The Nanocellulose Investment and Pricing Guide 2017

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coverNanocellulose is a novel biomaterial with multiple industrial uses for replacing fossil derived raw materials. The market mainly consists of cellulose nanofibrils production at present as alternatives to resins, synthetic thickeners, strengtheners, and plastics.

Cellulose nanocrystals are a promising future investment opportunity. Most companies are focusing on high volume production for composites, packaging and paper industries. However, many opportunities exist in electronics, 3D printing, textiles and medicine.

Current production capacity far exceeds the market demand at present, but this is likely to change as prices drop in the next few years, and there is less distance to fall than with other nanomaterials as cellulose nanofibers are broadly cost competitive (<$50/kg). Producers have already begun to produce additives that are competitive with conventional polymer composites (e.g. carbon fibers).

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This 230 page report examines:

  • Advantages and shortcomings of nanocellulose as a technology component.
  • Pricing landscape for nanocellulose, by types and producers.
  • Production volumes by nanocellulose producer.
  • Provides a map of the current competitive landscape by market.
  • Market impediments for nanocellulose by target market.
  • Profiles all the major players in nanocellulose production.
  • Profiles all the major application developers including current and intended products.

Published September 2017 | 230 pages, 103 tables, 348 figures 

From series: Investment guides

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1    RESEARCH METHODOLOGY………………………………………………… 16

  • 1.1    Investment analysis………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 18
  • 1.2    Market impediment analysis…………………………………………………………………………………………… 20

2    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY…………………………………………………………. 22

  • 2.1    Main markets and applications……………………………………………………………………………………….. 23
  • 2.2    Main opportunities in nanocellulose……………………………………………………………………………….. 26
  • 2.3    Production in 2017…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 29
  • 2.4    The market for nanocellulose in 2017…………………………………………………………………………….. 32
  • 2.5    Nanocellulose market by region……………………………………………………………………………………… 38

3    TYPES OF COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE NANOCELULOSE……. 43

  • 3.1    Microfibrillated cellulose…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 44
  • 3.2    NanoFibrillar Cellulose (NFC)…………………………………………………………………………………………. 45
    • 3.2.1     Nanofibrillated cellulose production methods…………………………………………………………. 45
    • 3.2.2     Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 46
  • 3.3    NanoCrystalline Cellulose (NCC)……………………………………………………………………………………. 49
    • 3.3.1     Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 49
    • 3.3.2     Nanocrystalline celluose production methods………………………………………………………… 50
  • 3.4    Bacterial Cellulose (BCC)………………………………………………………………………………………………. 51
    • 3.4.1     Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 51

4    NANOCELLULOSE MARKET STRUCTURE AND ROUTES TO COMMERCIALIZATION………………………………………………………………. 52

5    COMMERCIAL OPPORTUNITES IN NANOCELLULOSE…………… 58

  • 5.1    Volume of industry demand for nanocellulose by nanocellulose producer sales……………. 58
  • 5.2    Current end users for nanocellulose, by market and company………………………………………. 60

6    NANOCELLULOSE PRODUCERS AND PRODUCTION CAPACITIES, CURRENT AND PLANNED…………………………………………………………. 62

  • 6.1    Cellulose nanofiber production……………………………………………………………………………………….. 62
  • 6.2    Cellulose nanocrystal production……………………………………………………………………………………. 63

7    NANOCELLULOSE PRICING………………………………………………….. 64

  • 7.1    NFC Gel/ NFC Slurry/MFC pricing………………………………………………………………………………….. 64
  • 7.1    NCC pricing……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 66
  • 7.2    Bulk supply…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 67
  • 7.3    Commoditisation…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 68

