The Global Market for Graphene

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Future Markets has published a market report on graphene since 2010 and is uniquely positioned to provide the most in-depth study on these remarkable materials, their applications and markets.

The Global Market for Graphene  is a comprehensive analysis of the market and commercial opportunities for these remarkable materials.

The graphene market continues to expand in 2017, with weekly announcements on new multi-million dollar investments, new products (especially in the Asia market) and innovative production processes.

A growing number of products are integrating graphene across a range of markets including consumer electronic devices, wearables, flexible RF devices,  supercapacitors, conductive inks, sensors and coatings.

Graphene is a ground-breaking 2D material that possesses extraordinary electrical and mechanical properties that promise a new generation of innovative devices. Beyond graphene, emerging elementary 2D materials such as transition metal dichalcogenides, group V systems including phosphorene, and related isoelectronic structures will potentially allow for flexible electronics and field-effect transistors that exhibit ambipolar transport behaviour with either a direct band-gap or greater gate modulation.

Published October 2017 | 635 Pages 

Report contents include:

  • Global production capacities for 2017.
  • Current graphene products.
  • Stage of commercialization for graphene applications, from basic research to market entry.
  • Market drivers, trends and challenges, by end user markets.
  • In-depth market assessment of opportunities for graphene including potential revenues, growth rates, pricing, most likely applications and market challenges.
  • In-depth company profiles, including products, capacities, and commercial activities.
  • Detailed forecasts for key growth areas, opportunities and user demand.
  • Assessment of applications for other 2D materials.
  • Over 210 company profiles.
  • Companies profiled in the report include 3D Graphtech Industries, Applied Graphene Materials, Cealtech, Directa Plus , Enanotec,  Graphenano S.L., Graphentech, Hanwha Chemical, Metalysis, Talga Resources and many more.
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TABLE OF CONTENTS

1    RESEARCH METHODOLOGY………………………………………………… 41

  • 1.1    Market opportunity analysis……………………………………………………………………………………………. 41
  • 1.2    Market challenges rating system……………………………………………………………………………………. 43

2    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY…………………………………………………………. 46

  • 2.1    Two-dimensional (2D) materials…………………………………………………………………………………….. 46
  • 2.2    Graphene……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 46
    • 2.2.1     The market in 2016………………………………………………………………………………………………… 47
    • 2.2.2     Products…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 47
    • 2.2.3     Production in 2017…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 49
    • 2.2.4     Graphene investments 2016-2017…………………………………………………………………………. 50
    • 2.2.5     Market outlook……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 51
    • 2.2.6     Remarkable properties…………………………………………………………………………………………… 58
    • 2.2.7     Global funding and initiatives…………………………………………………………………………………. 59
      • 2.2.7.1       Europe…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 59
      • 2.2.7.2       Asia……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 59
      • 2.2.7.3       United States…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 60
    • 2.2.8     Products and applications………………………………………………………………………………………. 61
    • 2.2.9     Production……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 63
    • 2.2.10        Market drivers and trends………………………………………………………………………………….. 64
      • 2.2.10.1     Production exceeds demand…………………………………………………………………………. 64
      • 2.2.10.2     Market revenues remain small………………………………………………………………………. 65
      • 2.2.10.3     Scalability and cost………………………………………………………………………………………… 66
      • 2.2.10.4     Applications hitting the market……………………………………………………………………….. 66
      • 2.2.10.5     Wait and see?……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 67
      • 2.2.10.6     Asia and US lead the race……………………………………………………………………………… 67
      • 2.2.10.7     China commercializing at a fast rate……………………………………………………………… 68
      • 2.2.10.8     Competition from other materials…………………………………………………………………… 68
      • 2.2.11        Market and technical challenges………………………………………………………………………… 69
      • 2.2.11.1     Inconsistent supply quality…………………………………………………………………………….. 69
      • 2.2.11.2     Functionalization and dispersion……………………………………………………………………. 70
      • 2.2.11.3     Cost……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 70
      • 2.2.11.4     Product integration………………………………………………………………………………………… 70
      • 2.2.11.5     Regulation and standards……………………………………………………………………………… 71
      • 2.2.11.6     Lack of a band gap………………………………………………………………………………………… 71
  • 2.3    Key players…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 71
    • 2.3.1     Asia-Pacific…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 71
      • 2.3.1.1       Australia…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 74
    • 2.3.2     North America………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 74
    • 2.3.3     Europe……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 75

3    PROPERTIES OF NANOMATERIALS………………………………………. 75

  • 3.1    Categorization………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 76

4    OVERVIEW OF GRAPHENE…………………………………………………… 78

  • 4.1    History……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 78
  • 4.2    Forms of graphene…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 80
  • 4.3    Properties……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 81
  • 4.4    3D Graphene………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 83
  • 4.5    Graphene Quantum Dots……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 83
    • 4.5.1     Synthesis……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 85
    • 4.5.2     Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 86
      • 4.5.2.1       Optoelectronics, electronics and photonics……………………………………………………. 86
      • 4.5.2.2       Energy…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 86
      • 4.5.2.3       Biomedicine and healthcare…………………………………………………………………………… 86
      • 4.5.2.4       Other……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 86
      • 4.5.2.5       Pricing……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 88
    • 4.5.3     Producers………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 88

5    CARBON NANOTUBES VERSUS GRAPHENE…………………………. 89

  • 5.1    Comparative properties………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 90
  • 5.2    Cost and production……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 91
  • 5.3    Carbon nanotube-graphene hybrids……………………………………………………………………………….. 92
  • 5.4    Competitive analysis of carbon nanotubes and graphene………………………………………………. 93

6    OTHER 2-D MATERIALS………………………………………………………… 95

  • 6.1    Black phosphorus/Phosphorene…………………………………………………………………………………….. 96
    • 6.1.1     Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 96
    • 6.1.2     Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 97
  • 6.2    C2N…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 98
    • 6.2.1     Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 99
    • 6.2.2     Applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 100
  • 6.3    Carbon nitride………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 100
    • 6.3.1     Properties…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 100
    • 6.3.2     Applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 101
  • 6.4    Germanene………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 101
    • 6.4.1     Properties…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 101
    • 6.4.2     Applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 102
  • 6.5    Graphdiyne…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 102
    • 6.5.1     Properties…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 103
    • 6.5.2     Applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 103
  • 6.6    Graphane……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 104
    • 6.6.1     Properties…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 105
    • 6.6.2     Applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 105
  • 6.7    Hexagonal boron nitride……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 106
    • 6.7.1     Properties…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 106
    • 6.7.2     Applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 107
    • 6.7.3     Producers…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 107
  • 6.8    Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2)………………………………………………………………………………………. 108
    • 6.8.1     Properties…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 108
    • 6.8.2     Applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 109
  • 6.9    Rhenium disulfide (ReS2) and diselenide (ReSe2)………………………………………………………. 111
    • 6.9.1     Properties…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 112
    • 6.9.2     Applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 112
  • 6.10      Silicene…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 112
    • 6.10.1        Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 113
    • 6.10.2        Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 114
  • 6.11      Stanene/tinene…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 115
    • 6.11.1        Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 116
    • 6.11.2        Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 116
  • 6.12      Tungsten diselenide…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 117
    • 6.12.1        Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 117
    • 6.12.2        Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 118
  • 6.13      Comparative analysis of graphene and other 2-D nanomaterials…………………………….. 119

