The Global Market for Cellulose Nanofibers

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Capture NFc

Revised April 2017 | 313 pages | Table of contents

The global nanocellulose market comprises:

  • Micro/nanofibrillar cellulose, cellulose nanofibers (MFC/NFC/CNF).
  • Nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC/CNC) and
  • Bacterial cellulose (BC)

However cellulose nanofibers represent the vast majority of this market (>90%). Most major paper manufacturers, faced with reduced market demand for paper are seeking to exploit the remarkable properties of cellulose nanofibers. The market is growing fast in Japan with large paper manufacturers such as Nippon Paper and Oji Holdings establishing multi-ton cellulose nanofiber production facilities. Asahi Kasei, Japan’s leading chemicals manufacturer recently announced plans for cellulose nanofiber production, with trial production starting next year. Facilities have also been established in Europe (mainly Scandanavia), Canada and the United States. Products are available for commercial trials and will find wider application in packaging and composites over the next few years.

Report contents include:

  • Global production capacities
  • Current products.
  • Stage of commercialization for cellulose nanofiber applications by company.
  • Market drivers, trends and challenges, by target markets.
  • In-depth market assessment of opportunities for cellulose nanofibers including potential revenues, growth rates, pricing, most likely applications and market challenges.
  • In-depth company profiles, include products, capacities, production processes and commmercial activities.

Companies profiled in the report American Process, Inc., Imerys, Innventia AB, Asahi Kasei, Chuetsu Pulp & Paper Daicel, Daiichi Kogyo, Daio Paper, Nippon Paper, Oji Holdings, Sugino Machine, Seiko PMC, StoraEnso and Borregaard.

 

The Global Market for Cellulose Nanofibers
The Global Market for Cellulose Nanofibers
PDF download.
The Global Market for Cellulose Nanofibers
The Global Market for Cellulose Nanofibers
Print edition.
The Global Market for Cellulose Nanofibers
The Global Market for Cellulose Nanofibers
PDF download and print edition.

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Future Markets, Inc,
Phone: +44 (0) 207 112 7500
Mobile: +44 (0) 7886128735
Email: info@futuremarketsinc.com

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1    RESEARCH METHODOLOGY………………………………………………… 25

1.1    MARKET OPPORTUNITY ANALYSIS……………………………………………………………………………. 26

1.2    COMMERCIAL IMPACT RATING SYSTEM…………………………………………………………………… 28

1.3    MARKET CHALLENGES RATING SYSTEM…………………………………………………………………. 29

2    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY…………………………………………………………. 31

