The Graphene and 2-D Materials Global Opportunity and Market Forecast 2017-2027

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The Graphene and 2D Materials Global Opportunity and Market Forecast 2017-2027 Report is a comprehensive analysis of the market and commercial opportunities for these remarkable materials.

A growing number of products are integrating graphene and 2D materials across a range of markets. Two-dimensional (2D) materials are currently one of the most active areas of advanced materials research, and offer a huge opportunity for both fundamental studies and practical applications, including superfast, low-power, flexible and wearable electronics, sensors, photonics and electrochemical energy storage devices that will have an immense impact on our society.

Graphene is a ground-breaking 2D material that possesses extraordinary electrical and mechanical properties that promise a new generation of innovative devices. New methods of scalable synthesis of high-quality graphene, clean delamination transfer and device integration have resulted in the commercialization of state-of-the-art electronics devices such as graphene touchscreens in smartphones and flexible RF devices on plastics. The market for graphene continues to expand, with new product launches, multi-million dollar funding for companies and start-ups and new government initiatives worldwide.

Beyond graphene, emerging elementary 2D materials such as transition metal dichalcogenides, group V systems including phosphorene, and related isoelectronic structures will potentially allow for flexible electronics and field-effect transistors that exhibit ambipolar transport behaviour with either a direct band-gap or greater gate modulation.

Companies who have bought this report include Scion Research, Fraunhofer, ICL Group, LWP Tech, CNM Technologies, Graphit Kropfmühl GmbH, InnoPeak Technology, Grupa Aazoty, Panasonic, Samsung and many more.

Report contents include:

  • Global production capacities
  • Current products.
  • Stage of commercialization for graphene applications by company.
  • Market drivers, trends and challenges, by target markets.
  • In-depth market assessment of opportunities for graphene including potential revenues, growth rates, pricing, most likely applications and market challenges.
  • In-depth company profiles, include products, capacities, and commercial activities.
  • Predictions for key growth areas and opportunities.

 

Companies profiled in the report include 3D GRAPHTECH INDUSTRIES, APPLIED GRAPHENE MATERIALS PLC, CEALTECH, DIRECTA PLUS SPA , ENANOTEC  GRAPHENANO S.L., GRAPHENETECH, HANWHA CHEMICAL, METALYSIS, TALGA RESOURCES AND MANY MORE.

Published January 2017 | 549 Pages | Download Table of contents

The Graphene and 2-D Materials Global Opportunity and Market Forecast 2017-2027 Report
The Graphene and 2-D Materials Global Opportunity and Market Forecast 2017-2027 Report
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TABLE OF CONTENTS

1    RESEARCH METHODOLOGY………………………………………………… 41

1.1    Applications assessment………………………………………………………………………………………………… 41

1.1    Market opportunity analysis……………………………………………………………………………………………. 42

1.2    Market challenges rating system……………………………………………………………………………………. 43

2    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY…………………………………………………………. 46

2.1    Two-dimensional (2D) materials…………………………………………………………………………………….. 46

2.2    Graphene……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 46

2.2.1     The market in 2016………………………………………………………………………………………………… 47

2.2.2     The market in 2017………………………………………………………………………………………………… 48

2.2.3     Products…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 49

2.2.4     Short-term opportunities…………………………………………………………………………………………. 49

2.2.5     Medium-term opportunities…………………………………………………………………………………….. 50

2.2.6     Remarkable properties…………………………………………………………………………………………… 52

2.2.7     Global funding and initiatives…………………………………………………………………………………. 53

2.2.7.1       Europe…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 53

2.2.7.2       Asia……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 53

2.2.7.3       United States…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 54

2.2.8     Products and applications………………………………………………………………………………………. 54

2.2.9     Production……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 56

2.2.10        Market drivers and trends………………………………………………………………………………….. 58

2.2.10.1     Production exceeds demand…………………………………………………………………………. 58

2.2.10.2     Market revenues remain small………………………………………………………………………. 59

2.2.10.3     Scalability and cost………………………………………………………………………………………… 60

2.2.10.4     Applications hitting the market……………………………………………………………………….. 61

2.2.10.5     Wait and see?……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 62

2.2.10.6     Asia and US lead the race……………………………………………………………………………… 62

2.2.10.7     China commercializing at a fast rate……………………………………………………………… 63

2.2.10.8     Competition from other materials…………………………………………………………………… 63

2.2.11        Market and technical challenges………………………………………………………………………… 64

2.2.11.1     Inconsistent supply quality…………………………………………………………………………….. 64

2.2.11.2     Functionalization and dispersion……………………………………………………………………. 65

2.2.11.3     Cost……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 65

2.2.11.4     Product integration………………………………………………………………………………………… 65

2.2.11.5     Regulation and standards……………………………………………………………………………… 65

2.2.11.6     Lack of a band gap………………………………………………………………………………………… 66

3    PROPERTIES OF NANOMATERIALS………………………………………. 67

3.1    Categorization………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 68

4    OVERVIEW OF GRAPHENE…………………………………………………… 70

4.1    History……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 70

4.2    Forms of graphene…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 71

4.3    Properties……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 73

4.4    3D Graphene………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 74

4.5    Graphene Quantum Dots……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 74

4.5.1     Synthesis……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 75

4.5.2     Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 76

4.5.3     Producers………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 77

5    CARBON NANOTUBES VERSUS GRAPHENE…………………………. 78

5.1    Comparative properties………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 79

5.2    Cost and production……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 80

5.3    Carbon nanotube-graphene hybrids……………………………………………………………………………….. 81

5.4    Competitive analysis of carbon nanotubes and graphene………………………………………………. 82

6    OTHER 2-D MATERIALS………………………………………………………… 84

6.1    Black phosphorus/Phosphorene…………………………………………………………………………………….. 85

6.1.1     Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 85

6.1.2     Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 87

6.2    C2N…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 87

6.2.1     Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 88

6.2.2     Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 89

6.3    Carbon nitride…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 89

6.3.1     Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 89

6.3.2     Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 90

6.4    Germanene…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 90

6.4.1     Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 90

6.4.2     Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 91

6.5    Graphdiyne…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 91

6.5.1     Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 92

6.5.2     Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 92

6.6    Graphane……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 93

6.6.1     Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 94

6.6.2     Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 94

6.7    Hexagonal boron nitride…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 95

6.7.1     Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 96

6.7.2     Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 97

6.7.3     Producers………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 97

6.8    Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2)…………………………………………………………………………………………. 97

