The Global Market for Graphene 2017-2027

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Grpahene cover March 2017

Future Markets has published a market report on graphene since 2010 and is uniquely positioned to provide the most in-depth study on these remarkable materials, their applications and markets.

The Global Market for Graphene 2017-2027 is a comprehensive analysis of the market and commercial opportunities for these remarkable materials.

The graphene market continues to expand in 2017, with weekly announcements on new multi-million dollar investments, new products (especially in the Asia market) and innovative production processes.

A growing number of products are integrating graphene across a range of markets including consumer electronic devices, wearables, flexible RF devices,  supercapacitors, conductive inks, sensors and coatings.

Graphene is a ground-breaking 2D material that possesses extraordinary electrical and mechanical properties that promise a new generation of innovative devices. Beyond graphene, emerging elementary 2D materials such as transition metal dichalcogenides, group V systems including phosphorene, and related isoelectronic structures will potentially allow for flexible electronics and field-effect transistors that exhibit ambipolar transport behaviour with either a direct band-gap or greater gate modulation.

Published March 26 2017 | 584 Pages | Table of contents

Report contents include:

  • 50 additional pages from previous edition.
  • Global production capacities for 2017.
  • Current graphene products.
  • Stage of commercialization for graphene applications, from basic research to market entry.
  • Market drivers, trends and challenges, by end user markets.
  • In-depth market assessment of opportunities for graphene including potential revenues, growth rates, pricing, most likely applications and market challenges.
  • In-depth company profiles, including products, capacities, and commercial activities.
  • Detailed forecasts for key growth areas, opportunities and user demand.
  • Over 200 company profiles.
  • Companies profiled in the report include 3D Graphtech Industries, Applied Graphene Materials, Cealtech, Directa Plus , Enanotec,  Graphenano S.L., Graphentech, Hanwha Chemical, Metalysis, Talga Resources and many more.

 

The Global Market for Graphene 2017-2027
The Global Market for Graphene 2017-2027
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The Global Market for Graphene 2017-2027
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The Global Market for Graphene 2017-2027
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TABLE OF CONTENTS

1    RESEARCH METHODOLOGY………………………………………………… 39

1.1    Applications assessment………………………………………………………………………………………………… 39

1.1    Market opportunity analysis……………………………………………………………………………………………. 40

1.2    Market challenges rating system……………………………………………………………………………………. 42

2    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY…………………………………………………………. 44

2.1    Two-dimensional (2D) materials…………………………………………………………………………………….. 44

2.2    Graphene……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 44

2.2.1     The market in 2016………………………………………………………………………………………………… 45

2.2.2     Products…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 45

2.2.3     Short-term opportunities…………………………………………………………………………………………. 46

2.2.4     Medium-term opportunities…………………………………………………………………………………….. 47

2.2.5     Remarkable properties…………………………………………………………………………………………… 54

2.2.6     Global funding and initiatives…………………………………………………………………………………. 55

2.2.6.1       Europe…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 55

2.2.6.2       Asia……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 55

2.2.6.3       United States…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 56

2.2.7     Products and applications………………………………………………………………………………………. 57

2.2.8     Production……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 58

2.2.9     Market drivers and trends………………………………………………………………………………………. 60

2.2.9.1       Production exceeds demand…………………………………………………………………………. 60

2.2.9.2       Market revenues remain small………………………………………………………………………. 60

2.2.9.3       Scalability and cost………………………………………………………………………………………… 61

2.2.9.4       Applications hitting the market……………………………………………………………………….. 62

2.2.9.5       Wait and see?……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 63

2.2.9.6       Asia and US lead the race……………………………………………………………………………… 63

2.2.9.7       China commercializing at a fast rate……………………………………………………………… 64

2.2.9.8       Competition from other materials…………………………………………………………………… 64

2.2.10        Market and technical challenges………………………………………………………………………… 65

2.2.10.1     Inconsistent supply quality…………………………………………………………………………….. 65

2.2.10.2     Functionalization and dispersion……………………………………………………………………. 66

2.2.10.3     Cost……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 66

2.2.10.4     Product integration………………………………………………………………………………………… 66

2.2.10.5     Regulation and standards……………………………………………………………………………… 66

2.2.10.6     Lack of a band gap………………………………………………………………………………………… 67

3    PROPERTIES OF NANOMATERIALS………………………………………. 68

3.1    Categorization………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 69

4    OVERVIEW OF GRAPHENE…………………………………………………… 71

4.1    History……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 71

4.2    Forms of graphene…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 72

4.3    Properties……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 73

4.4    3D Graphene………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 75

4.5    Graphene Quantum Dots……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 75

4.5.1     Synthesis……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 76

4.5.2     Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 77

4.5.3     Producers………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 78

5    CARBON NANOTUBES VERSUS GRAPHENE…………………………. 79

5.1    Comparative properties………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 80

5.2    Cost and production……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 81

5.3    Carbon nanotube-graphene hybrids……………………………………………………………………………….. 82

5.4    Competitive analysis of carbon nanotubes and graphene………………………………………………. 83

6    OTHER 2-D MATERIALS………………………………………………………… 84

6.1    Black phosphorus/Phosphorene…………………………………………………………………………………….. 85

6.1.1     Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 86

6.1.2     Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 87

6.2    C2N…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 88

6.2.1     Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 89

6.2.2     Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 89

6.3    Carbon nitride…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 90

6.3.1     Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 90

6.3.2     Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 90

6.4    Germanene…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 90

6.4.1     Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 91

6.4.2     Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 91

6.5    Graphdiyne…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 92

6.5.1     Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 93

6.5.2     Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 93

6.6    Graphane……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 94

6.6.1     Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 94

6.6.2     Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 94

6.7    Hexagonal boron nitride…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 95

6.7.1     Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 96

6.7.2     Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 97

6.7.3     Producers………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 97

6.8    Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2)…………………………………………………………………………………………. 97

