The Global Market for Graphene 2017-2027

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Grpahene cover March 2017

Future Markets has published a market report on graphene since 2010 and is uniquely positioned to provide the most in-depth study on these remarkable materials, their applications and markets.

The Global Market for Graphene 2017-2027 is a comprehensive analysis of the market and commercial opportunities for these remarkable materials.

The graphene market continues to expand in 2017, with weekly announcements on new multi-million dollar investments, new products (especially in the Asia market) and innovative production processes.

A growing number of products are integrating graphene across a range of markets including consumer electronic devices, wearables, flexible RF devices,  supercapacitors, conductive inks, sensors and coatings.

Graphene is a ground-breaking 2D material that possesses extraordinary electrical and mechanical properties that promise a new generation of innovative devices. Beyond graphene, emerging elementary 2D materials such as transition metal dichalcogenides, group V systems including phosphorene, and related isoelectronic structures will potentially allow for flexible electronics and field-effect transistors that exhibit ambipolar transport behaviour with either a direct band-gap or greater gate modulation.

Published March 2017 | 587 Pages | View table of contents below

Report contents include:

  • 50 additional pages from previous edition.
  • Global production capacities for 2017.
  • Current graphene products.
  • Stage of commercialization for graphene applications, from basic research to market entry.
  • Market drivers, trends and challenges, by end user markets.
  • In-depth market assessment of opportunities for graphene including potential revenues, growth rates, pricing, most likely applications and market challenges.
  • In-depth company profiles, including products, capacities, and commercial activities.
  • Detailed forecasts for key growth areas, opportunities and user demand.
  • Companies profiled in the report include 3D Graphtech Industries, Applied Graphene Materials, Cealtech, Directa Plus , Enanotec,  Graphenano S.L., Graphentech, Hanwha Chemical, Metalysis, Talga Resources and many more.
The Global Market for Graphene 2017-2027
The Global Market for Graphene 2017-2027
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The Global Market for Graphene 2017-2027
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The Global Market for Graphene 2017-2027
The Global Market for Graphene 2017-2027
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The Global Market for Graphene 2017-2027
The Global Market for Graphene 2017-2027
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TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER ONE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY………………………………………………… 42

1.1    Applications assessment………………………………………………………………………………………………… 42

1.1    Market opportunity analysis……………………………………………………………………………………………. 43

1.2    Market challenges rating system……………………………………………………………………………………. 44

CHAPTER TWO: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY…………………………………………………………. 47

2.1    Two-dimensional (2D) materials…………………………………………………………………………………….. 47

2.2    Graphene……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 47

2.2.1     The market in 2016………………………………………………………………………………………………… 48

2.2.2     Products…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 49

2.2.3     Short-term opportunities…………………………………………………………………………………………. 49

2.2.4     Medium-term opportunities…………………………………………………………………………………….. 50

2.2.5     Remarkable properties…………………………………………………………………………………………… 52

2.2.6     Global funding and initiatives…………………………………………………………………………………. 53

2.2.6.1       Europe…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 53

2.2.6.2       Asia……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 53

2.2.6.3       United States…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 54

2.2.7     Products and applications………………………………………………………………………………………. 54

2.2.8     Production……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 56

2.2.9     Market drivers and trends………………………………………………………………………………………. 58

2.2.9.1       Production exceeds demand…………………………………………………………………………. 58

2.2.9.2       Market revenues remain small………………………………………………………………………. 59

2.2.9.3       Scalability and cost………………………………………………………………………………………… 60

2.2.9.4       Applications hitting the market……………………………………………………………………….. 61

2.2.9.5       Wait and see?……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 62

2.2.9.6       Asia and US lead the race……………………………………………………………………………… 62

2.2.9.7       China commercializing at a fast rate……………………………………………………………… 63

2.2.9.8       Competition from other materials…………………………………………………………………… 63

2.2.10        Market and technical challenges………………………………………………………………………… 64

2.2.10.1     Inconsistent supply quality…………………………………………………………………………….. 64

2.2.10.2     Functionalization and dispersion……………………………………………………………………. 65

2.2.10.3     Cost……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 65

2.2.10.4     Product integration………………………………………………………………………………………… 65

2.2.10.5     Regulation and standards……………………………………………………………………………… 65

2.2.10.6     Lack of a band gap………………………………………………………………………………………… 66

CHAPTER THREE: PROPERTIES OF NANOMATERIALS………………………………………. 67

3.1    Categorization………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 68

CHAPTER FOUR: OVERVIEW OF GRAPHENE…………………………………………………… 70

4.1    History……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 70

4.2    Forms of graphene…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 71

4.3    Properties……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 73

4.4    3D Graphene………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 74

4.5    Graphene Quantum Dots……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 74

4.5.1     Synthesis……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 75

4.5.2     Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 76

4.5.3     Producers………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 77

CHAPTER FIVE: CARBON NANOTUBES VERSUS GRAPHENE…………………………. 78

5.1    Comparative properties………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 79

5.2    Cost and production……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 80

5.3    Carbon nanotube-graphene hybrids……………………………………………………………………………….. 81

5.4    Competitive analysis of carbon nanotubes and graphene………………………………………………. 82

CHAPTER SIX:  OTHER 2-D MATERIALS………………………………………………………… 84

6.1    Black phosphorus/Phosphorene…………………………………………………………………………………….. 85

6.1.1     Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 85

6.1.2     Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 87

6.2    C2N…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 87

6.2.1     Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 88

6.2.2     Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 89

6.3    Carbon nitride…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 89

6.3.1     Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 89

6.3.2     Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 90

6.4    Germanene…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 90

6.4.1     Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 90

6.4.2     Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 91

6.5    Graphdiyne…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 91

6.5.1     Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 92

6.5.2     Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 92

6.6    Graphane……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 93

6.6.1     Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 94

6.6.2     Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 94

6.7    Hexagonal boron nitride…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 95

6.7.1     Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 96

6.7.2     Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 97

6.7.3     Producers………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 97

6.8    Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2)…………………………………………………………………………………………. 97

6.8.1     Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 98

6.8.2     Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 98

6.9    Rhenium disulfide (ReS2) and diselenide (ReSe2)………………………………………………………. 101

6.9.1     Properties…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 101

6.9.2     Applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 102

6.10      Silicene…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 102

6.10.1        Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 103

6.10.2        Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 103

6.11      Stanene/tinene…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 105

6.11.1        Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 106

6.11.2        Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 106

6.12      Tungsten diselenide…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 107

6.12.1        Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 107

6.12.2        Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 108

6.13      Comparative analysis of graphene and other 2-D nanomaterials…………………………….. 109

CHAPTER SEVEN:   GRAPHENE SYNTHESIS……………………………………………………… 111

7.1    Large area graphene films……………………………………………………………………………………………. 111

7.2    Graphene oxide flakes and graphene nanoplatelets…………………………………………………….. 112

7.3    Production methods……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 113

7.3.1     Production directly from natural graphite ore……………………………………………………….. 115

7.3.2     Alternative starting materials………………………………………………………………………………… 115

7.3.3     Quality………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 115

7.4    Synthesis and production by types of graphene…………………………………………………………… 116

7.4.1     Graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs)………………………………………………………………………….. 117

7.4.2     Graphene nanoribbons………………………………………………………………………………………… 117

7.4.3     Large-area graphene films…………………………………………………………………………………… 118

7.4.4     Graphene oxide flakes (GO)………………………………………………………………………………… 119

7.5    Pros and cons of graphene production methods………………………………………………………….. 120

7.5.1     Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD)……………………………………………………………………….. 121