7    GRAPHENE SYNTHESIS……………………………………………………… 120

  • 7.1    Large area graphene films……………………………………………………………………………………………. 120
  • 7.2    Graphene oxide flakes and graphene nanoplatelets…………………………………………………….. 121
  • 7.3    Production methods……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 122
    • 7.3.1     Production directly from natural graphite ore……………………………………………………….. 124
    • 7.3.2     Alternative starting materials………………………………………………………………………………… 124
    • 7.3.3     Quality………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 124
  • 7.4    Synthesis and production by types of graphene…………………………………………………………… 125
    • 7.4.1     Graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs)………………………………………………………………………….. 126
    • 7.4.2     Graphene nanoribbons………………………………………………………………………………………… 126
    • 7.4.3     Large-area graphene films…………………………………………………………………………………… 127
    • 7.4.4     Graphene oxide (GO)…………………………………………………………………………………………… 128
  • 7.5    Pros and cons of graphene production methods………………………………………………………….. 129
    • 7.5.1     Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD)……………………………………………………………………….. 131
    • 7.5.2     Exfoliation method……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 131
    • 7.5.3     Epitaxial growth method……………………………………………………………………………………….. 132
    • 7.5.4     Wet chemistry method (liquid phase exfoliation)………………………………………………….. 132
    • 7.5.5     Micromechanical cleavage method………………………………………………………………………. 133
    • 7.5.6     Green reduction of graphene oxide……………………………………………………………………… 134
    • 7.5.7     Plasma…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 134
  • 7.6    Recent synthesis methods……………………………………………………………………………………………. 135
  • 7.7    Synthesis methods by company…………………………………………………………………………………… 140

8    GRAPHENE MARKET STRUCTURE AND ROUTES TO COMMERCIALIZATION…………………………………………………………….. 142

9    REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS……………………………………….. 146

  • 9.1    Standards…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 146
  • 9.2    Environmental, health and safety regulation………………………………………………………………… 146
    • 9.2.1     Europe…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 147
    • 9.2.2     United States……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 147
    • 9.2.3     Asia………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 147
  • 9.3    Workplace exposure…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 148

10 PATENTS AND PUBLICATIONS……………………………………………. 149

  • 10.1      Fabrication processes………………………………………………………………………………………………. 149
  • 10.2      Academia…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 149
  • 10.3      Regional leaders………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 150

11 TECHNOLOGY READINESS LEVEL……………………………………… 153

12 GRAPHENE INDUSTRY TRENDS 2013-2017………………………….. 155

  • 12.1      JANUARY 2013……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 155
  • 12.2      FEBRUARY 2013…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 155
  • 12.3      APRIL 2013……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 156
  • 12.4      MAY 2013………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 156
  • 12.5      JUNE 2013………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 156
  • 12.6      JULY 2013……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 157
  • 12.7      AUGUST 2013…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 157
  • 12.8      SEPTEMBER 2013………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 158
  • 12.9      OCTOBER 2013………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 158
  • 12.10    NOVEMBER 2013……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 158
  • 12.11    DECEMBER 2013……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 159
  • 12.12    JANUARY 2014……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 160
  • 12.13    FEBRUARY 2014…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 161
  • 12.14    MARCH 2014…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 162
  • 12.15    APRIL 2014……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 163
  • 12.16    MAY 2014………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 164
  • 12.17    JUNE 2014………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 165
  • 12.18    JULY 2014……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 166
  • 12.19    AUGUST 2014…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 166
  • 12.20    SEPTEMBER 2014………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 167
  • 12.21    AUGUST 2014…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 168
  • 12.22    SEPTEMBER 2014………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 168
  • 12.23    OCTOBER 2014………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 169
  • 12.24    NOVEMBER 2014……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 169
  • 12.25    DECEMBER 2014……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 170
  • 12.26    JANUARY 2015……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 172
  • 12.27    FEBRUARY 2015…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 172
  • 12.28    MARCH 2015…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 173
  • 12.29    APRIL 2015……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 173
  • 12.30    MAY 2015………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 174
  • 12.31    JUNE 2015………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 175
  • 12.32    JULY 2015……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 176
  • 12.33    AUGUST 2015…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 177
  • 12.34    SEPTEMBER 2015………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 178
  • 12.35    OCTOBER 2015………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 178
  • 12.36    NOVEMBER 2015……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 179
  • 12.37    DECEMBER 2015……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 181
  • 12.38    JANUARY 2016……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 182
  • 12.39    FEBRUARY 2016…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 182
  • 12.40    MARCH 2016…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 183
  • 12.41    APRIL 2016……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 184
  • 12.42    MAY 2016………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 187
  • 12.43    JUNE 2016………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 189
  • 12.44    JULY 2016……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 189
  • 12.45    AUGUST 2016…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 190
  • 12.46    SEPTEMBER 2016………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 190
  • 12.47    OCTOBER 2016………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 191
  • 12.48    NOVEMBER 2016……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 192
  • 12.49    DECEMBER 2016……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 194
  • 12.50    JANUARY 2017……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 195
  • 12.51    FEBRUARY 2017…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 195
  • 12.52    MARCH 2017…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 196
  • 12.53    APRIL 2017……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 197
  • 12.54    MAY 2017………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 197
  • 12.55    JUNE 2017………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 198
  • 12.56    JULY 2017……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 199
  • 12.57    AUGUST 2017…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 200
  • 12.58    SEPTEMBER 2017………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 201

13 END USER MARKET SEGMENT ANALYSIS………………………….. 203

  • 13.1      Graphene production volumes 2010-2027……………………………………………………………….. 203
  • 13.2      Graphene pricing……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 204
    • 13.2.1        Pristine Graphene Flakes pricing…………………………………………………………………….. 206
    • 13.2.2        Few-Layer Graphene pricing……………………………………………………………………………. 207
    • 13.2.3        Graphene Nanoplatelets pricing………………………………………………………………………. 208
    • 13.2.4        Reduced Graphene Oxide pricing……………………………………………………………………. 208
    • 13.2.5        Graphene Quantum Dots pricing……………………………………………………………………… 209
    • 13.2.6        Graphene Oxide Nanosheets pricing……………………………………………………………….. 210
    • 13.2.7        Multilayer Graphene (MLG) pricing………………………………………………………………….. 211
    • 13.2.8        Mass production of lower grade graphene materials……………………………………….. 211
    • 13.2.9        High grade graphene difficult to mass produce………………………………………………… 212
    • 13.2.10      Bulk supply………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 212
    • 13.2.11      Commoditisation………………………………………………………………………………………………. 213
  • 13.3      Graphene producers and production capacities………………………………………………………. 214

14 ADHESIVES………………………………………………………………………… 216

  • 14.1      MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………………………………………. 216
  • 14.2      PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………………. 217
  • 14.3      GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY………………………………………………………. 218
  • 14.4      MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………………. 221
  • 14.5      PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………………. 222

15 AEROSPACE………………………………………………………………………. 223

  • 15.1      MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………………………………………. 223
  • 15.2      PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………………. 225
    • 15.2.1        Composites……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 225
    • 15.2.2        Coatings…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 225
  • 15.3      GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORUNTIY…………………………………………………………. 227
  • 15.4      MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………………. 231
  • 15.5      PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………………. 231

