The Global Market for Printable, Flexible and Stretchable Sensors and Electronics, Edition 2

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“An excellent report on the printable and flexible electronics market.” Florian Theisen, Heraeus.

Based on a new generation of advanced materials, printed, flexible and stretchable sensors and electronics will enable new possibilities in a diverse range of industries from healthcare to automotive to buildings.

The recent growth of the Internet of Things (IoT) and wearables has created the need for electronics and sensor systems that are small, lightweight, mechanically flexible and low-power. These systems must also be able to conform to the shape of and survive the environment in which they must operate. They are typically fabricated on flexible plastic substrates or are printed/woven into fabrics. Applications covered in this report include:

Electronic components and displays

  • Multilayer printing of circuitry.
  • Large-area electronic-based sensors for Internet of Things (IoT)
  • Organic-semiconductor based circuits.
  • Highly stretchable large-area sensors.
  • Large-area flexible electronic devices.
  • Inkjet-printed stretchable electrodes.
  • Stretchable, biocompatible and biodegradable substrates.
  • Wireless sensors and networks.
  • Structural monitoring.

Energy harvesting and storage

  • RF, piezo and thermal harvesting.
  • Flexible PV cells.
  • Printed PV cells.
  • Printed flexible energy harvesting devices.
  • OLED lighting.
  • Novel interconnects.
  • Printable batteries and supercapacitors.
  • Flexible thermoelectric devices.

Smart wearables

  • Smarter and lighter wearable consumer electronics.
  • Stretchable/ultra-flexible electronics.
  • Fitness monitoring.
  • Biosensors for sports.

Automotive

  • Integrated dashboards.
  • Flexible OLEDs.

Healthcare and medical

  • Health monitoring devices, including intelligent patches and bandages for medical treatments.
  • Flexible X-ray imaging.
  • On-body ECG monitoring.
  • Biosensors and electronics to interface biological tissue.
  • Artificial skins.
  • Printed and Flexible Sensors for Vital Signs Monitoring.

Development areas covered include:

  • New organic semiconducting materials for organic electronics.
  • Conductive inks for 2D and 3D printed devices.
  • Flexible IGZO backplanes.
  • Stretchable thermoformed inks.
  • OTFTs (organic thin-film transistors).
  • Solution processed polymer semiconductors for thin-film transistors.
  • Transparent conducting films (TCF) for touch sensors.
  • Organic thin film transistors (OTFT).
  • Organic photodetectors (OPD).
  • Nanomaterials based printed, flexible and stretchable electronics and applications.
  • Graphene for flexible electronics.
  • Flexible transparent conductive electrodes for Organic Devices.
  • Hybrid transparent conductors for deformable displays.

Report contents include:

  • Current and future printable, flexible and stretchable products.
  • Advanced materials used in printable, flexible and stretchable electronics and sensors.
  • Stage of commercialization for applications, from basic research to market entry. Markets covered include conductive inks, wearables and IoT, medical & healthcare sensors, electronic clothing & smart apparel, energy harvesting & storage, electronics components and flexible displays.
  • Market drivers and trends.
  • Market figures for conductive inks, by materials type and revenues
  • Market figures for inkjetable conductive inks
  • Global market revenues for wearable electronics.
  • Global transparent conductive electrodes market forecast by materials type.
  • Addressable market for smart textiles and wearables in medical and healthcare.
  • Market for thin film, flexible and printed batteries.
  • Global smart clothing and apparel market revenues.
  • Global market for flexible OLED displays.
  • Over 200 in-depth company profiles.