7.5.2     Exfoliation method……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 122

7.5.3     Epitaxial growth method……………………………………………………………………………………….. 122

7.5.4     Wet chemistry method (liquid phase exfoliation)………………………………………………….. 123

7.5.5     Micromechanical cleavage method………………………………………………………………………. 124

7.5.6     Green reduction of graphene oxide……………………………………………………………………… 124

7.5.7     Plasma…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 124

7.6    Recent synthesis methods……………………………………………………………………………………………. 125

7.6.1     Ben-Gurion University of the Negev (BGU) and University of Western Australia…. 125

7.6.2     Graphene Frontiers………………………………………………………………………………………………. 125

7.6.3     MIT and the University of Michigan………………………………………………………………………. 126

7.6.4     Oak Ridge National Laboratory/University of Texas/General Graphene………………. 126

7.6.5     University of Florida/Donghua University……………………………………………………………… 127

7.6.6     Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST) and Case Western Reserve University……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 127

7.6.7     Trinity College Dublin…………………………………………………………………………………………… 127

7.6.8     Sungkyunkwan University and Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology (SAIT) 127

7.6.9     Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST), Chonbuk National University and KRICT  127

7.6.10        NanoXplore……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 127

7.6.11        Carbon Sciences Inc………………………………………………………………………………………… 128

7.6.12        California Institute of Technology…………………………………………………………………….. 128

7.6.13        Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology………………………. 128

7.6.14        Oxford University……………………………………………………………………………………………… 128

7.6.15        University of Tokyo…………………………………………………………………………………………… 128

7.6.16        Argonne National Laboratory…………………………………………………………………………… 129

7.6.17        Rutgers University……………………………………………………………………………………………. 129

7.6.18        FAU………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 130

7.6.19        University of Exeter………………………………………………………………………………………….. 130

7.7    Synthesis methods by company…………………………………………………………………………………… 130

CHAPTER EIGHT:   GRAPHENE MARKET STRUCTURE AND ROUTES TO COMMERCIALIZATION…………………………………………………………….. 133

CHAPTER NINE: REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS……………………………………….. 137