6.8.1     Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 98

6.8.2     Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 98

6.9    Rhenium disulfide (ReS2) and diselenide (ReSe2)………………………………………………………. 101

6.9.1     Properties…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 101

6.9.2     Applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 102

6.10      Silicene…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 102

6.10.1        Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 103

6.10.2        Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 103

6.11      Stanene/tinene…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 105

6.11.1        Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 106

6.11.2        Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 106

6.12      Tungsten diselenide…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 107

6.12.1        Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 107

6.12.2        Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 108

6.13      Comparative analysis of graphene and other 2-D nanomaterials…………………………….. 109

7    GRAPHENE SYNTHESIS……………………………………………………… 111

7.1    Large area graphene films……………………………………………………………………………………………. 111

7.2    Graphene oxide flakes and graphene nanoplatelets…………………………………………………….. 112

7.3    Production methods……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 113

7.3.1     Production directly from natural graphite ore……………………………………………………….. 115

7.3.2     Alternative starting materials………………………………………………………………………………… 115

7.3.3     Quality………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 115

7.4    Synthesis and production by types of graphene…………………………………………………………… 116

7.4.1     Graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs)………………………………………………………………………….. 117

7.4.2     Graphene nanoribbons………………………………………………………………………………………… 117

7.4.3     Large-area graphene films…………………………………………………………………………………… 118

7.4.4     Graphene oxide flakes (GO)………………………………………………………………………………… 119

7.5    Pros and cons of graphene production methods………………………………………………………….. 120

7.5.1     Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD)……………………………………………………………………….. 121

7.5.2     Exfoliation method……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 122

7.5.3     Epitaxial growth method……………………………………………………………………………………….. 122

7.5.4     Wet chemistry method (liquid phase exfoliation)………………………………………………….. 123

7.5.5     Micromechanical cleavage method………………………………………………………………………. 124

7.5.6     Green reduction of graphene oxide……………………………………………………………………… 124

7.5.7     Plasma…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 124

7.6    Recent synthesis methods……………………………………………………………………………………………. 125

7.6.1     Ben-Gurion University of the Negev (BGU) and University of Western Australia…. 125

7.6.2     Graphene Frontiers………………………………………………………………………………………………. 125

7.6.3     MIT and the University of Michigan………………………………………………………………………. 126

7.6.4     Oak Ridge National Laboratory/University of Texas/General Graphene………………. 126

7.6.5     University of Florida/Donghua University……………………………………………………………… 127

7.6.6     Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST) and Case Western Reserve University……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 127

7.6.7     Trinity College Dublin…………………………………………………………………………………………… 127

7.6.8     Sungkyunkwan University and Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology (SAIT) 127

7.6.9     Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST), Chonbuk National University and KRICT  127

7.6.10        NanoXplore……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 127

7.6.11        Carbon Sciences Inc………………………………………………………………………………………… 128

7.6.12        California Institute of Technology…………………………………………………………………….. 128

7.6.13        Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology………………………. 128

