smog mask……………………………………………………………………………………. 394

Figure 105: GFET sensors……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 407

Figure 106: First generation point of care diagnostics…………………………………………………………….. 409

Figure 107: Graphene Field Effect Transistor Schematic………………………………………………………… 410

Figure 108: Potential addressable market for graphene in the sensors market………………………. 414

Figure 109: Global market revenues for smart clothing and apparel 2014-2021, in US$……….. 424

Figure 110: Global market revenues for nanotech-enabled smart clothing and apparel 2014-2021, in US$, conservative estimate…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 425

Figure 111: Global market revenues for nanotech-enabled smart clothing and apparel 2014-2021, in US$, optimistic estimate.  426

Figure 112: Graphene printed antenna……………………………………………………………………………………. 430

Figure 113: BGT Materials graphene ink product……………………………………………………………………. 431

Figure 114: Vorbeck Materials conductive ink products………………………………………………………….. 432

Figure 115: Potential addressable market for graphene in the conductive ink market……………. 435

Figure 116: 3D Printed tweezers incorporating Carbon Nanotube Filament…………………………… 439