8    COMMERCIAL OPPORTUNITES IN NANOCELLULOSE…………… 68

  • 8.1    Short-term growth…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 68
  • 8.2    Medium-term growth………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 69
  • 8.3    Opportunities in printed and flexible electronics……………………………………………………………… 70
  • 8.4    COMPOSITES……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 72
    • 8.4.1     Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 72
    • 8.4.2     Current and planned commercial activity……………………………………………………………….. 74
    • 8.4.3     Nanocellulose market opportunity………………………………………………………………………….. 75
    • 8.4.4     Market impediments……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 78
  • 8.5    BIOPACKAGING……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 80
    • 8.5.1     Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 80
    • 8.5.2     Current and planned commercial activity……………………………………………………………….. 81
    • 8.5.3     Nanocellulose market opportunity………………………………………………………………………….. 82
    • 8.5.4     Market impediments……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 86
  • 8.6    PAPER & BOARD………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 87
    • 8.6.1     Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 87
    • 8.6.2     Current and planned commercial activity……………………………………………………………….. 90
    • 8.6.3     Nanocellulose market opportunity………………………………………………………………………….. 90
    • 8.6.4     Market impediments……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 92
  • 8.7    AEROSPACE AND AVIATION……………………………………………………………………………………….. 94
    • 8.7.1     Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 94
    • 8.7.2     Current and planned commercial activity……………………………………………………………….. 95
    • 8.7.3     Nanocellulose market opportunity………………………………………………………………………….. 96
    • 8.7.4     Market impediments……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 98
  • 8.8    AUTOMOTIVE……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 99
    • 8.8.1     Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 99
    • 8.8.2     Current and planned commercial activity……………………………………………………………… 101
    • 8.8.3     Nanocellulose market opportunity………………………………………………………………………… 102
    • 8.8.4     Market impediments…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 106
  • 8.9    CONSTRUCTION AND BUILDING………………………………………………………………………………. 107
    • 8.9.1     Applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 107
    • 8.9.2     Current and planned commercial activity……………………………………………………………… 108
    • 8.9.3     Nanocellulose market opportunity………………………………………………………………………… 112
    • 8.9.4     Market impediments…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 114
  • 8.10      TEXTILES AND CLOTHING…………………………………………………………………………………….. 115
    • 8.10.1        Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 115
    • 8.10.2        Current and planned commercial activity…………………………………………………………. 116
    • 8.10.3        Nanocellulose market opportunity……………………………………………………………………. 117
    • 8.10.4        Market impediments…………………………………………………………………………………………. 118
  • 8.11      MEDICAL & HEALTHCARE…………………………………………………………………………………….. 119
    • 8.11.1        Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 119
    • 8.11.2        Current and planned commercial activity…………………………………………………………. 122
    • 8.11.3        Nanocellulose market opportunity……………………………………………………………………. 123
    • 8.11.4        Market impediments…………………………………………………………………………………………. 126
  • 8.12      COATINGS AND PAINTS………………………………………………………………………………………… 126
    • 8.12.1        Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 126
    • 8.12.2        Current and planned commercial activity…………………………………………………………. 128
    • 8.12.3        Nanocellulose market opportunity……………………………………………………………………. 129
    • 8.12.4        Market impediments…………………………………………………………………………………………. 135
  • 8.13      AEROGELS……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 137
    • 8.13.1        Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 137
    • 8.13.2        Current and planned commercial activity…………………………………………………………. 138
    • 8.13.3        Nanocellulose market opportunity……………………………………………………………………. 138
    • 8.13.4        Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 140
  • 8.14      OIL AND GAS EXPLORATION………………………………………………………………………………… 141
    • 8.14.1        Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 141
    • 8.14.2        Current and planned commercial activity…………………………………………………………. 143
    • 8.14.3        Nanocellulose market opportunity……………………………………………………………………. 144
    • 8.14.4        Market impediments…………………………………………………………………………………………. 147
  • 8.15      FILTRATION AND SEPARATION……………………………………………………………………………. 148
    • 8.15.1        Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 148
    • 8.15.2        Current and planned commercial activity…………………………………………………………. 152
    • 8.15.3        Nanocellulose market opportunity……………………………………………………………………. 153
    • 8.15.4        Market impediments…………………………………………………………………………………………. 157
  • 8.16      RHEOLOGY MODIFIERS………………………………………………………………………………………… 158
    • 8.16.1        Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 158
    • 8.16.2        Current and planned commercial activity…………………………………………………………. 160
    • 8.16.3        Nanocellulose market opportunity……………………………………………………………………. 160
    • 8.16.4        Market impediments…………………………………………………………………………………………. 161
  • 8.17      PRINTABLE, STRETCHABLE AND FLEXIBLE ELECTRONICS…………………………….. 162
    • 8.17.1        Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 162
    • 8.17.2        Current and planned commercial activity…………………………………………………………. 168
    • 8.17.3        Nanocellulose market opportunity……………………………………………………………………. 169
    • 8.17.4        Market impediments…………………………………………………………………………………………. 174
  • 8.18      3D PRINTING…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 175
    • 8.18.1        Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 175
    • 8.18.2        Current and planned commercial activity…………………………………………………………. 176
    • 8.18.3        Nanocellulose market opportunity……………………………………………………………………. 176
    • 8.18.4        Market impediments…………………………………………………………………………………………. 178

