The Global Market for Graphene in Batteries and Supercapacitors

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With global energy demands ever increasing, allied to efforts to reduce the use of fossil fuel and eliminate air pollutions, it is now essential to provide efficient, cost-effective, and environmental friendly energy storage devices. The growing market for smart grit networks, electric vehicles (EVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) is also driving the market for improving the energy density of rechargeable batteries.

Rechargeable battery technologies (such as Li-ion, Li-S, Na-ion, Li-O2 batteries) and supercapacitors are among the most promising power storage and supply systems in terms of their wide spread applicability, and tremendous potential owing to their high energy and power densities. LIBs are currently the dominant mobile power sources for portable electronic devices used in cell phones and laptops.

Although great advances have been made, each type of battery still suffers from problems that seriously hinder the practical applications for example in commercial EVs and PHEVs. The performance of these devices is inherently tied to the properties of materials used to build them.

With renewable energy sources at peak interest in the scientific research community, technologies for storing high amounts of electric charge and energy are much sought after.  Electric vehicles, and enabling lithium-battery (LIB) technology, will become a progressively larger market-with estimates of CAGR of over 20% through to 2025.

Due to intrinsic properties such as high surface area and high conductivity, graphene and 2D materials nanocomposite hybrids are regarded as excellent candidates to improve the performance of electrode materials in energy storage/conversion devices (e.g., Li ion batteries, supercapacitors, fuel cells, and solar cells).

Graphene has unique properties for application in batteries and supercapacitors, including high specific surface area (2630 m2/g), good chemical stability and excellent electrical conductivity. These properties make graphene to be an excellent candidate as a catalyst support for energy conversion and storage applications. It is the most widely studied advanced material for energy storage. Graphene nanoplatelets can increase the effectiveness of lithium-ion batteries when used to formulate electrodes, yielding vastly shorter recharge times.

Applications under commercial development include ultra-small capacitors, flexible and stretchable energy-storage devices, transparent batteries, and high- capacity and fast-charging devices.

A number of companies are developing energy storage applications for graphene, where it could potentially replace the graphite electrodes found in batteries, supercapacitors and fuel cells. Most activity at present is utilizing graphene as a conductive additive for lithium-ion batteries (LIB) and supercapacitors.

Published April 2017 | 97 pages | Table of contents

Report contents include:

  • Current graphene battery and supercapacitor products.
  • Stage of commercialization for graphene applications, from basic research to market entry.
  • Market drivers, trends and challenges, by battery and supercapacitor markets.
  • In-depth market assessment of opportunities for graphene in batteries and supercapacitors including addressable market revenues, most likely applications and market challenges.
  • In-depth company profiles, including products and commercial activities.
  • Detailed forecasts for key growth areas and opportunities.
  • 27 company profiles. 27 company profiles. Companies profiled include Cabot Corporation, Dongxu Optoelectronic Technology, Grafoid, Grabat Energy, Huawei, Merck Performance Materials, MPhase, Sinode Systems, Vorbeck, BASF, Graphenhex and Skeleton Technologies.

 

The Global Market for Graphene in Batteries and Supercapacitors
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TABLE OF CONTENTS

1    RESEARCH METHODOLOGY………………………………………………… 11

1.1    Applications assessment………………………………………………………………………………………………… 11

1.1    Market opportunity analysis……………………………………………………………………………………………. 12

1.2    Market challenges rating system……………………………………………………………………………………. 13

2    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY…………………………………………………………. 16