Published September 2017 | 316 pages  | 

The Global Market for Printable, Flexible and Stretchable Sensors and Electronics 2017-2027
The Global Market for Printable, Flexible and Stretchable Sensors and Electronics 2017-2027
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The Global Market for Printable, Flexible and Stretchable Sensors and Electronics 2017-2027
The Global Market for Printable, Flexible and Stretchable Sensors and Electronics 2017-2027
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The Global Market for Printable, Flexible and Stretchable Sensors and Electronics 2017-2027
The Global Market for Printable, Flexible and Stretchable Sensors and Electronics 2017-2027
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TABLE OF CONTENTS

1    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY…………………………………………………………. 25

  • 1.1    The evolution of electronics……………………………………………………………………………………………. 25
    • 1.1.1     The wearables revolution……………………………………………………………………………………….. 27
    • 1.1.2     Flexible, thin, and large-area form factors………………………………………………………………. 28
  • 1.2    What are flexible and stretchable electronics?……………………………………………………………….. 30
    • 1.2.1     From rigid to flexible and stretchable……………………………………………………………………… 30
    • 1.2.2     Organic and printed electronics……………………………………………………………………………… 32
    • 1.2.3     New conductive materials………………………………………………………………………………………. 33
  • 1.3    Growth in flexible and stetchable electronics market……………………………………………………… 36
    • 1.3.1     Recent growth in printable, flexible and stretchable products………………………………… 36
    • 1.3.2     Future growth…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 37
    • 1.3.3     Nanotechnology as a market driver……………………………………………………………………….. 38
    • 1.3.4     Growth in remote health monitoring and diagnostics……………………………………………… 39

2    RESEARCH METHODOLOGY………………………………………………… 41

3    PRINTABLE, FLEXIBLE AND STRETCHABLE ELECTRONIC MATERIALS AND COMPOSITES………………………………………………… 42

  • 3.1    CARBON NANOTUBES…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 42
    • 3.1.1     Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 42
    • 3.1.2     Properties utilized in printable, flexible and stretchable electronics………………………… 43
      • 3.1.2.1       Single-walled carbon nanotubes……………………………………………………………………. 44
    • 3.1.3     Applications in printable, flexible and stretchable electronics…………………………………. 46
  • 3.2    CONDUCTIVE POLYMERS (CP)…………………………………………………………………………………… 48
    • 3.2.1     Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 48
      • 3.2.1.1       PDMS…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 48
      • 3.2.1.2       PEDOT: PSS…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 49
    • 3.2.2     Properties utilized in printable, flexible and stretchable electronics………………………… 49
    • 3.2.3     Applications in printable, flexible and stretchable electronics…………………………………. 50
  • 3.3    GRAPHENE…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 51
    • 3.3.1     Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 51
    • 3.3.2     Properties utilized in printable, flexible and stretchable electronics………………………… 53
    • 3.3.3     Applications in printable, flexible and stretchable electronics…………………………………. 54
  • 3.4    METAL MESH………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 56
    • 3.4.1     Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 56
    • 3.4.2     Properties utilized in printable, flexible and stretchable electronics………………………… 58
    • 3.4.3     Applications in printable, flexible and stretchable electronics…………………………………. 59
  • 3.5    METAL NANOWIRES…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 60
    • 3.5.1     Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 60
    • 3.5.2     Properties utilized in printable, flexible and stretchable electronics………………………… 60
    • 3.5.3     Applications in printable, flexible and stretchable electronics…………………………………. 62
  • 3.6    NANOCELLULOSE………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 63
    • 3.6.1     Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 63
    • 3.6.2     Properties utilized in printable, flexible and stretchable electronics………………………… 65
