The Global Market for Printable, Flexible and Stretchable Sensors and Electronics 2017-2027

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Based on a new generation of advanced materials, printed, flexible and stretchable (PFS) sensors and electronics will enable new possibilities in a diverse range of industries from healthcare to automotive to buildings.

The recent growth of the Internet of Things (IoT) and wearables has created the need for electronics and sensor systems that are small, lightweight, mechanically flexible and low- power. These systems must also be able to conform to the shape of and survive the environment in which they must operate. They are typically fabricated on flexible plastic substrates or are printed/woven into fabrics. Applications covered in this report include:

Electronic components and displays

  • Multilayer printing of circuitry.
  • Large-area electronic-based sensors for Internet of Things (IoT)
  • Organic-semiconductor based circuits.
  • Highly stretchable large-area sensors.
  • Large-area flexible electronic devices.
  • Inkjet-printed stretchable electrodes.
  • Stretchable, biocompatible and biodegradable substrates.
  • Wireless sensors and networks.

Energy harvesting and storage

  • RF, piezo and thermal harvesting.
  • Flexible PV cells.
  • Printed PV cells.
  • Printed flexible energy harvesting devices.
  • OLED lighting.
  • Novel interconnects.
  • Printable batteries and supercapacitors.
  • Flexible thermoelectric devices.

Smart wearables

  • Stretchable/ultra-flexible electronics.
  • Fitness monitoring.
  • Biosensors for sports.

Automotive

  • Integrated dashboards.
  • Flexible OLEDs.

Healthcare and medical

  • Flexible X-ray imaging.
  • On-body ECG monitoring.
  • Biosensors and electronics to interface biological tissue.
  • Artificial skins.
  • Printed and Flexible Sensors for Vital Signs Monitoring.

Development areas covered include:

  • New organic semiconducting materials for organic electronics
  • Conductive inks for 2D and 3D printed devices
  • Flexible IGZO backplanes
  • Stretchable thermoformed inks.
  • OTFTs (organic thin-film transistors).
  • Solution processed polymer semiconductors for thin-film transistors.
  • Transparent conducting films (TCF) for touch sensors.
  • Organic thin film transistors (OTFT)
  • Organic photodetectors (OPD).
  • Nanomaterials based printed, flexible and stretchable electronics and applications.
  • Graphene for flexible electronics.
  • Flexible transparent conductive electrodes for Organic Devices.
  • Hybrid transparent conductors for deformable displays.

Report contents include:

  • Current and future products.
  • Advanced materials for printable, flexible and stretchable electronics and sensors.
  • Stage of commercialization for applications, from basic research to market entry. Markets covered include conductive inks, wearables and IoT, medical & healthcare sensors, electronic clothing & smart apparel, energy harvesting & storage, electronics components and displays.
  • Market drivers and trends.
  • In-depth market assessment revenue estimates to 2027 by application areas and growth rates.
  • Over 150 in-depth company profiles, including products and commercial activities.

Published April 2017 | 270 pages  | Table of contents

 

The Global Market for Printable, Flexible and Stretchable Sensors and Electronics 2017-2027
The Global Market for Printable, Flexible and Stretchable Sensors and Electronics 2017-2027
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The Global Market for Printable, Flexible and Stretchable Sensors and Electronics 2017-2027
The Global Market for Printable, Flexible and Stretchable Sensors and Electronics 2017-2027
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The Global Market for Printable, Flexible and Stretchable Sensors and Electronics 2017-2027
The Global Market for Printable, Flexible and Stretchable Sensors and Electronics 2017-2027
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TABLE OF CONTENTS

1    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY…………………………………………………………. 20