9    NANOCELLULOSE PRODUCERS…………………………………………. 179

  • 9.1    Producers and types of nanocellulose produced (NCF, NCC, BCC)……………………………. 179
  • 9.2    Target markets for producers……………………………………………………………………………………….. 181
  • 9.3    Nanocellulose producer production capacities, prices and target markets…………………… 183-225

10 REFERENCES…………………………………………………………………….. 227

TABLES

  • Table 1: Markets and applications for nanocellulose………………………………………………………………….. 24
  • Table 2: Market opportunity assessment for nanocellulose, by application………………………………… 27
  • Table 3: Nanocellulose production plants worldwide and production status……………………………….. 30
  • Table 4: Current and planned production capacities, by major suppliers, pilot/pre-commercial and commercial volumes……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 31
  • Table 5: Nanocellulose products in Japan………………………………………………………………………………….. 33
  • Table 6: SWOT analysis of nanocellulose………………………………………………………………………………….. 40
  • Table 7: Properties and applications of nanocellulose………………………………………………………………… 43
  • Table 8: Nanofibrillated cellulose production methods……………………………………………………………….. 45
  • Table 9: Applications of nanofibrillar cellulose (NFC)………………………………………………………………….. 46
  • Table 10: Production methods of NFC producers………………………………………………………………………. 47
  • Table 11: Applications of nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC)………………………………………………………….. 50
  • Table 12: Cellulose nanocrystals (NCC) production methods…………………………………………………….. 50
  • Table 13: Applications of bacterial cellulose (BC)……………………………………………………………………….. 51
  • Table 14: Nanocellulose market structure…………………………………………………………………………………… 53
  • Table 15: Current and potential end users for nanocellulose, by market and company……………… 60
  • Table 16: Production capacities of CNF producers per annum in tons, current and planned……… 62
  • Table 17: Production capacities of CNC producers per annum in tons, current and planned…….. 63
  • Table 18: Product/price/application matrix of nanocellulose producers………………………………………. 64
  • Table 19: Equivalent cost of nanocellulose and competitive materials in polymer composites…… 72
  • Table 20: Applications of nanocellulose in polymer composites by cellulose type……………………… 73
  • Table 21: Nanocellulose applications timeline in the polymer composites market……………………… 73
  • Table 22: Companies developing nanocellulose products in paper and board, applications targeted and stage of commercialization…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 74
  • Table 23: Market assessment for nanocellulose in composites………………………………………………….. 75
  • Table 24: Market opportunity assessment for nanocellulose in composites……………………………….. 76
  • Table 25: Application markets, competing materials, nanocellulose advantages and current market size in composites………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 76
  • Table 26: Demand for nanocellulose in the composites market, 2015-2027 (tons)…………………….. 78
  • Table 27: Companies developing nanocellulose products in bio packaging, applications targeted and stage of commercialization…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 81
  • Table 28: Market assessment for nanocellulose in biopackaging……………………………………………….. 82
  • Table 29: Application markets, competing materials, nanocellulose advantages and current market size in packaging………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 83
  • Table 30: Market opportunity assessment for nanocellulose in biopackaging…………………………….. 84
  • Table 31:Demand for nanocellulose in the biopackaging market, 2015-2027 (tons)…………………… 86
  • Table 32: Market impediments for nanocellulose in the biopackaging market……………………………. 87
  • Table 50: Nanocellulose applications timeline in the paper and board markets………………………….. 87