16 AUTOMOTIVE……………………………………………………………………… 233

  • 16.1      MARKET DRIVER AND TRENDS……………………………………………………………………………. 233
  • 16.2      PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………………. 234
    • 16.2.1        Composites……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 235
    • 16.2.2        Thermally conductive additives………………………………………………………………………… 236
    • 16.2.3        Tires…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 236
  • 16.3      GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY………………………………………………………. 238
  • 16.4      MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………………. 241
  • 16.5      PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………………. 243

17 LIFE SCIENCES AND MEDICAL……………………………………………. 245

  • 17.1      MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………………………………………. 246
  • 17.2      PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………………. 247
    • 17.2.1        Cancer therapy………………………………………………………………………………………………… 251
    • 17.2.1.1     Graphene oxide for therapy and drug delivery…………………………………………….. 251
    • 17.2.1.2     Graphene nanosheets…………………………………………………………………………………. 251
    • 17.2.1.3     Gene delivery………………………………………………………………………………………………. 252
    • 17.2.1.4     Photodynamic Therapy………………………………………………………………………………… 252
    • 17.2.2        Medical implants and devices………………………………………………………………………….. 252
    • 17.2.3        Wound dressings……………………………………………………………………………………………… 253
    • 17.2.4        Biosensors……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 253
    • 17.2.4.1     FRET biosensors for DNA detection……………………………………………………………. 254
    • 17.2.5        Medical imaging……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 255
    • 17.2.6        Tissue engineering…………………………………………………………………………………………… 255
    • 17.2.7        Dental………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 255
    • 17.2.8        Electrophysiology…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 255
  • 17.3      GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY………………………………………………………. 256
  • 17.4      MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………………. 260
  • 17.5      PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………………. 262

18 COATINGS………………………………………………………………………….. 264

  • 18.1      MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………………………………………. 264
    • 18.1.1        New functionalities and improved properties……………………………………………………. 265
    • 18.1.2        Need for more effective protection…………………………………………………………………… 266
    • 18.1.3        Sustainability and regulation……………………………………………………………………………. 267
    • 18.1.4        Cost of corrosion……………………………………………………………………………………………… 267
    • 18.1.5        Need for improved hygiene……………………………………………………………………………… 268
    • 18.1.6        Cost of weather-related damage……………………………………………………………………… 269
    • 18.1.7        Increased demand for coatings for extreme environments………………………………. 269
  • 18.2      PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………………. 269
    • 18.2.1        Anti-corrosion coatings…………………………………………………………………………………….. 271
    • 18.2.1.1     Marine………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 272
    • 18.2.2        Anti-microbial…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 273
    • 18.2.3        Anti-icing………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 273
    • 18.2.4        Barrier coatings………………………………………………………………………………………………… 274
    • 18.2.5        Heat protection………………………………………………………………………………………………… 275
    • 18.2.6        Anti-fouling……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 276
    • 18.2.7        Wear and abrasion resistance…………………………………………………………………………. 277
    • 18.2.8        Smart windows………………………………………………………………………………………………… 278
  • 18.3      GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY………………………………………………………. 279
    • 18.3.1        Thermal barrier coatings………………………………………………………………………………….. 283
    • 18.3.2        Barrier coatings………………………………………………………………………………………………… 283
    • 18.3.3        Anti-microbial coatings…………………………………………………………………………………….. 283
    • 18.3.4        De-icing or anti-icing coatings………………………………………………………………………….. 283
    • 18.3.5        Abrasion and wear resistant coatings………………………………………………………………. 283
    • 18.3.6        Anti-corrosion coatings…………………………………………………………………………………….. 284
  • 18.4      MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………………. 286
    • 18.4.1        Dispersion………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 286
    • 18.4.2        Production, scalability and cost………………………………………………………………………… 287
  • 18.5      PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………………. 287

19 COMPOSITES……………………………………………………………………… 289

  • 19.1      MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………………………………………. 289
  • 19.2      PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………………. 292
    • 19.2.1        Polymer composites…………………………………………………………………………………………. 292
    • 19.2.2        Barrier packaging…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 295
    • 19.2.3        Electrostatic discharge (ESD) and electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding 295
    • 19.2.4        Wind turbines…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 296
    • 19.2.5        Ballistic protection……………………………………………………………………………………………. 296
    • 19.2.6        Cement additives……………………………………………………………………………………………… 296
  • 19.3      GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY………………………………………………………. 296
  • 19.4      MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………………. 300
  • 19.5      PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………………. 301

20 RUBBER AND TIRES…………………………………………………………… 303

  • 20.1      APPLICATIONS……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 303
  • 20.2      GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY………………………………………………………. 304
  • 20.3      MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………………. 305
  • 20.4      PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………………. 306

21 ELECTRONICS AND PHOTONICS………………………………………… 307

  • 21.1      FLEXIBLE ELECTRONICS, WEARABLES, CONDUCTIVE FILMS AND DISPLAYS. 307
    • 21.1.1        MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………………………………. 307
    • 21.1.2        PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………. 309
      • 21.1.2.1     Transparent electrodes in flexible electronics………………………………………………. 313
      • 21.1.2.2     Electronic paper…………………………………………………………………………………………… 315
      • 21.1.2.3     Wearable electronics…………………………………………………………………………………… 315
      • 21.1.2.4     Wearable sensors………………………………………………………………………………………… 319
    • 21.1.3        GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY………………………………………………. 324
    • 21.1.4        MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………. 331
      • 21.1.4.1     Manufacturing……………………………………………………………………………………………… 332
      • 21.1.4.2     Competing materials……………………………………………………………………………………. 332
      • 21.1.4.3     Cost in comparison to ITO…………………………………………………………………………… 332
      • 21.1.4.4     Problems with transfer and growth………………………………………………………………. 332
      • 21.1.4.5     Improving sheet resistance………………………………………………………………………….. 333
      • 21.1.4.6     Difficulties in display panel integration…………………………………………………………. 334
    • 21.1.5        PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………. 335
  • 21.2      TRANSISTORS AND INTEGRATED CIRCUITS……………………………………………………… 336
    • 21.2.1        MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………………………………. 336
      • 21.2.2        PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………. 338
      • 21.2.2.1     Integrated circuits………………………………………………………………………………………… 338
      • 21.2.2.2     Transistors…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 340
      • 21.2.2.3     Graphene Radio Frequency (RF) circuits…………………………………………………….. 340
      • 21.2.2.4     Graphene spintronics…………………………………………………………………………………… 341
    • 21.2.3        GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY………………………………………………. 343
    • 21.2.4        MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………. 345
      • 21.2.4.1     Competition from other materials…………………………………………………………………. 345
      • 21.2.4.2     Lack of band gap…………………………………………………………………………………………. 345
      • 21.2.4.3     Transfer and integration………………………………………………………………………………. 346
      • 21.2.4.4     Contact resistance……………………………………………………………………………………….. 346
    • 21.2.5        PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………. 347
  • 21.3      MEMORY DEVICES………………………………………………………………………………………………… 349
    • 21.3.1        MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………………………………. 349
    • 21.3.2        PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………. 350
    • 21.3.3        GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY………………………………………………. 352
    • 21.3.4        PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………. 353
    • 21.3.5        MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………. 354
  • 21.4      PHOTONICS……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 354
    • 21.4.1        MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………………………………. 355
    • 21.4.2        PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………. 355
      • 21.4.2.1     Si photonics versus graphene……………………………………………………………………… 355
      • 21.4.2.2     Optical modulators………………………………………………………………………………………. 356
      • 21.4.2.3     Photodetectors…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 357
      • 21.4.2.4     Saturable absorbers…………………………………………………………………………………….. 359
      • 21.4.2.5     Plasmonics………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 359
      • 21.4.2.6     Fiber lasers………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 359
    • 21.4.3        MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY……………………………………………………………… 360
    • 21.4.4        PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………. 361
    • 21.4.5        MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………. 361
      • 21.4.5.1     Need to design devices that harness graphene’s properties……………………….. 361
      • 21.4.5.2     Problems with transfer…………………………………………………………………………………. 361
      • 21.4.5.3     THz absorbance and nonlinearity………………………………………………………………… 362
      • 21.4.5.4     Stability and sensitivity…………………………………………………………………………………. 362