6.8.1     Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 98

6.8.2     Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 98

6.9    Rhenium disulfide (ReS2) and diselenide (ReSe2)………………………………………………………. 101

6.9.1     Properties…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 101

6.9.2     Applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 102

6.10      Silicene…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 102

6.10.1        Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 103

6.10.2        Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 103

6.11      Stanene/tinene…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 105

6.11.1        Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 106

6.11.2        Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 106

6.12      Tungsten diselenide…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 107

6.12.1        Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 107

6.12.2        Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 108

6.13      Comparative analysis of graphene and other 2-D nanomaterials…………………………….. 109

7    GRAPHENE SYNTHESIS……………………………………………………… 111

7.1    Large area graphene films……………………………………………………………………………………………. 111

7.2    Graphene oxide flakes and graphene nanoplatelets…………………………………………………….. 112

7.3    Production methods……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 113

7.3.1     Production directly from natural graphite ore……………………………………………………….. 115

7.3.2     Alternative starting materials………………………………………………………………………………… 115

7.3.3     Quality………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 115

7.4    Synthesis and production by types of graphene…………………………………………………………… 116

7.4.1     Graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs)………………………………………………………………………….. 117

7.4.2     Graphene nanoribbons………………………………………………………………………………………… 117

7.4.3     Large-area graphene films…………………………………………………………………………………… 118

7.4.4     Graphene oxide (GO)…………………………………………………………………………………………… 119

7.5    Pros and cons of graphene production methods………………………………………………………….. 120

7.5.1     Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD)……………………………………………………………………….. 121

7.5.2     Exfoliation method……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 122

7.5.3     Epitaxial growth method……………………………………………………………………………………….. 122

7.5.4     Wet chemistry method (liquid phase exfoliation)………………………………………………….. 123

7.5.5     Micromechanical cleavage method………………………………………………………………………. 124

7.5.6     Green reduction of graphene oxide……………………………………………………………………… 124

7.5.7     Plasma…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 124

7.6    Recent synthesis methods……………………………………………………………………………………………. 125

7.6.1     Ben-Gurion University of the Negev (BGU) and University of Western Australia…. 125

7.6.2     Graphene Frontiers………………………………………………………………………………………………. 125

7.6.3     MIT and the University of Michigan………………………………………………………………………. 126

7.6.4     Oak Ridge National Laboratory/University of Texas/General Graphene………………. 126

7.6.5     University of Florida/Donghua University……………………………………………………………… 126

7.6.6     Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST) and Case Western Reserve University……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 127

7.6.7     Trinity College Dublin…………………………………………………………………………………………… 127

7.6.8     Sungkyunkwan University and Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology (SAIT) 127

7.6.9     Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST), Chonbuk National University and KRICT  127

7.6.10        NanoXplore……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 127

7.6.11        Carbon Sciences Inc………………………………………………………………………………………… 127

7.6.12        California Institute of Technology…………………………………………………………………….. 128

7.6.13        Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology………………………. 128