    • 3.6.3     Applications in printable, flexible and stretchable electronics…………………………………. 66
      • 3.6.3.1       Nanopaper…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 68
      • 3.6.3.2       Paper memory……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 70
  • 3.7    NANOFIBERS………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 72
    • 3.7.1     Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 72
    • 3.7.2     Properties utilized in printable, flexible and stretchable electronics………………………… 72
    • 3.7.3     Applications in printable, flexible and stretchable electronics…………………………………. 72
  • 3.8    QUANTUM DOTS………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 73
    • 3.8.1     Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 73
    • 3.8.2     Properties utilized in printable, flexible and stretchable electronics………………………… 75
    • 3.8.3     Applications in printable, flexible and stretchable electronics…………………………………. 76
  • 3.9    GRAPHENE AND CARBON QUANTUM DOTS…………………………………………………………….. 76
    • 3.9.1     Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 77
    • 3.9.2     Applications in printable, flexible and stretchable electronics…………………………………. 79
  • 3.10      OTHER 2-D MATERIALS…………………………………………………………………………………………… 80
    • 3.10.1        Black phosphorus/Phosphorene………………………………………………………………………… 80
      • 3.10.1.1     Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 80
      • 3.10.1.2     Applications in printable, flexible and stretchable electronics………………………… 82
    • 3.10.2        C2N…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 82
      • 3.10.2.1     Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 83
      • 3.10.2.2     Applications in printable, flexible and stretchable electronics………………………… 83
    • 3.10.3        Germanene………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 84
      • 3.10.3.1     Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 84
      • 3.10.3.2     Applications in printable, flexible and stretchable electronics………………………… 85
    • 3.10.4        Graphdiyne………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 85
      • 3.10.4.1     Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 86
      • 3.10.4.2     Applications in printable, flexible and stretchable electronics………………………… 86
    • 3.10.5        Graphane…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 87
      • 3.10.5.1     Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 87
      • 3.10.5.2     Applications in printable, flexible and stretchable electronics………………………… 87
    • 3.10.6        Boron nitride………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 88
      • 3.10.6.1     Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 89
      • 3.10.6.2     Applications in printable, flexible and stretchable electronics………………………… 89
    • 3.10.7        Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2)…………………………………………………………………………….. 89
      • 3.10.7.1     Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 90
      • 3.10.7.2     Applications in printable, flexible and stretchable electronics………………………… 90
    • 3.10.8        Rhenium disulfide (ReS2) and diselenide (ReSe2)……………………………………………. 92
      • 3.10.8.1     Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 93
      • 3.10.8.2     Applications in printable, flexible and stretchable electronics………………………… 93
    • 3.10.9        Silicene………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 93
      • 3.10.9.1     Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 94
      • 3.10.9.2     Applications in printable, flexible and stretchable electronics………………………… 95
    • 3.10.10      Stanene/tinene…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 96
      • 3.10.10.1       Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 97
      • 3.10.10.2       Applications in printable, flexible and stretchable electronics…………………….. 98
    • 3.10.11      Tungsten diselenide…………………………………………………………………………………………… 98
      • 3.10.11.1       Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 99
      • 3.10.11.2       Applications in printable, flexible and stretchable electronics…………………….. 99