1.1    Evolution of electronics…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 20

1.2    What are printable, flexible and stretchable electronics?……………………………………………….. 24

1.3    Growth in the printable, flexible and stetchable electronics market………………………….. 25

1.3.1     Recent growth in printable, flexible and stretchable products………………………………… 25

1.3.2     Future growth…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 25

1.3.3     Nanotechnology as a market driver……………………………………………………………………….. 26

1.4    Growth in remote health monitoring and diagnostics……………………………………………………… 27

1.5    From rigid to flexible and stretchable……………………………………………………………………………… 28

2    RESEARCH METHODOLOGY………………………………………………… 32

3    PRINTABLE, FLEXIBLE AND STRETCHABLE ELECTRONIC MATERIALS AND COMPOSITES………………………………………………… 34

3.1    FLEXIBLE CONDUCTIVE POLYMERS…………………………………………………………………………. 34

3.1.1     Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 34

3.1.2     Properties utilized in printable, flexible and stretchable electronics………………………… 35

3.1.3     Applications in printable, flexible and stretchable electronics…………………………………. 36

3.2    CARBON NANOTUBES…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 36

3.2.1     Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 36

3.2.2     Properties utilized in printable, flexible and stretchable electronics………………………… 38

3.2.2.1       Single-walled carbon nanotubes……………………………………………………………………. 38

3.2.3     Applications in printable, flexible and stretchable electronics…………………………………. 39

3.3    GRAPHENE…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 41

3.3.1     Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 41

3.3.2     Properties utilized in printable, flexible and stretchable electronics………………………… 43

3.3.3     Applications in printable, flexible and stretchable electronics…………………………………. 45

3.4    METAL MESH………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 47

3.4.1     Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 47

3.4.2     Properties utilized in printable, flexible and stretchable electronics………………………… 47

3.4.3     Applications in printable, flexible and stretchable electronics…………………………………. 49

3.5    NANOCELLULOSE………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 50

3.5.1     Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 50

3.5.2     Properties utilized in printable, flexible and stretchable electronics………………………… 52

3.5.3     Applications in printable, flexible and stretchable electronics…………………………………. 53

3.5.3.1       Nanopaper…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 55

3.5.3.2       Paper memory……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 57

3.6    NANOFIBERS………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 58

3.6.1     Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 58

3.6.2     Properties utilized in printable, flexible and stretchable electronics………………………… 58

3.6.3     Applications in printable, flexible and stretchable electronics…………………………………. 59

3.7    QUANTUM DOTS………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 60

3.7.1     Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 60

3.7.2     Properties utilized in printable,  flexible and stretchable electronics………………………. 62

3.7.3     Applications in printable, flexible and stretchable electronics…………………………………. 64

3.8    SILVER NANOWIRES……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 66

3.8.1     Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 66

3.8.2     Properties utilized in printable, flexible and stretchable electronics………………………… 67

3.8.3     Applications in printable, flexible and stretchable electronics…………………………………. 67

3.9    GRAPHENE AND CARBON QUANTUM DOTS…………………………………………………………….. 69

3.9.1     Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 69

3.9.2     Applications in printable, flexible and stretchable electronics…………………………………. 71

3.10      OTHER 2-D MATERIALS…………………………………………………………………………………………… 71

3.10.1        Black phosphorus/Phosphorene………………………………………………………………………… 71

3.10.1.1     Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 72

3.10.1.2     Applications in printable, flexible and stretchable electronics………………………… 73

3.10.2        C2N…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 73

3.10.2.1     Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 74

3.10.2.2     Applications in printable, flexible and stretchable electronics………………………… 75

3.10.3        Germanene………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 75

3.10.3.1     Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 75

3.10.3.2     Applications in printable, flexible and stretchable electronics………………………… 76

3.10.4        Graphdiyne………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 76

3.10.4.1     Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 77

3.10.4.2     Applications in printable, flexible and stretchable electronics………………………… 77

3.10.5        Graphane…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 77

3.10.5.1     Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 78

3.10.5.2     Applications in printable, flexible and stretchable electronics………………………… 78

3.10.6        Boron nitride………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 78

3.10.6.1     Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 79

3.10.6.2     Applications in printable, flexible and stretchable electronics………………………… 80

3.10.7        Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2)…………………………………………………………………………….. 80