7.6.14        Oxford University……………………………………………………………………………………………… 128

7.6.15        University of Tokyo…………………………………………………………………………………………… 128

7.6.16        Argonne National Laboratory…………………………………………………………………………… 129

7.6.17        Rutgers University……………………………………………………………………………………………. 129

7.6.18        FAU………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 130

7.6.19        University of Exeter………………………………………………………………………………………….. 130

7.6.20        Abalonyx………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 130

7.6.21        Vortex Fluidic Device (VFD)…………………………………………………………………………….. 130

7.7    Synthesis methods by company…………………………………………………………………………………… 130

8    GRAPHENE MARKET STRUCTURE AND ROUTES TO COMMERCIALIZATION…………………………………………………………….. 133

9    REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS……………………………………….. 137

9.1    Standards…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 137

9.2    Environmental, health and safety regulation………………………………………………………………… 137

9.2.1     Europe…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 138

9.2.2     United States……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 138

9.2.3     Asia………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 138

9.3    Workplace exposure…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 139

10 PATENTS AND PUBLICATIONS……………………………………………. 140

10.1      Fabrication processes………………………………………………………………………………………………. 140

10.2      Academia…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 140

10.3      Regional leaders………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 141

11 TECHNOLOGY READINESS LEVEL……………………………………… 145

12 GRAPHENE INDUSTRY NEWS 2013-2016……………………………… 147

12.1      JANUARY 2013……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 147

12.2      FEBRUARY 2013…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 147

12.3      APRIL 2013……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 147

12.4      MAY 2013………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 148

12.5      JUNE 2013………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 148

12.6      JULY 2013……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 149

12.7      AUGUST 2013…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 149

12.8      SEPTEMBER 2013………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 149

12.9      OCTOBER 2013………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 150

12.10    NOVEMBER 2013……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 150

12.11    DECEMBER 2013……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 151

12.12    JANUARY 2014……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 152

12.13    FEBRUARY 2014…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 153

12.14    MARCH 2014…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 154

12.15    APRIL 2014……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 155

12.16    MAY 2014………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 156

12.17    JUNE 2014………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 156

12.18    JULY 2014……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 157

12.19    AUGUST 2014…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 158

12.20    SEPTEMBER 2014………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 158

12.21    AUGUST 2014…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 159

12.22    SEPTEMBER 2014………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 160

12.23    OCTOBER 2014………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 160

12.24    NOVEMBER 2014……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 161

12.25    DECEMBER 2014……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 162

12.26    JANUARY 2015……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 163

12.27    FEBRUARY 2015…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 164

12.28    MARCH 2015…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 164

12.29    APRIL 2015……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 165

12.30    MAY 2015………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 165

12.31    JUNE 2015………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 166

12.32    JULY 2015……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 167

12.33    AUGUST 2015…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 168

12.34    SEPTEMBER 2015………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 169

12.35    OCTOBER 2015………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 169

12.36    NOVEMBER 2015……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 170

12.37    DECEMBER 2015……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 172

12.38    JANUARY 2016……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 173

12.39    FEBRUARY 2016…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 174

12.40    MARCH 2016…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 175

12.41    APRIL 2016……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 175

12.42    MAY 2016………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 179

12.43    JUNE 2016………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 180

12.44    JULY 2016……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 181

12.45    AUGUST 2016…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 181

12.46    SEPTEMBER 2016………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 182

12.47    OCTOBER 2016………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 182

12.48    NOVEMBER 2016……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 184

12.49    DECEMBER 2016……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 185

12.50    JANUARY 2017……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 186

12.51    FEBRUARY 2017…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 186

13 END USER MARKET SEGMENT ANALYSIS………………………….. 188

13.1      Graphene production volumes 2010-2027……………………………………………………………….. 188

13.2      Graphene producers and production capacities………………………………………………………. 190

14 ADHESIVES………………………………………………………………………… 195

14.1      MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………………………………………. 195

14.2      PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………………. 195

14.3      GLOBAL MARKET SIZE………………………………………………………………………………………….. 197

14.4      MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………………. 200

14.5      PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………………. 200

15 AEROSPACE………………………………………………………………………. 202

15.1      MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………………………………………. 202

15.2      PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………………. 203

15.2.1        Composites……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 204

15.2.2        Coatings…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 204

15.3      GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORUNTIY…………………………………………………………. 206

15.4      MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………………. 209

15.5      PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………………. 210

16 AUTOMOTIVE……………………………………………………………………… 212

16.1      MARKET DRIVER AND TRENDS……………………………………………………………………………. 212

16.2      PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………………. 213

16.2.1        Composites……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 214

16.2.2        Thermally conductive additives………………………………………………………………………… 215

16.2.3        Tires…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 215

16.3      GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY………………………………………………………. 217

16.4      MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………………. 220

16.5      PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………………. 222

17 LIFE SCIENCES AND MEDICAL……………………………………………. 224

17.1      MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………………………………………. 225

17.2      PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………………. 226

17.2.1        Cancer therapy………………………………………………………………………………………………… 230

17.2.1.1     Graphene oxide for therapy and drug delivery…………………………………………….. 230

17.2.1.2     Graphene nanosheets…………………………………………………………………………………. 230

17.2.1.3     Gene delivery………………………………………………………………………………………………. 230

17.2.1.4     Photodynamic Therapy………………………………………………………………………………… 230

17.2.2        Medical implants and devices………………………………………………………………………….. 231

17.2.3        Wound dressings……………………………………………………………………………………………… 231

17.2.4        Biosensors……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 232

17.2.4.1     FRET biosensors for DNA detection……………………………………………………………. 233

17.2.5        Medical imaging……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 233

17.2.6        Tissue engineering…………………………………………………………………………………………… 234

17.2.7        Dental………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 234

17.2.8        Electrophysiology…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 234

17.3      GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY………………………………………………………. 234

17.4      MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………………. 238

17.5      PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………………. 241

18 COATINGS………………………………………………………………………….. 243

18.1      MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………………………………………. 243

18.1.1        New functionalities and improved properties……………………………………………………. 244

18.1.2        Need for more effective protection…………………………………………………………………… 245

18.1.3        Sustainability and regulation……………………………………………………………………………. 246

18.1.4        Cost of corrosion……………………………………………………………………………………………… 246

18.1.5        Need for improved hygiene……………………………………………………………………………… 247

18.1.6        Cost of weather-related damage……………………………………………………………………… 247

18.1.7        Increased demand for coatings for extreme environments………………………………. 248

18.2      PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………………. 248

18.2.1        Anti-corrosion coatings…………………………………………………………………………………….. 250

18.2.1.1     Marine………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 251

18.2.2        Anti-microbial…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 251

18.2.3        Anti-icing………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 252

18.2.4        Barrier coatings………………………………………………………………………………………………… 253

18.2.5        Heat protection………………………………………………………………………………………………… 254

18.2.6        Anti-fouling……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 255

18.2.7        Wear and abrasion resistance…………………………………………………………………………. 256

18.2.8        Smart windows………………………………………………………………………………………………… 257

18.3      GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY………………………………………………………. 258

18.3.1        Thermal barrier coatings………………………………………………………………………………….. 262

18.3.2        Barrier coatings………………………………………………………………………………………………… 262

18.3.3        Anti-microbial coatings…………………………………………………………………………………….. 262

18.3.4        De-icing or anti-icing coatings………………………………………………………………………….. 262

18.3.5        Abrasion and wear resistant coatings………………………………………………………………. 263

18.3.6        Anti-corrosion coatings…………………………………………………………………………………….. 263

18.4      MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………………. 266

18.4.1        Dispersion………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 266

18.4.2        Production, scalability and cost………………………………………………………………………… 266

18.5      PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………………. 266

19 COMPOSITES INCLUDING THERMOPLASTICS AND RUBBER. 268

19.1      MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………………………………………. 268

19.2      PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………………. 271

19.2.1        Polymer composites…………………………………………………………………………………………. 271

19.2.2        Barrier packaging…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 274

19.2.3        Electrostatic discharge (ESD) and electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding 274

19.2.4        Wind turbines…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 275

19.2.5        Ballistic protection……………………………………………………………………………………………. 275

19.2.6        Cement additives……………………………………………………………………………………………… 275

19.3      GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY………………………………………………………. 275