7.6.14        Oxford University……………………………………………………………………………………………… 128

7.6.15        University of Tokyo…………………………………………………………………………………………… 128

7.6.16        Argonne National Laboratory…………………………………………………………………………… 129

7.6.17        Rutgers University……………………………………………………………………………………………. 129

7.6.18        FAU………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 130

7.6.19        University of Exeter………………………………………………………………………………………….. 130

7.7    Synthesis methods by company…………………………………………………………………………………… 130

8    GRAPHENE MARKET STRUCTURE AND ROUTES TO COMMERCIALIZATION…………………………………………………………….. 133

9    REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS……………………………………….. 137

9.1    Standards…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 137

9.2    Environmental, health and safety regulation………………………………………………………………… 137

9.2.1     Europe…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 138

9.2.2     United States……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 138

9.2.3     Asia………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 138

9.3    Workplace exposure…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 139

10 PATENTS AND PUBLICATIONS……………………………………………. 140

10.1      Fabrication processes………………………………………………………………………………………………. 140

10.2      Academia…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 140

10.3      Regional leaders………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 141

11 TECHNOLOGY READINESS LEVEL……………………………………… 145

12 GRAPHENE INDUSTRY NEWS 2013-2016……………………………… 147

12.1      JANUARY 2013……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 147

12.2      FEBRUARY 2013…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 147

12.3      APRIL 2013……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 148

12.4      MAY 2013………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 148

12.5      JUNE 2013………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 149

12.6      JULY 2013……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 149

12.7      AUGUST 2013…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 149

12.8      SEPTEMBER 2013………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 150

12.9      OCTOBER 2013………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 150

12.10    NOVEMBER 2013……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 151

12.11    DECEMBER 2013……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 151

12.12    JANUARY 2014……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 152

12.13    FEBRUARY 2014…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 153

12.14    MARCH 2014…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 154

12.15    APRIL 2014……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 155

12.16    MAY 2014………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 157

12.17    JUNE 2014………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 157

12.18    JULY 2014……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 158

12.19    AUGUST 2014…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 159

12.20    SEPTEMBER 2014………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 159

12.21    AUGUST 2014…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 160

12.22    SEPTEMBER 2014………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 160

12.23    OCTOBER 2014………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 161

12.24    NOVEMBER 2014……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 161

12.25    DECEMBER 2014……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 162

12.26    JANUARY 2015……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 164

12.27    FEBRUARY 2015…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 164

12.28    MARCH 2015…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 165

12.29    APRIL 2015……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 165

12.30    MAY 2015………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 166

12.31    JUNE 2015………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 167

12.32    JULY 2015……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 168

12.33    AUGUST 2015…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 169

12.34    SEPTEMBER 2015………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 170

12.35    OCTOBER 2015………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 170

12.36    NOVEMBER 2015……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 171

12.37    DECEMBER 2015……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 173

12.38    JANUARY 2016……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 174

12.39    FEBRUARY 2016…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 174

12.40    MARCH 2016…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 175

12.41    APRIL 2016……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 176

12.42    MAY 2016………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 179

12.43    JUNE 2016………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 181

12.44    JULY 2016……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 181

12.45    AUGUST 2016…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 182

12.46    SEPTEMBER 2016………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 183

12.47    OCTOBER 2016………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 183

12.48    NOVEMBER 2016……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 184

12.49    DECEMBER 2016……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 186

13 END USER MARKET SEGMENT ANALYSIS………………………….. 188

13.1      Graphene production volumes 2010-2025……………………………………………………………….. 188

13.2      Graphene producers and production capacities………………………………………………………. 190

14 ADHESIVES………………………………………………………………………… 195

14.1      MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………………………………………. 195

14.1.1        Thermal management in electronics………………………………………………………………… 195

14.1.2        Environmental sustainability…………………………………………………………………………….. 195

14.2      PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………………. 195

14.3      GLOBAL MARKET SIZE………………………………………………………………………………………….. 196

14.3.1        Graphene opportunity………………………………………………………………………………………. 196

14.4      CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 198

14.5      PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………………. 199

15 AEROSPACE………………………………………………………………………. 200

15.1      MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………………………………………. 200

15.1.1        Safety………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 200

15.1.2        Reduced fuel consumption and costs………………………………………………………………. 200

15.1.3        Increased durability………………………………………………………………………………………….. 200

15.1.4        Multi-functionality……………………………………………………………………………………………… 200

15.1.5        Need for new anti-icing and de-icing solutions…………………………………………………. 201

15.1.6        Weight reduction………………………………………………………………………………………………. 201

15.1.7        Need for improved lightning protection materials…………………………………………….. 201

15.2      PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………………. 202

15.2.1        Composites……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 202

15.2.2        Coatings…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 202

15.3      GLOBAL MARKET SIZE………………………………………………………………………………………….. 203

15.3.1        Graphene opportunity………………………………………………………………………………………. 203

15.4      CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 206

15.5      PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………………. 207

16 AUTOMOTIVE……………………………………………………………………… 209

16.1      MARKET DRIVER AND TRENDS……………………………………………………………………………. 209

16.1.1        Environmental………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 209

16.1.2        Safety………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 209

16.1.3        Lightweighting………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 209

16.1.4        Cost…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 210

16.2      PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………………. 210

16.2.1        Composites……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 211

16.2.2        Thermally conductive additives………………………………………………………………………… 211

16.2.3        Tires…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 211

16.3      GLOBAL MARKET SIZE………………………………………………………………………………………….. 212

16.3.1        Graphene opportunity………………………………………………………………………………………. 212

16.4      CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 215

16.5      PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………………. 217

17 BIOMEDICAL & HEALTHCARE…………………………………………….. 218

17.1      MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………………………………………. 219

17.1.1        Improved drug delivery for cancer therapy………………………………………………………. 219

17.1.2        Shortcomings of chemotherapies…………………………………………………………………….. 219

17.1.3        Biocompatibility of medical implants………………………………………………………………… 219

17.1.4        Anti-biotic resistance………………………………………………………………………………………… 220

17.1.5        Growth in the advanced woundcare market…………………………………………………….. 220

17.1.6        Universal to individualized medicine………………………………………………………………… 220

17.1.7        Growth in the wearable monitoring market………………………………………………………. 221

17.1.8        Need for new materials for continuous health monitoring and adaptability………. 222

17.2      PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………………. 222

17.2.1        Cancer therapy………………………………………………………………………………………………… 223

17.2.1.1     Graphene oxide for therapy and drug delivery…………………………………………….. 223

17.2.1.2     Graphene nanosheets…………………………………………………………………………………. 224

17.2.1.3     Gene delivery………………………………………………………………………………………………. 224

17.2.1.4     Photodynamic Therapy………………………………………………………………………………… 224

17.2.2        Medical implants and devices………………………………………………………………………….. 224

17.2.3        Wound dressings……………………………………………………………………………………………… 225

17.2.4        Biosensors……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 225

17.2.4.1     FRET biosensors for DNA detection……………………………………………………………. 226

17.2.5        Medical imaging……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 227

17.2.6        Tissue engineering…………………………………………………………………………………………… 227

17.2.7        Dental………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 227