2.1    Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 32

2.2    Production………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 36

2.3    Market drivers………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 37

2.3.1     Sustainable materials…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 37

2.3.2     Improved products…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 38

2.3.3     Unique properties…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 38

2.3.4     Recent improvements in production and product integration…………………………………. 39

2.4    Market and technical challenges…………………………………………………………………………………….. 39

2.4.1     Characterization…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 39

2.4.2     Production……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 39

2.4.3     Functionalization…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 40

2.4.4     Moisture absorption and aggregation…………………………………………………………………….. 40

2.4.5     Scalability……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 40

2.4.6     Lack of current products…………………………………………………………………………………………. 40

2.5    Market size…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 43

3    NANOCELLULOSE………………………………………………………………… 47

3.1    What is nanocellulose?…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 47

3.2    Types of nanocellulose…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 48

3.2.1     NanoFibrillar Cellulose (NFC)………………………………………………………………………………… 51

3.2.1.1       Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 51

3.2.1.2       Production methods………………………………………………………………………………………. 52

3.2.2     NanoCrystalline Cellulose (NCC)…………………………………………………………………………… 54

3.2.2.1       Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 55

3.2.3     Bacterial Cellulose (BCC)………………………………………………………………………………………. 56

3.2.3.1       Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 56

3.3    Synthesis of cellulose materials……………………………………………………………………………………… 57

3.3.1     Microcrystalline cellulose (MCC)……………………………………………………………………………. 57

3.3.2     Microfibrillated cellulose (MFC)………………………………………………………………………………. 58

3.3.3     Nanofibrillated cellulose (MFC)………………………………………………………………………………. 58

3.3.4     Cellulose nanocrystals (CNC)………………………………………………………………………………… 59

3.3.5     Bacterial cellulose particles (CNC)…………………………………………………………………………. 60

3.4    Properties of nanocellulose…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 60

3.5    Advantages of nanocellulose………………………………………………………………………………………….. 61

3.6    Manufacture of nanocellulose………………………………………………………………………………………… 62

3.7    Production methods……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 63

3.7.1     Nanofibrillated cellulose production methods…………………………………………………………. 65

4    CELLULOSE NANOFIBERS MARKET STRUCTURE………………… 66

5    SWOT ANALYSIS FOR CELLULOSE NANOFIBERS………………… 73

6    REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS…………………………………………. 75

6.1    Standards……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 75

6.1.1     International Standards Organization (ISO)……………………………………………………………. 75

6.1.2     American National Standards………………………………………………………………………………… 75

6.1.3     CSA Group…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 75

6.2    Toxicity…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 76

6.3    Regulation………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 78

7    REGIONAL INITIATIVES AND GOVERNMENT FUNDING………….. 80

8    CELLULOSE NANOFIBERS APPLICATIONS…………………………… 81

9    CELLULOSE NANOFIBERS TECHNOLOGY READINESS LEVEL (TRL)………………………………………………………………………………………… 82

10 CELLULOSE NANOFIBERS END USER MARKET SEGMENT ANALYSIS………………………………………………………………………………… 84

10.1      Production of nanocellulose……………………………………………………………………………………….. 84

10.1.1        Microfibrillated cellulose…………………………………………………………………………………….. 84

10.1.2        Cellulose nanofiber production…………………………………………………………………………… 84

10.1.3        Production volumes, by region…………………………………………………………………………… 85

10.1.4        Prices…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 86

10.2      Nanocellulose patents & publications…………………………………………………………………………. 88

11 COMPOSITES……………………………………………………………………….. 91

11.1      MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………………………………………… 91

11.1.1        Growing use of polymer composites………………………………………………………………….. 91

11.1.2        Increased need for advanced, protective materials……………………………………………. 92

11.1.3        Improved multi-functional performance over traditional composites-green AND strong        92

11.1.4        Multi-functionality……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 93

11.1.5        Growth in the wind energy market……………………………………………………………………… 93

11.1.6        Environmental impact of carbon fibers……………………………………………………………….. 93

11.1.7        Shortcomings of natural fiber composites and glass fiber reinforced composites. 94

11.2      APPLICATIONS…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 95

11.2.1        Applications by cellulose type…………………………………………………………………………….. 95

11.2.2        Applications timeline………………………………………………………………………………………….. 96

11.2.3        Market opportunity……………………………………………………………………………………………… 97

11.2.4        Applications and market size……………………………………………………………………………… 99

11.2.5        Biopackaging……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 100

11.2.5.1     Market drivers and trends……………………………………………………………………………. 100

11.2.5.2     Applications…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 105

11.2.5.3     Market size………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 107

11.2.5.4     Nanocellulose opportunity……………………………………………………………………………. 107

11.2.5.5     Market challenges……………………………………………………………………………………….. 110

11.2.5.6     Commercial activity……………………………………………………………………………………… 111

11.2.6        Aerospace……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 112

11.2.6.1     Market drivers and trends……………………………………………………………………………. 112

11.2.6.2     Applications…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 114

11.2.6.3     Market size………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 114

11.2.6.4     Market challenges……………………………………………………………………………………….. 115

11.2.7        Automotive……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 116

11.2.7.1     Market drivers and trends……………………………………………………………………………. 116

11.2.7.2     Safety…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 118

11.2.7.3     Cost……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 119

11.2.7.4     Applications…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 119

11.2.7.5     Market size………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 120

11.2.7.6     Cellulose nanofibers opportunity………………………………………………………………….. 120

11.2.7.7     Market challenges……………………………………………………………………………………….. 123

11.2.7.8     Commercial activity……………………………………………………………………………………… 124

11.2.8        Construction & building……………………………………………………………………………………. 125

11.2.8.1     Market drivers and trends……………………………………………………………………………. 125

11.2.8.2     Applications…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 125

11.2.8.3     Market size………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 126

11.2.8.4     Market challenges……………………………………………………………………………………….. 126