19.4      MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………………. 279

19.5      PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………………. 280

20 ELECTRONICS AND PHOTONICS………………………………………… 283

20.1      FLEXIBLE ELECTRONICS, WEARABLES, CONDUCTIVE FILMS AND DISPLAYS. 283

20.1.1        MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………………………………. 283

20.1.2        PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………. 285

20.1.2.1     Transparent electrodes in flexible electronics………………………………………………. 288

20.1.2.2     Electronic paper…………………………………………………………………………………………… 290

20.1.2.3     Wearable electronics…………………………………………………………………………………… 290

20.1.2.4     Wearable sensors………………………………………………………………………………………… 294

20.1.3        GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY………………………………………………. 299

20.1.4        MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………. 306

20.1.4.1     Manufacturing……………………………………………………………………………………………… 307

20.1.4.2     Competing materials……………………………………………………………………………………. 307

20.1.4.3     Cost in comparison to ITO…………………………………………………………………………… 307

20.1.4.4     Problems with transfer and growth………………………………………………………………. 307

20.1.4.5     Improving sheet resistance………………………………………………………………………….. 308

20.1.4.6     Difficulties in display panel integration…………………………………………………………. 309

20.1.5        PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………. 310

20.2      TRANSISTORS AND INTEGRATED CIRCUITS……………………………………………………… 311

20.2.1        MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………………………………. 311

20.2.2        PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………. 313

20.2.2.1     Integrated circuits………………………………………………………………………………………… 313

20.2.2.2     Transistors…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 314

20.2.2.3     Graphene Radio Frequency (RF) circuits…………………………………………………….. 315

20.2.2.4     Graphene spintronics…………………………………………………………………………………… 316

20.2.3        GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY………………………………………………. 317

20.2.4        MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………. 320

20.2.4.1     Competition from other materials…………………………………………………………………. 320

20.2.4.2     Lack of band gap…………………………………………………………………………………………. 320

20.2.4.3     Transfer and integration………………………………………………………………………………. 321

20.2.5        PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………. 322

20.3      MEMORY DEVICES………………………………………………………………………………………………… 324

20.3.1        MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………………………………. 324

20.3.2        PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………. 325

20.3.3        GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY………………………………………………. 327

20.3.4        PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………. 328

20.3.5        MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………. 329

20.4      PHOTONICS……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 329

20.4.1        MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………………………………. 330

20.4.2        PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………. 330

20.4.2.1     Si photonics versus graphene……………………………………………………………………… 330

20.4.2.2     Optical modulators………………………………………………………………………………………. 331

20.4.2.3     Photodetectors…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 332

20.4.2.4     Saturable absorbers…………………………………………………………………………………….. 334

20.4.2.5     Plasmonics………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 334

20.4.2.6     Fiber lasers………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 334

20.4.3        MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY……………………………………………………………… 335

20.4.4        PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………. 336

20.4.5        MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………. 336

20.4.5.1     Need to design devices that harness graphene’s properties……………………….. 336

20.4.5.2     Problems with transfer…………………………………………………………………………………. 336

20.4.5.3     THz absorbance and nonlinearity………………………………………………………………… 337

20.4.5.4     Stability and sensitivity…………………………………………………………………………………. 337

21 ENERGY STORAGE, CONVERSION AND EXPLORATION………. 338

21.1      BATTERIES……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 339

21.1.1        MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………………………………. 339

21.1.2        PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………. 341

21.1.2.1     Lithium-ion batteries (LIB)……………………………………………………………………………. 341

21.1.2.2     Lithium-air batteries……………………………………………………………………………………… 342

21.1.2.3     Lithium–sulfur batteries (Li–S)……………………………………………………………………… 342

21.1.2.4     Sodium-ion batteries……………………………………………………………………………………. 343

21.1.3        GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY………………………………………………. 343

21.1.4        PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………. 347

21.1.5        MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………. 350

21.2      SUPERCAPACITORS……………………………………………………………………………………………… 351

21.2.1        MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………………………………. 351

21.2.2        PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………. 352

21.2.3        GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY………………………………………………. 355

21.2.4        PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………. 357

21.2.5        MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………. 358

21.2.5.1     Low energy storage capacity of graphene…………………………………………………… 358

21.3      PHOTOVOLTAICS…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 359

21.3.1        MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………………………………. 359

21.3.2        PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………. 360

21.3.2.1     ITO replacement………………………………………………………………………………………….. 361

21.3.2.2     Graphene–silicon (Gr–Si) Schottky junction solar cells……………………………….. 361

21.3.2.3     Halide perovskites/graphene hybrids…………………………………………………………… 362

21.3.3        GLOBAL MARKET SIZE………………………………………………………………………………….. 362

21.3.4        PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………. 365

21.3.5        MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………. 366

21.4      FUEL CELLS……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 367

21.4.1        MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………………………………. 367

21.4.2        PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………. 369

21.4.2.1     Electrocatalyst supports………………………………………………………………………………. 370

21.4.3        GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY………………………….. 370

21.4.4        MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………. 372

21.4.5        PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………. 373

21.5      LED LIGHTING AND UVC……………………………………………………………………………………….. 373

21.5.1        MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………………………………. 374

21.5.2        PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………. 374

21.5.3        GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY………………………………………………. 375

21.5.4        PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………. 375

21.6      OIL AND GAS………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 375

21.6.1        MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………………………………. 376

21.6.2        PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………. 377

21.6.2.1     Sensing and reservoir management……………………………………………………………. 377

21.6.2.2     Coatings………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 378

21.6.2.3     Drilling fluids………………………………………………………………………………………………… 380

21.6.2.4     Sorbent materials………………………………………………………………………………………… 380

21.6.2.5     Catalysts……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 381

21.6.2.6     Separation…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 381

21.6.3        GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY………………………………………………. 382

21.6.4        MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………. 383

21.6.5        PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………. 384

22 FILTRATION AND SEPARATION………………………………………….. 385

22.1      MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………………………………………. 385

22.2      PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS…………………………………………………………………………. 386

22.2.1        Water filtration………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 388

22.2.2        Gas separation………………………………………………………………………………………………… 389

22.2.3        Photocatalytic absorbents………………………………………………………………………………… 389

22.2.4        Air filtration……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 389

22.3      GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY………………………………………………………. 390

22.4      MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………………. 392

22.5      PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………………. 393

23 LUBRICANTS……………………………………………………………………… 395

23.1      MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………………………………………. 395

23.2      PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………………. 396

23.3      GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY………………………………………………………. 396

23.4      MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………………. 397

23.5      PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………………. 398

24 SENSORS…………………………………………………………………………… 399

24.1      MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………………………………………. 399

24.2      PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………………. 400

24.2.1        Infrared (IR) sensors………………………………………………………………………………………… 402

24.2.2        Electrochemical and gas sensors…………………………………………………………………….. 403

24.2.2.1     Graphene foam……………………………………………………………………………………………. 404

24.2.3        Pressure sensors…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 404

24.2.4        Biosensors……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 404

24.2.5        Optical sensors………………………………………………………………………………………………… 407

24.2.6        Humidity sensors……………………………………………………………………………………………… 407

24.2.7        Strain sensors………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 407

24.2.8        Acoustic sensors……………………………………………………………………………………………… 407

24.2.9        Wireless sensors……………………………………………………………………………………………… 407

24.2.10      Surface enhanced Raman scattering……………………………………………………………….. 407

24.3      GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY………………………………………………………. 408

24.4      MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………………. 410

24.4.1        Selectivity…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 410

24.4.2        Scaling and manufacturing………………………………………………………………………………. 411

24.4.3        Sensor recovery………………………………………………………………………………………………. 411

24.5      PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………………. 411

25 SMART TEXTILES AND APPAREL……………………………………….. 414

25.1      MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………………………………………. 414

25.2      PROPERTIES AND APPLICATONS……………………………………………………………………….. 417

25.2.1        Conductive coatings…………………………………………………………………………………………. 418

25.3      GLOBAL MARKET SIZE………………………………………………………………………………………….. 419

25.4      PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………………. 423

26 CONDUCTIVE INKS……………………………………………………………… 424

26.1      MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………………………………………. 424

26.2      PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………………. 425

26.3      GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY………………………………………………………. 427

26.4      PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………………. 432

27 3D PRINTING………………………………………………………………………. 434

27.1      MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………………………………………. 434

27.2      PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………………. 434

27.3      GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY………………………………………………………. 436

27.4      CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 437

27.5      PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………………. 437

28 GRAPHENE PRODUCERS……………………………………………………. 439-512 (115 profiles)

29 GRAPHENE PRODUCT AND APPLICATION DEVELOPERS……. 513-562 (81 profiles)

30 REFERENCES…………………………………………………………………….. 563

 