4    PRINTABLE, FLEXIBLE AND STRETCHABLE CONDUCTIVE INKS     100

  • 4.1    MARKET DRIVERS……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 100
  • 4.2    APPLICATIONS…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 101
    • 4.2.1     Current products…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 102
    • 4.2.2     Advanced materials solutions………………………………………………………………………………. 102
    • 4.2.3     RFID…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 108
    • 4.2.4     Smart labels…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 110
    • 4.2.5     Printable sensors…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 111
    • 4.2.6     Printed batteries…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 111
    • 4.2.7     Printable antennas……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 113
    • 4.2.8     In-mold electronics……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 114
    • 4.2.9     Printed transistors………………………………………………………………………………………………… 115
    • 4.2.10        Membrane switches…………………………………………………………………………………………. 115
  • 4.3    GLOBAL MARKET SIZE………………………………………………………………………………………………. 115
  • 4.4    COMPANY PROFILES………………………………………………………………………………………………… 118-153 (86 company profiles)

5    PRINTABLE, FLEXIBLE AND STRETCHABLE SENSORS FOR WEARABLE ELECTRONICS AND IOT……………………………………….. 154

  • 5.1    MARKET DRIVERS……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 154
  • 5.2    APPLICATIONS…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 158
    • 5.2.1     Current state of the art…………………………………………………………………………………………. 159
    • 5.2.2     Advanced materials solutions………………………………………………………………………………. 161
    • 5.2.3     Transparent conductive films……………………………………………………………………………….. 162
      • 5.2.3.1       Carbon nanotubes (SWNT)…………………………………………………………………………. 167
      • 5.2.3.2       Double-walled carbon nanotubes………………………………………………………………… 168
      • 5.2.3.3       Graphene…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 168
      • 5.2.3.4       Silver nanowires………………………………………………………………………………………….. 170
      • 5.2.3.5       Nanocellulose………………………………………………………………………………………………. 172
      • 5.2.3.6       Copper nanowires……………………………………………………………………………………….. 176
      • 5.2.3.7       Nanofibers…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 176
  • 5.2.4     Wearable sensors………………………………………………………………………………………………… 176
    • 5.2.4.1       Current stage of the art………………………………………………………………………………… 176
    • 5.2.4.2       Advanced materials solutions………………………………………………………………………. 179
    • 5.2.4.3       Wearable gas sensors…………………………………………………………………………………. 184
    • 5.2.4.4       Wearable strain sensors………………………………………………………………………………. 185
    • 5.2.4.5       Wearable tactile sensors……………………………………………………………………………… 185
  • 5.3    GLOBAL MARKET SIZE………………………………………………………………………………………………. 186
    • 5.3.1     Transparent conductive electrodes………………………………………………………………………. 188
  • 5.4    COMPANY PROFILES………………………………………………………………………………………………… 189-211  (53 company profiles)

6    PRINTABLE, FLEXIBLE AND STRETCHABLE MEDICAL AND HEALTHCARE SENSORS AND WEARABLES……………………………. 212

  • 6.1    MARKET DRIVERS……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 212
  • 6.2    APPLICATIONS…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 215
    • 6.2.1     Current state of the art…………………………………………………………………………………………. 215
    • 6.2.2     Advanced materials solutions………………………………………………………………………………. 221
      • 6.2.2.1       Skin sensors………………………………………………………………………………………………… 221
      • 6.2.2.2       Nanomaterials-based devices……………………………………………………………………… 222
  • 6.2.3     Printable, flexible and stretchable health monitors……………………………………………….. 223
    • 6.2.3.1       Patch-type skin sensors………………………………………………………………………………. 225
    • 6.2.3.2       Skin temperature monitoring………………………………………………………………………… 229
    • 6.2.3.3       Hydration sensors………………………………………………………………………………………… 230
    • 6.2.3.4       Wearable sweat sensors……………………………………………………………………………… 230
    • 6.2.3.5       UV patches………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 232
    • 6.2.3.6       Smart footwear…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 234
  • 6.3    GLOBAL MARKET SIZE………………………………………………………………………………………………. 234
  • 6.4    COMPANY PROFILES………………………………………………………………………………………………… 235-241  (17 company profiles)

7    PRINTABLE, FLEXIBLE AND STRETCHABLE ELECTRONIC CLOTHING AND APPAREL………………………………………………………. 242

  • 7.1    MARKET DRIVERS……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 243
  • 7.2    APPLICATIONS…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 244
    • 7.2.1     Current state of the art…………………………………………………………………………………………. 246
    • 7.2.2     Advanced materials solutions………………………………………………………………………………. 248
    • 7.2.3     Conductive yarns…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 256
    • 7.2.4     Conductive coatings…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 257
  • 7.3    GLOBAL MARKET SIZE………………………………………………………………………………………………. 259
  • 7.4    COMPANY PROFILES………………………………………………………………………………………………… 261-271  (24 company profiles)

8    PRINTABLE, FLEXIBLE AND STRETCHABLE ENERGY STORAGE AND CONVERSION………………………………………………………………….. 271

  • 8.1    MARKET DRIVERS……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 271
  • 8.2    APPLICATIONS…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 274
    • 8.2.1     Current state of the art…………………………………………………………………………………………. 274
    • 8.2.2     Advanced materials solutions………………………………………………………………………………. 276
      • 8.2.2.1       Flexible and stretchable batteries………………………………………………………………… 277
      • 8.2.2.2       Flexible and stretchable supercapacitors…………………………………………………….. 278
      • 8.2.2.3       Fiber-shaped Lithium-Ion batteries………………………………………………………………. 281
      • 8.2.2.4       Flexible OLED lighting…………………………………………………………………………………. 281
      • 8.2.2.5       Quantum dot lighting……………………………………………………………………………………. 283
      • 8.2.2.6       Solar energy harvesting textiles…………………………………………………………………… 284
      • 8.2.2.7       Stretchable piezoelectric energy harvesting………………………………………………… 288
      • 8.2.2.8       Stretchable triboelectric energy harvesting………………………………………………….. 288
  • 8.3    GLOBAL MARKET SIZE………………………………………………………………………………………………. 289
  • 8.4    COMPANY PROFILES………………………………………………………………………………………………… 291-297  (15 company profiles)