11.2.9        Commercial activity………………………………………………………………………………………….. 127

12 PAPER & BOARD………………………………………………………………… 131

12.1      Market drivers and trends………………………………………………………………………………………… 131

12.1.1        Environmental………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 131

12.1.2        Need to develop innovative new products in the paper and board industry……… 131

12.2      Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 131

12.2.1.1     Paper packaging………………………………………………………………………………………….. 133

12.2.1.2     Paper coatings…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 133

12.2.1.3     Anti-microbials……………………………………………………………………………………………… 133

12.3      Market size………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 134

12.4      Nanocellulose opportunity………………………………………………………………………………………… 136

12.5      Market challenges……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 136

12.6      Commercial activity………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 137

13 TEXTILES……………………………………………………………………………. 139

13.1      Market drivers for nanocellulose………………………………………………………………………………. 139

13.1.1.1     Growth in the wearable electronics market………………………………………………….. 139

13.1.1.2     Growth in the market for anti-microbial textiles……………………………………………. 139

13.1.1.3     Need to improve the properties of cloth or fabric materials………………………….. 140

13.1.1.4     Environmental and regulatory……………………………………………………………………… 141

13.2      Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 141

13.3      Nanocellulose opportunity………………………………………………………………………………………… 143

13.4      Market challenges……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 145

13.5      Commercial activity………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 146

14 MEDICAL & HEALTHCARE………………………………………………….. 147

14.1      Market drivers and trends………………………………………………………………………………………… 148

14.1.1        Improved drug delivery for cancer therapy………………………………………………………. 148

14.1.2        Shortcomings of chemotherapies…………………………………………………………………….. 148

14.1.3        Biocompatibility of medical implants………………………………………………………………… 148

14.1.4        Anti-biotic resistance………………………………………………………………………………………… 149

14.1.5        Growth in advanced woundcare market…………………………………………………………… 149

14.2      Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 149

14.2.1.1     Drug delivery……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 150

14.2.1.2     Medical implants………………………………………………………………………………………….. 150

14.2.1.3     Tissue engineering………………………………………………………………………………………. 151

14.2.1.4     Wound dressings…………………………………………………………………………………………. 151

14.2.1.5     Laterial flow immunosay labels……………………………………………………………………. 152

14.3      Market size………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 152

14.4      Nanocellulose opportunity………………………………………………………………………………………… 153

14.5      Commercial activity………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 153

15 COATINGS, FILMS & PAINTS……………………………………………….. 155

15.1      Market drivers and trends………………………………………………………………………………………… 155

15.1.1        Sustainable coating systems and materials……………………………………………………… 155

15.1.2        Chemical to bio-based……………………………………………………………………………………… 155

15.1.3        Increased demand for abrasion and scratch resistant coatings……………………….. 156

15.1.4        Increased demand for UV-resistant coatings…………………………………………………… 156

15.1.5        Growth in superhydrophobic coatings market………………………………………………….. 157

15.2      Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 158

15.2.1        Abrasion and scratch resistance………………………………………………………………………. 158

15.2.2        Wood coatings…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 159

15.2.3        Anti-counterfeiting films……………………………………………………………………………………. 159

15.2.4        Gas barriers……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 159

15.3      Market size………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 159

15.4      Nanocellulose opportunity………………………………………………………………………………………… 160

15.4.1        Market challenges……………………………………………………………………………………………. 163

15.4.1.1     High viscosity………………………………………………………………………………………………. 163

15.4.1.2     Moisture sorption…………………………………………………………………………………………. 163

15.4.1.3     Durability……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 164

15.4.1.4     Dispersion……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 164

15.4.1.5     Transparency………………………………………………………………………………………………. 164

15.4.1.6     Production, scalability and cost……………………………………………………………………. 165

15.5      Commercial activity………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 165

16 AEROGELS…………………………………………………………………………. 167

16.1      Market drivers and trends………………………………………………………………………………………… 167

16.1.1        Energy efficiency……………………………………………………………………………………………… 167

16.1.2        Demand for environmentally-friendly, lightweight materials……………………………… 167

16.2      Market size………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 167

16.3      Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 168

16.3.1        Thermal insulation……………………………………………………………………………………………. 168

16.3.2        Medical…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 168

16.3.3        Shape memory………………………………………………………………………………………………… 169

16.4      Nanocellulose product developers in aerogels…………………………………………………………. 169

17 OIL AND GAS EXPLORATION………………………………………………. 170

17.1      MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………………………………………. 170

17.1.1        Need to reduce operating costs and improve operation efficiency…………………… 170

17.1.2        Increased demands of drilling environments……………………………………………………. 171

17.1.3        Increased exploration in extreme environments………………………………………………. 172

17.1.4        Environmental and regulatory………………………………………………………………………….. 172

17.2      Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 173

17.2.1        Oil and fracking drilling fluids……………………………………………………………………………. 174

17.2.2        Extraction…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 175

17.3      Market size………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 175

17.4      Nanocellulose opportunity………………………………………………………………………………………… 176

17.5      Market challenges……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 177

17.6      Commercial activity………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 178

18 FILTRATION AND SEPARATION………………………………………….. 179

18.1      Market drivers and trends………………………………………………………………………………………… 179

18.1.1        Need for improved membrane technology……………………………………………………….. 179

18.1.2        Water shortage and population growth…………………………………………………………….. 180

18.1.3        Need for improved and low cost membrane technology………………………………….. 181

18.1.4        Need for improved groundwater treatment technologies………………………………….. 182

18.1.5        Cost and efficiency…………………………………………………………………………………………… 182

18.1.6        Growth in the air filter market…………………………………………………………………………… 182

18.1.7        Need for environmentally, safe filters……………………………………………………………….. 183

18.1.8        Recyclability of polymer membranes……………………………………………………………….. 183

18.2      Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 183

18.2.1        Water filtration………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 185