  • Table 51: Nanocellulose in construction-Companies and products…………………………………………….. 90
  • Table 52: Market opportunity assessment for nanocellulose in paper and board……………………….. 91
  • Table 53: Demand for nanocellulose in the paper and board market, 2015-2017 (tons)…………….. 92
  • Table 54: Market impediments for nanocellulose in the paper and board market……………………….. 93
  • Table 33: Applications in aerospace composites………………………………………………………………………… 94
  • Table 34: Market size for nanocellulose in aerospace and aviation……………………………………………. 97
  • Table 35: Demand for nanocellulose in the aerospace and aviaton market, 2015-2017 (tons)…… 98
  • Table 36: Market impediments for nanocellulose in the aerospace market………………………………… 99
  • Table 37: Companies developing Nanocellulose products in the automotive industry, applications targeted and stage of commercialization…………………………………………………………………………….. 101
  • Table 38: Application markets, competing materials, Nanocellulose advantages and current market size in the automotive sector………………………………………………………………………………………………. 103
  • Table 39: Market assessment for nanocellulose in the automotive sector………………………………… 104
  • Table 40: Market opportunity assessment for nanocellulose in the automotive industry…………… 104
  • Table 41: Market size for nanocellulose in the automotive industry………………………………………….. 105
  • Table 42: Demand for nanocellulose in the automotive market, 2015-2017 (tons)…………………… 106
  • Table 43: Applications and commercilization challenges in the automotive market………………….. 106
  • Table 44: Market impediments for nanocellulose in the automotive market……………………………… 107
  • Table 45: Comparison of nanocellulose with steel and other materials…………………………………….. 108
  • Table 46: Nanocellulose in construction-Companies and products…………………………………………… 108
  • Table 47: Market size for nanocellulose in construction and civil engineering………………………….. 112
  • Table 48: Demand for nanocellulose in the construction and building market, 2015-2017 (tons). 114
  • Table 49: Market impediments in the construction, building protection and architectural exterior coatings market………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 114
  • Table 55: Companies developing nanocellulose products in textiles, applications targeted and stage of commercialization…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 116
  • Table 56: Market opportunity assessment for nanocellulose in textiles and clothing………………… 117
  • Table 57: Potential volume estimates (tons) and penetration of nanocellulose into textiles and clothing……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 117
  • Table 58: Market assessment for nanocellulose in textiles and clothing…………………………………… 118
  • Table 59: Market impediments for nanocellulose in the textiles and clothing market………………… 119
  • Table 60: Nanocellulose applications timeline in the medical and healthcare markets…………….. 119
  • Table 61: Nanocellulose product developers in medical and healthcare applications………………. 122
  • Table 62: Demand for nanocellulose in the medical and healthcare market, 2015-2017 (tons).. 125
  • Table 63: Nanocellulose applications timeline in the coatings and paints markets…………………… 127
  • Table 64: Companies developing nanocellulose products in coatings and paints, applications targeted and stage of commercialization…………………………………………………………………………….. 128
  • Table 65: Market assessment for nanocellulose in coatings and paints……………………………………. 131
  • Table 66: Application markets, competing materials, nanocellulose advantages and current market size in coatings and films……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 131
  • Table 67: Market opportunity assessment for nanocellulose in coatings and films…………………… 133
  • Table 68: Demand for nanocellulose in the paint and coatings market, 2015-2017 (tons)……….. 134