22 ENERGY STORAGE, CONVERSION AND EXPLORATION………. 363

  • 22.1      BATTERIES……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 364
    • 22.1.1        MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………………………………. 364
    • 22.1.2        PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………. 367
      • 22.1.2.1     Lithium-ion batteries (LIB)……………………………………………………………………………. 367
      • 22.1.2.2     Lithium-air batteries……………………………………………………………………………………… 367
      • 22.1.2.3     Lithium–sulfur batteries (Li–S)……………………………………………………………………… 368
      • 22.1.2.4     Sodium-ion batteries……………………………………………………………………………………. 368
    • 22.1.3        GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY………………………………………………. 368
    • 22.1.4        PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………. 373
    • 22.1.5        MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………. 377
  • 22.2      SUPERCAPACITORS……………………………………………………………………………………………… 377
    • 22.2.1        MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………………………………. 378
    • 22.2.2        PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………. 378
    • 22.2.3        GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY………………………………………………. 381
    • 22.2.4        PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………. 383
    • 22.2.5        MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………. 384
      • 22.2.5.1     Low energy storage capacity of graphene…………………………………………………… 384
  • 22.3      PHOTOVOLTAICS…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 385
    • 22.3.1        MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………………………………. 385
    • 22.3.2        PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………. 387
      • 22.3.2.1     ITO replacement………………………………………………………………………………………….. 387
      • 22.3.2.2     Graphene–silicon (Gr–Si) Schottky junction solar cells……………………………….. 388
      • 22.3.2.3     Halide perovskites/graphene hybrids…………………………………………………………… 388
    • 22.3.3        GLOBAL MARKET SIZE………………………………………………………………………………….. 388
    • 22.3.4        PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………. 391
    • 22.3.5        MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………. 392
  • 22.4      FUEL CELLS……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 393
    • 22.4.1        MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………………………………. 393
    • 22.4.2        PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………. 394
      • 22.4.2.1     Electrocatalyst supports………………………………………………………………………………. 395
    • 22.4.3        GLOBAL MARKET SIZE ………………………….. 396
    • 22.4.4        MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………. 397
    • 22.4.5        PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………. 398
  • 22.5      LED LIGHTING AND UVC……………………………………………………………………………………….. 398
    • 22.5.1        MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………………………………. 399
    • 22.5.2        PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………. 399
    • 22.5.3        GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY………………………………………………. 400
    • 22.5.4        MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………. 401
    • 22.5.5        PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………. 402
  • 22.6      OIL AND GAS………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 402
    • 22.6.1        MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………………………………. 403
    • 22.6.2        PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………. 404
      • 22.6.2.1     Sensing and reservoir management……………………………………………………………. 404
      • 22.6.2.2     Coatings………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 405
      • 22.6.2.3     Drilling fluids………………………………………………………………………………………………… 407
      • 22.6.2.4     Sorbent materials………………………………………………………………………………………… 408
      • 22.6.2.5     Catalysts……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 408
      • 22.6.2.6     Separation…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 408
    • 22.6.3        GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY………………………………………………. 409
    • 22.6.4        MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………. 411
    • 22.6.5        PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………. 412

23 FILTRATION……………………………………………………………………….. 413

  • 23.1      MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………………………………………. 413
  • 23.2      PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………………. 415
    • 23.2.1        Water filtration………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 416
    • 23.2.2        Gas separation………………………………………………………………………………………………… 417
    • 23.2.3        Photocatalytic absorbents………………………………………………………………………………… 417
    • 23.2.4        Air filtration……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 417
  • 23.3      GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY………………………………………………………. 418
  • 23.4      MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………………. 420
  • 23.5      PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………………. 421

24 LUBRICANTS……………………………………………………………………… 423

  • 24.1      MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………………………………………. 423
  • 24.2      PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………………. 424
  • 24.3      GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY………………………………………………………. 425
  • 24.4      MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………………. 426
  • 24.5      PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………………. 427

25 SENSORS…………………………………………………………………………… 427

  • 25.1      MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………………………………………. 427
  • 25.2      PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………………. 428
    • 25.2.1        Infrared (IR) sensors………………………………………………………………………………………… 432
    • 25.2.2        Electrochemical and gas sensors…………………………………………………………………….. 432
    • 25.2.2.1     Graphene foam……………………………………………………………………………………………. 433
    • 25.2.3        Pressure sensors…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 433
    • 25.2.4        Biosensors……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 433
    • 25.2.5        Optical sensors………………………………………………………………………………………………… 436
    • 25.2.6        Humidity sensors……………………………………………………………………………………………… 436
    • 25.2.7        Strain sensors………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 436
    • 25.2.8        Acoustic sensors……………………………………………………………………………………………… 436
    • 25.2.9        Wireless sensors……………………………………………………………………………………………… 436
    • 25.2.10      Surface enhanced Raman scattering……………………………………………………………….. 437
  • 25.3      GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY………………………………………………………. 437
  • 25.4      MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………………. 440
    • 25.4.1        Selectivity…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 440
    • 25.4.2        Scaling and manufacturing………………………………………………………………………………. 441
    • 25.4.3        Sensor recovery………………………………………………………………………………………………. 441
  • 25.5      PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………………. 441

26 SMART TEXTILES AND APPAREL……………………………………….. 444

  • 26.1      MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………………………………………. 444
  • 26.2      PROPERTIES AND APPLICATONS……………………………………………………………………….. 447
    • 26.2.1        Conductive coatings…………………………………………………………………………………………. 448
  • 26.3      GLOBAL MARKET SIZE………………………………………………………………………………………….. 449
  • 26.4      MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………………. 453
  • 26.5      PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………………. 454

27 CONDUCTIVE INKS……………………………………………………………… 455

  • 27.1      MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………………………………………. 455
  • 27.2      PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………………. 456
  • 27.3      GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY………………………………………………………. 459
  • 27.4      MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………………. 464
  • 27.5      PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………………. 464

28 3D PRINTING………………………………………………………………………. 465

  • 28.1      MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………………………………………. 466
  • 28.2      PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………………. 466
  • 28.3      GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY………………………………………………………. 468
  • 28.4      MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………………. 469
  • 28.5      PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………………. 470