18.2.2        Air filtration……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 185

18.2.3        Virus filtration…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 186

18.3      Market size………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 187

18.4      Nanocellulose opportunity………………………………………………………………………………………… 188

18.5      Market challenges……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 189

18.6      Commercial activity………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 190

19 RHEOLOGY MODIFIERS……………………………………………………… 192

19.1      Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 192

19.1.1        Food………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 193

19.1.2        Pharmaceuticals………………………………………………………………………………………………. 193

19.1.3        Cosmetics………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 193

19.2      Commercial activity………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 194

20 PRINTED AND FLEXIBLE ELECTRONICS……………………………… 195

20.1      Market drivers and trends………………………………………………………………………………………… 195

20.1.1        Environmental………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 195

20.1.2        Flexible, wearable and paper electronics markets growing……………………………… 195

20.1.3        Need for improved barrier function…………………………………………………………………… 197

20.2      Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 197

20.2.1        Wearable electronics……………………………………………………………………………………….. 198

20.2.2        Flexible energy storage……………………………………………………………………………………. 201

20.2.3        Conductive inks……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 201

20.3      Market size………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 202

20.4      Nanocellulose opportunity………………………………………………………………………………………… 204

20.5      Market challenges……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 206

20.5.1.1     Manufacturing……………………………………………………………………………………………… 206

20.5.1.2     Integration……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 207

20.5.1.3     Competing materials……………………………………………………………………………………. 207

20.6      Commercial activity………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 208

21 3D PRINTING………………………………………………………………………. 209

21.1      Market drivers………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 209

21.1.1        Improved materials at lower cost……………………………………………………………………… 209

21.1.2        Limitations of current thermoplastics……………………………………………………………….. 209

21.2      Market size………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 209

21.3      Nanocellulose opportunity………………………………………………………………………………………… 210

21.4      Market challenges……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 211

21.5      Commercial activity………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 212

22 CELLULOSE NANOFIBERs/NANOFIBRILLAR CELLULOSE (NFC) PRODUCERS…………………………………………………………………………… 213

22.1      American Process, Inc……………………………………………………………………………………………… 215

22.1.1        Products…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 215

22.1.2        Production capacity………………………………………………………………………………………….. 217

22.1.3        Production process………………………………………………………………………………………….. 217

22.1.4        Commercial applications and target markets…………………………………………………… 218

22.1.5        Contact details…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 219

22.2      Ashai Kasei Chemicals Corporation…………………………………………………………………………. 219

22.2.1        Products…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 220

22.2.2        Production capacity………………………………………………………………………………………….. 221

22.2.3        Production process………………………………………………………………………………………….. 221

22.2.4        Commercial applications and target markets…………………………………………………… 223

22.2.5        Contact details…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 223

22.3      Borregaard Chemcell……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 223

22.3.1        Products…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 223

22.3.2        Production capacity………………………………………………………………………………………….. 224

22.3.3        Production process………………………………………………………………………………………….. 224

22.3.4        Commercial applications and targer markets…………………………………………………… 225

22.3.5        Contact details…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 226

22.4      Cellucomp Ltd………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 227

22.4.1        Products…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 227

22.4.2        Production capacity………………………………………………………………………………………….. 227

22.4.3        Production process………………………………………………………………………………………….. 227

22.4.4        Commercial applications and target markets…………………………………………………… 227

22.4.5        Contact details…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 229

22.5      Chuetsu Pulp & Paper Co., Ltd………………………………………………………………………………… 230

22.5.1        Products…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 230

22.5.2        Production capacity………………………………………………………………………………………….. 230

22.5.3        Production process………………………………………………………………………………………….. 230

22.5.4        Commercial applications and target markets…………………………………………………… 232

22.5.5        Contact details…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 232

22.6      Daicel Corporation……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 233

22.6.1        Products…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 233

22.6.2        Production capacity………………………………………………………………………………………….. 233

22.6.3        Production process………………………………………………………………………………………….. 233

22.6.4        Commercial applications and target markets…………………………………………………… 235

22.6.5        Contact details…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 235

22.7      Daio Paper Corporation……………………………………………………………………………………………. 236

22.7.1        Products…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 236

22.7.2        Production capacity………………………………………………………………………………………….. 236

22.7.3        Production process………………………………………………………………………………………….. 236

22.7.4        Commercial applications and target markets…………………………………………………… 238

22.7.5        Contact details…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 238

22.8      DIC Products, Inc…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 239

22.8.1        Products…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 239

22.8.2        Scale of facility…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 239

22.8.3        Production process………………………………………………………………………………………….. 239

22.8.4        Commercial applications and target markets, applications targeted and stage of commercialization…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 241

22.8.5        Contact details…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 241

22.9      DKS Co. Ltd…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 242

22.9.1        Products…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 242

22.9.2        Production capacity………………………………………………………………………………………….. 242

22.9.3        Production process………………………………………………………………………………………….. 242

22.9.4        Commercial applications and target markets, applications targeted and stage of commercialization…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 244