  • Table 69: Market impediments for nanocellulose in the coatings and films market…………………… 136
  • Table 70: Nanocellulose product developers in aerogels………………………………………………………….. 138
  • Table 71: Demand for nanocellulose in the aerogels market, 2015-2017 (tons)………………………. 139
  • Table 72: Nanocellulose applications timeline in the aerogels market……………………………………… 140
  • Table 73: Nanocellulose applications timeline in the oil market………………………………………………… 141
  • Table 74: Nanocellulose product developers in oil and gas exploration……………………………………. 143
  • Table 75: Application markets, competing materials, nanocellulose advantages and current market size in oil and gas……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 145
  • Table 76: Market assessment for nanocellulose in oil and gas…………………………………………………. 145
  • Table 77: Nanocellulose in the oil and gas market-applications, stage of commercialization and estimated economic impact………………………………………………………………………………………………… 146
  • Table 78: Demand for nanocellulose in the oil and gas exploration market, 2015-2017 (tons)…. 147
  • Table 79: Market impediments for nanocellulose in the oil and gas exploration market……………. 147
  • Table 80: Nanocellulose applications timeline in the filtration market……………………………………….. 148
  • Table 81: Companies developing NFC products in filtration, applications targeted and stage of commercialization……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 152
  • Table 82: Application markets, competing materials, nanocellulose advantages and current market size in filtration……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 154
  • Table 83: Market assessment for nanocellulose in filtration……………………………………………………… 154
  • Table 84: Market opportunity assessment for nanocellulose in the filtration industry……………….. 155
  • Table 85: Demand for nanocellulose in the filtration market, 2015-2017 (tons)………………………… 156
  • Table 86: Market impediments for nanocellulose in the filtration market…………………………………… 157
  • Table 87: Nanocellulose applications timeline in the rheology modifiers market………………………. 158
  • Table 88: Commercial activity in nanocellulose rheology modifiers………………………………………….. 160
  • Table 89: Nanocellulose applications timeline in flexible electronics………………………………………… 162
  • Table 90: Properties of flexible electronics cellulose nanofiber films………………………………………… 166
  • Table 91: Companies developing Nanocellulose products in flexible and stretchable electronics, applications targeted and stage of commercialization………………………………………………………… 168
  • Table 92: Global market for wearables, 2014-2021, units and US$………………………………………….. 169
  • Table 93: Application markets, competing materials, Nanocellulose advantages and current market size in electronics……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 172
  • Table 94: Market assessment for nanocellulose in the flexible and printed electronics sector…. 172
  • Table 95: Market opportunity assessment for Nanocellulose in flexible electronics………………….. 173
  • Table 96: Market impediments for nanocellulose in the printed and flexible electronics market.. 174
  • Table 97: Companies developing nanocellulose 3D printing products,…………………………………….. 176
  • Table 98: Application markets, competing materials, nanocellulose advantages and current market size in 3D printing……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 176
  • Table 99: Market assessment for nanocellulose in 3D printing…………………………………………………. 177
  • Table 100: Market opportunity assessment for nanocellulose in 3D printing…………………………….. 177
  • Table 101: Market impediments for nanocellulose in the 3D printing market……………………………. 178
  • Table 102: Nanocellulose producers and types of nanocellulose produced……………………………… 179
  • Table 103: Target market, by nanocellulose producer……………………………………………………………… 181

