Nanotechnology in Smart Textiles and Wearables

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Global Opportunity, Markets, Applications,  Technologies and Companies-Wearable electronics and sensors, medical and healthcare smart textiles and wearables, smart clothing and apparel, sportswear, wearable energy storage and harvesting

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Published: November 29 2016 | Content: 167 pages | Price: £1000 (PDF download) | Download Table of Contents

The number and variety of smart textiles and wearable electronic devices has increased significantly in the past few years, as they offer significant enhancements to human comfort, health and well-being. Wearable low-power silicon electronics, light-emitting diodes (LEDs) fabricated on fabrics, textiles with integrated Lithium-ion batteries (LIB) and electronic devices such as smart glasses, watches and lenses have been widely investigated and commercialized (e.g. Google glass, Apple Watch). There is increasing demand for wearable electronics from industries such as:

  • Medical and healthcare monitoring and diagnostics.
  • Sportswear and fitness monitoring (bands).
  • Consumer electronics such as smart watches, smart glasses and headsets.
  • Military GPS trackers, equipment (helmets) and wearable robots.
  • Smart apparel and footwear in fashion and sport.
  • Workplace safety and manufacturing.

However, improvements in sensors, flexible & printable electronics and energy devices are necessary for wider implementation and nanomaterials and/or their hybrids are enabling the next phase convergence of textiles, electronics and informatics. They are opening the way for the integration of electronic components and sensors (e.g. heat and humidity) in high strength, flexible and electrically conductive textiles with energy storage and harvesting capabilities, biological functions, antimicrobial properties, and many other new functionalities.

The industry is now moving towards the development of electronic devices with flexible, thin, and large-area form factors. Electronic devices that are fabricated on flexible substrates for application in flexible displays, electronic paper, smart packages, skin-like sensors, wearable electronics, implantable medical implements etc. is a fast growing market. Their future development depends greatly on the exploitation of advanced materials.

Nanomaterials such as carbon nanotubes (CNT), silver nanowires graphene and other 2D materials are viewed as key materials for the future development of wearable electronics for implementation in healthcare and fitness monitoring, electronic devices incorporated into clothing and ‘smart skin’ applications (printed graphene-based sensors integrated with other 2D materials for physiological monitoring).

Included in this report:

  • Market drivers and trends for smart textlles and wearables
  • How nanomaterials are applied in smart textiles and wearables
  • In-depth analysis of current state of the art and products in smart textiles and wearables
  • Product developer profiles
  • Market revenues for smart textiles and wearables across all markets
  • Nanotech opportunity and market revenues
  • Market challenges

 

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

1    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY………………………………………………………………… 17

1.1        What are smart textiles?…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 17

1.2        Nanotechnology and smart textile & wearable technology……………………………………….. 19

1.3        Growth in the wearable electronics market……………………………………………………………….. 21

1.3.1     Recent growth……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 21

1.3.2     Future growth………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 21

1.3.3     Nanotechnology as a market driver………………………………………………………………………. 22

1.4        Growth in remote health monitoring and diagnostics………………………………………………… 22

1.5        From rigid to flexible and stretchable………………………………………………………………………… 24

Executive summary
Executive summary
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2    RESEARCH METHODOLOGY………………………………………………………. 25