3.10.7.1     Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 80

3.10.7.2     Applications in printable, flexible and stretchable electronics………………………… 81

3.10.8        Rhenium disulfide (ReS2) and diselenide (ReSe2)……………………………………………. 82

3.10.8.1     Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 83

3.10.8.2     Applications in printable, flexible and stretchable electronics………………………… 83

3.10.9        Silicene………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 83

3.10.9.1     Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 84

3.10.9.2     Applications in printable, flexible and stretchable electronics………………………… 85

3.10.10      Stanene/tinene…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 86

3.10.10.1       Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 86

3.10.10.2       Applications in printable, flexible and stretchable electronics…………………….. 87

3.10.11      Tungsten diselenide…………………………………………………………………………………………… 87

3.10.11.1       Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 88

3.10.11.2       Applications in printable, flexible and stretchable electronics…………………….. 88

4    PRINTABLE, FLEXIBLE AND STRETCHABLE CONDUCTIVE INKS     89

4.1    MARKET DRIVERS……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 89

4.2    APPLICATIONS……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 90

4.2.1     Current products…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 90

4.2.2     Advanced materials solutions………………………………………………………………………………… 91

4.2.3     RFID………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 97

4.2.4     Smart packaging…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 98

4.2.5     Smart labels…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 98

4.2.6     Printable sensors……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 99

4.2.7     Printed batteries…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 100

4.2.8     Printable antennas……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 100

4.2.9     In-Mold conductive inks……………………………………………………………………………………….. 101

4.3    GLOBAL MARKET SIZE………………………………………………………………………………………………. 102

4.4    PRODUCT DEVELOPERS…………………………………………………………………………………………… 103-113 (30 company profiles)

5    PRINTABLE, FLEXIBLE AND STRETCHABLE SENSORS FOR WEARABLES AND IOT…………………………………………………………….. 114

5.1    MARKET DRIVERS……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 114

5.2    APPLICATIONS…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 120

5.2.1     Current state of the art…………………………………………………………………………………………. 120

5.2.2     Advanced materials solutions………………………………………………………………………………. 122

5.2.3     Transparent conductive films……………………………………………………………………………….. 122

5.2.3.1       Carbon nanotubes (SWNT)…………………………………………………………………………. 125

5.2.3.2       Double-walled carbon nanotubes………………………………………………………………… 125

5.2.3.3       Graphene…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 126

5.2.3.4       Silver nanowires………………………………………………………………………………………….. 127

5.2.3.5       Nanocellulose………………………………………………………………………………………………. 128

5.2.3.6       Copper nanowires……………………………………………………………………………………….. 131

5.2.3.7       Nanofibers…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 131

5.2.4     Wearable sensors………………………………………………………………………………………………… 131

5.2.4.1       Current stage of the art………………………………………………………………………………… 131

5.2.4.2       Advanced materials solutions………………………………………………………………………. 134

5.2.4.3       Wearable gas sensors…………………………………………………………………………………. 137

5.2.4.4       Wearable strain sensors………………………………………………………………………………. 138

5.2.4.5       Wearable tactile sensors……………………………………………………………………………… 138

5.2.4.6       Smart labels…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 139

5.2.4.7       RFID…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 139

5.3    GLOBAL MARKET SIZE………………………………………………………………………………………………. 140

5.4    PRODUCT DEVELOPERS…………………………………………………………………………………………… 144-157 (42 company profiles)

6    PRINTABLE, FLEXIBLE AND STETCHABLE MEDICAL AND HEALTHCARE SENSORS AND WEARABLES……………………………. 158

6.1    MARKET DRIVERS……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 158

6.2    APPLICATIONS…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 161

6.2.1     Current state of the art…………………………………………………………………………………………. 161

6.2.2     Advanced materials solutions………………………………………………………………………………. 164

6.2.3     Printable, flexible and stretchable health monitors……………………………………………….. 165

6.2.4     On-body ECG monitoring…………………………………………………………………………………….. 167

6.2.5     Flexible X-ray imaging………………………………………………………………………………………….. 167

6.2.6     Patch-type skin sensors……………………………………………………………………………………….. 167

6.2.7     Wearable sweat sensors……………………………………………………………………………………… 170

6.3    GLOBAL MARKET SIZE………………………………………………………………………………………………. 170

6.4    PRODUCT DEVELOPERS…………………………………………………………………………………………… 172-177 (15 company profiles)

7    PRINTABLE, FLEXIBLE AND STRETCHABLE ELECTRONIC CLOTHING AND APPAREL………………………………………………………. 178

7.1    MARKET DRIVERS……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 178

7.2    APPLICATIONS…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 179

7.2.1     Current state of the art…………………………………………………………………………………………. 179