17.2.8        Electrophysiology…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 228

17.3      GLOBAL MARKET SIZE………………………………………………………………………………………….. 228

17.3.1        Graphene opportunity………………………………………………………………………………………. 228

17.4      CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 232

17.5      PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………………. 234

18 COATINGS………………………………………………………………………….. 236

18.1      MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………………………………………. 236

18.1.1        New functionalities and improved properties……………………………………………………. 237

18.1.2        Need for more effective protection…………………………………………………………………… 238

18.1.3        Sustainability and regulation……………………………………………………………………………. 239

18.1.4        Cost of corrosion……………………………………………………………………………………………… 239

18.1.5        Need for improved hygiene……………………………………………………………………………… 240

18.1.6        Cost of weather-related damage……………………………………………………………………… 241

18.1.7        Increased demand for coatings for extreme environments………………………………. 241

18.2      PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………………. 241

18.2.1        Anti-corrosion coatings…………………………………………………………………………………….. 243

18.2.1.1     Marine………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 244

18.2.2        Anti-microbial…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 245

18.2.3        Anti-icing………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 245

18.2.4        Barrier coatings………………………………………………………………………………………………… 246

18.2.5        Heat protection………………………………………………………………………………………………… 247

18.2.6        Anti-fouling……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 248

18.2.7        Wear and abrasion resistance…………………………………………………………………………. 249

18.2.8        Smart windows………………………………………………………………………………………………… 250

18.3      GLOBAL MARKET SIZE………………………………………………………………………………………….. 251

18.3.1        Thermal barrier coatings………………………………………………………………………………….. 255

18.3.2        Barrier coatings………………………………………………………………………………………………… 255

18.3.3        Anti-microbial coatings…………………………………………………………………………………….. 255

18.3.4        De-icing or anti-icing coatings………………………………………………………………………….. 255

18.3.5        Abrasion and wear resistant coatings………………………………………………………………. 256

18.3.6        Anti-corrosion coatings…………………………………………………………………………………….. 256

18.3.7        Graphene opportunity………………………………………………………………………………………. 256

18.4      CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 259

18.4.1        Dispersion………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 259

18.4.2        Production, scalability and cost………………………………………………………………………… 259

18.5      PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………………. 259

19 COMPOSITES……………………………………………………………………… 261

19.1      MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………………………………………. 261

19.1.1        Improved performance over traditional composites…………………………………………. 261

19.1.2        Multi-functionality……………………………………………………………………………………………… 262

19.1.3        Growth in wind energy market…………………………………………………………………………. 262

19.2      PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………………. 263

19.2.1        Polymer composites…………………………………………………………………………………………. 263

19.2.2        Barrier packaging…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 264

19.2.3        Electrostatic discharge (ESD) and electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding 264

19.2.4        Wind turbines…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 264

19.2.5        Ballistic protection……………………………………………………………………………………………. 265

19.2.6        Cement additives……………………………………………………………………………………………… 265

19.3      GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND…………………………………………………………………………………. 265

19.3.1        Graphene opportunity………………………………………………………………………………………. 266

19.4      CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 269

19.5      PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………………. 270

20 ELECTRONICS AND PHOTONICS………………………………………… 272

20.1      Graphene and 2D materials in electronics……………………………………………………………….. 272

20.2      FLEXIBLE ELECTRONICS, WEARABLES, CONDUCTIVE FILMS AND DISPLAYS. 273

20.2.1        MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………………………………. 273

20.2.1.1     ITO replacement for flexible electronics………………………………………………………. 273

20.2.1.2     Growth in the wearable electronics market………………………………………………….. 275

20.2.1.3     Touch technology requirements…………………………………………………………………… 275

20.2.1.4     Energy needs of wearable devices………………………………………………………………. 276

20.2.1.5     Increased power and performance of sensors with reduced cost………………… 276

20.2.1.6     Growth in the printed sensors market………………………………………………………….. 276

20.2.1.7     Growth in the home diagnostics and point of care market…………………………… 277

20.2.2        PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………. 277

20.2.2.1     Transparent electrodes in flexible electronics………………………………………………. 277

20.2.2.2     Electronic paper…………………………………………………………………………………………… 279

20.2.2.3     Wearable electronics…………………………………………………………………………………… 280

20.2.2.4     Wearable sensors………………………………………………………………………………………… 284

20.2.3        GLOBAL MARKET SIZE………………………………………………………………………………….. 289

20.2.3.1     Graphene opportunity………………………………………………………………………………….. 290

20.2.4        CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 293

20.2.4.1     Manufacturing……………………………………………………………………………………………… 293

20.2.4.2     Competing materials……………………………………………………………………………………. 294

20.2.4.3     Cost in comparison to ITO…………………………………………………………………………… 294

20.2.4.4     Problems with transfer and growth………………………………………………………………. 294

20.2.4.5     Improving sheet resistance………………………………………………………………………….. 295

20.2.4.6     Difficulties in display panel integration…………………………………………………………. 296

20.2.5        PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………. 297

20.3      CONDUCTIVE INKS………………………………………………………………………………………………… 298

20.3.1        MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………………………………. 298

20.3.1.1     Increased demand for printed electronics……………………………………………………. 298

20.3.1.2     Limitations of existing conductive inks…………………………………………………………. 299

20.3.2        PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………. 299

20.3.3        GLOBAL MARKET SIZE………………………………………………………………………………….. 301

20.3.3.1     Graphene opportunity………………………………………………………………………………….. 301

20.3.4        PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………. 305

20.4      TRANSISTORS AND INTEGRATED CIRCUITS……………………………………………………… 307

20.4.1        MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………………………………. 307

20.4.1.1     Scaling…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 307

20.4.1.2     Limitations of current materials……………………………………………………………………. 307

20.4.2        PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………. 307

20.4.2.1     Integrated circuits………………………………………………………………………………………… 307

20.4.2.2     Transistors…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 308

20.4.2.3     Graphene Radio Frequency (RF) circuits…………………………………………………….. 309

20.4.2.4     Graphene spintronics…………………………………………………………………………………… 310

20.4.3        GLOBAL MARKET SIZE………………………………………………………………………………….. 311

20.4.3.1     Graphene opportunity………………………………………………………………………………….. 311

20.4.4        CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 313

20.4.4.1     Competition from other materials…………………………………………………………………. 313

20.4.4.2     Lack of band gap…………………………………………………………………………………………. 314

20.4.4.3     Transfer and integration………………………………………………………………………………. 314

20.4.5        PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………. 315

20.5      MEMORY DEVICES………………………………………………………………………………………………… 317

20.5.1        MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………………………………. 317

20.5.1.1     Density and voltage scaling…………………………………………………………………………. 317

20.5.1.2     Growth in the smartphone and tablet markets……………………………………………… 317

20.5.1.3     Growth in the flexible electronics market……………………………………………………… 317

20.5.2        PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………. 318

20.5.3        GLOBAL MARKET SIZE………………………………………………………………………………….. 319

20.5.3.1     Graphene opportunity………………………………………………………………………………….. 319

20.5.4        PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………. 321

20.6      PHOTONICS……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 322

20.6.1        MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………………………………. 322

20.6.1.1     Increased bandwidth at reduced cost………………………………………………………….. 322

20.6.1.2     Increasing sensitivity of photodetectors……………………………………………………….. 323

20.6.2        PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………. 323

20.6.2.1     Si photonics versus graphene……………………………………………………………………… 323

20.6.2.2     Optical modulators………………………………………………………………………………………. 324

20.6.2.3     Photodetectors…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 324

20.6.2.4     Plasmonics………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 326

20.6.2.5     Fiber lasers………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 326

20.6.3        CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 326

20.6.3.1     Need to design devices that harness graphene’s properties……………………….. 326

20.6.3.2     Problems with transfer…………………………………………………………………………………. 326

20.6.3.3     THz absorbance and nonlinearity………………………………………………………………… 327

20.6.3.4     Stability and sensitivity…………………………………………………………………………………. 327

20.6.4        PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………. 327

21 ENERGY STORAGE, CONVERSION AND EXPLORATION………. 329

21.1      BATTERIES……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 331

21.1.1        MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………………………………. 331

21.1.1.1     Growth in electric vehicles market……………………………………………………………….. 331

21.1.1.2     Continued growth in cellular phones market………………………………………………… 331

21.1.1.3     Reduce dependence on lithium……………………………………………………………………. 331

21.1.1.4     Shortcomings of existing battery and supercapacitor technology………………… 331

21.1.1.5     Reduced costs for widespread application…………………………………………………… 332

21.1.1.6     Power sources for flexible electronics………………………………………………………….. 332

21.1.1.7     Inadequacies of current battery technology for wearables…………………………… 332