29 GRAPHENE PRODUCERS……………………………………………………. 471-549 (113 producer profiles)

29.1      TYPES OF GRAPHENE PRODUCED, BY PRODUCER…………………………………………. 471

30 GRAPHENE PRODUCT AND APPLICATION DEVELOPERS……. 550-609 (94 company profiles)

30.1      Industrial collaborations and licence agreements…………………………………………………….. 550

30.2      Markets targeted, by product developers and end users………………………………………….. 553

31 REFERENCES…………………………………………………………………….. 611

TABLES

  • Table 1: Consumer products incorporating graphene…………………………………………………………………. 48
  • Table 2: Graphene investments and financial agreements 2017………………………………………………… 51
  • Table 3: Market opportunity assessment matrix for graphene applications………………………………… 54
  • Table 4: Graphene target markets-Applications and potential addressable market size…………….. 62
  • Table 5: Main graphene producers by country and annual production capacities………………………. 64
  • Table 6: Categorization of nanomaterials……………………………………………………………………………………. 76
  • Table 7: Properties of graphene…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 82
  • Table 8: Comparison of graphene QDs and semiconductor QDs……………………………………………….. 84
  • Table 9: Graphene quantum dot producers………………………………………………………………………………… 88
  • Table 10: Comparative properties of carbon materials……………………………………………………………….. 90
  • Table 11: Comparative properties of graphene with nanoclays and carbon nanotubes……………… 92
  • Table 12: Competitive analysis of Carbon nanotubes and graphene by application area and potential impact by 2027……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 93
  • Table 13: Electronic and mechanical properties of monolayer phosphorene, graphene and MoS2. 97
  • Table 14: Markets and applications of phosphorene…………………………………………………………………… 97
  • Table 15: Markets and applications of C2N………………………………………………………………………………. 100
  • Table 16: Markets and applications of hexagonal boron-nitride………………………………………………… 102
  • Table 17: Markets and applications of graphdiyne……………………………………………………………………. 103
  • Table 18: Markets and applications of graphane………………………………………………………………………. 105
  • Table 19: Markets and applications of hexagonal boron-nitride………………………………………………… 107
  • Table 20: Markets and applications of MoS2…………………………………………………………………………….. 109
  • Table 21: Markets and applications of Rhenium disulfide (ReS2) and diselenide (ReSe2)………. 112
  • Table 22: Markets and applications of silicene…………………………………………………………………………. 114
  • Table 23: Markets and applications of stanene/tinene……………………………………………………………… 116
  • Table 24: Markets and applications of tungsten diselenide………………………………………………………. 118
  • Table 25: Comparative analysis of graphene and other 2-D nanomaterials……………………………… 119
  • Table 26: Large area graphene films-Markets, applications and current global market……………. 120
  • Table 27: Graphene oxide flakes/graphene nanoplatelets-Markets, applications and current global market…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 121
  • Table 28: Main production methods for graphene…………………………………………………………………….. 122
  • Table 29: Large area graphene films-Markets, applications and current global market……………. 128
  • Table 30: Graphene synthesis methods, by company………………………………………………………………. 140
  • Table 31: Graphene market structure……………………………………………………………………………………….. 142
  • Table 32: Published patent publications for graphene, 2004-2014…………………………………………… 150
  • Table 33: Leading graphene patentees…………………………………………………………………………………….. 151
  • Table 34: Industrial graphene patents in 2014………………………………………………………………………….. 151
  • Table 35: Global production of graphene, 2010-2027 in tons/year. Base year for projections is 2015…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 203
  • Table 36: Types of graphene and prices…………………………………………………………………………………… 205
  • Table 37: Pristine graphene flakes pricing by producer……………………………………………………………. 206
  • Table 38: Few-layer graphene pricing by producer…………………………………………………………………… 207
  • Table 39: Graphene nanoplatelets pricing by producer…………………………………………………………….. 208
  • Table 40: Reduced graphene oxide pricing, by producer…………………………………………………………. 209
  • Table 41: Graphene quantum dots pricing by producer……………………………………………………………. 210
  • Table 42: Graphene oxide nanosheets pricing by producer……………………………………………………… 210
  • Table 43: Multi-layer graphene pricing by producer………………………………………………………………….. 211
  • Table 44: Production capacities of graphene producers, current and planned, metric tons……… 214
  • Table 45: Market drivers for use of graphene in adhesives………………………………………………………. 216
  • Table 46: Graphene properties relevant to application in adhesives………………………………………… 217
  • Table 47: Applications and benefits of graphene in adhesives…………………………………………………. 218
  • Table 48: Market size for graphene in adhesives……………………………………………………………………… 218
  • Table 49: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in adhesives………………………………………. 219
  • Table 50: Market challenges rating for graphene in the adhesives market……………………………….. 221
  • Table 51:  Graphene product and application developers in the adhesives industry………………… 222
  • Table 52: Market drivers for use of graphene in aerospace……………………………………………………… 223
  • Table 53: Applications and benefits of graphene in aerospace………………………………………………… 226
  • Table 54: Market size for graphene in aerospace…………………………………………………………………….. 228
  • Table 55: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in aerospace……………………………………… 229
  • Table 56: Market challenges rating for graphene in the aerospace market………………………………. 231
  • Table 57: Graphene product and application developers in the aerospace industry…………………. 231
  • Table 58: Market drivers for use of graphene in the automotive sector…………………………………….. 233
  • Table 59: Applications and benefits of graphene in the automotive industry…………………………….. 237
  • Table 60: Market size for graphene in the automotive industry………………………………………………… 238
  • Table 61: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in the automotive industry…………………. 239
  • Table 62: Applications and commercialization challenges in the automotive sector…………………. 242
  • Table 63: Market challenges rating for graphene in the automotive sector………………………………. 242
  • Table 64: Graphene product and application developers in the automotive sector…………………… 243
  • Table 65: Market drivers for use of graphene in the life sciences and medical market…………….. 246
  • Table 66: Graphene properties relevant to application in biomedicine and healthcare…………….. 248
  • Table 67: Applications and benefits of graphene in life sciences and medical………………………….. 248
  • Table 68: Market size for graphene in biomedical and healthcare……………………………………………. 256
  • Table 69: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in biomedical & healthcare markets…… 257
  • Table 70: Potential addressable market for graphene in biomedical & healthcare markets……… 258
  • Table 71: Market challenges in graphene in biomedicine and healthcare………………………………… 260
  • Table 72: Market challenges rating for graphene in the biomedical and healthcare market……… 261
  • Table 73: Graphene product and application developers in the biomedical and healthcare industry…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 262
  • Table 74: Properties of nanocoatings……………………………………………………………………………………….. 264
  • Table 75: Graphene properties relevant to application in coatings…………………………………………… 270
  • Table 76: Markets for nanocoatings………………………………………………………………………………………….. 280
  • Table 77: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in the coatings market……………………….. 284
  • Table 78: Market challenges rating for graphene in the coatings market………………………………….. 287
  • Table 79: Graphene product and application developers in the coatings industry……………………. 287
  • Table 80: Market drivers for use of graphene in composites…………………………………………………….. 289
  • Table 81: Graphene properties relevant to application in polymer composites…………………………. 292
  • Table 82: Applications and benefits of graphene in composites……………………………………………….. 293
  • Table 83: Market size for graphene in composites……………………………………………………………………. 296
  • Table 84: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in the composites market………………….. 298
  • Table 85: Market challenges rating for graphene in the composites market…………………………….. 301
  • Table 86: Graphene product and application developers in the composites industry……………….. 301
  • Table 87: Applications of graphene in rubber and tires…………………………………………………………….. 303
  • Table 88: Market summary and revenues for graphene in the rubber and tires market……………. 304
  • Table 89: Investment opportunity assessment for graphene in the rubber and tires market…….. 305
  • Table 90: Market challenges for graphene in rubber and tires………………………………………………….. 305
  • Table 91: Companies developing graphene-based products in rubber and tires………………………. 306
  • Table 92: Market drivers for use of graphene in flexible electronics and conductive films………… 308
  • Table 93: Applications and benefits of graphene in flexible electronics and conductive films…… 311
  • Table 94: Comparison of ITO replacements……………………………………………………………………………… 312
  • Table 95: Wearable electronics devices and stage of development…………………………………………. 316
  • Table 96: Graphene properties relevant to application in sensors……………………………………………. 322
  • Table 97: Market size for graphene in flexible electronics and conductive films……………………….. 324
  • Table 98: Global market for wearables, 2014-2021, units and US$………………………………………….. 329
  • Table 99: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in flexible electronics, wearables, conductive films and displays……………………………………………………………………………………………… 329
  • Table 100: Market challenges rating for graphene in the flexible electronics, wearables, conductive films and displays market……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 334
  • Table 101: Graphene product and application developers in transparent conductive films………. 335