22.9.5        Contact details…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 244

22.10    Imerys………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 245

22.10.1      Products…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 245

22.10.2      Scale of facility…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 245

22.10.3      Production process………………………………………………………………………………………….. 245

22.10.4      Commercial applications and target markets…………………………………………………… 247

22.10.5      Contact details…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 247

22.11    Innventia AB…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 248

22.11.1      Products…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 248

22.11.2      Production capacity………………………………………………………………………………………….. 248

22.11.3      Production process………………………………………………………………………………………….. 248

22.11.4      Commercial applications and target markets…………………………………………………… 250

22.11.5      Contact details…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 250

22.12    Kruger Biomaterials, Inc…………………………………………………………………………………………… 251

22.12.1      Products…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 251

22.12.2      Production capacity………………………………………………………………………………………….. 251

22.12.3      Production process………………………………………………………………………………………….. 251

22.12.4      Commercial applications and target markets…………………………………………………… 252

22.12.5      Contact details…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 253

22.13    Nippon Paper Group, Inc…………………………………………………………………………………………. 254

22.13.1      Products…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 254

22.13.2      Production capacity………………………………………………………………………………………….. 254

22.13.3      Production process………………………………………………………………………………………….. 254

22.13.4      Commercial applications and target markets…………………………………………………… 256

22.13.5      Contact details…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 256

22.14    Oji Paper Company Ltd……………………………………………………………………………………………. 257

22.14.1      Products…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 257

22.14.2      Production capacity………………………………………………………………………………………….. 259

22.14.3      Production process………………………………………………………………………………………….. 259

22.14.4      Commercial applications and target markets…………………………………………………… 260

22.14.5      Contact details…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 261

22.15    Paperlogic………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 262

22.15.1      Products…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 262

22.15.2      Produciton capacity………………………………………………………………………………………….. 262

22.15.3      Production process………………………………………………………………………………………….. 262

22.15.4      Commercial applications and target markets, applications targeted and stage of commercialization…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 264