21.1.1.8     Need for flexible power sources…………………………………………………………………… 333

21.1.1.9     Energy harvesting for “disappearables”……………………………………………………….. 333

21.1.2        PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………. 334

21.1.2.1     Lithium-ion batteries (LIB)……………………………………………………………………………. 334

21.1.2.2     Lithium-air batteries……………………………………………………………………………………… 334

21.1.2.3     Sodium-ion batteries……………………………………………………………………………………. 335

21.1.3        GLOBAL MARKET SIZE………………………………………………………………………………….. 335

21.1.3.1     Graphene opportunity………………………………………………………………………………….. 335

21.1.4        CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 338

21.2      SUPERCAPACITORS……………………………………………………………………………………………… 339

21.2.1        MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………………………………. 339

21.2.1.1     Reducing costs……………………………………………………………………………………………. 339

21.2.1.2     Demand from portable electronics……………………………………………………………….. 340

21.2.1.3     Inefficiencies of standard battery technology……………………………………………….. 340

21.2.1.4     Problems with activated carbon…………………………………………………………………… 340

21.2.2        PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………. 340

21.2.3        GLOBAL MARKET SIZE………………………………………………………………………………….. 342

21.2.3.1     Graphene opportunity………………………………………………………………………………….. 342

21.2.4        CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 343

21.2.4.1     Low energy storage capacity of graphene…………………………………………………… 343

21.3      PHOTOVOLTAICS…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 344

21.3.1        MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………………………………. 344

21.3.1.1     Need to improve solar cell efficiency……………………………………………………………. 344

21.3.1.2     Reduce costs……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 344

21.3.1.3     Varying environmental conditions………………………………………………………………… 345

21.3.2        PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………. 345

21.3.2.1     ITO replacement………………………………………………………………………………………….. 345

21.3.2.2     Graphene–silicon (Gr–Si) Schottky junction solar cells……………………………….. 346

21.3.2.3     Halide perovskites/graphene hybrids…………………………………………………………… 346

21.3.3        GLOBAL MARKET SIZE………………………………………………………………………………….. 346

21.3.3.1     Graphene opportunity………………………………………………………………………………….. 347

21.4      FUEL CELLS……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 348

21.4.1        MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………………………………. 348

21.4.1.1     Limitations of platinum…………………………………………………………………………………. 348

21.4.1.2     Cost……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 349

21.4.2        PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………. 349

21.4.2.1     Electrocatalyst supports………………………………………………………………………………. 349

21.4.3        GLOBAL MARKET SIZE………………………………………………………………………………….. 350

21.4.3.1     Graphene opportunity………………………………………………………………………………….. 350

21.4.4        CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 350

21.5      LED LIGHTING AND UVC……………………………………………………………………………………….. 351

21.5.1        MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………………………………. 351

21.5.1.1     Improving flexibility………………………………………………………………………………………. 351

21.5.1.2     Improving performance and costs……………………………………………………………….. 351

21.5.2        Properties and applications……………………………………………………………………………… 351

21.5.3        GLOBAL MARKET SIZE………………………………………………………………………………….. 352

21.5.3.1     Graphene opportunity………………………………………………………………………………….. 352

21.6      OIL AND GAS………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 352

21.6.1        MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………………………………. 353

21.6.1.1     Cost……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 353

21.6.1.2     Increased demands of drilling environments……………………………………………….. 353

21.6.1.3     Environmental and regulatory……………………………………………………………………… 353

21.6.2        PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………. 354

21.6.2.1     Sensing and reservoir management……………………………………………………………. 354

21.6.2.2     Coatings………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 355

21.6.2.3     Drilling fluids………………………………………………………………………………………………… 357

21.6.2.4     Sorbent materials………………………………………………………………………………………… 357

21.6.2.5     Catalysts……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 358

21.6.2.6     Separation…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 358

21.6.3        GLOBAL MARKET SIZE………………………………………………………………………………….. 359

21.6.3.1     Graphene opportunity………………………………………………………………………………….. 359

21.6.4        Market challenges……………………………………………………………………………………………. 360

21.7      PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………………. 361

22 FILTRATION AND SEPARATION………………………………………….. 366

22.1      MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………………………………………. 366

22.1.1        Need for improved membrane technology……………………………………………………….. 366

22.1.2        Water shortage and population growth…………………………………………………………….. 366

22.1.3        Contamination………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 366

22.1.4        Cost…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 367

22.2      PROPERTIES AND APPLICTIONS…………………………………………………………………………. 367

22.2.1        Water filtration………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 368

22.2.2        Gas separation………………………………………………………………………………………………… 368

22.2.3        Photocatalytic absorbents………………………………………………………………………………… 368

22.3      GLOBAL MARKET SIZE………………………………………………………………………………………….. 369

22.3.1        Graphene opportunity………………………………………………………………………………………. 369

22.4      CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 371

22.5      PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………………. 371

23 LUBRICANTS……………………………………………………………………… 373

23.1      MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………………………………………. 373

23.1.1        Cost effective alternatives………………………………………………………………………………… 373

23.1.2        Need for higher-performing lubricants for fuel efficiency………………………………….. 373

23.1.3        Environmental concerns…………………………………………………………………………………… 373

23.2      PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………………. 373

23.3      GLOBAL MARKET SIZE………………………………………………………………………………………….. 374

23.3.1        Graphene opportunity………………………………………………………………………………………. 374

23.4      CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 374

23.5      PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………………. 375

24 SENSORS…………………………………………………………………………… 376

24.1      MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………………………………………. 376

24.1.1        Increased power and performance with reduced cost……………………………………… 376

24.1.2        Enhanced sensitivity………………………………………………………………………………………… 376

24.1.3        Replacing silver electrodes………………………………………………………………………………. 376

24.1.4        Growth in the home diagnostics and point of care market……………………………….. 377

24.1.5        Improved thermal stability………………………………………………………………………………… 377

24.1.6        Environmental conditions…………………………………………………………………………………. 377

24.2      PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………………. 377

24.2.1        Infrared (IR) sensors………………………………………………………………………………………… 379

24.2.2        Electrochemical and gas sensors…………………………………………………………………….. 379

24.2.2.1     Graphene foam……………………………………………………………………………………………. 380

24.2.3        Pressure sensors…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 380

24.2.4        Biosensors……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 380

24.2.5        Optical sensors………………………………………………………………………………………………… 382

24.2.6        Humidity sensors……………………………………………………………………………………………… 383

24.2.7        Strain sensors………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 383

24.2.8        Acoustic sensors……………………………………………………………………………………………… 383

24.2.9        Wireless sensors……………………………………………………………………………………………… 383

24.2.10      Surface enhanced Raman scattering……………………………………………………………….. 383

24.3      GLOBAL MARKET SIZE………………………………………………………………………………………….. 384

24.3.1        Graphene opportunity………………………………………………………………………………………. 384

24.4      Challenges……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 386

24.4.1        Selectivity…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 386

24.4.2        Scaling and manufacturing………………………………………………………………………………. 387

24.4.3        Sensor recovery………………………………………………………………………………………………. 387

24.5      PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………………. 388

25 TEXTILES……………………………………………………………………………. 390

25.1      MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………………………………………. 390

25.1.1        Growth in the wearable electronics market………………………………………………………. 390

25.1.2        Reduction in size, appearance and cost of sensors…………………………………………. 390

25.1.3        Increasing demand for smart fitness clothing…………………………………………………… 390

25.1.4        Improved medical analysis………………………………………………………………………………. 390

25.1.5        Smart workwear for improved worker safety……………………………………………………. 391

25.2      PROPERTIES AND APPLICATONS……………………………………………………………………….. 391

25.2.1        Conductive coatings…………………………………………………………………………………………. 393

25.3      GLOBAL MARKET SIZE………………………………………………………………………………………….. 393

25.3.1        Graphene opportunity………………………………………………………………………………………. 394

25.4      PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………………. 396

26 3D PRINTING………………………………………………………………………. 397

26.1      MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………………………………………. 397

26.1.1        Improved materials at lower cost……………………………………………………………………… 397

26.1.2        Limitations of current thermoplastics……………………………………………………………….. 397

26.2      PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………………. 397

26.3      GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND…………………………………………………………………………………. 399

26.3.1        Graphene opportunity………………………………………………………………………………………. 399

26.4      CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 399

26.5      PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………………. 400

27 GRAPHENE PRODUCERS……………………………………………………. 402-484 (130 company profiles)

28 GRAPHENE PRODUCT AND APPLICATION DEVELOPERS……. 485-527 (75 company profiles)

29 REFERENCES…………………………………………………………………….. 529

 