9    PRINTABLE, FLEXIBLE AND STRETCHABLE DISPLAYS AND ELECTRONIC COMPONENTS…………………………………………………… 298

  • 9.1    MARKET DRIVERS……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 298
  • 9.2    APPLICATIONS…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 298
    • 9.2.1     Printable, flexible and stretchable circuit boards and interconnects……………………… 298
    • 9.2.2     Printable, flexible and stretchable transistors……………………………………………………….. 299
    • 9.2.3     Flexible displays…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 300
      • 9.2.3.1       Flexible LCDs………………………………………………………………………………………………. 301
      • 9.2.3.2       Flexible OLEDs (FOLED)…………………………………………………………………………….. 302
      • 9.2.3.3       Flexible AMOLED………………………………………………………………………………………… 304
      • 9.2.3.4       Flexible electrophoretic displays………………………………………………………………….. 306
  • 9.3    GLOBAL MARKET SIZE………………………………………………………………………………………………. 306
  • 9.4    COMPANY PROFILES………………………………………………………………………………………………… 307-313  (17 company profiles)

 

TABLES

  • Table 1: Evolution of wearable devices, 2011-2017……………………………………………………………………. 27
  • Table 2: Advanced materials for printable, flexible and stretchable sensors and Electronics-Advantages and disadvantages……………………………………………………………………………………………. 34
  • Table 3: Sheet resistance (RS) and transparency (T) values for transparent conductive oxides and alternative materials for transparent conductive electrodes (TCE)……………………………………….. 35
  • Table 4: Markets for wearable devices and applications…………………………………………………………….. 37
  • Table 5: Properties of CNTs and comparable materials……………………………………………………………… 42
  • Table 6: Companies developing carbon nanotubes for applications in printable, flexible and stretchable electronics………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 47
  • Table 7: Types of flexible conductive polymers, properties and applications……………………………… 49
  • Table 8: Properties of graphene…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 52
  • Table 9: Companies developing graphene for applications in printable, flexible and stretchable electronics…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 55
  • Table 10: Advantages and disadvantages of fabrication techniques to produce metal mesh structures……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 57
  • Table 11: Types of flexible conductive polymers, properties and applications……………………………. 58
  • Table 12: Companies developing metal mesh for applications in printable, flexible and stretchable electronics…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 59
  • Table 13: Companies developing silver nanowires for applications in printable, flexible and stretchable electronics………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 62
  • Table 14: Nanocellulose properties…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 64
  • Table 15: Properties and applications of nanocellulose………………………………………………………………. 64
  • Table 16: Properties of flexible electronics‐cellulose nanofiber film (nanopaper)……………………….. 65
  • Table 17: Properties of flexible electronics cellulose nanofiber films………………………………………….. 69
  • Table 18: Companies developing nanocellulose for applications in printable, flexible and stretchable electronics…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 71
  • Table 19: Companies developing quantum dots for applications in printable, flexible and stretchable electronics…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 76
  • Table 20: Schematic of (a) CQDs and (c) GQDs. HRTEM images of (b) C-dots and (d) GQDs showing combination of zigzag and armchair edges (positions marked as 1–4……………………. 77
  • Table 21: Properties of graphene quantum dots…………………………………………………………………………. 78
  • Table 22: Electronic and mechanical properties of monolayer phosphorene, graphene and MoS2. 81
  • Table 23: Market drivers for printable, flexible and stretchable conductive inks……………………….. 100
  • Table 24: Printable electronics products…………………………………………………………………………………… 102
  • Table 25: Comparative properties of conductive inks……………………………………………………………….. 102