22.15.5      Contact details…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 264

22.16    Performance BioFilaments Inc…………………………………………………………………………………. 265

22.16.1      Products…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 265

22.16.2      Production capacity………………………………………………………………………………………….. 265

22.16.3      Production process………………………………………………………………………………………….. 265

22.16.4      Commercial applications and target markets…………………………………………………… 266

22.16.5      Contact details…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 267

22.17    Seiko PMC Corporation……………………………………………………………………………………………. 268

22.17.1      Products…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 268

22.17.2      Production capacity………………………………………………………………………………………….. 268

22.17.3      Production process………………………………………………………………………………………….. 268

22.17.4      Commercial applications and target markets…………………………………………………… 269

22.17.5      Contact details…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 270

22.18    Stora Enso Ltd…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 271

22.18.1      Products…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 271

22.18.2      Production capacity………………………………………………………………………………………….. 271

22.18.3      Production process………………………………………………………………………………………….. 271

22.18.4      Commercial applications and target markets…………………………………………………… 272

22.18.5      Contact details…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 272

22.19    Sugino Machine Limited…………………………………………………………………………………………… 273

22.19.1      Products…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 273

22.19.2      Production capacity………………………………………………………………………………………….. 273

22.19.3      Production process………………………………………………………………………………………….. 273

22.19.4      Commercial appliations and target markets…………………………………………………….. 274

22.19.5      Contact details…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 275

22.20    University of Maine…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 276

22.20.1      Products…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 276

22.20.2      Production capacity………………………………………………………………………………………….. 276

22.20.3      Production process………………………………………………………………………………………….. 277

22.20.4      Commercial applications and target markets…………………………………………………… 278

22.20.5      Contact details…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 278

22.21    UPM-Kymmene………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 279

22.21.1      Products…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 279

22.21.2      Production capacity………………………………………………………………………………………….. 279

22.21.3      Production process………………………………………………………………………………………….. 279

22.21.4      Commercial applications and target markets…………………………………………………… 280

22.21.5      Contact details…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 281

22.22    US Forest Service Forest Products Laboratory………………………………………………………… 282

22.22.1      Products…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 282

22.22.2      Production capacity………………………………………………………………………………………….. 282

22.22.3      Production process………………………………………………………………………………………….. 282

22.22.4      Commercial applications and target markets…………………………………………………… 283

22.22.5      Contact details…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 284

22.23    VTT Technical Research Centre………………………………………………………………………………. 286

22.23.1      Products…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 286

22.23.2      Production capacity………………………………………………………………………………………….. 287

22.23.3      Production process………………………………………………………………………………………….. 287

22.23.4      Commercial applications and target markets…………………………………………………… 289

22.23.5      Contact details…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 290

22.24    Zelfo Technology GmbH………………………………………………………………………………………….. 291

22.24.1      Products…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 291

22.24.2      Production capacity………………………………………………………………………………………….. 291

22.24.3      Production process………………………………………………………………………………………….. 291

22.24.4      Commercial applications and target markets…………………………………………………… 293

22.24.5      Contact details…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 293

22.25    OTHER PRODUCERS AND APPLICATION DEVELOPERS…………………………………… 294

22.25.1      Betulium Oy……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 294

22.25.2      Cellulose Lab…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 294

22.25.3      Cellutech AB……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 295

22.25.4      Centre Technique Du Papier/ Institut Technologique FCBA…………………………….. 295

22.25.5      Cerealus Holdings LLC……………………………………………………………………………………. 296

22.25.6      Denso Corporation…………………………………………………………………………………………… 297

22.25.7      FMC Biopolymer………………………………………………………………………………………………. 297

22.25.8      Greencore Composites, Inc……………………………………………………………………………… 298

22.25.9      J.Rettenmaier & Sohne GmbH………………………………………………………………………… 298

22.25.10        The Japan Steel Works, Ltd………………………………………………………………………… 299

22.25.11        JeNaCell GmbH…………………………………………………………………………………………… 300

22.25.12        Nanocrete Technologies……………………………………………………………………………… 300

22.25.13        Natural Friend……………………………………………………………………………………………… 301

22.25.14        Norske Skog ASA………………………………………………………………………………………… 301

22.25.15        Poly-Ink……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 302

22.25.16        Polynew, Inc………………………………………………………………………………………………… 302

22.25.17        Revolution Research, Inc…………………………………………………………………………….. 303

22.25.18        Sappi Limited……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 303

22.25.19        Tianjin Haojia Cellulose Co., Ltd………………………………………………………………….. 304

22.25.20        Valentis Nanotech……………………………………………………………………………………….. 304

22.25.21        Verso Corporation……………………………………………………………………………………….. 305

 

23 REFERENCES…………………………………………………………………….. 306

 

TABLES

Table 1: Markets and applications for nanocellulose………………………………………………………………….. 33

Table 2: Nanocellulose production plants worldwide and production status……………………………….. 36

Table 3: Potential volume estimates (tons) and penetration of nanocellulose into key markets…. 43

Table 4: Market summary for nanocellulose-Selling grade particle diameter, usage, advantages, average price/ton, market estimates, global consumption, main current applications, future applications…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 44

Table 5: Nanocellulose properties………………………………………………………………………………………………. 50

Table 6: Applications of nanofibrillar cellulose (NFC)………………………………………………………………….. 51

Table 7: Production methods of NFC producers…………………………………………………………………………. 52

Table 8: Applications of nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC)……………………………………………………………. 55

Table 9: Applications of bacterial cellulose (BC)…………………………………………………………………………. 56

Table 10: Microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) preparation methods, resulting materials and applications…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 57

Table 11: Microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) preparation methods, resulting materials and applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 58

Table 12: Nanofibrillated cellulose (MFC) preparation methods, resulting materials and applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 58

Table 13: Cellulose nanocrystals (MFC) preparation methods, resulting materials and applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 59

Table 14: Cellulose nanocrystals (MFC) preparation methods, resulting materials and applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 60

Table 15: Properties and applications of nanocellulose………………………………………………………………. 61

Table 16: Properties of cellulose nanofibrils relative to metallic and polymeric materials…………… 62

Table 17: Nanocellulose nanocrystal sources and scale…………………………………………………………….. 63

Table 18: Nanofibrillated cellulose production methods……………………………………………………………… 65

Table 19: Nanocellulose market structure…………………………………………………………………………………… 66

Table 20: Current and potential end users for cellulose nanofibers, by market and company……. 70

Table 21: SWOT analysis of cellulose nanofibers………………………………………………………………………. 73

Table 22: Safety of Micro/Nanofibrillated cellulose……………………………………………………………………… 76

Table 23: Potential high volume impact of nanocellulose and likelihood of market impact…………. 81

Table 24: Production capacities of CNF producers per annum in tons, current and planned……… 84

Table 25: Product/price/application matrix of cellulose nanofiber producers………………………………. 86

Table 26: Published patent publications for nanocellulose, 1997-2013………………………………………. 88

Table 27: Nanocellulose patents as of May 2015……………………………………………………………………….. 89

Table 28: Research publications on nanocellulose materials and composites, 1996-2013………… 89

Table 29: Comparative properties of polymer composites reinforcing materials…………………………. 94

Table 30: Equivalent cost of cellulose nanofibers and competitive materials in polymer composites………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 96

Table 31: Applications of cellulose nanofibers in polymer composites by cellulose type…………….. 96

Table 32: Cellulose nanofibers applications timeline in the polymer composites market……………. 96

Table 33: Application markets, competing materials, NFC advantages and current market size in polymer composites……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 97

Table 34: Market assessment for cellulose nanofibers in polymer composites…………………………… 97

Table 35: Market opportunity assessment for cellulose nanofibers in polymer composites………… 98

Table 36: Limitations of cellulose nanofibers in the development of polymer nanocomposites…… 99

Table 37: Application markets, competing materials, cellulose nanofibers advantages and current market size in polymer composites……………………………………………………………………………………….. 99

