The Global Market for Printable, Flexible and Stretchable Sensors and Electronics

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Based on a new generation of advanced materials, printed, flexible and stretchable sensors and electronics will enable new possibilities in a diverse range of industries from healthcare to automotive to buildings.

The recent growth of the Internet of Things (IoT) and wearables has created the need for electronics and sensor systems that are small, lightweight, mechanically flexible and low-power. These systems must also be able to conform to the shape of and survive the environment in which they must operate. They are typically fabricated on flexible plastic substrates or are printed/woven into fabrics. Applications covered in this report include:

Electronic components and displays

  • Multilayer printing of circuitry.
  • Large-area electronic-based sensors for Internet of Things (IoT)
  • Organic-semiconductor based circuits.
  • Highly stretchable large-area sensors.
  • Large-area flexible electronic devices.
  • Inkjet-printed stretchable electrodes.
  • Stretchable, biocompatible and biodegradable substrates.
  • Wireless sensors and networks.

Energy harvesting and storage

  • RF, piezo and thermal harvesting.
  • Flexible PV cells.
  • Printed PV cells.
  • Printed flexible energy harvesting devices.
  • OLED lighting.
  • Novel interconnects.
  • Printable batteries and supercapacitors.
  • Flexible thermoelectric devices.

Smart wearables

  • Stretchable/ultra-flexible electronics.
  • Fitness monitoring.
  • Biosensors for sports.

Automotive

  • Integrated dashboards.
  • Flexible OLEDs.

Healthcare and medical

  • Flexible X-ray imaging.
  • On-body ECG monitoring.
  • Biosensors and electronics to interface biological tissue.
  • Artificial skins.
  • Printed and Flexible Sensors for Vital Signs Monitoring.

Development areas covered include:

  • New organic semiconducting materials for organic electronics
  • Conductive inks for 2D and 3D printed devices
  • Flexible IGZO backplanes
  • Stretchable thermoformed inks.
  • OTFTs (organic thin-film transistors).
  • Solution processed polymer semiconductors for thin-film transistors.
  • Transparent conducting films (TCF) for touch sensors.
  • Organic thin film transistors (OTFT)
  • Organic photodetectors (OPD).
  • Nanomaterials based printed, flexible and stretchable electronics and applications.
  • Graphene for flexible electronics.
  • Flexible transparent conductive electrodes for Organic Devices.
  • Hybrid transparent conductors for deformable displays.

Report contents include:

  • Current and future products.
  • Advanced materials for printable, flexible and stretchable electronics and sensors.
  • Stage of commercialization for applications, from basic research to market entry. Markets covered include conductive inks, wearables and IoT, medical & healthcare sensors, electronic clothing & smart apparel, energy harvesting & storage, electronics components and flexible displays.
  • Market drivers and trends.
  • Market revenues by materials and applications.
  • Over 200 in-depth company profiles.

Published July 2017 | 281 pages  | Table of contents

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY………………………………………………………………… 23