  • Table 26: Applications in conductive inks by type and benefits thereof…………………………………….. 103
  • Table 27: Opportunities for advanced materials in printed electronics……………………………………… 109
  • Table 28: Applications in flexible and stretchable batteries, by nanomaterials type and benefits thereof………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 112
  • Table 29: Main markets for conductive inks, applications and revenues………………………………….. 116
  • Table 30: Conductive inks in the flexible and stretchable electronics market 2017-2027 revenue forecast (million $), by ink types………………………………………………………………………………………….. 118
  • Table 31: Market drivers for printable, flexible and stretchable sensors for wearables and IoT… 154
  • Table 32: Wearable electronics devices and stage of development…………………………………………. 159
  • Table 33: Comparison of ITO replacements……………………………………………………………………………… 163
  • Table 34: Applications in printable, flexible and stretchable sensors, by advanced materials type and benefits thereof……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 164
  • Table 35: Graphene properties relevant to application in sensors……………………………………………. 182
  • Table 36: Global market for wearable electronics, 2015-2020, by application, billions $………….. 187
  • Table 37: Market drivers for printable, flexible and stretchable medical healthcare sensors and wearables…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 212
  • Table 38: Wearable medical device products and stage of development…………………………………. 217
  • Table 39: Applications in flexible and stretchable health monitors, by advanced materials type and benefits thereof…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 223
  • Table 40: Applications in patch-type skin sensors, by materials type and benefits thereof………. 228
  • Table 41: Potential addressable market for smart textiles and wearables in medical and healthcare…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 235
  • Table 42: Market drivers for printable, flexible and stretchable electronic clothing and apparel.. 243
  • Table 43: Types of smart textiles………………………………………………………………………………………………. 245
  • Table 44: Examples of smart textile products…………………………………………………………………………… 245
  • Table 45: Currently available technologies for smart textiles……………………………………………………. 246
  • Table 46: Smart clothing and apparel and stage of development…………………………………………….. 247
  • Table 47: Applications in textiles, by advanced materials type and benefits thereof…………………. 249
  • Table 48: Nanocoatings applied in the textiles industry-type of coating, nanomaterials utilized, benefits and applications…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 252
  • Table 49: Applications and benefits of graphene in textiles and apparel………………………………….. 257
  • Table 50: Global market for smart clothing and apparel, 2014-2021, units and revenues (US$). 260
  • Table 51: Market drivers for printable, flexible and stretchable electronic energy storage and converison………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 272
  • Table 52: Wearable energy and energy harvesting devices and stage of development…………… 275
  • Table 53: Applications in flexible and stretchable batteries, by materials type and benefits thereof…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 277
  • Table 54: Applications in flexible and stretchable supercapacitors, by nanomaterials type and benefits thereof…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 280
  • Table 55: Applications in energy harvesting textiles, by nanomaterials type and benefits thereof. 286
  • Table 56: Potential addressable market for thin film, flexible and printed batteries…………………… 289
  • Table 57: Market drivers for printable, flexible and stretchable displays and electronic components…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 298
  • Table 58: Applications in flexible and stretchable circuit boards, by advanced materials type and benefits thereof…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 299
  • Table 59: Price comparison of thin-film transistor (TFT) electronics technology……………………….. 300