9.1    Standards…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 137

9.2    Environmental, health and safety regulation………………………………………………………………… 137

9.2.1     Europe…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 138

9.2.2     United States……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 138

9.2.3     Asia………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 138

9.3    Workplace exposure…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 139

CHAPTER TEN:  PATENTS AND PUBLICATIONS……………………………………………. 140

10.1      Fabrication processes………………………………………………………………………………………………. 140

10.2      Academia…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 140

10.3      Regional leaders………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 141

CHAPTER ELEVEN: TECHNOLOGY READINESS LEVEL……………………………………… 145

CHAPTER TWELVE:  GRAPHENE INDUSTRY NEWS 2013-2016……………………………… 147

12.1      JANUARY 2013……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 147

12.2      FEBRUARY 2013…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 147

12.3      APRIL 2013……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 148

12.4      MAY 2013………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 148

12.5      JUNE 2013………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 149

12.6      JULY 2013……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 149

12.7      AUGUST 2013…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 149

12.8      SEPTEMBER 2013………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 150

12.9      OCTOBER 2013………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 150

12.10    NOVEMBER 2013……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 151

12.11    DECEMBER 2013……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 151

12.12    JANUARY 2014……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 152

12.13    FEBRUARY 2014…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 153

12.14    MARCH 2014…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 154

12.15    APRIL 2014……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 155

12.16    MAY 2014………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 157

12.17    JUNE 2014………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 157

12.18    JULY 2014……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 158

12.19    AUGUST 2014…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 159

12.20    SEPTEMBER 2014………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 159

12.21    AUGUST 2014…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 160

12.22    SEPTEMBER 2014………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 160

12.23    OCTOBER 2014………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 161

12.24    NOVEMBER 2014……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 161

12.25    DECEMBER 2014……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 162

12.26    JANUARY 2015……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 164

12.27    FEBRUARY 2015…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 164

12.28    MARCH 2015…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 165

12.29    APRIL 2015……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 165

12.30    MAY 2015………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 166

12.31    JUNE 2015………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 167

12.32    JULY 2015……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 168

12.33    AUGUST 2015…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 169

12.34    SEPTEMBER 2015………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 170

12.35    OCTOBER 2015………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 170

12.36    NOVEMBER 2015……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 171

12.37    DECEMBER 2015……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 173

12.38    JANUARY 2016……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 174

12.39    FEBRUARY 2016…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 174

12.40    MARCH 2016…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 175

12.41    APRIL 2016……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 176

12.42    MAY 2016………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 179

12.43    JUNE 2016………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 181

12.44    JULY 2016……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 181

12.45    AUGUST 2016…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 182

12.46    SEPTEMBER 2016………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 183

12.47    OCTOBER 2016………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 183

12.48    NOVEMBER 2016……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 184

12.49    DECEMBER 2016……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 186

12.50    JANUARY 2017……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 187

12.51    FEBRUARY 2017…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 189

CHAPTER THIRTEEN:  END USER MARKET SEGMENT ANALYSIS………………………….. 189

13.1      Graphene production volumes 2010-2027……………………………………………………………….. 189

13.2      Graphene producers and production capacities………………………………………………………. 191

CHAPTER FOURTEEN:  GRAPHENE IN ADHESIVES………………………………………………………………………… 196

14.1      MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………………………………………. 196

14.1.1        Thermal management in electronics………………………………………………………………… 196

14.1.2        Environmental sustainability…………………………………………………………………………….. 197

14.2      PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………………. 197

14.3      GLOBAL MARKET SIZE………………………………………………………………………………………….. 198

14.3.1        Graphene opportunity………………………………………………………………………………………. 199

14.4      MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………………. 201

14.5      PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………………. 202

CHAPTER FIFTEEN:  GRAPHENE IN AEROSPACE………………………………………………………………………. 203

15.1      MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………………………………………. 203

15.1.1        Safety………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 203

15.1.2        Reduced fuel consumption and costs………………………………………………………………. 203

15.1.3        Increased durability………………………………………………………………………………………….. 203

15.1.4        Multi-functionality……………………………………………………………………………………………… 203

15.1.5        Need for new anti-icing and de-icing solutions…………………………………………………. 204

15.1.6        Weight reduction………………………………………………………………………………………………. 204

15.1.7        Need for improved lightning protection materials…………………………………………….. 204

15.2      PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………………. 205

15.2.1        Composites……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 205

15.2.2        Coatings…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 205

15.3      GLOBAL MARKET SIZE………………………………………………………………………………………….. 207

15.3.1        Graphene opportunity………………………………………………………………………………………. 207

15.4      MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………………. 210

15.5      PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………………. 211

CHAPTER SIXTEEN: GRAPHENE IN AUTOMOTIVE……………………………………………………………………… 213

16.1      MARKET DRIVER AND TRENDS……………………………………………………………………………. 213

16.1.1        Environmental………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 213

16.1.2        Safety………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 213

16.1.3        Lightweighting………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 213

16.1.4        Cost…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 214

16.2      PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………………. 214

16.2.1        Composites……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 215

16.2.2        Thermally conductive additives………………………………………………………………………… 215

16.2.3        Tires…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 215

16.3      GLOBAL MARKET SIZE………………………………………………………………………………………….. 217

16.3.1        Graphene opportunity………………………………………………………………………………………. 217

16.4      MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………………. 220

16.5      PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………………. 222

CHAPTER SEVENTEEN: GRAPHENE IN BIOMEDICAL & HEALTHCARE…………………………………………….. 223

17.1      MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………………………………………. 224

17.1.1        Improved drug delivery for cancer therapy………………………………………………………. 224

17.1.2        Shortcomings of chemotherapies…………………………………………………………………….. 224

17.1.3        Biocompatibility of medical implants………………………………………………………………… 224

17.1.4        Anti-biotic resistance………………………………………………………………………………………… 225

17.1.5        Growth in the advanced woundcare market…………………………………………………….. 225

17.1.6        Universal to individualized medicine………………………………………………………………… 225

17.1.7        Growth in the wearable monitoring market………………………………………………………. 226

17.1.8        Need for new materials for continuous health monitoring and adaptability………. 227

17.2      PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………………. 227

17.2.1        Cancer therapy………………………………………………………………………………………………… 231

17.2.1.1     Graphene oxide for therapy and drug delivery…………………………………………….. 231

17.2.1.2     Graphene nanosheets…………………………………………………………………………………. 231

17.2.1.3     Gene delivery………………………………………………………………………………………………. 231

17.2.1.4     Photodynamic Therapy………………………………………………………………………………… 231

17.2.2        Medical implants and devices………………………………………………………………………….. 232

17.2.3        Wound dressings……………………………………………………………………………………………… 232

17.2.4        Biosensors……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 233

17.2.4.1     FRET biosensors for DNA detection……………………………………………………………. 234

17.2.5        Medical imaging……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 234

17.2.6        Tissue engineering…………………………………………………………………………………………… 234

17.2.7        Dental………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 235

17.2.8        Electrophysiology…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 235

17.3      GLOBAL MARKET SIZE………………………………………………………………………………………….. 235

17.3.1        Graphene opportunity………………………………………………………………………………………. 236

17.4      MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………………. 240

17.5      PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………………. 243

CHAPTER EIGHTEEN: GRAPHENE IN COATINGS………………………………………………………………………….. 244

18.1      MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………………………………………. 245

18.1.1        New functionalities and improved properties……………………………………………………. 246

18.1.2        Need for more effective protection…………………………………………………………………… 247

18.1.3        Sustainability and regulation……………………………………………………………………………. 248