TABLES

Table 1: Consumer products incorporating graphene…………………………………………………………………. 49

Table 2: Potential market penetration and volume estimates (tons) for graphene in key applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 51

Table 3: Graphene target markets-Applications potential addressable market size……………………. 55

Table 4: Graphene producers annual production capacities………………………………………………………. 56

Table 5: Global production of graphene, 2010-2025 in tons/year. Base year for projections is 2015………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 58

Table 6: Graphene types and cost per kg…………………………………………………………………………………… 60

Table 7: Categorization of nanomaterials……………………………………………………………………………………. 68

Table 8: Properties of graphene…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 73

Table 9: Graphene quantum dot producers………………………………………………………………………………… 77

Table 10: Comparative properties of carbon materials……………………………………………………………….. 79

Table 11: Comparative properties of graphene with nanoclays and carbon nanotubes……………… 81

Table 12: Competitive analysis of Carbon nanotubes and graphene by application area and potential impact by 2025……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 82

Table 13: Electronic and mechanical properties of monolayer phosphorene, graphene and MoS2. 86

Table 14: Markets and applications of phosphorene…………………………………………………………………… 87

Table 15: Markets and applications of C2N………………………………………………………………………………… 89

Table 16: Markets and applications of hexagonal boron-nitride………………………………………………….. 91

Table 17: Markets and applications of graphdiyne……………………………………………………………………… 92

Table 18: Markets and applications of graphane………………………………………………………………………… 94

Table 19: Markets and applications of hexagonal boron-nitride………………………………………………….. 97

Table 20: Markets and applications of MoS2………………………………………………………………………………. 99

Table 21: Markets and applications of Rhenium disulfide (ReS2) and diselenide (ReSe2)………. 102

Table 22: Markets and applications of silicene…………………………………………………………………………. 103

Table 23: Markets and applications of stanene/tinene……………………………………………………………… 106

Table 24: Markets and applications of tungsten diselenide………………………………………………………. 108

Table 25: Comparative analysis of graphene and other 2-D nanomaterials……………………………… 109

Table 26: Large area graphene films-Markets, applications and current global market……………. 111

Table 27: Graphene oxide flakes/graphene nanoplatelets-Markets, applications and current global market…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 112

Table 28: Main production methods for graphene…………………………………………………………………….. 113

Table 29: Graphene synthesis methods, by company………………………………………………………………. 130

Table 30: Graphene market structure……………………………………………………………………………………….. 133

Table 31: Published patent publications for graphene, 2004-2014…………………………………………… 141

Table 32: Leading graphene patentees…………………………………………………………………………………….. 142

Table 33: Industrial graphene patents in 2014………………………………………………………………………….. 143

Table 34: Global production of graphene, 2010-2027 in tons/year. Base year for projections is 2015…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 188

Table 35: Graphene producers and production capacity  (Current and projected), prices and target markets……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 190

Table 36: Graphene properties relevant to application in adhesives………………………………………… 195

Table 37: Graphene and 2D materials in the adhesives market-applications, stage of commercialization and estimated economic impact……………………………………………………………. 196

Table 38: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in adhesives………………………………………. 196

Table 39: Market challenges rating for graphene in the adhesives market……………………………….. 198

Table 40:  Graphene product and application developers in the adhesives industry………………… 199

Table 41: Graphene and 2D materials in the aerospace market-applications, stage of commercialization and estimated economic impact……………………………………………………………. 204

Table 42: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in aerospace……………………………………… 204

Table 43: Market challenges rating for graphene in the aerospace market………………………………. 207

Table 44: Graphene product and application developers in the aerospace industry…………………. 207

Table 45: Graphene and 2D materials in the automotive market-applications, stage of commercialization and estimated economic impact……………………………………………………………. 212

Table 46: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in the automotive sector……………………. 213

Table 47: Applications and commercialization challenges in the automotive market………………… 216

Table 48: Market challenges rating for graphene in the automotive market……………………………… 216

Table 49: Graphene product and application developers in the automotive industry………………… 217

Table 50: Graphene properties relevant to application in biomedicine and healthcare…………….. 222

Table 51: Graphene and 2D materials in the biomedical & healthcare markets-applications, stage of commercialization and estimated economic impact……………………………………………………………. 229

Table 52: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in biomedical & healthcare markets…… 230

Table 53: Potential addressable market for graphene in biomedical & healthcare markets……… 230

Table 54: Market challenges in graphene in biomedicine and healthcare………………………………… 232

Table 55: Market challenges rating for graphene in the biomedical and healthcare market……… 233

Table 56: Graphene product and application developers in the biomedical and healthcare industry…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 234

Table 57: Properties of nanocoatings……………………………………………………………………………………….. 236

Table 58: Graphene properties relevant to application in coatings…………………………………………… 242

Table 59: Markets for nanocoatings………………………………………………………………………………………….. 252

Table 60: Graphene and 2D materials in the coatings market-applications, stage of commercialization and estimated economic impact……………………………………………………………. 256

Table 61: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in the coatings market……………………….. 257

Table 62: Market challenges rating for graphene in the coatings market………………………………….. 259

Table 63: Graphene product and application developers in the coatings industry……………………. 259

Table 64: Graphene properties relevant to application in polymer composites…………………………. 263

Table 65: Graphene and 2D materials in the composites market-applications, stage of commercialization and estimated economic impact……………………………………………………………. 266

Table 66: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in the composites market………………….. 266

Table 67: Market challenges rating for graphene in the composites market…………………………….. 269

Table 68: Graphene product and application developers in the composites industry……………….. 270

Table 69: Graphene and 2D materials in the electronics and photonics market-applications, stage of commercialization and estimated economic impact……………………………………………………………. 272

Table 70: Comparison of ITO replacements……………………………………………………………………………… 274

Table 71: Wearable electronics devices and stage of development…………………………………………. 281

Table 72: Graphene properties relevant to application in sensors……………………………………………. 287

Table 73: Global market for wearables, 2014-2021, units and US$………………………………………….. 290

Table 74: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in flexible electronics, wearables, conductive films and displays……………………………………………………………………………………………… 291

Table 75: Market challenges rating for graphene in the flexible electronics, wearables, conductive films and displays market……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 296

Table 76: Graphene product and application developers in transparent conductive films………… 297

Table 77: Comparative properties of conductive inks……………………………………………………………….. 299

Table 78: Opportunities for graphene and 2D materials in printed electronics………………………….. 302

Table 79: Potential addressable market for graphene in conductive inks…………………………………. 303

Table 80: Graphene product and application developers in conductive inks…………………………….. 305

Table 81: Comparative properties of silicon and graphene transistors……………………………………… 309