2.1    Two-dimensional (2D) materials…………………………………………………………………………………….. 16

2.2    Graphene……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 16

2.2.1     The market in 2016………………………………………………………………………………………………… 17

2.2.2     Products…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 17

2.2.3     Short-term opportunities…………………………………………………………………………………………. 18

2.2.4     Medium-term opportunities…………………………………………………………………………………….. 19

2.2.5     Remarkable properties…………………………………………………………………………………………… 25

2.2.6     Global funding and initiatives…………………………………………………………………………………. 26

2.2.6.1       Europe…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 26

2.2.6.2       Asia……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 26

2.2.6.3       United States…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 27

2.2.7     Products and applications………………………………………………………………………………………. 28

2.2.8     Production……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 29

2.2.9     Market drivers and trends………………………………………………………………………………………. 31

2.2.9.1       Production exceeds demand…………………………………………………………………………. 31

2.2.9.2       Market revenues remain small………………………………………………………………………. 31

2.2.9.3       Scalability and cost………………………………………………………………………………………… 32

2.2.9.4       Applications hitting the market……………………………………………………………………….. 33

2.2.9.5       Wait and see?……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 34

2.2.9.6       Asia and US lead the race……………………………………………………………………………… 34

2.2.9.7       China commercializing at a fast rate……………………………………………………………… 35

2.2.9.8       Competition from other materials…………………………………………………………………… 35

2.2.10        Market and technical challenges………………………………………………………………………… 36

2.2.10.1     Inconsistent supply quality…………………………………………………………………………….. 36

2.2.10.2     Functionalization and dispersion……………………………………………………………………. 37

2.2.10.3     Cost……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 37

2.2.10.4     Product integration………………………………………………………………………………………… 37

2.2.10.5     Regulation and standards……………………………………………………………………………… 37

2.2.10.6     Lack of a band gap………………………………………………………………………………………… 38

3    PROPERTIES OF NANOMATERIALS………………………………………. 39

3.1    Categorization………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 40

4    OVERVIEW OF GRAPHENE…………………………………………………… 42

4.1    History……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 42

4.2    Forms of graphene…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 43

4.3    Properties……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 44

4.4    3D Graphene………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 46

4.5    Graphene Quantum Dots……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 46

4.5.1     Synthesis……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 47

4.5.2     Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 48

4.5.3     Producers………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 49

5    GRAPHENE IN ENERGY………………………………………………………… 50

6    GRAPHENE IN BATTERIES……………………………………………………. 52

6.1    MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS……………………………………………………………………………….. 52

6.2    PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS…………………………………………………………………………….. 54

6.2.1     Lithium-ion batteries (LIB)………………………………………………………………………………………. 54

6.2.2     Lithium-air batteries……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 55

6.2.3     Lithium–sulfur batteries (Li–S)……………………………………………………………………………….. 55

6.2.4       Sodium-ion batteries……………………………………………………………………………………… 55

6.3    GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY…………………………………………………………….. 55

6.4    PRODUCT DEVELOPERS…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 60-77 (30 company profiles)

6.5    MARKET CHALLENGES……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 78

 

7    GRAPHENE IN SUPERCAPACITORS……………………………………… 79

7.1    MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS……………………………………………………………………………….. 79

7.2    PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS…………………………………………………………………………….. 80

7.3    GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY…………………………………………………………….. 83

7.4    PRODUCT DEVELOPERS…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 84-91 (13 company profiles)

7.5    MARKET CHALLENGES……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 92

8    REFERENCES………………………………………………………………………. 94

 

TABLES

Table 1: Consumer products incorporating graphene…………………………………………………………………. 17

Table 2: Market opportunity assessment matrix for graphene applications………………………………… 21

Table 3: Graphene target markets-Applications potential addressable market size……………………. 28

Table 4: Main graphene producers by country and annual production capacities………………………. 30

Table 5: Graphene types and cost per kg…………………………………………………………………………………… 33

Table 6: Categorization of nanomaterials……………………………………………………………………………………. 40

Table 7: Properties of graphene…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 45

Table 8: Graphene quantum dot producers………………………………………………………………………………… 49

Table 9: Market drivers for use of graphene in batteries…………………………………………………………….. 52

Table 10: Market size for graphene in batteries………………………………………………………………………….. 57

Table 11: Potential addressable market for thin film, flexible and printed batteries…………………….. 57

Table 12: Market challenges for graphene in the batteries market……………………………………………… 78

Table 13: Market challenges rating for graphene in the batteries market……………………………………. 78

Table 14: Market drivers for use of graphene in supercapacitors……………………………………………….. 79

Table 15: Comparative properties of graphene supercapacitors and lithium-ion batteries………….. 81

Table 16: Applications and benefits of graphene in supercapacitors………………………………………….. 81

Table 17: Market size for graphene in supercapacitors………………………………………………………………. 83

Table 18: Market challenges rating for graphene in the supercapacitors market………………………… 92

 

FIGURES

Figure 1: Demand for graphene, by market, 2015………………………………………………………………………. 19

Figure 2: Demand for graphene, by market, 2027………………………………………………………………………. 20

Figure 3: Global government funding for graphene in millions USD to 2015………………………………. 27

Figure 4: Global market for graphene 2010-2027 in tons/year……………………………………………………. 31

Figure 5: Global consumption of graphene 2016, by region……………………………………………………….. 35

Figure 6: Graphene layer structure schematic……………………………………………………………………………. 42

Figure 7: Graphite and graphene………………………………………………………………………………………………… 43

Figure 8: Graphene and its descendants: top right: graphene; top left: graphite = stacked graphene; bottom right: nanotube=rolled graphene; bottom left: fullerene=wrapped graphene. …………… 44

Figure 9: Schematic of (a) CQDs and (c) GQDs. HRTEM images of (b) C-dots and (d) GQDs showing combination of zigzag and armchair edges (positions marked as 1–4)…………………… 47

Figure 10: Graphene quantum dots……………………………………………………………………………………………. 49

Figure 11: H600 concept car………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 56

Figure 12: Anion concept car……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 56

Figure 13: Potential addressable market for graphene in the thin film, flexible and printed batteries market…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 59

Figure 14: Skeleton Technologies ultracapacitor………………………………………………………………………… 80

Figure 15: Zapgo supercapacitor phone charger………………………………………………………………………… 82