18.1.4        Cost of corrosion……………………………………………………………………………………………… 248

18.1.5        Need for improved hygiene……………………………………………………………………………… 249

18.1.6        Cost of weather-related damage……………………………………………………………………… 249

18.1.7        Increased demand for coatings for extreme environments………………………………. 250

18.2      PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………………. 250

18.2.1        Anti-corrosion coatings…………………………………………………………………………………….. 252

18.2.1.1     Marine………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 253

18.2.2        Anti-microbial…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 254

18.2.3        Anti-icing………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 254

18.2.4        Barrier coatings………………………………………………………………………………………………… 255

18.2.5        Heat protection………………………………………………………………………………………………… 256

18.2.6        Anti-fouling……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 257

18.2.7        Wear and abrasion resistance…………………………………………………………………………. 258

18.2.8        Smart windows………………………………………………………………………………………………… 259

18.3      GLOBAL MARKET SIZE………………………………………………………………………………………….. 259

18.3.1        Thermal barrier coatings………………………………………………………………………………….. 264

18.3.2        Barrier coatings………………………………………………………………………………………………… 264

18.3.3        Anti-microbial coatings…………………………………………………………………………………….. 264

18.3.4        De-icing or anti-icing coatings………………………………………………………………………….. 264

18.3.5        Abrasion and wear resistant coatings………………………………………………………………. 264

18.3.6        Anti-corrosion coatings…………………………………………………………………………………….. 265

18.3.7        Graphene opportunity………………………………………………………………………………………. 265

18.4      MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………………. 268

18.4.1        Dispersion………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 268

18.4.2        Production, scalability and cost………………………………………………………………………… 268

18.5      PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………………. 268

CHAPTER NINETEEN: GRAPHENE IN COMPOSITES INCLUDING THERMOPLASTICS AND RUBBER. 270

19.1      MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………………………………………. 270

19.1.1        Improved performance over traditional composites…………………………………………. 270

19.1.2        Multi-functionality……………………………………………………………………………………………… 271

19.1.3        Growth in wind energy market…………………………………………………………………………. 271

19.2      PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………………. 272

19.2.1        Polymer composites…………………………………………………………………………………………. 272

19.2.2        Barrier packaging…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 275

19.2.3        Electrostatic discharge (ESD) and electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding 275

19.2.4        Wind turbines…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 275

19.2.5        Ballistic protection……………………………………………………………………………………………. 276

19.2.6        Cement additives……………………………………………………………………………………………… 276

19.3      GLOBAL MARKET SIZE………………………………………………………………………………………….. 276

19.3.1        Graphene opportunity………………………………………………………………………………………. 277

19.4      MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………………. 280

19.5      PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………………. 281

CHAPTER TWENTY: GRAPHENE IN ELECTRONICS AND PHOTONICS………………………………………… 283

20.1      FLEXIBLE ELECTRONICS, WEARABLES, CONDUCTIVE FILMS AND DISPLAYS. 285

20.1.1        MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………………………………. 285

20.1.1.1     ITO replacement for flexible electronics………………………………………………………. 285

20.1.1.2     Growth in the wearable electronics market………………………………………………….. 287

20.1.1.3     Touch technology requirements…………………………………………………………………… 287

20.1.1.4     Energy needs of wearable devices………………………………………………………………. 288

20.1.1.5     Increased power and performance of sensors with reduced cost………………… 288

20.1.1.6     Growth in the printed sensors market………………………………………………………….. 288

20.1.1.7     Growth in the home diagnostics and point of care market…………………………… 288

20.1.2        PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………. 289

20.1.2.1     Transparent electrodes in flexible electronics………………………………………………. 290

20.1.2.2     Electronic paper…………………………………………………………………………………………… 292

20.1.2.3     Wearable electronics…………………………………………………………………………………… 293

20.1.2.4     Wearable sensors………………………………………………………………………………………… 297

20.1.3        GLOBAL MARKET SIZE………………………………………………………………………………….. 302

20.1.3.1     Graphene opportunity………………………………………………………………………………….. 305

20.1.4        MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………. 308

20.1.4.1     Manufacturing……………………………………………………………………………………………… 308

20.1.4.2     Competing materials……………………………………………………………………………………. 309

20.1.4.3     Cost in comparison to ITO…………………………………………………………………………… 309

20.1.4.4     Problems with transfer and growth………………………………………………………………. 309

20.1.4.5     Improving sheet resistance………………………………………………………………………….. 310

20.1.4.6     Difficulties in display panel integration…………………………………………………………. 311

20.1.5        PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………. 312

20.2      TRANSISTORS AND INTEGRATED CIRCUITS……………………………………………………… 313

20.2.1        MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………………………………. 313

20.2.1.1     Scaling…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 313

20.2.1.2     Limitations of current materials……………………………………………………………………. 314

20.2.2        PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………. 314

20.2.2.1     Integrated circuits………………………………………………………………………………………… 314

20.2.2.2     Transistors…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 315

20.2.2.3     Graphene Radio Frequency (RF) circuits…………………………………………………….. 316

20.2.2.4     Graphene spintronics…………………………………………………………………………………… 317

20.2.3        GLOBAL MARKET SIZE………………………………………………………………………………….. 319

20.2.3.1     Graphene opportunity………………………………………………………………………………….. 319

20.2.4        MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………. 322

20.2.4.1     Competition from other materials…………………………………………………………………. 322

20.2.4.2     Lack of band gap…………………………………………………………………………………………. 323

20.2.4.3     Transfer and integration………………………………………………………………………………. 323

20.2.5        PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………. 324

20.3      MEMORY DEVICES………………………………………………………………………………………………… 326

20.3.1        MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………………………………. 326

20.3.1.1     Density and voltage scaling…………………………………………………………………………. 326

20.3.1.2     Growth in the smartphone and tablet markets……………………………………………… 326

20.3.1.3     Growth in the flexible electronics market……………………………………………………… 326

20.3.2        PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………. 327

20.3.3        GLOBAL MARKET SIZE………………………………………………………………………………….. 328

20.3.3.1     Graphene opportunity………………………………………………………………………………….. 329

20.3.4        PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………. 332

20.3.5        MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………. 333

20.4      PHOTONICS……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 333

20.4.1        MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………………………………. 334

20.4.1.1     Increased bandwidth at reduced cost………………………………………………………….. 334

20.4.1.2     Increasing sensitivity of photodetectors……………………………………………………….. 334

20.4.2        PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………. 334

20.4.2.1     Si photonics versus graphene……………………………………………………………………… 334

20.4.2.2     Optical modulators………………………………………………………………………………………. 335

20.4.2.3     Photodetectors…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 335

20.4.2.4     Plasmonics………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 337

20.4.2.5     Fiber lasers………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 337

20.4.3        MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY……………………………………………………………… 338

20.4.4        PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………. 339

20.4.5        MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………. 339

20.4.5.1     Need to design devices that harness graphene’s properties……………………….. 339

20.4.5.2     Problems with transfer…………………………………………………………………………………. 339

20.4.5.3     THz absorbance and nonlinearity………………………………………………………………… 340

20.4.5.4     Stability and sensitivity…………………………………………………………………………………. 340

CHAPTER TWENTY ONE: GRAPHENE IN ENERGY STORAGE, CONVERSION AND EXPLORATION………. 341

21.1      BATTERIES……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 343

21.1.1        MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………………………………. 343

21.1.1.1     Growth in electric vehicles market……………………………………………………………….. 343

21.1.1.2     Continued growth in cellular phones market………………………………………………… 344

21.1.1.3     Reduce dependence on lithium……………………………………………………………………. 344

21.1.1.4     Shortcomings of existing battery and supercapacitor technology………………… 344

21.1.1.5     Reduced costs for widespread application…………………………………………………… 344

21.1.1.6     Power sources for flexible electronics………………………………………………………….. 344

21.1.1.7     Inadequacies of current battery technology for wearables…………………………… 345

21.1.1.8     Need for flexible power sources…………………………………………………………………… 345

21.1.1.9     Energy harvesting for “disappearables”……………………………………………………….. 346

21.1.2        PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………. 346

21.1.2.1     Lithium-ion batteries (LIB)……………………………………………………………………………. 346

21.1.2.2     Lithium-air batteries……………………………………………………………………………………… 347

21.1.2.3     Sodium-ion batteries……………………………………………………………………………………. 347

21.1.3        GLOBAL MARKET SIZE………………………………………………………………………………….. 347

21.1.3.1     Graphene opportunity………………………………………………………………………………….. 348

21.1.4        MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………. 352

21.2      SUPERCAPACITORS……………………………………………………………………………………………… 353

21.2.1        MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………………………………. 353

21.2.1.1     Reducing costs……………………………………………………………………………………………. 353

21.2.1.2     Demand from portable electronics……………………………………………………………….. 354

21.2.1.3     Inefficiencies of standard battery technology……………………………………………….. 354

21.2.1.4     Problems with activated carbon…………………………………………………………………… 354

21.2.2        PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………. 354

21.2.3        GLOBAL MARKET SIZE………………………………………………………………………………….. 356

21.2.3.1     Graphene opportunity………………………………………………………………………………….. 357

21.2.4        MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………. 359

21.2.4.1     Low energy storage capacity of graphene…………………………………………………… 359