FIGURES

  • Figure 1: Evolution of electronics………………………………………………………………………………………………… 27
  • Figure 2: Wove Band………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 30
  • Figure 3: Wearable graphene medical sensor……………………………………………………………………………. 32
  • Figure 4: Applications timeline for organic and printed electronics……………………………………………… 33
  • Figure 5: Wearable health monitor incorporating graphene photodetectors……………………………….. 40
  • Figure 6: Schematic of single-walled carbon nanotube………………………………………………………………. 45
  • Figure 7: Stretchable SWNT memory and logic devices for wearable electronics………………………. 46
  • Figure 8: Graphene layer structure schematic……………………………………………………………………………. 53
  • Figure 9: Flexible graphene touch screen…………………………………………………………………………………… 54
  • Figure 10: Foldable graphene E-paper……………………………………………………………………………………….. 55
  • Figure 11: Large-area metal mesh touch panel………………………………………………………………………….. 57
  • Figure 12: Flexible silver nanowire wearable mesh…………………………………………………………………….. 62
  • Figure 13:  Cellulose nanofiber films…………………………………………………………………………………………… 66
  • Figure 14: Nanocellulose photoluminescent paper…………………………………………………………………….. 67
  • Figure 15: LEDs shining on circuitry imprinted on a 5x5cm sheet of CNF………………………………….. 68
  • Figure 16: Foldable nanopaper…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 70
  • Figure 17: Foldable nanopaper antenna…………………………………………………………………………………….. 71
  • Figure 18: Paper memory (ReRAM)……………………………………………………………………………………………. 71
  • Figure 19: Quantum dot……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 74
  • Figure 20: The light-blue curve represents a typical spectrum from a conventional white-LED LCD TV. With quantum dots, the spectrum is tunable to any colours of red, green, and blue, and each Color is limited to a narrow band………………………………………………………………………………….. 75
  • Figure 21: Black phosphorus structure……………………………………………………………………………………….. 81
  • Figure 22: Structural difference between graphene and C2N-h2D crystal: (a) graphene; (b) C2N-h2D crystal……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 84
  • Figure 23: Schematic of germanene…………………………………………………………………………………………… 85
  • Figure 24: Graphdiyne structure…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 87
  • Figure 25: Schematic of Graphane crystal………………………………………………………………………………….. 88
  • Figure 26: Structure of hexagonal boron nitride………………………………………………………………………….. 89
  • Figure 27: Structure of 2D molybdenum disulfide……………………………………………………………………….. 91
  • Figure 28: Atomic force microscopy image of a representative MoS2 thin-film transistor…………… 92
  • Figure 29: Schematic of the molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) thin-film sensor with the deposited molecules that create additional charge……………………………………………………………………………….. 93
  • Figure 30: Schematic of a monolayer of rhenium disulphide………………………………………………………. 94
  • Figure 31: Silicene structure……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 95
  • Figure 32: Monolayer silicene on a silver (111) substrate…………………………………………………………… 96
  • Figure 33: Silicene transistor………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 97
  • Figure 34: Crystal structure for stanene……………………………………………………………………………………… 98
  • Figure 35: Atomic structure model for the 2D stanene on Bi2Te3(111)………………………………………. 98
  • Figure 36: Schematic of tungsten diselenide………………………………………………………………………………. 99
  • Figure 37: BGT Materials graphene ink product……………………………………………………………………….. 109
  • Figure 38: Flexible RFID tag…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 110
  • Figure 39: Enfucell Printed Battery…………………………………………………………………………………………… 114
  • Figure 40: Graphene printed antenna………………………………………………………………………………………. 115
  • Figure 41: Printed antennas for aircraft…………………………………………………………………………………….. 115
  • Figure 42: Stretchable material for formed an in-molded electronics………………………………………… 116
  • Figure 43: Wearable patch with a skin-compatible, pressure-sensitive adhesive……………………… 116
  • Figure 44: Conductive inks in the flexible and stretchable electronics market 2017-2027 revenue forecast (million $), by ink types………………………………………………………………………………………….. 118
  • Figure 45: Covestro wearables…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 162
  • Figure 46: Royole flexible display……………………………………………………………………………………………… 163
  • Figure 47: Panasonic CNT stretchable Resin Film……………………………………………………………………. 165
  • Figure 48: Bending durability of Ag nanowires………………………………………………………………………….. 173
  • Figure 49: NFC computer chip………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 175