  • Table 102: Market drivers for use of graphene in transistors, integrated circuits and other components………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 336
  • Table 103: Comparative properties of silicon and graphene transistors……………………………………. 340
  • Table 104: Applications and benefits of graphene in transistors, integrated circuits and other components………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 341
  • Table 105: Market size for graphene in transistors, integrated circuits and other components…. 343
  • Table 106: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in transistors, integrated circuits and other components………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 344
  • Table 107: Market challenges rating for graphene in the transistors and integrated circuits market…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 347
  • Table 108: Graphene product and application developers in transistors and integrated circuits. 347
  • Table 109: Market drivers for use of graphene in memory devices…………………………………………… 349
  • Table 110: Market size for graphene in memory devices………………………………………………………….. 352
  • Table 111: Graphene product and application developers in memory devices…………………………. 353
  • Table 112: Applications and commercialization challenges for graphene in the memory devices market…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 354
  • Table 113: Market drivers for use of graphene in photonics……………………………………………………… 355
  • Table 114: Graphene properties relevant to application in optical modulators………………………….. 356
  • Table 115: Applications and benefits of graphene in photonics………………………………………………… 360
  • Table 116: Market size for graphene in photonics…………………………………………………………………….. 360
  • Table 117: Graphene product and application developers in photonics……………………………………. 361
  • Table 118: Market challenges rating for graphene in the photonics market……………………………… 362
  • Table 119: Market drivers for use of graphene in batteries………………………………………………………. 365
  • Table 120: Market size for graphene in batteries……………………………………………………………………… 369
  • Table 121: Potential addressable market for thin film, flexible and printed batteries………………… 370
  • Table 122: Graphene product and application developers in the battery industry…………………….. 374
  • Table 123: Market challenges rating for graphene in the batteries market……………………………….. 377
  • Table 124: Market drivers for use of graphene in supercapacitors…………………………………………… 378
  • Table 125: Comparative properties of graphene supercapacitors and lithium-ion batteries……… 379
  • Table 126: Applications and benefits of graphene in supercapacitors………………………………………. 380
  • Table 127: Market size for graphene in supercapacitors………………………………………………………….. 381
  • Table 128: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in supercapacitors…………………………… 383
  • Table 129: Graphene product and application developers in supercapacitors………………………….. 383
  • Table 130: Market challenges rating for graphene in the supercapacitors market……………………. 385
  • Table 131: Market drivers for use of graphene in photovoltaics……………………………………………….. 385
  • Table 132: Market size for graphene in photovoltaics………………………………………………………………. 389
  • Table 133: Market size for graphene in photovoltaics………………………………………………………………. 389
  • Table 134: Potential addressable market for photovoltaics………………………………………………………. 390
  • Table 135: Graphene product and application developers in photovoltaics……………………………… 391
  • Table 136: Market challenges rating for graphene in the solar market……………………………………… 392
  • Table 137: Market drivers for use of graphene in fuel cells and hydrogen storage…………………… 393
  • Table 138: Applications and benefits of graphene in fuel cells and hydrogen storage……………… 395
  • Table 139: Market size for graphene in fuel cells and hydrogen storage………………………………….. 396
  • Table 140: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in fuel cells and hydrogen storage…… 397
  • Table 141: Market challenges rating for graphene in the fuel cells market……………………………….. 397
  • Table 142: Graphene product and application developers in fuel cells…………………………………….. 398
  • Table 143: Market drivers for use of graphene in LED lighting and UVC………………………………….. 399
  • Table 144: Applications of graphene in lighting………………………………………………………………………… 399
  • Table 145: Market size for graphene in LED lighting and UVC…………………………………………………. 400
  • Table 146: Investment opportunity assessment for graphene in the lighting market………………… 401
  • Table 147: Market impediments for graphene in lighting………………………………………………………….. 401
  • Table 148: Graphene product and application developers in the LED and UVC lighting market. 402
  • Table 149: Market drivers for graphene in oil and gas……………………………………………………………… 403
  • Table 150: Applications of graphene in the oil and gas market………………………………………………… 404
  • Table 151: Application markets, competing materials, graphene advantages and current market size in oil and gas……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 410
  • Table 152: Market summary and revenues for graphene in the oil and gas market…………………. 410
  • Table 153: Investment opportunity assessment for graphene in the oil and gas market…………… 411
  • Table 154: Market challenges rating for graphene in the oil and gas market……………………………. 412
  • Table 155: Graphene product and application developers in the oil and gas market……………….. 412
  • Table 156: Market drivers for use of graphene in filtration………………………………………………………… 413
  • Table 157: Applications and benefits of graphene in filtration and separation………………………….. 415
  • Table 158: Market size for graphene in filtration……………………………………………………………………….. 418
  • Table 159: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in the filtration and separation market. 420
  • Table 160: Market challenges rating for graphene in the filtration and separation market………… 421
  • Table 161: Graphene product and application developers in the filtration industry…………………… 421
  • Table 162: Market drivers for use of graphene in lubricants……………………………………………………… 423
  • Table 163: Applications of graphene in the lubricants market…………………………………………………… 424
  • Table 164: Applications of carbon nanomaterials in lubricants…………………………………………………. 424
  • Table 165: Market size for graphene in lubricants…………………………………………………………………….. 425
  • Table 166: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in lubricants…………………………………….. 425
  • Table 167: Market challenges rating for graphene in the lubricants market……………………………… 426
  • Table 168:  Graphene product and application developers in the lubricants industry……………….. 427
  • Table 169: Market drivers for use of graphene in sensors………………………………………………………… 427
  • Table 170: Applications and benefits of graphene in sensors…………………………………………………… 429
  • Table 171: Graphene properties relevant to application in sensors………………………………………….. 431
  • Table 172: Comparison of ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) and graphene biosensor…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 435
  • Table 173: Market size for graphene in sensors……………………………………………………………………….. 437
  • Table 174: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in the sensors market……………………… 438
  • Table 175: Market challenges rating for graphene in the sensors market………………………………… 441
  • Table 176: Graphene product and application developers in the sensors industry…………………… 441
  • Table 177: Types of smart textiles……………………………………………………………………………………………. 444
  • Table 178: Smart textile products……………………………………………………………………………………………… 444
  • Table 179: Market drivers for use of graphene in smart textiles and apparel……………………………. 445
  • Table 180: Desirable functional properties for the textiles industry afforded by the use of nanomaterials……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 447
  • Table 181: Applications and benefits of graphene in textiles and apparel………………………………… 449
  • Table 182: Global market for smart clothing and apparel, 2014-2021, units and revenues (US$). 450
  • Table 183: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in smart textiles and apparel……………. 452
  • Table 184: Market impediments for graphene in textiles…………………………………………………………… 453
  • Table 185: Market challenges for graphene in textiles and apparel………………………………………….. 453
  • Table 186:  Graphene product and application developers in the textiles industry…………………… 454
  • Table 187: Market drivers for use of graphene in conductive inks……………………………………………. 455
  • Table 188: Comparative properties of conductive inks……………………………………………………………… 456
  • Table 189: Opportunities for graphene and 2D materials in printed electronics……………………….. 460
  • Table 190: Potential addressable market for graphene in conductive inks……………………………….. 461
  • Table 191: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in conductive inks……………………………. 463
  • Table 192: Market impediments for graphene in conductive inks……………………………………………… 464
  • Table 193: Graphene product and application developers in conductive inks………………………….. 464
  • Table 194: Market drivers for use of graphene in 3D printing…………………………………………………… 466
  • Table 195: Graphene properties relevant to application in 3D printing……………………………………… 467
  • Table 196: Market size for graphene  in 3D printing…………………………………………………………………. 468
  • Table 197: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in 3D printing…………………………………… 468
  • Table 198: Market challenges rating for nanotechnology and nanomaterials in the 3D printing market…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 469
  • Table 199: Graphene product and application developers in the 3D printing industry………………. 470
  • Table 200: Graphene producers and types produced………………………………………………………………. 471
  • Table 113: Graphene producers target market matrix………………………………………………………………. 476
  • Table 114: Graphene industrial collaborations, licence agreements and target markets………….. 550
  • Table 115: Graphene product developers and end users target market matrix………………………… 553