21.3      PHOTOVOLTAICS…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 360

21.3.1        MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………………………………. 360

21.3.1.1     Need to improve solar cell efficiency……………………………………………………………. 360

21.3.1.2     Reduce costs……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 360

21.3.1.3     Varying environmental conditions………………………………………………………………… 361

21.3.2        PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………. 361

21.3.2.1     ITO replacement………………………………………………………………………………………….. 361

21.3.2.2     Graphene–silicon (Gr–Si) Schottky junction solar cells……………………………….. 362

21.3.2.3     Halide perovskites/graphene hybrids…………………………………………………………… 362

21.3.3        GLOBAL MARKET SIZE………………………………………………………………………………….. 362

21.3.3.1     Graphene opportunity………………………………………………………………………………….. 363

21.3.4        MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………. 365

21.4      FUEL CELLS……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 367

21.4.1        MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………………………………. 367

21.4.1.1     Limitations of platinum…………………………………………………………………………………. 367

21.4.1.2     Cost……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 367

21.4.2        PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………. 367

21.4.2.1     Electrocatalyst supports………………………………………………………………………………. 367

21.4.3        GLOBAL MARKET SIZE………………………………………………………………………………….. 368

21.4.3.1     Graphene opportunity………………………………………………………………………………….. 369

21.4.4        MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………. 370

21.5      LED LIGHTING AND UVC……………………………………………………………………………………….. 371

21.5.1        MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………………………………. 371

21.5.1.1     Improving flexibility………………………………………………………………………………………. 371

21.5.1.2     Improving performance and costs……………………………………………………………….. 371

21.5.2        Properties and applications……………………………………………………………………………… 371

21.5.3        GLOBAL MARKET SIZE………………………………………………………………………………….. 372

21.5.3.1     Graphene opportunity………………………………………………………………………………….. 372

21.6      OIL AND GAS………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 373

21.6.1        MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………………………………. 373

21.6.1.1     Cost……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 373

21.6.1.2     Increased demands of drilling environments……………………………………………….. 373

21.6.1.3     Environmental and regulatory……………………………………………………………………… 374

21.6.2        PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………. 374

21.6.2.1     Sensing and reservoir management……………………………………………………………. 374

21.6.2.2     Coatings………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 375

21.6.2.3     Drilling fluids………………………………………………………………………………………………… 377

21.6.2.4     Sorbent materials………………………………………………………………………………………… 378

21.6.2.5     Catalysts……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 379

21.6.2.6     Separation…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 379

21.6.3        GLOBAL MARKET SIZE………………………………………………………………………………….. 380

21.6.3.1     Graphene opportunity………………………………………………………………………………….. 380

21.6.4        MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………. 381

21.7      PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………………. 382

CHAPTER TWENTY TWO: GRAPHENE IN FILTRATION AND SEPARATION………………………………………….. 387

22.1      MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………………………………………. 387

22.1.1        Need for improved membrane technology……………………………………………………….. 387

22.1.2        Water shortage and population growth…………………………………………………………….. 387

22.1.3        Contamination………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 387

22.1.4        Cost…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 388

22.2      PROPERTIES AND APPLICTIONS…………………………………………………………………………. 388

22.2.1        Water filtration………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 390

22.2.2        Gas separation………………………………………………………………………………………………… 390

22.2.3        Photocatalytic absorbents………………………………………………………………………………… 390

22.3      GLOBAL MARKET SIZE………………………………………………………………………………………….. 391

22.3.1        Graphene opportunity………………………………………………………………………………………. 392

22.4      MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………………. 393

22.5      PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………………. 394

CHAPTER TWENTY THREE: GRAPHENE IN LUBRICANTS……………………………………………………………………… 395

23.1      MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………………………………………. 396

23.1.1        Cost effective alternatives………………………………………………………………………………… 396

23.1.2        Need for higher-performing lubricants for fuel efficiency………………………………….. 396

23.1.3        Environmental concerns…………………………………………………………………………………… 396

23.2      PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………………. 396

23.3      GLOBAL MARKET SIZE………………………………………………………………………………………….. 397

23.3.1        Graphene opportunity………………………………………………………………………………………. 397

23.4      MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………………. 398

23.5      PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………………. 399

CHAPTER TWENTY FOUR: GRAPHENE IN SENSORS…………………………………………………………………………… 400

24.1      MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………………………………………. 400

24.1.1        Increased power and performance with reduced cost……………………………………… 400

24.1.2        Enhanced sensitivity………………………………………………………………………………………… 400

24.1.3        Replacing silver electrodes………………………………………………………………………………. 400

24.1.4        Growth in the home diagnostics and point of care market……………………………….. 401

24.1.5        Improved thermal stability………………………………………………………………………………… 401

24.1.6        Environmental conditions…………………………………………………………………………………. 401

24.2      PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………………. 401

24.2.1        Infrared (IR) sensors………………………………………………………………………………………… 404

24.2.2        Electrochemical and gas sensors…………………………………………………………………….. 404

24.2.2.1     Graphene foam……………………………………………………………………………………………. 405

24.2.3        Pressure sensors…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 405

24.2.4        Biosensors……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 406

24.2.5        Optical sensors………………………………………………………………………………………………… 407

24.2.6        Humidity sensors……………………………………………………………………………………………… 408

24.2.7        Strain sensors………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 408

24.2.8        Acoustic sensors……………………………………………………………………………………………… 408

24.2.9        Wireless sensors……………………………………………………………………………………………… 408

24.2.10      Surface enhanced Raman scattering……………………………………………………………….. 408

24.3      GLOBAL MARKET SIZE………………………………………………………………………………………….. 409

24.3.1        Graphene opportunity………………………………………………………………………………………. 409

24.4      MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………………. 412

24.4.1        Selectivity…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 412

24.4.2        Scaling and manufacturing………………………………………………………………………………. 413

24.4.3        Sensor recovery………………………………………………………………………………………………. 413

24.5      PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………………. 414

CHAPTER TWENTY FIVE: GRAPHENE IN SMART TEXTILES AND APPAREL……………………………………….. 416

25.1      MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………………………………………. 416

25.1.1        Growth in the wearable electronics market………………………………………………………. 416

25.1.2        Reduction in size, appearance and cost of sensors…………………………………………. 416

25.1.3        Increasing demand for smart fitness clothing…………………………………………………… 416

25.1.4        Improved medical analysis………………………………………………………………………………. 416

25.1.5        Smart workwear for improved worker safety……………………………………………………. 417

25.2      PROPERTIES AND APPLICATONS……………………………………………………………………….. 417

25.2.1        Conductive coatings…………………………………………………………………………………………. 419

25.3      GLOBAL MARKET SIZE………………………………………………………………………………………….. 420

25.3.1        Graphene opportunity………………………………………………………………………………………. 421

25.4      PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………………. 423

CHAPTER TWENTY SIX: GRAPHENE IN CONDUCTIVE INKS……………………………………………………………… 424

26.1      MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………………………………………. 424

26.1.1        Increased demand for printed electronics………………………………………………………… 424

26.1.2        Limitations of existing conductive inks……………………………………………………………… 424

26.2      PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………………. 425

26.3      GLOBAL MARKET SIZE………………………………………………………………………………………….. 427

26.3.1        Graphene opportunity………………………………………………………………………………………. 427

26.4      PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………………. 431

CHAPTER TWENTY SEVEN: GRAPHENE IN 3D PRINTING………………………………………………………………………. 433

27.1      MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………………………………………. 433

27.1.1        Improved materials at lower cost……………………………………………………………………… 433

27.1.2        Limitations of current thermoplastics……………………………………………………………….. 433

27.2      PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………………. 434

27.3      GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND…………………………………………………………………………………. 435

27.3.1        Graphene opportunity………………………………………………………………………………………. 435

27.4      CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 436

27.5      PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………………. 436

CHAPTER TWENTY EIGHT: GRAPHENE PRODUCERS……………………………………………………. 438-520 (128 PRODUCER PROFILES, INCLUDING PRODUCTION CAPACITIES AND PRODUCTS)

CHAPTER TWENTY NINE: GRAPHENE PRODUCT AND APPLICATION DEVELOPERS……. 521-564 (71 PROFILES INCLUDING COLLABORATIONS AND PRODUCTS)

30 REFERENCES…………………………………………………………………….. 565

TABLES

Table 1: Consumer products incorporating graphene…………………………………………………………………. 48

Table 2: Potential market penetration and volume estimates (tons) for graphene in key applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 52

Table 3: Graphene target markets-Applications potential addressable market size……………………. 55

Table 4: Graphene producers annual production capacities………………………………………………………. 57

Table 5: Global production of graphene, 2010-2027 in tons/year. Base year for projections is 2015………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 58

Table 6: Graphene types and cost per kg…………………………………………………………………………………… 60

Table 7: Categorization of nanomaterials……………………………………………………………………………………. 68

Table 8: Properties of graphene…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 73

Table 9: Graphene quantum dot producers………………………………………………………………………………… 77

Table 10: Comparative properties of carbon materials……………………………………………………………….. 79