3    NANOMATERIALS………………………………………………………………………… 26

3.1        Properties of nanomaterials………………………………………………………………………………………. 26

3.2        Categorization…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 27

4    NANOMATERIALS IN TEXTILES………………………………………………….. 28

4.1        Why use “nanoTextiles”?…………………………………………………………………………………………… 29

4.1.1     Protective textiles…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 30

4.1.2     Electronic textiles…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 34

4.2        CARBON NANOTUBES…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 34

4.2.1     Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 35

4.2.2     Properties utilized in smart textiles and wearables……………………………………………….. 37

4.2.3     Applications in smart textiles and wearables………………………………………………………… 37

4.3        GRAPHENE………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 37

4.3.1     Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 38

4.3.2     Properties utilized in smart textiles and wearables……………………………………………….. 40

4.3.3     Applications in smart textiles and wearables………………………………………………………… 41

4.4        NANOCELLULOSE…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 41

4.4.1     Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 42

4.4.2     Properties utilized in smart textiles and wearables……………………………………………….. 46

4.4.3     Applications in smart textiles and wearables………………………………………………………… 46

4.5        NANOFIBERS……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 47

4.5.1     Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 48

4.5.2     Properties utilized in smart textiles and wearables……………………………………………….. 48

4.5.3     Applications in smart textiles and wearables………………………………………………………… 48

4.6        QUANTUM DOTS………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 49

4.6.1     Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 49

4.6.2     Properties utilized in smart textiles and wearables……………………………………………….. 51

4.6.3     Applications in smart textiles and wearables………………………………………………………… 51

4.7        SILVER NANOWIRES……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 51

4.7.1     Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 52

4.7.2     Properties utilized in smart textiles and wearables……………………………………………….. 52

4.7.3     Applications in smart textiles and wearables………………………………………………………… 53

4.8        OTHER NANOMATERIALS IN SMART TEXTILES AND WEARABLES…………………………. 53

4.8.1     Graphene and carbon quantum dots…………………………………………………………………….. 53

4.8.1.1      Properties……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 54

4.8.1.2      Applications in electronics…………………………………………………………………………….. 55

4.8.2     Black phosphorus/Phosphorene…………………………………………………………………………… 56

4.8.2.1      Properties……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 56

4.8.2.2      Applications in electronics…………………………………………………………………………….. 57

4.8.3     C2N………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 58

4.8.3.1      Properties……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 59

4.8.3.2      Applications in electronics…………………………………………………………………………….. 59

4.8.4     Germanene……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 59

4.8.4.1      Properties……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 60

4.8.4.2      Applications in electronics…………………………………………………………………………….. 60

4.8.5     Graphdiyne……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 60

4.8.5.1      Properties……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 61

4.8.5.2      Applications in electronics…………………………………………………………………………….. 61

4.8.6     Graphane………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 61

4.8.6.1      Properties……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 62

4.8.6.2      Applications in electronics…………………………………………………………………………….. 62

4.8.6.3      Properties……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 63

4.8.6.4      Applications in electronics…………………………………………………………………………….. 63

4.8.7     Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2)……………………………………………………………………………….. 64

4.8.7.1      Properties……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 64

4.8.7.2      Applications in electronics…………………………………………………………………………….. 65

4.8.8     Rhenium disulfide (ReS2) and diselenide (ReSe2)……………………………………………… 66

4.8.8.1      Properties……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 67

4.8.8.2      Applications in electronics…………………………………………………………………………….. 67

4.8.9     Silicene………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 67

4.8.9.1      Properties……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 68

4.8.9.2      Applications in electronics…………………………………………………………………………….. 69

4.8.10       Stanene/tinene………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 70

4.8.10.1    Properties……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 70

4.8.10.2    Applications in electronics…………………………………………………………………………….. 71

4.8.11       Tungsten diselenide………………………………………………………………………………………….. 71

4.8.11.1    Properties……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 72

4.8.11.2    Applications in electronics…………………………………………………………………………….. 72

Nanomaterials in textiles
Nanomaterials in textiles
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5    WEARABLE SENSORS AND ELECTRONIC TEXTILES…………….. 73

5.1        MARKET DRIVERS…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 73

5.1.1     Growth in the wearable electronics market…………………………………………………………… 73

5.1.2     ITO replacement for flexible electronics………………………………………………………………… 73

5.1.3     Energy needs of wearable devices……………………………………………………………………….. 75

5.1.4     Increased power and performance of sensors with reduced cost…………………………. 75

5.1.5     Growth in the printed sensors market……………………………………………………………………. 75

5.1.6     Growth in the home diagnostics and point of care market…………………………………….. 75

5.2        APPLICATIONS…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 76

5.2.1     Wearable electronics…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 76

5.2.1.1      Current state of the art…………………………………………………………………………………… 76

5.2.1.2      Nanotechnology solutions…………………………………………………………………………….. 78

5.2.1.3      Conductive inks…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 87

5.2.2     Wearable sensors…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 91

5.2.2.1      Current stage of the art………………………………………………………………………………….. 91

5.2.2.2      Nanotechnology solutions…………………………………………………………………………….. 93

5.2.2.3      Wearable gas sensors………………………………………………………………………………….. 96

5.2.2.4      Wearable strain sensors……………………………………………………………………………….. 97

5.2.2.5      Wearable tactile sensors………………………………………………………………………………. 97

5.3        GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY…………………………………………………………. 98

5.3.1     Global market revenues………………………………………………………………………………………… 98

5.3.2     Nanotech opportunity……………………………………………………………………………………………. 99

5.3.3     Market challenges……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 100

5.3.3.1      Manufacturing……………………………………………………………………………………………… 100

5.3.3.2      Integration…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 100

5.3.3.3      Competing materials…………………………………………………………………………………… 101

5.3.3.4      Cost of nanomaterials…………………………………………………………………………………. 101

5.3.3.5      Sensor selectivity and recovery………………………………………………………………….. 101

5.4        PRODUCT DEVELOPERS……………………………………………………………………………………… 102-112 (28 company profiles)

The market for wearable sensors and electronic textiles
The market for wearable sensors and electronic textiles
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6    MEDICAL AND HEALTHCARE SMART TEXTILES AND WEARABLES       113