FIGURES

  • Figure 1: CNF wet powder………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 30
  • Figure 2: Running shoes incorporating cellulose nanofibers………………………………………………………. 33
  • Figure 3: Ballpoint pen incorporating cellulose nanofibers………………………………………………………….. 33
  • Figure 4: Onkyo speakers, incorporating CNF……………………………………………………………………………. 34
  • Figure 5: Daio Paper toilet wipes………………………………………………………………………………………………… 35
  • Figure 6: Cellulose Nanofiber (CNF) composite with polyethylene (PE)…………………………………….. 36
  • Figure 7: Nanocellulose market, by type, 2015–2027 (Tons)……………………………………………………… 37
  • Figure 8: Nanocellulose market by region, 2017………………………………………………………………………… 39
  • Figure 9: Nanocellulose market by region, 2027………………………………………………………………………… 40
  • Figure 10: Schematic of typical commercialization route for nanocellulose producer…………………. 53
  • Figure 11: Volume of industry demand for nanocellulose by nanocellulose producer sales, 2016. 59
  • Figure 12: Demand for nanocellulose in the composites market, 2015-2027 (tons)……………………. 77
  • Figure 13: Demand for nanocellulose in the biopackaging market, 2015-2017 (tons)………………… 86
  • Figure 18: Demand for nanocellulose in the paper and board market, 2015-2017 (tons)…………… 92
  • Figure 14: Demand for nanocellulose in the aerospace and aviaton market, 2015-2017 (tons)…. 98
  • Figure 15: NFC composite………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 101
  • Figure 16: Demand for nanocellulose in the automotive market, 2015-2017 (tons)………………….. 106
  • Figure 17: Demand for nanocellulose in the construction and building market, 2015-2017 (tons). 113
  • Figure 19: Demand for nanocellulose in the medical and healthcare market, 2015-2017 (tons). 125
  • Figure 20: Global Paints and Coatings Market, share by end user market……………………………….. 130
  • Figure 21: Demand for nanocellulose in the paints and coatings market, 2015-2017 (tons)…….. 134
  • Figure 22: Demand for nanocellulose in the aerogels market, 2015-2017 (tons)……………………… 139
  • Figure 23: Nanocellulose sponge developed by EMPA for potential applications in oil recovery. 143
  • Figure 24: Demand for nanocellulose in the oil and gas exploration market, 2015-2017 (tons).. 146
  • Figure 25: Nanocellulose virus filter paper………………………………………………………………………………… 152
  • Figure 26: Demand for nanocellulose in the filtration market, 2015-2017 (tons)………………………. 156
  • Figure 27: Electronic components using NFC as insulating materials………………………………………. 163
  • Figure 28:  Cellulose nanofiber films…………………………………………………………………………………………. 164
  • Figure 29: Nanocellulose photoluminescent paper…………………………………………………………………… 165
  • Figure 30: LEDs shining on circuitry imprinted on a 5x5cm sheet of CNF………………………………… 166
  • Figure 31: Foldable nanopaper…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 167
  • Figure 32: Foldable nanopaper antenna…………………………………………………………………………………… 167
  • Figure 33: Paper memory (ReRAM)…………………………………………………………………………………………. 168
  • Figure 34: Global market revenues for smart wearable devices 2014-2021, in US$………………… 170
  • Figure 35: Global market revenues for nanotech-enabled smart wearable devices 2014-2021 in US$, conservative estimate………………………………………………………………………………………………… 171
  • Figure 36: Global market revenues for nanotech-enabled smart wearable devices 2014-2021 in US$, optimistic estimate……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 171
  • Figure 37: Asahi Kasei CNF fabric sheet………………………………………………………………………………….. 185
  • Figure 38: Properties of Asahi Kasei cellulose nanofiber nonwoven fabric………………………………. 186
  • Figure 39: Nonwoven fabric made from CNF……………………………………………………………………………. 187
  • Figure 40: CNC produced at Tech Futures’ pilot plant; cloudy suspension (1 wt.%), gel-like (10 wt.%), flake-like crystals, and very fine powder. Product advantages include:……………………………. 193
  • Figure 41: Rheocrysta spray…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 200
  • Figure 42: Hydrophobization facilities for raw pulp……………………………………………………………………. 207
  • Figure 43: Mixing facilities for CNF-reinforced plastic……………………………………………………………….. 207
  • Figure 44: Nippon Paper Industries’ adult diapers……………………………………………………………………. 208
  • Figure 45: CNF transparent film……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 210
  • Figure 46: CNF wet powder……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 210
  • Figure 47: Flexible electronic substrate made from CNF………………………………………………………….. 222
  • Figure 48: Bio-based barrier bags prepared from Tempo-CNF coated bio-HDPE film……………… 224
The Nanocellulose Investment and Pricing Guide 2017
The Nanocellulose Investment and Pricing Guide 2017
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The Nanocellulose Investment and Pricing Guide 2017
The Nanocellulose Investment and Pricing Guide 2017
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The Nanocellulose Investment and Pricing Guide 2017
The Nanocellulose Investment and Pricing Guide 2017
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