FIGURES

  • Figure 1: Global market for graphene 2010-2027 in tons/year……………………………………………………. 50
  • Figure 2: Graphene production capacity, current and planned…………………………………………………… 51
  • Figure 2: Demand for graphene, by market, 2027………………………………………………………………………. 54
  • Figure 3: Global government funding for graphene in millions USD to 2015………………………………. 62
  • Figure 4: Global market for graphene 2010-2027 in tons/year……………………………………………………. 66
  • Figure 5: Global consumption of graphene 2016, by region……………………………………………………….. 69
  • Figure 36: 15-inch single-layer graphene sheet being prepared in the Chongqing Institute of Green and Intelligent Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences………………………………………………….. 73
  • Figure 6: Graphene layer structure schematic……………………………………………………………………………. 80
  • Figure 7: Graphite and graphene………………………………………………………………………………………………… 81
  • Figure 8: Graphene and its descendants: top right: graphene; top left: graphite = stacked graphene; bottom right: nanotube=rolled graphene; bottom left: fullerene=wrapped graphene. …………… 82
  • Figure 9: Schematic of (a) CQDs and (c) GQDs. HRTEM images of (b) C-dots and (d) GQDs showing combination of zigzag and armchair edges (positions marked as 1–4)…………………… 86
  • Figure 10: Green-fluorescing graphene quantum dots……………………………………………………………….. 88
  • Figure 11: Graphene quantum dots……………………………………………………………………………………………. 88
  • Figure 12: Graphene can be rolled up into a carbon nanotube, wrapped into a fullerene, and stacked into graphite…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 90
  • Figure 13: Black phosphorus structure……………………………………………………………………………………….. 97
  • Figure 14: Structural difference between graphene and C2N-h2D crystal: (a) graphene; (b) C2N-h2D crystal………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 100
  • Figure 15: Schematic of germanene…………………………………………………………………………………………. 102
  • Figure 16: Graphdiyne structure……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 104
  • Figure 17: Schematic of Graphane crystal………………………………………………………………………………… 106
  • Figure 18: Structure of hexagonal boron nitride………………………………………………………………………… 107
  • Figure 19: Structure of 2D molybdenum disulfide…………………………………………………………………….. 109
  • Figure 20: Atomic force microscopy image of a representative MoS2 thin-film transistor…………. 110
  • Figure 21: Schematic of the molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) thin-film sensor with the deposited molecules that create additional charge……………………………………………………………………………… 112
  • Figure 22: Schematic of a monolayer of rhenium disulphide…………………………………………………….. 113
  • Figure 23: Silicene structure……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 114
  • Figure 24: Monolayer silicene on a silver (111) substrate…………………………………………………………. 114
  • Figure 25: Silicene transistor…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 116
  • Figure 26: Crystal structure for stanene……………………………………………………………………………………. 117
  • Figure 27: Atomic structure model for the 2D stanene on Bi2Te3(111)……………………………………. 117
  • Figure 28: Schematic of tungsten diselenide……………………………………………………………………………. 118
  • Figure 29: Graphene synthesis methods………………………………………………………………………………….. 125
  • Figure 30: TEM micrographs of: A) HR-CNFs; B) GANF® HR-CNF, it can be observed its high graphitic structure; C) Unraveled ribbon from the HR-CNF; D) Detail of the ribbon; E) Scheme of the structure of the HR-CNFs; F) Large single graphene oxide sheets derived from GANF.. 126
  • Figure 31: Graphene nanoribbons grown on germanium…………………………………………………………. 129
  • Figure 32: Methods of synthesizing high-quality graphene……………………………………………………….. 131
  • Figure 33: Roll-to-roll graphene production process…………………………………………………………………. 137
  • Figure 34: Schematic of roll-to-roll manufacturing process……………………………………………………….. 138
  • Figure 35: Microwave irradiation of graphite to produce single-layer graphene………………………… 140
  • Figure 36: Schematic of typical commercialization route for graphene producer……………………… 144
  • Figure 37: Published patent publications for graphene, 2004-2014………………………………………….. 152
  • Figure 38: Technology Readiness Level (TRL) for graphene……………………………………………………. 156
  • Figure 39: Global market for graphene 2010-2027 in tons/year……………………………………………….. 206
  • Figure 41: Graphene Adhesives……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 219
  • Figure 42: Potential addressable market for graphene in adhesives………………………………………… 223
  • Figure 43: Potential addressable market for graphene in aerospace……………………………………….. 231
  • Figure 44: Potential addressable market for graphene-enabled applications in aerospace………. 232
  • Figure 45: Graphene-based automotive components……………………………………………………………….. 237
  • Figure 46: Antistatic graphene tire……………………………………………………………………………………………. 238
  • Figure 47: Potential addressable market for graphene in the automotive sector………………………. 242
  • Figure 48: Potential addressable market for graphene in the automotive sector………………………. 243
  • Figure 49: Graphene-based E-skin patch…………………………………………………………………………………. 250
  • Figure 50: Graphene Frontiers’ Six™ chemical sensors consists of a field effect transistor (FET) with a graphene channel. Receptor molecules, such as DNA, are attached directly to the graphene channel……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 256
  • Figure 51: Graphene-Oxide based chip prototypes for biopsy-free early cancer diagnosis………. 257
  • Figure 52: Potential addressable market for graphene-enabled applications in the biomedical and healthcare market……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 261
  • Figure 53: Heat transfer coating developed at MIT…………………………………………………………………… 272
  • Figure 54: Water permeation through a brick without (left) and with (right) “graphene paint” coating…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 277
  • Figure 55: Four layers of graphene oxide coatings on polycarbonate………………………………………. 280
  • Figure 56: Global Paints and Coatings Market, share by end user market……………………………….. 281
  • Figure 57: Potential addressable market for graphene in the coatings market…………………………. 287
  • Figure 58: Potential addressable market for graphene in the coatings market…………………………. 288
  • Figure 59: Potential addressable market for graphene in composites………………………………………. 300
  • Figure 60: Potential addressable market for graphene in the composites market…………………….. 302
  • Figure 21: Moxi flexible film developed for smartphone application………………………………………….. 311