6.1        MARKET DRIVERS…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 113

6.1.1     Universal to individualized medicine………………………………………………………………….. 113

6.1.2     Growth in the wearable monitoring market…………………………………………………………. 113

6.1.3     Need for new materials for continuous health monitoring and adaptability………… 114

6.2        APPLICATIONS……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 115

6.2.1     Current state of the art…………………………………………………………………………………………. 115

6.2.2     Nanotechnology solutions…………………………………………………………………………………… 118

6.2.2.1      Flexible/stretchable health monitors…………………………………………………………… 119

6.2.2.2      Patch-type skin sensors………………………………………………………………………………. 120

6.3        GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY……………………………………………………….. 122

6.3.1     Global market revenues………………………………………………………………………………………. 122

6.3.2     Nanotech opportunity………………………………………………………………………………………….. 123

6.3.3     Market challenges……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 124

6.4        PRODUCT DEVELOPERS……………………………………………………………………………………… 124-126

(6 company profiles)

The market for medical and healthcare smart textiles and wearables
The market for medical and healthcare smart textiles and wearables
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7    SMART CLOTHING AND APPAREL INCLUDING SPORTSWEAR 127

7.1        MARKET DRIVERS…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 127

7.1.1     Reduction in size, appearance and cost of sensors……………………………………………. 127

7.1.2     Increasing demand for smart fitness clothing……………………………………………………… 127

7.1.3     Improved medical analysis………………………………………………………………………………….. 127

7.1.4     Smart workwear for improved worker safety……………………………………………………….. 128

7.2        APPLICATIONS……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 128

7.2.1     Current state of the art…………………………………………………………………………………………. 128

7.2.2     Nanotechnology solutions…………………………………………………………………………………… 130

7.3        MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY………………………………………………………………………. 131

7.3.1     Global market revenues………………………………………………………………………………………. 131

7.3.2     Nanotech opportunity………………………………………………………………………………………….. 132

7.3.3     Market challenges……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 134

7.4        PRODUCT DEVELOPERS……………………………………………………………………………………… 135-138 (8 company profiles)

The market for smart clothing and apparel
The market for smart clothing and apparel
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8    WEARABLE ENERGY STORAGE AND HARVESTING DEVICES 138

8.1        MARKET DRIVERS…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 138

8.1.1     Inadequacies of current battery technology for wearables…………………………………. 138

8.1.2     Need for flexible power sources………………………………………………………………………….. 139

8.1.3     Energy harvesting for “disappearables”……………………………………………………………… 139

8.2        APPLICATIONS……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 140

8.2.1     Current state of the art…………………………………………………………………………………………. 140

8.2.2     Nanotechnology solutions…………………………………………………………………………………… 142

8.2.2.1      Flexible and stretchable batteries……………………………………………………………….. 142

8.2.2.2      Flexible and stretchable supercapacitors…………………………………………………… 143

8.2.2.3      Solar energy harvesting textiles………………………………………………………………….. 145

8.3        GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY……………………………………………………….. 147

8.3.1     Global market revenues………………………………………………………………………………………. 147

8.3.2     Nanotech opportunity………………………………………………………………………………………….. 150

8.3.3     Market challenges……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 151

8.4        PRODUCT DEVELOPERS……………………………………………………………………………………… 152-154 (6 company profiles)

9    REFERENCES……………………………………………………………………………… 154

The market for wearable energy storage and harvesting devices
The market for wearable energy storage and harvesting devices
PDF download.