Table 82: Graphene and 2D materials in the transistors and integrated circuits market-applications, stage of commercialization and estimated economic impact………………………………………………. 311

Table 83: Market challenges rating for graphene in the transistors and integrated circuits market…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 315

Table 84: Graphene product and application developers in transistors and integrated circuits… 315

Table 85: Graphene product and application developers in memory devices…………………………… 321

Table 86: Graphene properties relevant to application in optical modulators……………………………. 324

Table 87: Market challenges rating for graphene in the photonics market………………………………… 327

Table 88: Graphene product and application developers in photonics……………………………………… 327

Table 89: Graphene and 2D materials in the energy storage, conversion and exploration market-applications, stage of commercialization and estimated economic impact…………………………. 330

Table 90: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in the energy storage, conversion and exploration market………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 330

Table 91: Potential addressable market for thin film, flexible and printed batteries…………………… 336

Table 92: Market challenges rating for graphene in the batteries market…………………………………. 339

Table 93: Comparative properties of graphene supercapacitors and lithium-ion batteries……….. 341

Table 94: Market challenges rating for graphene in the supercapacitors market……………………… 344

Table 95: Potential addressable market for thin film, flexible and printed batteries…………………… 347

Table 96: Market challenges rating for graphene in the fuel cells market…………………………………. 350

Table 97: Application markets, competing materials, graphene advantages and current market size in oil and gas………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 360

Table 98: Market challenges rating for graphene in the oil and gas market……………………………… 360

Table 99: Graphene product and application developers in the energy industry………………………. 361

Table 100: Graphene and 2D materials in the filtration and separation market-applications, stage of commercialization and estimated economic impact……………………………………………………………. 370

Table 101: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in the filtration and separation market. 370

Table 102: Market challenges rating for graphene in the filtration and separation market………… 371

Table 103: Graphene product and application developers in the filtration industry…………………… 371

Table 104: Applications of carbon nanomaterials in lubricants…………………………………………………. 374

Table 105: Market challenges rating for graphene in the lubricants market……………………………… 375

Table 106:  Graphene product and application developers in the lubricants industry……………….. 375

Table 107: Graphene properties relevant to application in sensors………………………………………….. 378

Table 108: Comparison of ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) and graphene biosensor…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 382

Table 109: Graphene and 2D materials in the sensors market-applications, stage of commercialization and estimated economic impact……………………………………………………………. 384

Table 110: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in the filtration and separation market. 384

Table 111: Market challenges rating for graphene in the sensors market………………………………… 387

Table 112: Graphene product and application developers in the sensors industry…………………… 388

Table 113: Desirable functional properties for the textiles industry afforded by the use of nanomaterials……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 392

Table 114: Global market for smart clothing and apparel, 2014-2021, units and revenues (US$). 393

Table 115: Graphene and 2D materials in the textiles market-applications, stage of commercialization and estimated economic impact……………………………………………………………. 394

Table 116:  Graphene product and application developers in the textiles industry…………………… 396

Table 117: Graphene properties relevant to application in 3D printing……………………………………… 398

Table 118: Graphene and 2D materials in the 3D printing market-applications, stage of commercialization and estimated economic impact……………………………………………………………. 399

Table 119: Market challenges rating for nanotechnology and nanomaterials in the 3D printing market…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 400

Table 120: Graphene product and application developers in the 3D printing industry………………. 400

Table 121: Graphene producers and types produced………………………………………………………………. 402

Table 122: Graphene industrial collaborations, licence agreements and target markets………….. 485

 

FIGURES

Figure 1: Demand for graphene, by market, 2015-2017………………………………………………………………………. 50

Figure 2: Demand for graphene, by market, 2027………………………………………………………………………. 51

Figure 3: Global government funding for graphene in millions USD to 2017………………………………. 54

Figure 4: Global market for graphene 2010-2027 in tons/year……………………………………………………. 59

Figure 5: Global consumption of graphene 2017, by region……………………………………………………….. 63

Figure 6: Graphene layer structure schematic……………………………………………………………………………. 70

Figure 7: Graphite and graphene………………………………………………………………………………………………… 71

Figure 8: Graphene and its descendants: top right: graphene; top left: graphite = stacked graphene; bottom right: nanotube=rolled graphene; bottom left: fullerene=wrapped graphene. …………… 72

Figure 9: Schematic of (a) CQDs and (c) GQDs. HRTEM images of (b) C-dots and (d) GQDs showing combination of zigzag and armchair edges (positions marked as 1–4)…………………… 75

Figure 10: Graphene quantum dots……………………………………………………………………………………………. 76

Figure 11: Graphene can be rolled up into a carbon nanotube, wrapped into a fullerene, and stacked into graphite…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 78

Figure 12: Black phosphorus structure……………………………………………………………………………………….. 85

Figure 13: Structural difference between graphene and C2N-h2D crystal: (a) graphene; (b) C2N-h2D crystal……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 88

Figure 14: Schematic of germanene…………………………………………………………………………………………… 90

Figure 15: Graphdiyne structure…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 92

Figure 16: Schematic of Graphane crystal………………………………………………………………………………….. 94

Figure 17: Structure of hexagonal boron nitride………………………………………………………………………….. 96

Figure 18: Structure of 2D molybdenum disulfide……………………………………………………………………….. 98

Figure 19: Atomic force microscopy image of a representative MoS2 thin-film transistor…………… 99

Figure 20: Schematic of the molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) thin-film sensor with the deposited molecules that create additional charge……………………………………………………………………………… 100

Figure 21: Schematic of a monolayer of rhenium disulphide…………………………………………………….. 101

Figure 22: Silicene structure……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 102

Figure 23: Monolayer silicene on a silver (111) substrate…………………………………………………………. 103

Figure 24: Silicene transistor…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 105

Figure 25: Crystal structure for stanene……………………………………………………………………………………. 106

Figure 26: Atomic structure model for the 2D stanene on Bi2Te3(111)……………………………………. 106

Figure 27: Schematic of tungsten diselenide……………………………………………………………………………. 107

Figure 28: Graphene synthesis methods………………………………………………………………………………….. 114

Figure 29: TEM micrographs of: A) HR-CNFs; B) GANF® HR-CNF, it can be observed its high graphitic structure; C) Unraveled ribbon from the HR-CNF; D) Detail of the ribbon; E) Scheme of the structure of the HR-CNFs; F) Large single graphene oxide sheets derived from GANF.. 115

Figure 30: Graphene nanoribbons grown on germanium…………………………………………………………. 118

Figure 31: Methods of synthesizing high-quality graphene……………………………………………………….. 120

Figure 32: Roll-to-roll graphene production process…………………………………………………………………. 126

Figure 33: Schematic of roll-to-roll manufacturing process……………………………………………………….. 126

Figure 34: Microwave irradiation of graphite to produce single-layer graphene………………………… 129