TABLES

Table 1: Consumer products incorporating graphene…………………………………………………………………. 45

Table 2: Potential market penetration and volume estimates (tons) for graphene in key applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 48

Table 39: Market opportunity assessment matrix for graphene applications………………………………. 49

Table 3: Graphene target markets-Applications potential addressable market size……………………. 57

Table 4: Main graphene producers by country and annual production capacities………………………. 59

Table 6: Graphene types and cost per kg…………………………………………………………………………………… 62

Table 7: Categorization of nanomaterials……………………………………………………………………………………. 69

Table 8: Properties of graphene…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 74

Table 9: Graphene quantum dot producers………………………………………………………………………………… 78

Table 10: Comparative properties of carbon materials……………………………………………………………….. 80

Table 11: Comparative properties of graphene with nanoclays and carbon nanotubes……………… 82

Table 12: Competitive analysis of Carbon nanotubes and graphene by application area and potential impact by 2027……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 83

Table 13: Electronic and mechanical properties of monolayer phosphorene, graphene and MoS2. 87

Table 14: Markets and applications of phosphorene…………………………………………………………………… 87

Table 15: Markets and applications of C2N………………………………………………………………………………… 89

Table 16: Markets and applications of hexagonal boron-nitride………………………………………………….. 91

Table 17: Markets and applications of graphdiyne……………………………………………………………………… 93

Table 18: Markets and applications of graphane………………………………………………………………………… 95

Table 19: Markets and applications of hexagonal boron-nitride………………………………………………….. 97

Table 20: Markets and applications of MoS2………………………………………………………………………………. 99

Table 21: Markets and applications of Rhenium disulfide (ReS2) and diselenide (ReSe2)………. 102

Table 22: Markets and applications of silicene…………………………………………………………………………. 103

Table 23: Markets and applications of stanene/tinene……………………………………………………………… 106

Table 24: Markets and applications of tungsten diselenide………………………………………………………. 108

Table 25: Comparative analysis of graphene and other 2-D nanomaterials……………………………… 109

Table 26: Large area graphene films-Markets, applications and current global market……………. 111

Table 27: Graphene oxide flakes/graphene nanoplatelets-Markets, applications and current global market…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 112

Table 28: Main production methods for graphene…………………………………………………………………….. 113

Table 29: Graphene synthesis methods, by company………………………………………………………………. 130

Table 30: Graphene market structure……………………………………………………………………………………….. 133

Table 31: Published patent publications for graphene, 2004-2014…………………………………………… 141

Table 32: Leading graphene patentees…………………………………………………………………………………….. 142

Table 33: Industrial graphene patents in 2014………………………………………………………………………….. 143

Table 34: Global production of graphene, 2010-2027 in tons/year. Base year for projections is 2015…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 188

Table 35: Graphene producers and production capacity (Current and projected), prices and target markets……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 190

Table 14: Market drivers for use of graphene in adhesives………………………………………………………. 195

Table 36: Graphene properties relevant to application in adhesives………………………………………… 196

Table 37: Applications and benefits of graphene in adhesives…………………………………………………. 197

Table 38: Market size for graphene in adhesives……………………………………………………………………… 197

Table 39: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in adhesives………………………………………. 198

Table 40: Market challenges rating for graphene in the adhesives market……………………………….. 200

Table 41:  Graphene product and application developers in the adhesives industry………………… 200

Table 19: Market drivers for use of graphene in aerospace……………………………………………………… 202

Table 42: Applications and benefits of graphene in aerospace………………………………………………… 205

Table 43: Market size for graphene in aerospace…………………………………………………………………….. 206

Table 44: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in aerospace……………………………………… 207

Table 45: Market challenges rating for graphene in the aerospace market………………………………. 210

Table 46: Graphene product and application developers in the aerospace industry…………………. 210

Table 24: Market drivers for use of graphene in the automotive sector…………………………………….. 212

Table 47: Applications and benefits of graphene in the automotive industry…………………………….. 216

Table 48: Market size for graphene in the automotive industry………………………………………………… 217

Table 49: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in the automotive industry…………………. 218

Table 50: Applications and commercialization challenges in the automotive sector…………………. 221

Table 51: Market challenges rating for graphene in the automotive sector………………………………. 221

Table 52: Graphene product and application developers in the automotive sector…………………… 222

Table 29: Market drivers for use of graphene in the life sciences and medical market…………….. 225

Table 53: Graphene properties relevant to application in biomedicine and healthcare…………….. 227

Table 54: Applications and benefits of graphene in life sciences and medical………………………….. 227

Table 55: Market size for graphene in biomedical and healthcare……………………………………………. 235

Table 56: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in biomedical & healthcare markets…… 236

Table 57: Potential addressable market for graphene in biomedical & healthcare markets……… 237

Table 58: Market challenges in graphene in biomedicine and healthcare………………………………… 239

Table 59: Market challenges rating for graphene in the biomedical and healthcare market……… 240

Table 60: Graphene product and application developers in the biomedical and healthcare industry…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 241

Table 61: Properties of nanocoatings……………………………………………………………………………………….. 243

Table 62: Graphene properties relevant to application in coatings…………………………………………… 249

Table 63: Markets for nanocoatings………………………………………………………………………………………….. 259

Table 65: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in the coatings market……………………….. 263

Table 66: Market challenges rating for graphene in the coatings market………………………………….. 266

Table 67: Graphene product and application developers in the coatings industry……………………. 266

Table 37: Market drivers for use of graphene in composites…………………………………………………….. 268