7.2.2     Advanced materials solutions………………………………………………………………………………. 181

7.2.3     Conductive yarns…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 189

7.2.4     Conductive coatings…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 189

7.2.5     Printable conductive inks……………………………………………………………………………………… 190

7.2.6     Flexible and stretchable yarns……………………………………………………………………………… 190

7.2.7     Footwear………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 190

7.3    GLOBAL MARKET SIZE………………………………………………………………………………………………. 190

7.4    PRODUCT DEVELOPERS…………………………………………………………………………………………… 192-202 (20 company profiles)

8    PRINTABLE, FLEXIBLE AND STRETCHABLE ENERGY HARVESTING AND STORAGE ………………………………………………………………….. 203

8.1    MARKET DRIVERS……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 203

8.2    APPLICATIONS…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 206

8.2.1     Current state of the art…………………………………………………………………………………………. 206

8.2.2     Advanced materials solutions………………………………………………………………………………. 208

8.2.2.1       Flexible and stretchable batteries………………………………………………………………… 209

8.2.2.2       Flexible and stretchable supercapacitors…………………………………………………….. 210

8.2.2.3       Fiber-shaped Lithium-Ion batteries………………………………………………………………. 212

8.2.2.4       OLED lighting………………………………………………………………………………………………. 213

8.2.2.5       Quantum dot lighting……………………………………………………………………………………. 213

8.2.2.6       Flexible solar cells……………………………………………………………………………………….. 214

8.2.2.7       Solar energy harvesting textiles…………………………………………………………………… 215

8.2.2.8       Stetchable piezoelectric Energy Harvesting………………………………………………… 217

8.2.2.9       Stretchable triboelectric energy harvesting………………………………………………….. 218

8.3    GLOBAL MARKET SIZE………………………………………………………………………………………………. 218

8.4    PRODUCT DEVELOPERS…………………………………………………………………………………………… 220-226 (15 company profiles)

9    PRINTABLE, FLEXIBLE AND STRETCHABLE ELECTRONIC COMPONENTS AND DISPLAYS……………………………………………….. 227

9.1    MARKET DRIVERS……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 227

9.2    APPLICATIONS…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 228

9.2.1     Printable, flexible and stretchable circuit boards and interconnects……………………… 228

9.2.1.1       Flexible integrated circuits products…………………………………………………………….. 229

9.2.2     Printable, flexible and stretchable transistors……………………………………………………….. 230

9.2.3     Flexible displays…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 232

9.2.3.1       OLED and electrophoretic technologies………………………………………………………. 232

9.2.3.2       Quantum dot displays………………………………………………………………………………….. 233

9.3    GLOBAL MARKET SIZE………………………………………………………………………………………………. 233

9.4    PRODUCT DEVELOPERS…………………………………………………………………………………………… 235-259 (40 company profiles)

10 REFERENCES…………………………………………………………………….. 260

 

TABLES

Table 1: Evolution of wearable devices, 2011-2016……………………………………………………………………. 22

Table 2: Properties of CNTs and comparable materials……………………………………………………………… 37

Table 3: Properties of graphene…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 41

Table 4: Nanocellulose properties………………………………………………………………………………………………. 51

Table 5: Properties and applications of nanocellulose………………………………………………………………… 52

Table 6: Properties of flexible electronics cellulose nanofiber films…………………………………………….. 55

Table 7: Schematic of (a) CQDs and (c) GQDs. HRTEM images of (b) C-dots and (d) GQDs showing combination of zigzag and armchair edges (positions marked as 1–4……………………. 69

Table 8: Properties of graphene quantum dots…………………………………………………………………………… 70

Table 9: Electronic and mechanical properties of monolayer phosphorene, graphene and MoS2. 73

Table 10: Market drivers for printable, flexible and stretchable conductive inks…………………………. 89

Table 11: Printable electronics products…………………………………………………………………………………….. 90

Table 12: Applications in conductive inks by nanomaterials type and benefits thereof……………….. 91

Table 13: Applications in printable, flexible and stretchable and conductive inks, by advanced materials type and benefits thereof………………………………………………………………………………………. 94

Table 14: Market drivers for printable, flexible and stretchable sensors for wearables and IoT… 114

Table 15: Comparison of ITO replacements……………………………………………………………………………… 117

Table 16: Wearable electronics devices and stage of development…………………………………………. 120

Table 17: Applications in printable, , by advanced materials type and benefits thereof……………. 123

Table 18: Graphene properties relevant to application in sensors……………………………………………. 136

Table 19: Market drivers for printable, flexible and stretchable medical healthcare sensors and wearables…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 158

Table 20: Wearable medical device products and stage of development…………………………………. 161

Table 21: Applications in flexible and stretchable health monitors, by nanomaterials type and benefits thereof…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 165

Table 22: Applications in patch-type skin sensors, by nanomaterials type and benefits thereof.. 169

Table 23: Potential addressable market for smart textiles and wearables in medical and healthcare…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 171