1.1        The evolution of electronics………………………………………………………………………………………. 23

1.1.1     The wearables revolution……………………………………………………………………………………… 24

1.1.2     Flexible, thin, and large-area form factors…………………………………………………………….. 25

1.2        What are flexible and stretchable electronics?………………………………………………………….. 26

1.2.1     From rigid to flexible and stretchable…………………………………………………………………….. 26

1.2.2     Organic and printed electronics…………………………………………………………………………….. 29

1.2.3     New conductive materials……………………………………………………………………………………… 30

1.3        Growth in flexible and stetchable electronics market………………………………………………… 33

1.3.1     Recent growth in printable, flexible and stretchable products………………………………. 33

1.3.2     Future growth………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 34

1.3.3     Nanotechnology as a market driver………………………………………………………………………. 35

1.3.4     Growth in remote health monitoring and diagnostics……………………………………………. 36

2    RESEARCH METHODOLOGY………………………………………………………. 38

3    PRINTABLE, FLEXIBLE AND STRETCHABLE ELECTRONIC MATERIALS AND COMPOSITES……………………………………………………………………………………… 39

3.1        CARBON NANOTUBES…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 39

3.1.1     Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 39

3.1.2     Properties utilized in printable, flexible and stretchable electronics……………………… 40

3.1.2.1      Single-walled carbon nanotubes………………………………………………………………….. 41

3.1.3     Applications in printable, flexible and stretchable electronics………………………………. 43

3.2        CONDUCTIVE POLYMERS (CP)………………………………………………………………………………. 45

3.2.1     Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 45

3.2.1.1      PDMS……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 45

3.2.1.2      PEDOT: PSS…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 46

3.2.2     Properties utilized in printable, flexible and stretchable electronics……………………… 46

3.2.3     Applications in printable, flexible and stretchable electronics………………………………. 47

3.3        GRAPHENE………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 48

3.3.1     Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 48

3.3.2     Properties utilized in printable, flexible and stretchable electronics……………………… 50

3.3.3     Applications in printable, flexible and stretchable electronics………………………………. 51

3.4        METAL MESH……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 53

3.4.1     Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 53

3.4.2     Properties utilized in printable, flexible and stretchable electronics……………………… 55

3.4.3     Applications in printable, flexible and stretchable electronics………………………………. 56

3.5        METAL NANOWIRES………………………………………………………………………………………………… 57

3.5.1     Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 57

3.5.2     Properties utilized in printable, flexible and stretchable electronics……………………… 57

3.5.3     Applications in printable, flexible and stretchable electronics………………………………. 59

3.6        NANOCELLULOSE…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 60

3.6.1     Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 60

3.6.2     Properties utilized in printable, flexible and stretchable electronics……………………… 62

3.6.3     Applications in printable, flexible and stretchable electronics………………………………. 63

3.6.3.1      Nanopaper……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 65

3.6.3.2      Paper memory………………………………………………………………………………………………. 67

3.7        NANOFIBERS……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 68

3.7.1     Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 68

3.7.2     Properties utilized in printable, flexible and stretchable electronics……………………… 68

3.7.3     Applications in printable, flexible and stretchable electronics………………………………. 69

3.8        QUANTUM DOTS………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 69

3.8.1     Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 69

3.8.2     Properties utilized in printable, flexible and stretchable electronics……………………… 72

3.8.3     Applications in printable, flexible and stretchable electronics………………………………. 72

3.9        GRAPHENE AND CARBON QUANTUM DOTS………………………………………………………… 73

3.9.1     Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 74

3.9.2     Applications in printable, flexible and stretchable electronics………………………………. 76

3.10      OTHER 2-D MATERIALS…………………………………………………………………………………………… 76

3.10.1       Black phosphorus/Phosphorene………………………………………………………………………. 76

3.10.1.1    Properties……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 77

3.10.1.2    Applications in printable, flexible and stretchable electronics………………………. 78

3.10.2       C2N……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 79

3.10.2.1    Properties……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 80

3.10.2.2    Applications in printable, flexible and stretchable electronics………………………. 80

3.10.3       Germanene……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 80

3.10.3.1    Properties……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 81

3.10.3.2    Applications in printable, flexible and stretchable electronics………………………. 82

3.10.4       Graphdiyne……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 82

3.10.4.1    Properties……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 83

3.10.4.2    Applications in printable, flexible and stretchable electronics………………………. 83

3.10.5       Graphane………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 83

3.10.5.1    Properties……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 84

3.10.5.2    Applications in printable, flexible and stretchable electronics………………………. 84

3.10.6       Boron nitride……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 85

3.10.6.1    Properties……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 85

3.10.6.2    Applications in printable, flexible and stretchable electronics………………………. 86

3.10.7       Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2)…………………………………………………………………………… 86