Table 11: Comparative properties of graphene with nanoclays and carbon nanotubes……………… 81

Table 12: Competitive analysis of Carbon nanotubes and graphene by application area and potential impact by 2025……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 82

Table 13: Electronic and mechanical properties of monolayer phosphorene, graphene and MoS2. 86

Table 14: Markets and applications of phosphorene…………………………………………………………………… 87

Table 15: Markets and applications of C2N………………………………………………………………………………… 89

Table 16: Markets and applications of hexagonal boron-nitride………………………………………………….. 91

Table 17: Markets and applications of graphdiyne……………………………………………………………………… 92

Table 18: Markets and applications of graphane………………………………………………………………………… 94

Table 19: Markets and applications of hexagonal boron-nitride………………………………………………….. 97

Table 20: Markets and applications of MoS2………………………………………………………………………………. 99

Table 21: Markets and applications of Rhenium disulfide (ReS2) and diselenide (ReSe2)………. 102

Table 22: Markets and applications of silicene…………………………………………………………………………. 103

Table 23: Markets and applications of stanene/tinene……………………………………………………………… 106

Table 24: Markets and applications of tungsten diselenide………………………………………………………. 108

Table 25: Comparative analysis of graphene and other 2-D nanomaterials……………………………… 109

Table 26: Large area graphene films-Markets, applications and current global market……………. 111

Table 27: Graphene oxide flakes/graphene nanoplatelets-Markets, applications and current global market…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 112

Table 28: Main production methods for graphene…………………………………………………………………….. 113

Table 29: Graphene synthesis methods, by company………………………………………………………………. 130

Table 30: Graphene market structure……………………………………………………………………………………….. 133

Table 31: Published patent publications for graphene, 2004-2014…………………………………………… 141

Table 32: Leading graphene patentees…………………………………………………………………………………….. 142

Table 33: Industrial graphene patents in 2014………………………………………………………………………….. 143

Table 34: Global production of graphene, 2010-2027 in tons/year. Base year for projections is 2015…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 190

Table 35: Graphene producers and production capacity  (Current and projected), prices and target markets……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 191

Table 36: Graphene properties relevant to application in adhesives………………………………………… 197

Table 37: Applications of graphene in adhesives……………………………………………………………………… 198

Table 38: Market size for graphene in adhesives……………………………………………………………………… 198

Table 39: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in adhesives………………………………………. 200

Table 40: Market challenges rating for graphene in the adhesives market……………………………….. 202

Table 41:  Graphene product and application developers in the adhesives industry………………… 202

Table 42: Applications and benefits of graphene in aerospace………………………………………………… 206

Table 43: Market size for graphene in aerospace…………………………………………………………………….. 208

Table 44: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in aerospace……………………………………… 209

Table 45: Market challenges rating for graphene in the aerospace market………………………………. 211

Table 46: Graphene product and application developers in the aerospace industry…………………. 211

Table 47: Applications and benefits of graphene in the automotive industry…………………………….. 216

Table 48: Market size for graphene in the automotive industry………………………………………………… 217

Table 49: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in the automotive industry…………………. 218

Table 50: Applications and commercialization challenges in the automotive sector…………………. 221

Table 51: Market challenges rating for graphene in the automotive sector………………………………. 221

Table 52: Graphene product and application developers in the automotive sector…………………… 222

Table 53: Graphene properties relevant to application in biomedicine and healthcare…………….. 227

Table 54: Applications and benefits of graphene in biomedical and healthcare……………………….. 228

Table 55: Market size for graphene in biomedical and healthcare……………………………………………. 236

Table 56: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in biomedical & healthcare markets…… 238

Table 57: Potential addressable market for graphene in biomedical & healthcare markets……… 238

Table 58: Market challenges in graphene in biomedicine and healthcare………………………………… 241

Table 59: Market challenges rating for graphene in the biomedical and healthcare market……… 242

Table 60: Graphene product and application developers in the biomedical and healthcare industry…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 243

Table 61: Properties of nanocoatings……………………………………………………………………………………….. 245

Table 62: Graphene properties relevant to application in coatings…………………………………………… 251

Table 63: Markets for nanocoatings………………………………………………………………………………………….. 261

Table 64: Graphene and 2D materials in the coatings market-applications, stage of commercialization and estimated economic impact……………………………………………………………. 265

Table 65: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in the coatings market……………………….. 265

Table 66: Market challenges rating for graphene in the coatings market………………………………….. 268

Table 67: Graphene product and application developers in the coatings industry……………………. 268

Table 68: Graphene properties relevant to application in polymer composites…………………………. 272

Table 69: Applications and benefits of graphene in composites……………………………………………….. 273

Table 70: Market size for SWNTs in composites………………………………………………………………………. 277

Table 71: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in the composites market………………….. 278

Table 72: Market challenges rating for graphene in the composites market…………………………….. 281

Table 73: Graphene product and application developers in the composites industry……………….. 281

Table 74: Graphene and 2D materials in the electronics and photonics market-applications, stage of commercialization and estimated economic impact……………………………………………………………. 284

Table 75: Comparison of ITO replacements……………………………………………………………………………… 286

Table 76: Applications and benefits of graphene in flexible electronics and conductive films…… 289

Table 77: Wearable electronics devices and stage of development…………………………………………. 294

Table 78: Graphene properties relevant to application in sensors……………………………………………. 300

Table 79: Market size for graphene in flexible electronics and conductive films……………………….. 302

Table 80: Global market for wearables, 2014-2021, units and US$………………………………………….. 304

Table 81: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in flexible electronics, wearables, conductive films and displays……………………………………………………………………………………………… 305

Table 82: Market challenges rating for graphene in the flexible electronics, wearables, conductive films and displays market……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 311

Table 83: Graphene product and application developers in transparent conductive films………… 312

Table 84: Comparative properties of silicon and graphene transistors……………………………………… 315

Table 85: Applications and benefits of graphene in transistors, integrated circuits and other components………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 317

Table 86: Market size for graphene in transistors, integrated circuits and other components…… 319

Table 87: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in transistors, integrated circuits and other components………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 320

Table 88: Market challenges rating for graphene in the transistors and integrated circuits market…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 324

Table 89: Graphene product and application developers in transistors and integrated circuits… 324

Table 90: Applications and benefits of graphene in memory devices……………………………………….. 327

Table 91: Market size for graphene in memory devices……………………………………………………………. 329

Table 92: Graphene product and application developers in memory devices…………………………… 332

Table 93: Applications and commercialization challenges for graphene in the memory devices market…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 333

Table 94: Graphene properties relevant to application in optical modulators……………………………. 335

Table 95: Applications and benefits of graphene in photonics………………………………………………….. 338

Table 96: Market size for graphene in photonics………………………………………………………………………. 338

Table 97: Graphene product and application developers in photonics……………………………………… 339

Table 98: Market challenges rating for graphene in the photonics market………………………………… 340

Table 99: Graphene and 2D materials in the energy storage, conversion and exploration market-applications, stage of commercialization and estimated economic impact…………………………. 342