Table 24: Market drivers for printable, flexible and stretchable electronic clothing and apparel.. 178

Table 25: Currently available technologies for smart textiles……………………………………………………. 180

Table 26: Smart clothing and apparel and stage of development…………………………………………….. 180

Table 27: Applications in textiles, by advanced materials type and benefits thereof…………………. 182

Table 28: Nanocoatings applied in the textiles industry-type of coating, nanomaterials utilized, benefits and applications…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 185

Table 29: Global market for smart clothing and apparel, 2014-2021, units and revenues (US$). 191

Table 30: Market drivers for printable, flexible and stretchable electronic energy storage and converison………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 203

Table 31: Wearable energy and energy harvesting devices and stage of development…………… 207

Table 32: Comparison between flexible and traditional Li-ion batteries……………………………………. 208

Table 33: Applications in flexible and stretchable batteries, by nanomaterials type and benefits thereof………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 209

Table 34: Applications in flexible and stretchable supercapacitors, by nanomaterials type and benefits thereof…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 212

Table 35: Applications in energy harvesting textiles, by nanomaterials type and benefits thereof. 217

Table 36: Applications in Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting, by advanced materials type and benefits thereof………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 217

Table 37: Market drivers for printable, flexible and stretchable electronic components and displays…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 223

Table 38: Applications in flexible and stretchable circuit boards, by advanced materials type and benefits thereof…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 224

Table 39: Applications in flexible and stretchable transistors, by advanced materials type and benefits thereof…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 226

 

FIGURES

Figure 1: Evolution of electronics………………………………………………………………………………………………… 21

Figure 2: Technology readiness level for printable, flexible and stretchable electronics…………….. 21

Figure 3: Wearable health monitor incorporating graphene photodetectors……………………………….. 28

Figure 4: Polyera Wove Band…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 29

Figure 5: Revenues from flexible and stretchable devices, (2017-2027)…………………………………….. 29

Figure 6: Flexible and Stretchable Devices Market Share by sector, 2017…………………………………. 29

Figure 7: Flexible and stretchable devices market share by sector, 2027…………………………………… 30

Figure 8: Revenues for flexible and stretchable conductive inks, 2017-2027……………………………… 30

Figure 9: Revenues for flexible and stretchable sensors and displays, 2017-2027…………………….. 30

Figure 10: Revenues for flexible and stretchable medical and healthcare wearables (2017-2027). 31

Figure 11: Revenues for flexible and stretchable electronic clothing and apparel (2017-2027)….. 31

Figure 12: Revenues for flexible and stretchable energy storage and energy harvesting (2017-2027)…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 31

Figure 13: Revenues for flexible and stretchable electronic components (2017-2027)………………. 32

Figure 14: Heraeus Clevios conductive polymers……………………………………………………………………….. 35

Figure 15: Stretchable SWCNT memory and logic devices for wearable electronics………………….. 38

Figure 16: Graphene layer structure schematic………………………………………………………………………….. 42

Figure 17: Flexible graphene touch screen…………………………………………………………………………………. 43

Figure 18: Foldable graphene E-paper……………………………………………………………………………………….. 45

Figure 19: Large-area metal mesh touch panel………………………………………………………………………….. 48

Figure 20:  Cellulose nanofiber films…………………………………………………………………………………………… 53

Figure 21: Nanocellulose photoluminescent paper…………………………………………………………………….. 54

Figure 22: LEDs shining on circuitry imprinted on a 5x5cm sheet of CNF………………………………….. 55

Figure 23: Foldable nanopaper…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 56

Figure 24: Foldable nanopaper antenna…………………………………………………………………………………….. 57

Figure 25: Paper memory (ReRAM)……………………………………………………………………………………………. 57

Figure 26: Quantum dot……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 61

Figure 27: The light-blue curve represents a typical spectrum from a conventional white-LED LCD TV. With quantum dots, the spectrum is tunable to any colours of red, green, and blue, and each Color is limited to a narrow band………………………………………………………………………………….. 61

Figure 28: Flexible silver nanowire wearable mesh…………………………………………………………………….. 67

Figure 29: Black phosphorus structure……………………………………………………………………………………….. 72

Figure 30: Structural difference between graphene and C2N-h2D crystal: (a) graphene; (b) C2N-h2D crystal……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 74