  • Figure 50: NFC translucent diffuser schematic…………………………………………………………………………. 175
  • Figure 51: Softceptor sensor…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 178
  • Figure 52: BeBop Media Arm Controller…………………………………………………………………………………… 179
  • Figure 53: LG Innotek flexible textile pressure sensor………………………………………………………………. 179
  • Figure 54: <hitoe> nanofiber conductive shirt original design(top) and current design (bottom).. 181
  • Figure 55: Garment-based printable electrodes……………………………………………………………………….. 182
  • Figure 56: Wearable gas sensor………………………………………………………………………………………………. 186
  • Figure 57: BeBop Sensors Marcel Modular Data Gloves………………………………………………………….. 187
  • Figure 58: Global market for wearable electronics, 2015-2020, by application, billions $…………. 188
  • Figure 59: Global transparent conductive electrodes market forecast by materials type, 2012-2025, millions $…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 189
  • Figure 60: BITalino systems……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 196
  • Figure 61: BITalino system……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 196
  • Figure 62: Connected human body…………………………………………………………………………………………… 217
  • Figure 63: Flexible, lightweight temperature sensor…………………………………………………………………. 218
  • Figure 64: Prototype ECG sensor patch…………………………………………………………………………………… 222
  • Figure 65: Graphene-based E-skin patch…………………………………………………………………………………. 223
  • Figure 66: Wearable bio-fluid monitoring system for monitoring of hydration……………………………. 226
  • Figure 67: Smart mouth guard………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 226
  • Figure 68: Smart e-skin system comprising health-monitoring sensors, displays, and ultra flexible PLEDs………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 228
  • Figure 69: Graphene medical patch………………………………………………………………………………………….. 229
  • Figure 70: TempTraQ wearable wireless thermometer…………………………………………………………….. 231
  • Figure 71: Nanowire skin hydration patch…………………………………………………………………………………. 231
  • Figure 72: Wearable sweat sensor…………………………………………………………………………………………… 232
  • Figure 73: GraphWear wearable sweat sensor………………………………………………………………………… 233
  • Figure 74: My UV Patch……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 234
  • Figure 75: Overview layers of L’Oreal skin patch……………………………………………………………………… 235
  • Figure 76: Omniphobic-coated fabric………………………………………………………………………………………… 250
  • Figure 77: Conductive yarns…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 258
  • Figure 78: Work out shirt incorporating ECG sensors, flexible lights and heating elements……… 260
  • Figure 79: Global smart clothing and apparel market 2014-2021 revenue forecast (million $)…. 262
  • Figure 80: Energy harvesting textile…………………………………………………………………………………………. 275
  • Figure 81: StretchSense Energy Harvesting Kit……………………………………………………………………….. 275
  • Figure 82: LG Chem Heaxagonal battery…………………………………………………………………………………. 276
  • Figure 83: Printed 1.5V battery…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 278
  • Figure 84: Energy densities and specific energy of rechargeable batteries………………………………. 280
  • Figure 85: Stretchable graphene supercapacitor………………………………………………………………………. 281
  • Figure 86: LG OLED flexible lighting panel……………………………………………………………………………….. 283
  • Figure 87: Flexible OLED incorporated into automotive headlight……………………………………………. 284
  • Figure 88: Flexible & stretchable LEDs based on quantum dots………………………………………………. 285
  • Figure 89: Schematic illustration of the fabrication concept for textile-based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) made by sewing textile electrodes onto cloth or paper………………………………… 286
  • Figure 90: Demand for thin film, flexible and printed batteries 2015, by market……………………….. 292
  • Figure 91: Demand for thin film, flexible and printed batteries 2027, by market……………………….. 292
  • Figure 92: Thin film transistor incorporating CNTs……………………………………………………………………. 301
  • Figure 93: Flexible LCD……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 302
  • Figure 94: “Full ActiveTM Flex”…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 303
  • Figure 95: FOLED schematic……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 305
  • Figure 96: Foldable display………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 305
  • Figure 97: Stretchable AMOLED………………………………………………………………………………………………. 306
  • Figure 98: LGD 12.3” FHD Automotive OLED………………………………………………………………………….. 307
  • Figure 99: LECTUM® display…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 307
  • Figure 100: Global market for flexible OLED displays, 2015-2027 (billion $)……………………………. 308