Table 100: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in the energy storage, conversion and exploration market………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 342

Table 101: Market size for graphene in batteries……………………………………………………………………… 349

Table 102: Potential addressable market for thin film, flexible and printed batteries………………… 350

Table 103: Market challenges rating for graphene in the batteries market……………………………….. 353

Table 104: Comparative properties of graphene supercapacitors and lithium-ion batteries……… 355

Table 105: Applications and benefits of graphene in supercapacitors………………………………………. 356

Table 106: Market size for graphene in supercapacitors………………………………………………………….. 357

Table 107: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in supercapacitors…………………………… 358

Table 108: Market challenges rating for graphene in the supercapacitors market……………………. 360

Table 109: Market size for graphene in photovoltaics………………………………………………………………. 363

Table 110: Market size for graphene in photovoltaics………………………………………………………………. 364

Table 111: Potential addressable market for thin film, flexible and printed batteries………………… 364

Table 112: Market challenges for graphene in solar…………………………………………………………………. 365

Table 113: Market challenges rating for graphene in the solar market……………………………………… 366

Table 114: Applications and benefits of graphene in fuel cells and hydrogen storage……………… 368

Table 115: Market size for graphene in fuel cells and hydrogen storage………………………………….. 369

Table 116: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in fuel cells and hydrogen storage…… 369

Table 117: Market challenges rating for graphene in the fuel cells market……………………………….. 370

Table 118: Application markets, competing materials, graphene advantages and current market size in oil and gas……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 381

Table 119: Market challenges rating for graphene in the oil and gas market……………………………. 381

Table 120: Graphene product and application developers in the energy industry…………………….. 382

Table 121: Applications and benefits of graphene in filtration and separation………………………….. 389

Table 122: Market size for graphene in filtration……………………………………………………………………….. 392

Table 123: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in the filtration and separation market. 393

Table 124: Market challenges rating for graphene in the filtration and separation market………… 394

Table 125: Graphene product and application developers in the filtration industry…………………… 394

Table 126: Applications of carbon nanomaterials in lubricants…………………………………………………. 396

Table 127: Market size for graphene in lubricants…………………………………………………………………….. 397

Table 128: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in lubricants…………………………………….. 398

Table 129: Market challenges rating for graphene in the lubricants market……………………………… 399

Table 130:  Graphene product and application developers in the lubricants industry……………….. 399

Table 131: Applications and benefits of graphene in sensors…………………………………………………… 402

Table 132: Graphene properties relevant to application in sensors………………………………………….. 403

Table 133: Comparison of ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) and graphene biosensor…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 407

Table 134: Market size for graphene in sensors……………………………………………………………………….. 409

Table 135: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in the filtration and separation market. 410

Table 136: Market challenges rating for graphene in the sensors market………………………………… 413

Table 137: Graphene product and application developers in the sensors industry…………………… 414

Table 138: Desirable functional properties for the textiles industry afforded by the use of nanomaterials……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 418

Table 139: Applications and benefits of graphene in textiles and apparel………………………………… 419

Table 140: Global market for smart clothing and apparel, 2014-2021, units and revenues (US$). 420

Table 141: Graphene and 2D materials in the textiles market-applications, stage of commercialization and estimated economic impact……………………………………………………………. 421

Table 142: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in smart textiles and apparel……………. 423

Table 143:  Graphene product and application developers in the textiles industry…………………… 423

Table 144: Comparative properties of conductive inks……………………………………………………………… 425

Table 145: Opportunities for graphene and 2D materials in printed electronics……………………….. 428

Table 146: Potential addressable market for graphene in conductive inks……………………………….. 429

Table 147: Graphene product and application developers in conductive inks………………………….. 431

Table 148: Graphene properties relevant to application in 3D printing……………………………………… 434

Table 149: Graphene and 2D materials in the 3D printing market-applications, stage of commercialization and estimated economic impact……………………………………………………………. 435

Table 150: Market challenges rating for nanotechnology and nanomaterials in the 3D printing market…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 436

Table 151: Graphene product and application developers in the 3D printing industry………………. 436

Table 152: Graphene producers and types produced………………………………………………………………. 438

Table 153: Graphene industrial collaborations, licence agreements and target markets………….. 521

 

FIGURES

Figure 1: Demand for graphene, by market, 2015………………………………………………………………………. 50

Figure 2: Demand for graphene, by market, 2025………………………………………………………………………. 51

Figure 3: Global government funding for graphene in millions USD to 2015………………………………. 54

Figure 4: Global market for graphene 2010-2027 in tons/year……………………………………………………. 59

Figure 5: Global consumption of graphene 2015, by region……………………………………………………….. 63

Figure 6: Graphene layer structure schematic……………………………………………………………………………. 70

Figure 7: Graphite and graphene………………………………………………………………………………………………… 71

Figure 8: Graphene and its descendants: top right: graphene; top left: graphite = stacked graphene; bottom right: nanotube=rolled graphene; bottom left: fullerene=wrapped graphene. …………… 72

Figure 9: Schematic of (a) CQDs and (c) GQDs. HRTEM images of (b) C-dots and (d) GQDs showing combination of zigzag and armchair edges (positions marked as 1–4)…………………… 75

Figure 10: Graphene quantum dots……………………………………………………………………………………………. 76

Figure 11: Graphene can be rolled up into a carbon nanotube, wrapped into a fullerene, and stacked into graphite…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 78

Figure 12: Black phosphorus structure……………………………………………………………………………………….. 85

Figure 13: Structural difference between graphene and C2N-h2D crystal: (a) graphene; (b) C2N-h2D crystal……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 88

Figure 14: Schematic of germanene…………………………………………………………………………………………… 90

Figure 15: Graphdiyne structure…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 92

Figure 16: Schematic of Graphane crystal………………………………………………………………………………….. 94

Figure 17: Structure of hexagonal boron nitride………………………………………………………………………….. 96

Figure 18: Structure of 2D molybdenum disulfide……………………………………………………………………….. 98

Figure 19: Atomic force microscopy image of a representative MoS2 thin-film transistor…………… 99

Figure 20: Schematic of the molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) thin-film sensor with the deposited molecules that create additional charge……………………………………………………………………………… 100

Figure 21: Schematic of a monolayer of rhenium disulphide…………………………………………………….. 101

Figure 22: Silicene structure……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 102

Figure 23: Monolayer silicene on a silver (111) substrate…………………………………………………………. 103

Figure 24: Silicene transistor…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 105

Figure 25: Crystal structure for stanene……………………………………………………………………………………. 106

Figure 26: Atomic structure model for the 2D stanene on Bi2Te3(111)……………………………………. 106

Figure 27: Schematic of tungsten diselenide……………………………………………………………………………. 107

Figure 28: Graphene synthesis methods………………………………………………………………………………….. 114

Figure 29: TEM micrographs of: A) HR-CNFs; B) GANF® HR-CNF, it can be observed its high graphitic structure; C) Unraveled ribbon from the HR-CNF; D) Detail of the ribbon; E) Scheme of the structure of the HR-CNFs; F) Large single graphene oxide sheets derived from GANF.. 115