Table 68: Graphene properties relevant to application in polymer composites…………………………. 271

Table 69: Applications and benefits of graphene in composites……………………………………………….. 272

Table 70: Market size for SWNTs in composites………………………………………………………………………. 275

Table 71: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in the composites market………………….. 276

Table 72: Market challenges rating for graphene in the composites market…………………………….. 280

Table 73: Graphene product and application developers in the composites industry……………….. 280

Table 43: Market drivers for use of SWNTs in flexible electronics and conductive films…………… 283

Table 76: Applications and benefits of graphene in flexible electronics and conductive films…… 285

Table 75: Comparison of ITO replacements……………………………………………………………………………… 287

Table 77: Wearable electronics devices and stage of development…………………………………………. 291

Table 78: Graphene properties relevant to application in sensors……………………………………………. 297

Table 79: Market size for graphene in flexible electronics and conductive films……………………….. 299

Table 46: Global market for wearables, 2014-2021, units and US$………………………………………….. 304

Table 81: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in flexible electronics, wearables, conductive films and displays……………………………………………………………………………………………… 304

Table 82: Market challenges rating for graphene in the flexible electronics, wearables, conductive films and displays market……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 309

Table 83: Graphene product and application developers in transparent conductive films………… 310

Table 50: Market drivers for use of graphene in transistors, integrated circuits and other components………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 311

Table 84: Comparative properties of silicon and graphene transistors……………………………………… 314

Table 85: Applications and benefits of graphene in transistors, integrated circuits and other components………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 316

Table 86: Market size for graphene in transistors, integrated circuits and other components…… 318

Table 87: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in transistors, integrated circuits and other components………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 318

Table 88: Market challenges rating for graphene in the transistors and integrated circuits market…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 321

Table 89: Graphene product and application developers in transistors and integrated circuits… 322

Table 56: Market drivers for use of graphene in memory devices…………………………………………….. 324

Table 91: Market size for graphene in memory devices……………………………………………………………. 327

Table 92: Graphene product and application developers in memory devices…………………………… 328

Table 93: Applications and commercialization challenges for graphene in the memory devices market…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 329

Table 62: Market drivers for use of graphene in photonics……………………………………………………….. 330

Table 94: Graphene properties relevant to application in optical modulators……………………………. 331

Table 95: Applications and benefits of graphene in photonics………………………………………………….. 335

Table 96: Market size for graphene in photonics………………………………………………………………………. 335

Table 97: Graphene product and application developers in photonics……………………………………… 336

Table 98: Market challenges rating for graphene in the photonics market………………………………… 337

Table 66: Market drivers for use of graphene in batteries…………………………………………………………. 339

Table 101: Market size for graphene in batteries……………………………………………………………………… 344

Table 102: Potential addressable market for thin film, flexible and printed batteries………………… 345

Table 120: Graphene product and application developers in the battery industry…………………….. 347

Table 103: Market challenges rating for graphene in the batteries market……………………………….. 351

Table 71: Market drivers for use of graphene in supercapacitors……………………………………………… 351

Table 104: Comparative properties of graphene supercapacitors and lithium-ion batteries……… 353

Table 105: Applications and benefits of graphene in supercapacitors………………………………………. 354

Table 106: Market size for graphene in supercapacitors………………………………………………………….. 355

Table 107: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in supercapacitors…………………………… 356

Table 120: Graphene product and application developers in supercapacitors………………………….. 357

Table 108: Market challenges rating for graphene in the supercapacitors market……………………. 358

Table 77: Market drivers for use of graphene in photovoltaics………………………………………………….. 359

Table 109: Market size for graphene in photovoltaics………………………………………………………………. 362

Table 110: Market size for graphene in photovoltaics………………………………………………………………. 363

Table 111: Potential addressable market for photovoltaics………………………………………………………. 363

Table 120: Graphene product and application developers in photovoltaics……………………………… 365

Table 112: Market challenges for graphene in solar…………………………………………………………………. 366

Table 113: Market challenges rating for graphene in the solar market……………………………………… 367

Table 83: Market drivers for use of SWNTs in fuel cells and hydrogen storage……………………….. 367

Table 114: Applications and benefits of graphene in fuel cells and hydrogen storage……………… 370

Table 115: Market size for graphene in fuel cells and hydrogen storage………………………………….. 371

Table 116: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in fuel cells and hydrogen storage…… 371

Table 117: Market challenges rating for graphene in the fuel cells market……………………………….. 372

Table 120: Graphene product and application developers in fuel cells…………………………………….. 373

Table 83: Market drivers for use of graphene in LED lighting and UVC……………………………………. 374

Table 86: Market size for graphene in LED lighting and UVC…………………………………………………… 375

Table 120: Graphene product and application developers in the LED and UVC lighting market. 375

Table 83: Market drivers for graphene in oil and gas………………………………………………………………… 376

Table 118: Application markets, competing materials, graphene advantages and current market size in oil and gas……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 383

Table 119: Market challenges rating for graphene in the oil and gas market……………………………. 383

Table 120: Graphene product and application developers in the oil and gas market……………….. 384

Table 89: Market drivers for use of graphene in filtration………………………………………………………….. 385

Table 121: Applications and benefits of graphene in filtration and separation………………………….. 387

Table 122: Market size for graphene in filtration……………………………………………………………………….. 390

Table 123: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in the filtration and separation market. 392

Table 124: Market challenges rating for graphene in the filtration and separation market………… 393

Table 125: Graphene product and application developers in the filtration industry…………………… 393

Table 95: Market drivers for use of graphene in lubricants……………………………………………………….. 395

Table 126: Applications of carbon nanomaterials in lubricants…………………………………………………. 396

Table 127: Market size for graphene in lubricants…………………………………………………………………….. 396

Table 128: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in lubricants…………………………………….. 397

Table 129: Market challenges rating for graphene in the lubricants market……………………………… 398

Table 130:  Graphene product and application developers in the lubricants industry……………….. 398

Table 100: Market drivers for use of graphene in sensors………………………………………………………… 399

Table 131: Applications and benefits of graphene in sensors…………………………………………………… 401

Table 132: Graphene properties relevant to application in sensors………………………………………….. 402

Table 133: Comparison of ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) and graphene biosensor…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 406