Figure 31: Schematic of germanene…………………………………………………………………………………………… 75

Figure 32: Graphdiyne structure…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 77

Figure 33: Schematic of Graphane crystal………………………………………………………………………………….. 78

Figure 34: Structure of hexagonal boron nitride………………………………………………………………………….. 79

Figure 35: Structure of 2D molybdenum disulfide……………………………………………………………………….. 80

Figure 36: Atomic force microscopy image of a representative MoS2 thin-film transistor…………… 81

Figure 37: Schematic of the molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) thin-film sensor with the deposited molecules that create additional charge……………………………………………………………………………….. 82

Figure 38: Schematic of a monolayer of rhenium disulphide………………………………………………………. 83

Figure 39: Silicene structure……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 84

Figure 40: Monolayer silicene on a silver (111) substrate…………………………………………………………… 85

Figure 41: Silicene transistor………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 86

Figure 42: Crystal structure for stanene……………………………………………………………………………………… 86

Figure 43: Atomic structure model for the 2D stanene on Bi2Te3(111)………………………………………. 87

Figure 44: Schematic of tungsten diselenide………………………………………………………………………………. 88

Figure 45: Graphene printed antenna…………………………………………………………………………………………. 93

Figure 46: BGT Materials graphene ink product…………………………………………………………………………. 94

Figure 47: Flexible RFID tag……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 97

Figure 48: Enfucell Printed Battery…………………………………………………………………………………………… 100

Figure 49: Conductive inks market 2017-2027 revenue forecast (million $)……………………………… 103

Figure 50: Covestro wearables…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 122

Figure 51: Panasonic CNT stretchable Resin Film……………………………………………………………………. 123

Figure 52: Bending durability of Ag nanowires………………………………………………………………………….. 128

Figure 53: NFC computer chip………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 129

Figure 54: NFC translucent diffuser schematic…………………………………………………………………………. 130

Figure 55: Softceptor sensor…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 132

Figure 56: BeBop Media Arm Controller…………………………………………………………………………………… 133

Figure 57: LG Innotek flexible textile pressure sensor………………………………………………………………. 133

Figure 58: <hitoe> nanofiber conductive shirt original design(top) and current design (bottom).. 135

Figure 59: Garment-based printable electrodes……………………………………………………………………….. 136

Figure 60: Wearable gas sensor………………………………………………………………………………………………. 138

Figure 61: Global printable, flexible and stretchable sensors market 2017-2027 revenue forecast (million $)……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 142

Figure 62: TempTraQ wearable wireless thermometer…………………………………………………………….. 159

Figure 63: Graphene-based E-skin patch…………………………………………………………………………………. 160

Figure 64: Flexible, lightweight temperature sensor…………………………………………………………………. 161

Figure 65: Smart e-skin system comprising health-monitoring sensors, displays, and ultra flexible PLEDs………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 168

Figure 66: Graphene medical patch………………………………………………………………………………………….. 169

Figure 67: Global printable, flexible and stretchable medical & healthcare sensors and wearables market 2017-2027 revenue forecast (million $)…………………………………………………………………… 172

Figure 68: Omniphobic-coated fabric………………………………………………………………………………………… 182

Figure 69: Global printable, flexible and stretchable clothing and apparel market 2017-2027 revenue forecast (million $)………………………………………………………………………………………………… 192

Figure 70: Energy harvesting textile…………………………………………………………………………………………. 205

Figure 71: StretchSense Energy Harvesting Kit……………………………………………………………………….. 206

Figure 72: LG Chem Heaxagonal battery…………………………………………………………………………………. 207

Figure 73: Energy densities and specific energy of rechargeable batteries………………………………. 211

Figure 74: Stretchable graphene supercapacitor………………………………………………………………………. 211

Figure 75: Schematic illustration of the fabrication concept for textile-based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) made by sewing textile electrodes onto cloth or paper………………………………… 216

Figure 76: Global printable, flexible and stretchable energy storage and conversion market 2017-2027 revenue forecast (million $)……………………………………………………………………………………….. 219

Figure 77: Emerging logic devices……………………………………………………………………………………………. 227

Figure 78: Thin film transistor incorporating CNTs……………………………………………………………………. 227

Figure 79: Flexible mobile phones with graphene transparent conductive film…………………………. 228

Figure 80: Global printable, flexible and stretchable electronic components and displays market 2017-2027 revenue forecast (million $)………………………………………………………………………………. 231