TABLES

Table 1: Types of smart textiles………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 17

Table 2: Smart textile products…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 18

Table 3: Evolution of wearable devices, 2011-2016………………………………………………………………….. 19

Table 4: Categorization of nanomaterials………………………………………………………………………………….. 27

Table 5: Desirable functional properties for the textiles industry afforded by the use of nanomaterials.           29

Table 6: Nanocoatings applied in the textiles industry-type of coating, nanomaterials utilized, benefits and applications.  30

Table 7: Market summary for carbon nanotubes-Selling grade particle diameter, usage, advantages, average price/ton, high volume applications, low volume applications and novel applications……………………………….. 34

Table 8: Properties of CNTs and comparable materials……………………………………………………………. 36

Table 9: Market summary for graphene-Selling grade particle diameter, usage, advantages, average price/ton, high volume applications, low volume applications and novel applications……………………………………………. 37

Table 10: Properties of graphene………………………………………………………………………………………………. 38

Table 11: Market summary for nanocellulose-Selling grade particle diameter, usage, advantages, average price/ton, high volume applications, low volume applications and novel applications……………………………………………. 41

Table 12: Nanocellulose properties…………………………………………………………………………………………… 44

Table 13: Properties and applications of nanocellulose……………………………………………………………. 45

Table 14: Market summary for nanofibers- Selling grade particle diameter, advantages, average price/ton, high volume applications, low volume applications and novel applications……………………………………………. 47

Table 15: Market summary for nanowires-Selling grade particle diameter, usage, advantages, average price/ton, market estimates, high volume applications, low volume applications and novel applications……………………….. 51

Table 16: Schematic of (a) CQDs and (c) GQDs. HRTEM images of (b) C-dots and (d) GQDs showing combination of zigzag and armchair edges (positions marked as 1–4…………………………………………………………………………… 54

Table 17: Properties of graphene quantum dots……………………………………………………………………….. 54

Table 18: Electronic and mechanical properties of monolayer phosphorene, graphene and MoS2.     57

Table 19: Comparison of ITO replacements………………………………………………………………………………. 74

Table 20: Wearable electronics devices and stage of development…………………………………………. 77

Table 21: Applications in wearable electronics, by nanomaterials type and benefits thereof…… 79

Table 22: Applications in conductive inks by nanomaterials type and benefits thereof…………….. 88

Table 23: Graphene properties relevant to application in sensors……………………………………………. 96

Table 24: Global market for wearables, 2014-2021, units and US$………………………………………….. 98

Table 25: Wearable medical device products and stage of development……………………………….. 115

Table 26: Applications in flexible and stretchable health monitors, by nanomaterials type and benefits thereof.       119

Table 27: Applications in patch-type skin sensors, by nanomaterials type and benefits thereof. 122

Table 28: Potential addressable market for smart textiles and wearables in medical and healthcare.  122

Table 29: Currently available technologies for smart textiles………………………………………………….. 128

Table 30: Smart clothing and apparel and stage of development…………………………………………… 129

Table 31: Desirable functional properties for the textiles industry afforded by the use of nanomaterials.         130

Table 32: Global market for smart clothing and apparel, 2014-2021, units and revenues (US$). 132

Table 33: Market assessment for the nanotechnology in the smart clothing and apparel market. 134

Table 34: Wearable energy and energy harvesting devices and stage of development………… 141

Table 35: Applications in flexible and stretchable batteries, by nanomaterials type and benefits thereof.        143

Table 36: Applications in flexible and stretchable supercapacitors, by nanomaterials type and benefits thereof.      145

Table 37: Applications in energy harvesting textiles, by nanomaterials type and benefits thereof. 147

Table 38: Potential addressable market for thin film, flexible and printed batteries………………… 147

Table 39: Market assessment for the nanotechnology in the wearable energy storage (printed and flexible battery) market.         150

Table 40: Market assessment for the nanotechnology in the wearable energy harvesting market. 151

Table 41: Market challenges rating for nanotechnology and nanomaterials in the wearable energy storage and harvesting market…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 152

 

FIGURES

Figure 1: Evolution of electronics……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 19

Figure 2: Wearable health monitor incorporating graphene photodetectors…………………………….. 23

Figure 3: Polyera Wove Band…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 24

Figure 4: Graphene layer structure schematic…………………………………………………………………………… 40

Figure 5: Hierarchical Structure of Wood Biomass…………………………………………………………………….. 43

Figure 6: Types of nanocellulose……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 44

Figure 7: LEDs shining on circuitry imprinted on a 5x5cm sheet of CNF…………………………………… 47

Figure 8: Quantum dot……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 49

Figure 9: The light-blue curve represents a typical spectrum from a conventional white-LED LCD TV. With quantum dots, the spectrum is tunable to any colours of red, green, and blue, and each Color is limited to a narrow band.  50