Table 134: Market size for graphene in sensors……………………………………………………………………….. 408

Table 135: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in the filtration and separation market. 409

Table 136: Market challenges rating for graphene in the sensors market………………………………… 411

Table 137: Graphene product and application developers in the sensors industry…………………… 411

Table 106: Types of smart textiles……………………………………………………………………………………………. 414

Table 107: Smart textile products……………………………………………………………………………………………… 414

Table 108: Market drivers for use of graphene in smart textiles and apparel……………………………. 415

Table 138: Desirable functional properties for the textiles industry afforded by the use of nanomaterials……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 417

Table 139: Applications and benefits of graphene in textiles and apparel………………………………… 419

Table 140: Global market for smart clothing and apparel, 2014-2021, units and revenues (US$). 420

Table 142: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in smart textiles and apparel……………. 422

Table 143:  Graphene product and application developers in the textiles industry…………………… 423

Table 114: Market drivers for use of graphene in conductive inks……………………………………………. 424

Table 144: Comparative properties of conductive inks……………………………………………………………… 425

Table 145: Opportunities for graphene and 2D materials in printed electronics……………………….. 428

Table 146: Potential addressable market for graphene in conductive inks……………………………….. 429

Table 117: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in conductive inks……………………………. 432

Table 147: Graphene product and application developers in conductive inks………………………….. 432

Table 120: Market drivers for use of graphene in 3D printing…………………………………………………… 434

Table 148: Graphene properties relevant to application in 3D printing……………………………………… 435

Table 122: Market size for graphene  in 3D printing…………………………………………………………………. 436

Table 123: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in 3D printing…………………………………… 436

Table 150: Market challenges rating for nanotechnology and nanomaterials in the 3D printing market…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 437

Table 151: Graphene product and application developers in the 3D printing industry………………. 437

Table 152: Graphene producers and types produced………………………………………………………………. 439

Table 153: Graphene industrial collaborations, licence agreements and target markets………….. 513

 

FIGURES

Figure 1: Demand for graphene, by market, 2015………………………………………………………………………. 47

Figure 2: Demand for graphene, by market, 2027………………………………………………………………………. 48

Figure 3: Global government funding for graphene in millions USD to 2015………………………………. 56

Figure 4: Global market for graphene 2010-2027 in tons/year……………………………………………………. 60

Figure 5: Global consumption of graphene 2016, by region……………………………………………………….. 64

Figure 6: Graphene layer structure schematic……………………………………………………………………………. 71

Figure 7: Graphite and graphene………………………………………………………………………………………………… 72

Figure 8: Graphene and its descendants: top right: graphene; top left: graphite = stacked graphene; bottom right: nanotube=rolled graphene; bottom left: fullerene=wrapped graphene. …………… 73

Figure 9: Schematic of (a) CQDs and (c) GQDs. HRTEM images of (b) C-dots and (d) GQDs showing combination of zigzag and armchair edges (positions marked as 1–4)…………………… 76

Figure 10: Graphene quantum dots……………………………………………………………………………………………. 78

Figure 11: Graphene can be rolled up into a carbon nanotube, wrapped into a fullerene, and stacked into graphite…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 79

Figure 12: Black phosphorus structure……………………………………………………………………………………….. 86

Figure 13: Structural difference between graphene and C2N-h2D crystal: (a) graphene; (b) C2N-h2D crystal……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 89

Figure 14: Schematic of germanene…………………………………………………………………………………………… 91

Figure 15: Graphdiyne structure…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 93

Figure 16: Schematic of Graphane crystal………………………………………………………………………………….. 94

Figure 17: Structure of hexagonal boron nitride………………………………………………………………………….. 96

Figure 18: Structure of 2D molybdenum disulfide……………………………………………………………………….. 98

Figure 19: Atomic force microscopy image of a representative MoS2 thin-film transistor…………… 99

Figure 20: Schematic of the molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) thin-film sensor with the deposited molecules that create additional charge……………………………………………………………………………… 100

Figure 21: Schematic of a monolayer of rhenium disulphide…………………………………………………….. 101

Figure 22: Silicene structure……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 102

Figure 23: Monolayer silicene on a silver (111) substrate…………………………………………………………. 103

Figure 24: Silicene transistor…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 105

Figure 25: Crystal structure for stanene……………………………………………………………………………………. 105

Figure 26: Atomic structure model for the 2D stanene on Bi2Te3(111)……………………………………. 106

Figure 27: Schematic of tungsten diselenide……………………………………………………………………………. 107

Figure 28: Graphene synthesis methods………………………………………………………………………………….. 114

Figure 29: TEM micrographs of: A) HR-CNFs; B) GANF® HR-CNF, it can be observed its high graphitic structure; C) Unraveled ribbon from the HR-CNF; D) Detail of the ribbon; E) Scheme of the structure of the HR-CNFs; F) Large single graphene oxide sheets derived from GANF.. 115

Figure 30: Graphene nanoribbons grown on germanium…………………………………………………………. 118

Figure 31: Methods of synthesizing high-quality graphene……………………………………………………….. 120

Figure 32: Roll-to-roll graphene production process…………………………………………………………………. 125

Figure 33: Schematic of roll-to-roll manufacturing process……………………………………………………….. 126

Figure 34: Microwave irradiation of graphite to produce single-layer graphene………………………… 129

Figure 35: Schematic of typical commercialization route for graphene producer……………………… 133

Figure 36: Published patent publications for graphene, 2004-2014………………………………………….. 142

Figure 37: Technology Readiness Level (TRL) for graphene……………………………………………………. 146

Figure 38: Global market for graphene 2010-2027 in tons/year……………………………………………….. 189

Figure 39: Graphene Adhesives……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 196

Figure 40: Potential addressable market for graphene in adhesives………………………………………… 199

Figure 41: Potential addressable market for graphene in aerospace……………………………………….. 208

Figure 42: Potential addressable market for graphene-enabled applications in aerospace………. 209

Figure 43: Graphene-based automotive components……………………………………………………………….. 214

Figure 44: Antistatic graphene tire……………………………………………………………………………………………. 215

Figure 45: Potential addressable market for graphene in the automotive sector………………………. 218

Figure 46: Potential addressable market for graphene in the automotive sector………………………. 220