Table 38: Examples of antimicrobial immobilization into cellulose nanofibers………………………….. 104

Table 39: Oxygen permeability of nanocellulose films compared to those made form commercially available petroleum based materials and other polymers…………………………………………………… 106

Table 40: Market assessment for cellulose nanofibers in biopackaing……………………………………… 107

Table 41: Application markets, competing materials, NFC advantages and current market size in packaging…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 108

Table 42: Market opportunity assessment for cellulose nanofibers in bio packaging……………….. 110

Table 43: Market challenges rating for cellulose nanofibers in the biopackaging market………….. 111

Table 44: Companies developing cellulose nanofiber products in bio packaging, applications targeted and stage of commercialization…………………………………………………………………………….. 111

Table 45: Market challenges rating for cellulose nanofibers in the aerospace market……………… 115

Table 46: Applications of natural fiber composites in vehicles by manufacturers……………………… 118

Table 47: Application markets, competing materials, cellulose nanofibers advantages and current market size in the automotive sector…………………………………………………………………………………… 121

Table 48: Market assessment for cellulose nanofibers in the automotive sector………………………. 121

Table 49: Market opportunity assessment for cellulose nanofibers in the automotive industry…. 122

Table 50: Applications and commercialization challenges in the automotive market………………… 123

Table 51: Market challenges rating for cellulose nanofibers in the automotive market……………… 123

Table 52: Companies developing cellulose nanofibers products in the automotive industry, applications targeted and stage of commercialization………………………………………………………… 124

Table 53: Market challenges rating for cellulose nanofibers in the construction, building protection and architectural exterior coatings  market…………………………………………………………………………. 126

Table 54: Cellulose nanofibers in polymer composites-Companies and products……………………. 127

Table 55: Cellulose nanofibers applications timeline in the paper and board markets……………… 131

Table 56: Global packaging market, billions US$……………………………………………………………………… 134

Table 57: Market opportunity assessment for cellulose nanofibers in paper and board……………. 136

Table 58: Market challenges rating for cellulose nanofibers in the paper and board market…….. 137

Table 59: Companies developing cellulose nanofibers products in paper and board, applications targeted and stage of commercialization…………………………………………………………………………….. 137

Table 60: Desirable functional properties for the textiles industry afforded by the use of nanomaterials……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 142

Table 61: Market opportunity assessment for cellulose nanofibers in textiles…………………………… 143

Table 62: Potential volume estimates (tons) and penetration of cellulose nanofibers into textiles. 144

Table 63: Market assessment for cellulose nanofibers in textiles……………………………………………… 144

Table 64: Market challenges rating for cellulose nanofibers in the textiles and apparel market.. 145

Table 65: Companies developing cellulose nanofiber products in textiles, applications targeted and stage of commercialization…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 146

Table 66: Cellulose nanofiber applications timeline in the medical and healthcare markets…….. 149

Table 67: Cellulose nanofibers opportunity in the wound care market-applications, stage of commercialization and estimated economic impact……………………………………………………………. 153

Table 68: Cellulose nanofibers product developers in medical and healthcare applications…….. 153

Table 69: Nanocellulose applications timeline in the coatings and paints markets…………………… 158

Table 70: Market assessment for cellulose nanofibers in coatings and films……………………………. 161

Table 71: Application markets, competing materials, cellulose nanofibers advantages and current market size in coatings and films………………………………………………………………………………………… 162

Table 72: Market opportunity assessment for cellulose nanofibers in coatings and films…………. 163

Table 73: Market challenges rating for cellulose nanofibers in the coatings and films market….. 165

Table 74: Companies developing cellulose nanofiber products in paper coatings and non-packaging coating products, applications targeted and stage of commercialization…………………………….. 165

Table 75: Cellulose nanofiber applications timeline in the aerogels market……………………………… 168

Table 76: Nanocellulose product developers in aerogels………………………………………………………….. 169

Table 77: Cellulose nanofibers applications timeline in the oil market………………………………………. 173

Table 78: Application markets, competing materials, NFC advantages and current market size in oil and gas………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 176

Table 79: Market assessment for cellulose nanofibers in oil and gas……………………………………….. 176

Table 80: Cellulose nanofibers in the oil and gas market-applications, stage of commercialization and estimated economic impact…………………………………………………………………………………………. 177

Table 81: Market challenges rating for cellulose nanofibers in the oil and gas exploration market…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 177

Table 82: Cellulose nanofibers product developers in oil and gas exploration………………………….. 178

Table 83: Types of filtration………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 179

Table 84: CNF membranes………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 181

Table 85: Cellulose nanofibers applications timeline in the filtration market……………………………… 183

Table 86: Application markets, competing materials, cellulose nanofibers advantages and current market size in filtration………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 188

Table 87: Market assessment for cellulose nanofibers in filtration……………………………………………. 188

Table 88: Market opportunity assessment for cellulose nanofibers in the filtration industry……… 189