3.10.7.1    Properties……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 87

3.10.7.2    Applications in printable, flexible and stretchable electronics………………………. 87

3.10.8       Rhenium disulfide (ReS2) and diselenide (ReSe2)…………………………………………. 89

3.10.8.1    Properties……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 89

3.10.8.2    Applications in printable, flexible and stretchable electronics………………………. 90

3.10.9       Silicene……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 90

3.10.9.1    Properties……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 91

3.10.9.2    Applications in printable, flexible and stretchable electronics………………………. 92

3.10.10     Stanene/tinene………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 93

3.10.10.1      Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 93

3.10.10.2      Applications in printable, flexible and stretchable electronics………………….. 94

3.10.11     Tungsten diselenide………………………………………………………………………………………….. 94

3.10.11.1      Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 95

3.10.11.2      Applications in printable, flexible and stretchable electronics………………….. 95

4    PRINTABLE, FLEXIBLE AND STRETCHABLE CONDUCTIVE INKS    96

4.1        MARKET DRIVERS…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 96

4.2        APPLICATIONS…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 97

4.2.1     Current products……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 98

4.2.2     Advanced materials solutions……………………………………………………………………………….. 98

4.2.3     RFID…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 104

4.2.4     Smart labels………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 106

4.2.5     Printable sensors………………………………………………………………………………………………… 107

4.2.6     Printed batteries………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 107

4.2.7     Printable antennas………………………………………………………………………………………………. 109

4.2.8     In-mold electronics………………………………………………………………………………………………. 110

4.3        GLOBAL MARKET SIZE………………………………………………………………………………………….. 111

4.4        COMPANY PROFILES…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 113-135 (54 company profiles)

5    PRINTABLE, FLEXIBLE AND STRETCHABLE SENSORS FOR WEARABLE ELECTRONICS AND IOT…………………………………………………………………. 136

5.1        MARKET DRIVERS…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 136

5.2        APPLICATIONS……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 140

5.2.1     Current state of the art…………………………………………………………………………………………. 141

5.2.2     Advanced materials solutions……………………………………………………………………………… 143

5.2.3     Transparent conductive films………………………………………………………………………………. 144

5.2.3.1      Carbon nanotubes (SWNT)………………………………………………………………………… 149

5.2.3.2      Double-walled carbon nanotubes………………………………………………………………. 150

5.2.3.3      Graphene……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 150

5.2.3.4      Silver nanowires…………………………………………………………………………………………. 152

5.2.3.5      Nanocellulose…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 154

5.2.3.6      Copper nanowires………………………………………………………………………………………. 158

5.2.3.7      Nanofibers…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 158

5.2.4     Wearable sensors……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 158

5.2.4.1      Current stage of the art……………………………………………………………………………….. 158

5.2.4.2      Advanced materials solutions…………………………………………………………………….. 161

5.2.4.3      Wearable gas sensors………………………………………………………………………………… 166

5.2.4.4      Wearable strain sensors……………………………………………………………………………… 167

5.2.4.5      Wearable tactile sensors…………………………………………………………………………….. 167

5.3        GLOBAL MARKET SIZE………………………………………………………………………………………….. 168

5.3.1     Transparent conductive electrodes…………………………………………………………………….. 170

5.4        COMPANY PROFILES…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 171-189 (44 company profiles)

6    PRINTABLE, FLEXIBLE AND STRETCHABLE MEDICAL AND HEALTHCARE SENSORS AND WEARABLES…………………………………………………………………………… 190

6.1        MARKET DRIVERS…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 190

6.2        APPLICATIONS……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 192

6.2.1     Current state of the art…………………………………………………………………………………………. 193

6.2.2     Advanced materials solutions……………………………………………………………………………… 197

6.2.2.1      Skin sensors……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 198

6.2.2.2      Nanomaterials-based devices……………………………………………………………………. 198

6.2.3     Printable, flexible and stretchable health monitors……………………………………………… 199

6.2.3.1      Patch-type skin sensors………………………………………………………………………………. 201

6.2.3.2      Skin temperature monitoring………………………………………………………………………. 204

6.2.3.3      Hydration sensors……………………………………………………………………………………….. 205

6.2.3.4      Wearable sweat sensors…………………………………………………………………………….. 205

6.2.3.5      UV patches………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 207

6.2.3.6      Smart footwear……………………………………………………………………………………………. 209

6.3        GLOBAL MARKET SIZE………………………………………………………………………………………….. 209-215 (13 company profiles)

7    PRINTABLE, FLEXIBLE AND STRETCHABLE ELECTRONIC CLOTHING AND APPAREL     216

7.1        MARKET DRIVERS…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 216

7.2        APPLICATIONS……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 218

7.2.1     Current state of the art…………………………………………………………………………………………. 219

7.2.2     Advanced materials solutions……………………………………………………………………………… 221

7.2.3     Conductive yarns………………………………………………………………………………………………… 229

7.2.4     Conductive coatings……………………………………………………………………………………………. 230

7.3        GLOBAL MARKET SIZE………………………………………………………………………………………….. 231

7.4        COMPANY PROFILES…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 233-242 (21 company profiles)

8    PRINTABLE, FLEXIBLE AND STRETCHABLE ENERGY STORAGE AND CONVERSION     243

8.1        MARKET DRIVERS…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 243

8.2        APPLICATIONS……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 245

8.2.1     Current state of the art…………………………………………………………………………………………. 245

8.2.2     Advanced materials solutions……………………………………………………………………………… 248

8.2.2.1      Flexible and stretchable batteries……………………………………………………………….. 248

8.2.2.2      Flexible and stretchable supercapacitors…………………………………………………… 249

8.2.2.3      Fiber-shaped Lithium-Ion batteries…………………………………………………………….. 252

8.2.2.4      Flexible OLED lighting………………………………………………………………………………… 252

8.2.2.5      Quantum dot lighting…………………………………………………………………………………… 253

8.2.2.6      Solar energy harvesting textiles………………………………………………………………….. 254

8.2.2.7      Stretchable piezoelectric energy harvesting………………………………………………. 258

8.2.2.8      Stretchable triboelectric energy harvesting………………………………………………… 258

8.3