Figure 47: Graphene-based E-skin patch…………………………………………………………………………………. 226

Figure 48: Graphene Frontiers’ Six™ chemical sensors consists of a field effect transistor (FET) with a graphene channel. Receptor molecules, such as DNA, are attached directly to the graphene channel……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 232

Figure 49: Graphene-Oxide based chip prototypes for biopsy-free early cancer diagnosis………. 233

Figure 50: Potential addressable market for graphene-enabled applications in the biomedical and healthcare market……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 238

Figure 51: Heat transfer coating developed at MIT…………………………………………………………………… 249

Figure 52: Water permeation through a brick without (left) and with (right) “graphene paint” coating…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 254

Figure 53: Four layers of graphene oxide coatings on polycarbonate………………………………………. 257

Figure 54: Global Paints and Coatings Market, share by end user market……………………………….. 258

Figure 55: Potential addressable market for graphene in the coatings market…………………………. 264

Figure 56: Potential addressable market for graphene in the coatings market…………………………. 265

Figure 57: Potential addressable market for graphene in composites………………………………………. 277

Figure 58: Potential addressable market for graphene in the composites market…………………….. 279

Figure 59: Flexible graphene touch screen………………………………………………………………………………. 285

Figure 60: Flexible organic light emitting diode (OLED) using graphene electrode…………………… 287

Figure 61: Graphene electrochromic devices. Top left: Exploded-view illustration of the graphene electrochromic device. The device is formed by attaching two graphene-coated PVC substrates face-to-face and filling the gap with a liquid ionic electrolyte………………………………………………. 289

Figure 62: Flexible mobile phones with graphene transparent conductive film…………………………. 290

Figure 63: Foldable graphene E-paper…………………………………………………………………………………….. 290

Figure 64: Covestro wearables…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 292

Figure 65: Softceptor sensor…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 295

Figure 66: BeBop Media Arm Controller…………………………………………………………………………………… 296

Figure 67: LG Innotek flexible textile pressure sensor………………………………………………………………. 296

Figure 68: Wearable gas sensor………………………………………………………………………………………………. 298

Figure 69: Global touch panel market ($ million), 2011-2018……………………………………………………. 301

Figure 70: Capacitive touch panel market forecast by layer structure  (Ksqm)…………………………. 301

Figure 71: Global transparent conductive film market forecast (million $)………………………………… 302

Figure 72: Global transparent conductive film market forecast by materials type, 2015, %………. 302

Figure 73: Global transparent conductive film market forecast by materials type, 2020, %………. 303

Figure 74: Global transparent conductive film market forecast by materials type, 2027, %………. 303

Figure 75: Global market revenues for smart wearable devices 2014-2021, in US$………………… 304

Figure 76: Potential addressable market for graphene in flexible electronics, wearables, conductive films and displays……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 305

Figure 77: Potential addressable market for graphene in the flexible electronics, wearables, conductive films and displays market…………………………………………………………………………………. 306

Figure 78: Schematic of the wet roll-to-roll graphene transfer from copper foils to polymeric substrates…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 308

Figure 79: The transmittance of glass/ITO, glass/ITO/four organic layers, and glass/ITO/four organic layers/4-layer graphene………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 309

Figure 80: Graphene IC in wafer tester…………………………………………………………………………………….. 313

Figure 81: A monolayer WS2-based flexible transistor array……………………………………………………. 314

Figure 82: Schematic cross-section of a graphene based transistor (GBT, left) and a graphene field-effect transistor (GFET, right)……………………………………………………………………………………………… 315

Figure 83: Potential addressable market for graphene in transistors and integrated circuits……. 319

Figure 84: Potential addressable market for graphene in the transistors and integrated circuits market…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 320

Figure 85: Graphene oxide-based RRAm device on a flexible substrate………………………………….. 325

Figure 86: Layered structure of tantalum oxide, multilayer graphene and platinum used for resistive random access memory (RRAM)……………………………………………………………………………………….. 326

Figure 87: A schematic diagram for the mechanism of the resistive switching in metal/GO/Pt…. 327

Figure 88: Hybrid graphene phototransistors……………………………………………………………………………. 333

Figure 89: Wearable health monitor incorporating graphene photodetectors……………………………. 333

Figure 90: Flexible PEN coated with graphene and a QD thin film (20nm) is highly visibly transparent and photosensitive…………………………………………………………………………………………… 334

Figure 91: H600 concept car…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 343

Figure 92: Anion concept car……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 344

Figure 93: Potential addressable market for graphene in the thin film, flexible and printed batteries market…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 347

Figure 94: Skeleton Technologies ultracapacitor………………………………………………………………………. 353

Figure 95: Zapgo supercapacitor phone charger………………………………………………………………………. 355

Figure 96: Solar cell with nanowires and graphene electrode…………………………………………………… 361

Figure 97: Potential addressable market for graphene in photovoltaics……………………………………. 365

Figure 98: Schematic of boron doped graphene for application in gas sensors……………………….. 378

Figure 100: Directa Plus Grafysorber……………………………………………………………………………………….. 381

Figure 101: Nanometer-scale pores in single-layer freestanding graphene membrane can effectively filter NaCl salt from water……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 382

Figure 102: Degradation of organic dye molecules by graphene hybrid composite photocatalysts…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 389

Figure 103: Graphene anti-smog mask…………………………………………………………………………………….. 390

Figure 104: GFET sensors……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 403

Figure 105: First generation point of care diagnostics………………………………………………………………. 405

Figure 106: Graphene Field Effect Transistor Schematic…………………………………………………………. 406

Figure 107: Potential addressable market for graphene in the sensors market………………………… 410

Figure 108: Global market revenues for smart clothing and apparel 2014-2021, in US$………….. 420

Figure 109: Global market revenues for nanotech-enabled smart clothing and apparel 2014-2021, in US$, conservative estimate…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 421

Figure 110: Global market revenues for nanotech-enabled smart clothing and apparel 2014-2021, in US$, optimistic estimate………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 422

Figure 111: Graphene printed antenna…………………………………………………………………………………….. 426

Figure 112: BGT Materials graphene ink product……………………………………………………………………… 427

Figure 113: Vorbeck Materials conductive ink products……………………………………………………………. 428

Figure 114: Potential addressable market for graphene in the conductive ink market……………… 431

Figure 115: 3D Printed tweezers incorporating Carbon Nanotube Filament…………………………….. 435