Table 89: Market challenges rating for cellulose nanofibers in the filtration market………………….. 190

Table 90: Companies developing NFC products in filtration, applications targeted and stage of commercialization……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 190

Table 91: Cellulose nanofibers applications timeline in the rheology modifiers market…………….. 192

Table 92: Commercial activity in cellulose nanofibers rheology modifiers………………………………… 194

Table 93: Properties of flexible electronics‐cellulose nanofiber film (nanopaper)……………………… 196

Table 94: ellulose nanofibers applications timeline in flexible electronics…………………………………. 197

Table 95: Global market for wearables, 2014-2021, units and US$………………………………………….. 202

Table 96: Application markets, competing materials, cellulose nanofibers advantages and current market size in electronics……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 204

Table 97: Market assessment for cellulose nanofibers in the flexible and printed electronics sector…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 205

Table 98: Market opportunity assessment for cellulose nanofibers in flexible electronics…………. 206

Table 99: Market challenges rating for cellulose nanofibers in the printed and flexible electronics market…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 207

Table 100: Companies developing cellulose nanofibers. products in paper electronics, applications targeted and stage of commercialization…………………………………………………………………………….. 208

Table 101: Application markets, competing materials, cellulose nanofibers advantages and current market size in 3D printing……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 210

Table 102: Market assessment for cellulose nanofibers in 3D printing……………………………………… 210

Table 103: Market opportunity assessment for cellulose nanofibers in 3D printing…………………… 211

Table 104: Market challenges rating for cellulose nanofibers in the 3D printing market……………. 211

Table 105: Companies developing cellulose nanofibers 3D printing products,…………………………. 212

Table 106: Nanocellulose producers and types of nanocellulose produced……………………………… 213

Table 107: Target market, by nanocellulose producer……………………………………………………………… 214

 

FIGURES

Figure 1: Scale of cellulose materials…………………………………………………………………………………………. 31

Figure 2: Cellulose nanofiber transparent sheet…………………………………………………………………………. 38

Figure 3: CNF transparent sheet………………………………………………………………………………………………… 41

Figure 4: Running shoes incorporating cellulose nanofibers………………………………………………………. 42

Figure 5: Ballpoint pen incorporating cellulose nanofibers………………………………………………………….. 43

Figure 6: CNF wet powder………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 43

Figure 7: Schematic diagram of partial molecular structure of cellulose chain with numbering for carbon atoms and n= number of cellobiose repeating unit……………………………………………………. 47

Figure 8: Types of nanocellulose………………………………………………………………………………………………… 49

Figure 9: Relationship between different kinds of nanocelluloses………………………………………………. 50

Figure 10: TEM image of cellulose nanocrystals………………………………………………………………………… 55

Figure 11: Main steps involved in the preparation of NCC………………………………………………………….. 64

Figure 12: Schematic of typical commercialization route for cellulose nanofiber producer…………. 66

Figure 13: Volume of industry demand for nanocellulose by nanocellulose producer sales……….. 70

Figure 14: Technology Readiness Level (TRL) for cellulose nanofibers…………………………………….. 83

Figure 15: Production volumes of nanocellulose 2015, by region………………………………………………. 86

Figure 16:  Nanocellulose patents by field of application……………………………………………………………. 90

Figure 17: Example process for producing NFC packaging film……………………………………………….. 104

Figure 18: Nanomaterials-based automotive components………………………………………………………… 119

Figure 19: Paper and board global demand……………………………………………………………………………… 135

Figure 20: Global Paints and Coatings Market, share by end user market……………………………….. 160

Figure 21: Nanocellulose sponge developed by EMPA for potential applications in oil recovery. 174

Figure 22: Nanocellulose virus filter paper………………………………………………………………………………… 187

Figure 23: LEDs shining on circuitry imprinted on a 5x5cm sheet of CNF………………………………… 198

Figure 24: NFC computer chip………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 200

Figure 25: NFC translucent diffuser schematic…………………………………………………………………………. 200

Figure 26: Nanocellulose photoluminescent paper…………………………………………………………………… 201

Figure 27: Global market revenues for smart wearable devices 2014-2021, in US$………………… 203

Figure 28: Global market revenues for nanotech-enabled smart wearable devices 2014-2021 in US$, conservative estimate………………………………………………………………………………………………… 203

Figure 29: Global market revenues for nanotech-enabled smart wearable devices 2014-2021 in US$, optimistic estimate……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 204

Figure 30: Asahi Kasei CNF fabric sheet………………………………………………………………………………….. 220

Figure 31: Properties of Asahi Kasei cellulose nanofiber nonwoven fabric………………………………. 220

Figure 32: CNF transparent film……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 257

Figure 33: CNF wet powder……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 258

Figure 34: Flexible electronic substrate made from CNF………………………………………………………….. 284

Figure 35: Bio-based barrier bags prepared from Tempo-CNF coated bio-HDPE film……………… 289