Figure 10: Black phosphorus structure………………………………………………………………………………………. 56

Figure 11: Structural difference between graphene and C2N-h2D crystal: (a) graphene; (b) C2N-h2D crystal.         58

Figure 12: Schematic of germanene………………………………………………………………………………………….. 59

Figure 13: Graphdiyne structure………………………………………………………………………………………………… 61

Figure 14: Schematic of Graphane crystal…………………………………………………………………………………. 62

Figure 15: Structure of hexagonal boron nitride………………………………………………………………………… 63

Figure 16: Structure of 2D molybdenum disulfide……………………………………………………………………… 64

Figure 17: Atomic force microscopy image of a representative MoS2 thin-film transistor………….. 65

Figure 18: Schematic of the molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) thin-film sensor with the deposited molecules that create additional charge………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 66

Figure 19: Schematic of a monolayer of rhenium disulphide…………………………………………………….. 67

Figure 20: Silicene structure………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 68

Figure 21: Monolayer silicene on a silver (111) substrate…………………………………………………………. 69

Figure 22: Silicene transistor……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 70

Figure 23: Crystal structure for stanene……………………………………………………………………………………… 70

Figure 24: Atomic structure model for the 2D stanene on Bi2Te3(111)…………………………………….. 71

Figure 25: Schematic of tungsten diselenide…………………………………………………………………………….. 72

Figure 26: Covestro wearables………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 78

Figure 27: Panasonic CTN stretchable Resin Film……………………………………………………………………. 79

Figure 28: Bending durability of Ag nanowires………………………………………………………………………….. 84

Figure 29: NFC computer chip…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 85

Figure 30: NFC translucent diffuser schematic………………………………………………………………………….. 86

Figure 31: Graphene printed antenna……………………………………………………………………………………….. 89

Figure 32: BGT Materials graphene ink product………………………………………………………………………… 91

Figure 33: Softceptor sensor………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 92

Figure 34: BeBop Media Arm Controller……………………………………………………………………………………. 93

Figure 35: LG Innotek flexible textile pressure sensor……………………………………………………………….. 93

Figure 36: <hitoe> nanofiber conductive shirt original design(top) and current design (bottom). 94

Figure 37: Garment-based printable electrodes………………………………………………………………………… 95

Figure 38: Wearable gas sensor………………………………………………………………………………………………… 97

Figure 39: Global market revenues for smart wearable devices 2014-2021, in US$………………… 98

Figure 40: Global market revenues for nanotech-enabled smart wearable devices 2014-2021 in US$, conservative estimate.     99

Figure 41: Global market revenues for nanotech-enabled smart wearable devices 2014-2021 in US$, optimistic estimate.           100

Figure 42: TempTraQ wearable wireless thermometer……………………………………………………………. 114

Figure 43: Graphene-based E-skin patch………………………………………………………………………………… 115

Figure 44: Flexible, lightweight temperature sensor………………………………………………………………… 115

Figure 45: Smart e-skin system comprising health-monitoring sensors, displays, and ultra flexible PLEDs.   120

Figure 46: Graphene medical patch………………………………………………………………………………………… 121

Figure 47: Potential addressable market for nanotech-enabled medical smart textiles and wearables.           123

Figure 48: Global market revenues for smart clothing and apparel 2014-2021, in US$…………. 132

Figure 49: Global market revenues for nanotech-enabled smart clothing and apparel 2014-2021, in US$, conservative estimate…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 133

Figure 50: Global market revenues for nanotech-enabled smart clothing and apparel 2014-2021, in US$, optimistic estimate.    134

Figure 51: Energy harvesting textile………………………………………………………………………………………… 139

Figure 52: StretchSense Energy Harvesting Kit………………………………………………………………………. 140

Figure 53: LG Chem Heaxagonal battery………………………………………………………………………………… 141

Figure 54: Energy densities and specific energy of rechargeable batteries……………………………. 144

Figure 55: Stretchable graphene supercapacitor…………………………………………………………………….. 145

Figure 56: Schematic illustration of the fabrication concept for textile-based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) made by sewing textile electrodes onto cloth or paper…………………………………………………………………………………. 146

Figure 57: Demand for thin film, flexible and printed batteries 2015, by market……………………… 149

Figure 58: Demand for thin film, flexible and printed batteries 2025, by market……………………… 149

Figure 59: Potential addressable market for nanotech-enabled thin film, flexible or printed batteries.  150