Figure 30: Graphene nanoribbons grown on germanium…………………………………………………………. 118

Figure 31: Methods of synthesizing high-quality graphene……………………………………………………….. 120

Figure 32: Roll-to-roll graphene production process…………………………………………………………………. 126

Figure 33: Schematic of roll-to-roll manufacturing process……………………………………………………….. 126

Figure 34: Microwave irradiation of graphite to produce single-layer graphene………………………… 129

Figure 35: Schematic of typical commercialization route for graphene producer……………………… 133

Figure 36: Published patent publications for graphene, 2004-2014………………………………………….. 142

Figure 37: Technology Readiness Level (TRL) for graphene……………………………………………………. 146

Figure 38: Global market for graphene 2010-2025 in tons/year……………………………………………….. 191

Figure 39: Potential addressable market for graphene in adhesives………………………………………… 201

Figure 40: Potential addressable market for graphene in aerospace……………………………………….. 209

Figure 41: Potential addressable market for graphene-enabled applications in aerospace………. 210

Figure 42: Graphene-based automotive components……………………………………………………………….. 214

Figure 43: Potential addressable market for graphene in the automotive sector………………………. 219

Figure 44: Potential addressable market for graphene in the automotive sector………………………. 220

Figure 45: TempTraQ wearable wireless thermometer…………………………………………………………….. 226

Figure 46: Graphene-based E-skin patch…………………………………………………………………………………. 227

Figure 47: Graphene Frontiers’ Six™ chemical sensors consists of a field effect transistor (FET) with a graphene channel. Receptor molecules, such as DNA, are attached directly to the graphene channel……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 233

Figure 48: Graphene-Oxide based chip prototypes for biopsy-free early cancer diagnosis………. 234

Figure 49: Potential addressable market for graphene-enabled applications in the biomedical and healthcare market……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 240

Figure 50: Heat transfer coating developed at MIT…………………………………………………………………… 251

Figure 51: Water permeation through a brick without (left) and with (right) “graphene paint” coating…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 256

Figure 52: Four layers of graphene oxide coatings on polycarbonate………………………………………. 259

Figure 53: Global Paints and Coatings Market, share by end user market……………………………….. 260

Figure 54: Potential addressable market for graphene in the coatings market…………………………. 266

Figure 55: Potential addressable market for graphene in the coatings market…………………………. 267

Figure 56: Potential addressable market for graphene in composites………………………………………. 278

Figure 57: Potential addressable market for graphene in the composites market…………………….. 280

Figure 58: Flexible organic light emitting diode (OLED) using graphene electrode…………………… 286

Figure 59: Graphene electrochromic devices. Top left: Exploded-view illustration of the graphene electrochromic device. The device is formed by attaching two graphene-coated PVC substrates face-to-face and filling the gap with a liquid ionic electrolyte………………………………………………. 291

Figure 60: Flexible transistor sheet…………………………………………………………………………………………… 292

Figure 61: Foldable graphene E-paper…………………………………………………………………………………….. 293

Figure 62: Covestro wearables…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 295

Figure 63: Softceptor sensor…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 298

Figure 64: BeBop Media Arm Controller…………………………………………………………………………………… 298

Figure 65: LG Innotek flexible textile pressure sensor………………………………………………………………. 299

Figure 66: Wearable gas sensor………………………………………………………………………………………………. 301

Figure 67: A large transparent conductive graphene film (about 20 × 20 cm2) manufactured by 2D Carbon Tech. Figure 24a (right): Prototype of a mobile phone produced by 2D Carbon Tech using a graphene touch panel…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 304

Figure 68: Global market revenues for smart wearable devices 2014-2021, in US$………………… 305

Figure 69: Potential addressable market for graphene in flexible electronics, wearables, conductive films and displays……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 306

Figure 70: Potential addressable market for graphene in the flexible electronics, wearables, conductive films and displays market…………………………………………………………………………………. 308

Figure 71: Schematic of the wet roll-to-roll graphene transfer from copper foils to polymeric substrates…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 310

Figure 72: The transmittance of glass/ITO, glass/ITO/four organic layers, and glass/ITO/four organic layers/4-layer graphene………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 311

Figure 73: Graphene IC in wafer tester…………………………………………………………………………………….. 315

Figure 74: Schematic cross-section of a graphene based transistor (GBT, left) and a graphene field-effect transistor (GFET, right)……………………………………………………………………………………………… 316

Figure 75: Potential addressable market for graphene in transistors and integrated circuits……. 321

Figure 76: Potential addressable market for graphene in the transistors and integrated circuits market…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 322

Figure 77: Graphene oxide-based RRAm device on a flexible substrate………………………………….. 327

Figure 78: Layered structure of tantalum oxide, multilayer graphene and platinum used for resistive random access memory (RRAM)……………………………………………………………………………………….. 331

Figure 79: A schematic diagram for the mechanism of the resistive switching in metal/GO/Pt…. 332

Figure 80: Hybrid graphene phototransistors……………………………………………………………………………. 336

Figure 81: Wearable health monitor incorporating graphene photodetectors……………………………. 337

Figure 82: Energy harvesting textile…………………………………………………………………………………………. 346

Figure 83: Potential addressable market for graphene in the thin film, flexible and printed batteries market…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 352

Figure 84: Skeleton Technologies ultracapacitor………………………………………………………………………. 354

Figure 85: Zapgo supercapacitor phone charger………………………………………………………………………. 359

Figure 86: Solar cell with nanowires and graphene electrode…………………………………………………… 362

Figure 87: Potential addressable market for graphene in photovoltaics……………………………………. 365

Figure 88: Schematic of boron doped graphene for application in gas sensors……………………….. 375

Figure 89: An uncoated copper condenser tube (top left) is shown next to a similar tube coated with graphene. (top right)…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 377

Figure 90: Directa Plus Grafysorber…………………………………………………………………………………………. 379

Figure 91: Nanometer-scale pores in single-layer freestanding graphene membrane can effectively filter NaCl salt from water……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 380

Figure 92: Degradation of organic dye molecules by graphene hybrid composite photocatalysts. 391

Figure 93: GFET sensors…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 405

Figure 94: First generation point of care diagnostics………………………………………………………………… 406

Figure 95: Graphene Field Effect Transistor Schematic……………………………………………………………. 407

Figure 96: Potential addressable market for graphene in the sensors market………………………….. 412

Figure 97: Global market revenues for smart clothing and apparel 2014-2021, in US$……………. 421

Figure 98: Global market revenues for nanotech-enabled smart clothing and apparel 2014-2021, in US$, conservative estimate………………………………………………………………………………………………… 422

Figure 99: Global market revenues for nanotech-enabled smart clothing and apparel 2014-2021, in US$, optimistic estimate……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 423

Figure 100: Graphene printed antenna…………………………………………………………………………………….. 426

Figure 101: BGT Materials graphene ink product……………………………………………………………………… 427

Figure 102: Vorbeck Materials conductive ink products……………………………………………………………. 428

Figure 103: Potential addressable market for graphene in the conductive ink market……………… 431

Figure 104: 3D Printed tweezers incorporating Carbon Nanotube Filament…………………………….. 434