Figure 35: Schematic of typical commercialization route for graphene producer……………………… 133

Figure 36: Published patent publications for graphene, 2004-2017………………………………………….. 142

Figure 37: Technology Readiness Level (TRL) for graphene……………………………………………………. 146

Figure 38: Global market for graphene 2010-2025 in tons/year……………………………………………….. 189

Figure 39: Potential addressable market for graphene-enabled applications in adhesives………. 198

Figure 40: Potential addressable market for graphene-enabled applications in aerospace………. 205

Figure 41: Potential addressable market for graphene-enabled applications in aerospace………. 206

Figure 42: Graphene-based automotive components……………………………………………………………….. 210

Figure 43: Potential addressable market for graphene-enabled applications in the automotive sector………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 213

Figure 44: Potential addressable market for graphene-enabled applications in the automotive sector………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 215

Figure 45: TempTraQ wearable wireless thermometer…………………………………………………………….. 221

Figure 46: Graphene-based E-skin patch…………………………………………………………………………………. 222

Figure 47: Graphene Frontiers’ Six™ chemical sensors consists of a field effect transistor (FET) with a graphene channel. Receptor molecules, such as DNA, are attached directly to the graphene channel……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 226

Figure 48: Graphene-Oxide based chip prototypes for biopsy-free early cancer diagnosis………. 227

Figure 49: Potential addressable market for graphene-enabled applications in the biomedical and healthcare market……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 231

Figure 50: Heat transfer coating developed at MIT…………………………………………………………………… 242

Figure 51: Water permeation through a brick without (left) and with (right) “graphene paint” coating…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 247

Figure 52: Four layers of graphene oxide coatings on polycarbonate………………………………………. 250

Figure 53: Global Paints and Coatings Market, share by end user market……………………………….. 251

Figure 54: Potential addressable market for graphene in the coatings market…………………………. 257

Figure 55: Potential addressable market for graphene in the coatings market…………………………. 258

Figure 56: Potential addressable market for graphene in composites………………………………………. 267

Figure 57: Potential addressable market for graphene in the composites market…………………….. 268

Figure 58: Flexible organic light emitting diode (OLED) using graphene electrode…………………… 274

Figure 59: Graphene electrochromic devices. Top left: Exploded-view illustration of the graphene electrochromic device. The device is formed by attaching two graphene-coated PVC substrates face-to-face and filling the gap with a liquid ionic electrolyte………………………………………………. 279

Figure 60: Flexible transistor sheet…………………………………………………………………………………………… 279

Figure 61: Foldable graphene E-paper…………………………………………………………………………………….. 280

Figure 62: Covestro wearables…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 282

Figure 63: Softceptor sensor…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 285

Figure 64: BeBop Media Arm Controller…………………………………………………………………………………… 285

Figure 65: LG Innotek flexible textile pressure sensor………………………………………………………………. 286

Figure 66: Wearable gas sensor………………………………………………………………………………………………. 288

Figure 67: A large transparent conductive graphene film (about 20 × 20 cm2) manufactured by 2D Carbon Tech. Figure 24a (right): Prototype of a mobile phone produced by 2D Carbon Tech using a graphene touch panel…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 289

Figure 68: Global market revenues for smart wearable devices 2014-2021, in US$………………… 290

Figure 69: Potential addressable market for graphene in flexible electronics, wearables, conductive films and displays……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 292

Figure 70: Potential addressable market for graphene in the flexible electronics, wearables, conductive films and displays market…………………………………………………………………………………. 293

Figure 71: Schematic of the wet roll-to-roll graphene transfer from copper foils to polymeric substrates…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 295

Figure 72: The transmittance of glass/ITO, glass/ITO/four organic layers, and glass/ITO/four organic layers/4-layer graphene………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 296

Figure 73: Graphene printed antenna………………………………………………………………………………………. 300

Figure 74: BGT Materials graphene ink product……………………………………………………………………….. 301

Figure 75: Vorbeck Materials conductive ink products……………………………………………………………… 302

Figure 76: Potential addressable market for graphene in the conductive ink market………………… 305

Figure 77: Graphene IC in wafer tester…………………………………………………………………………………….. 308

Figure 78: Schematic cross-section of a graphene based transistor (GBT, left) and a graphene field-effect transistor (GFET, right)……………………………………………………………………………………………… 310

Figure 79: Potential addressable market for graphene in transistors and integrated circuits……. 312

Figure 80: Potential addressable market for graphene in the transistors and integrated circuits market…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 313

Figure 81: Graphene oxide-based RRAm device on a flexible substrate………………………………….. 318

Figure 82: Layered structure of tantalum oxide, multilayer graphene and platinum used for resistive random access memory (RRAM)……………………………………………………………………………………….. 320

Figure 83: A schematic diagram for the mechanism of the resistive switching in metal/GO/Pt…. 321

Figure 84: Hybrid graphene phototransistors……………………………………………………………………………. 325

Figure 85: Wearable health monitor incorporating graphene photodetectors……………………………. 325

Figure 86: Energy harvesting textile…………………………………………………………………………………………. 333

Figure 87: Potential addressable market for graphene in the thin film, flexible and printed batteries market…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 338

Figure 88: Skeleton Technologies ultracapacitor………………………………………………………………………. 340

Figure 89: Zapgo supercapacitor phone charger………………………………………………………………………. 343

Figure 90: Solar cell with nanowires and graphene electrode…………………………………………………… 346

Figure 91: Potential addressable market for thin film, flexible and printed batteries…………………. 348

Figure 92: Schematic of boron doped graphene for application in gas sensors……………………….. 354

Figure 93: An uncoated copper condenser tube (top left) is shown next to a similar tube coated with graphene. (top right)…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 356

Figure 94: Directa Plus Grafysorber…………………………………………………………………………………………. 358

Figure 95: Nanometer-scale pores in single-layer freestanding graphene membrane can effectively filter NaCl salt from water……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 359

Figure 96: Degradation of organic dye molecules by graphene hybrid composite photocatalysts. 369

Figure 97: GFET sensors…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 380

Figure 98: First generation point of care diagnostics………………………………………………………………… 381

Figure 99: Graphene Field Effect Transistor Schematic……………………………………………………………. 382

Figure 100: Potential addressable market for graphene in the sensors market………………………… 386

Figure 101: Global market revenues for smart clothing and apparel 2014-2021, in US$………….. 394

Figure 102: Global market revenues for nanotech-enabled smart clothing and apparel 2014-2021, in US$, conservative estimate…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 395

Figure 103: Global market revenues for nanotech-enabled smart clothing and apparel 2014-2021, in US$, optimistic estimate………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 396

Figure 104: 3D Printed tweezers incorporating Carbon Nanotube Filament…………………………….. 398