  • Figure 61: Flexible graphene touch screen………………………………………………………………………………. 312
  • Figure 22: Galapad Settler smartphone……………………………………………………………………………………. 312
  • Figure 62: Flexible organic light emitting diode (OLED) using graphene electrode…………………… 314
  • Figure 63: Graphene electrochromic devices. Top left: Exploded-view illustration of the graphene electrochromic device. The device is formed by attaching two graphene-coated PVC substrates face-to-face and filling the gap with a liquid ionic electrolyte………………………………………………. 316
  • Figure 64: Flexible mobile phones with graphene transparent conductive film…………………………. 317
  • Figure 65: Foldable graphene E-paper…………………………………………………………………………………….. 317
  • Figure 66: Covestro wearables…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 319
  • Figure 67: Softceptor sensor…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 322
  • Figure 68: BeBop Media Arm Controller…………………………………………………………………………………… 323
  • Figure 69: LG Innotek flexible textile pressure sensor………………………………………………………………. 323
  • Figure 70: Wearable gas sensor………………………………………………………………………………………………. 325
  • Figure 71: Global touch panel market ($ million), 2011-2018……………………………………………………. 328
  • Figure 72: Capacitive touch panel market forecast by layer structure  (Ksqm)…………………………. 328
  • Figure 73: Global transparent conductive film market forecast (million $)………………………………… 329
  • Figure 74: Global transparent conductive film market forecast by materials type, 2015, %………. 329
  • Figure 75: Global transparent conductive film market forecast by materials type, 2020, %………. 330
  • Figure 76: Global transparent conductive film market forecast by materials type, 2027, %………. 330
  • Figure 77: Global market revenues for smart wearable devices 2014-2021, in US$………………… 331
  • Figure 78: Potential addressable market for graphene in flexible electronics, wearables, conductive films and displays……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 332
  • Figure 79: Potential addressable market for graphene in the flexible electronics, wearables, conductive films and displays market…………………………………………………………………………………. 333
  • Figure 80: Schematic of the wet roll-to-roll graphene transfer from copper foils to polymeric substrates…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 335
  • Figure 81: The transmittance of glass/ITO, glass/ITO/four organic layers, and glass/ITO/four organic layers/4-layer graphene………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 336
  • Figure 82: Graphene IC in wafer tester…………………………………………………………………………………….. 341
  • Figure 83: A monolayer WS2-based flexible transistor array……………………………………………………. 341
  • Figure 84: Schematic cross-section of a graphene based transistor (GBT, left) and a graphene field-effect transistor (GFET, right)……………………………………………………………………………………………… 343
  • Figure 85: Potential addressable market for graphene in transistors and integrated circuits……. 346
  • Figure 86: Potential addressable market for graphene in the transistors and integrated circuits market…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 347
  • Figure 87: Graphene oxide-based RRAm device on a flexible substrate………………………………….. 352
  • Figure 88: Layered structure of tantalum oxide, multilayer graphene and platinum used for resistive random access memory (RRAM)……………………………………………………………………………………….. 353
  • Figure 89: A schematic diagram for the mechanism of the resistive switching in metal/GO/Pt…. 354
  • Figure 90: Hybrid graphene phototransistors……………………………………………………………………………. 360
  • Figure 91: Wearable health monitor incorporating graphene photodetectors……………………………. 360
  • Figure 92: Flexible PEN coated with graphene and a QD thin film (20nm) is highly visibly transparent and photosensitive…………………………………………………………………………………………… 361
  • Figure 27: The SkelStart Engine Start Module 2.0 based on the graphene-based SkelCap ultracapacitors…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 366
  • Figure 93: H600 concept car…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 371
  • Figure 94: Anion concept car……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 371
  • Figure 95: Potential addressable market for graphene in the thin film, flexible and printed batteries market…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 375
  • Figure 96: Skeleton Technologies ultracapacitor………………………………………………………………………. 381
  • Figure 97: Zapgo supercapacitor phone charger………………………………………………………………………. 383
  • Figure 98: Solar cell with nanowires and graphene electrode…………………………………………………… 390
  • Figure 99: Potential addressable market for graphene in photovoltaics……………………………………. 393
  • Figure 100: Schematic of boron doped graphene for application in gas sensors……………………… 407
  • Figure 101: Directa Plus Grafysorber……………………………………………………………………………………….. 410
  • Figure 102: Nanometer-scale pores in single-layer freestanding graphene membrane can effectively filter NaCl salt from water……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 411
  • Figure 103: Degradation of organic dye molecules by graphene hybrid composite photocatalysts…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 419
  • Figure 104: Graphene anti-smog mask…………………………………………………………………………………….. 420
  • Figure 105: GFET sensors……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 435
  • Figure 106: First generation point of care diagnostics………………………………………………………………. 436
  • Figure 107: Graphene Field Effect Transistor Schematic…………………………………………………………. 437
  • Figure 108: Potential addressable market for graphene in the sensors market………………………… 442
  • Figure 109: Global market revenues for smart clothing and apparel 2014-2021, in US$………….. 452
  • Figure 110: Global market revenues for nanotech-enabled smart clothing and apparel 2014-2021, in US$, conservative estimate…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 453
  • Figure 111: Global market revenues for nanotech-enabled smart clothing and apparel 2014-2021, in US$, optimistic estimate………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 454
  • Figure 112: Graphene printed antenna…………………………………………………………………………………….. 460
  • Figure 113: BGT Materials graphene ink product……………………………………………………………………… 461
  • Figure 114: Vorbeck Materials conductive ink products……………………………………………………………. 462
  • Figure 115: Potential addressable market for graphene in the conductive ink market……………… 464
  • Figure 116: 3D Printed tweezers incorporating Carbon Nanotube Filament…………………………….. 469