The Nanotechnology and Nanomaterials Global Opportunity Report

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The Nanotechnology and Nanomaterials Global Opportunity Report brings you the very latest information on the growing global market for these remarkable materials, covering all the latest products, commercial activities and innovations.

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We are facing unprecedented global challenges such as the depletion of natural resources and climate change, pollution, scarcity of clean water, providing food and energy to a growing world population and poverty. These problems are directly linked to current technologies for producing energy and manufacturing products. The exploitation of nanotechnology and nanomaterials is the key development that can significantly address these global problems by changing both the products and the means of their production and addressing pressing market needs in security, communications and electronics.

The Nanotechnology and Nanomaterials Global Opportunity Report, at over 900 pages long, is the most comprehensive assessment of the opportunities afforded by these remarkable technologies and materials. The study was compiled over four months and involved interviews with >500 nanomaterials producers and product developers globally.

Contents include:

  • In-depth analysis of the global market for nanotechnology and nanomaterials, applications, producers, product developers and products
  • Assessment of nanomaterials market including production volumes, competitive landscape, commercial prospects, applications, demand by market and region, commercialization timelines, prices and producer profiles.
  • Examples of successful markets and products.
  • Analysis of global trends, including historical data from 2010, and projections to 2025.
  • Exploration of nanomaterials and nanotech-enabled products market structures and value chains.
  • Collaborations in nanotechnology enabled product development.
  • Assessment of end user markets for nanotechnology and nanomaterials including market drivers and trends, applications, market opportunity, market challenges and application and product developer profiles.
  • Unique assessment tools for the nanomaterials market, end user applications, economic impact, addressable markets and market challenges to provide the complete picture of where the real commercial opportunities in nanotechnology and nanomaterials are.
  • Main application and product opportunities in nanotechnology.
  • Profiles of all producers, product developers and end users in nanotechnology and nanomaterials.

Content: 920 pages, 65 chapters, 433 tables, 158 figures | Published: January 2017 | Download Table of contents

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

  • 1    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY…………………………………………………………………….. 80
  • 2    RESEARCH METHODOLOGY……………………………………………………………. 84
    • 2.1       NANOMATERIALS MARKET RATING SYSTEM……………………………………. 85
    • 2.2       COMMERCIAL IMPACT RATING SYSTEM………………………………………… 87
    • 2.3       MARKET CHALLENGES RATING SYSTEM…………………………………………. 88
  • 3    INTRODUCTION……………………………………………………………………………….. 91
    • 3.1       Properties of nanomaterials……………………………………………………….. 91
    • 3.2       Categorization………………………………………………………………………….. 93
  • 4    NANOMATERIALS REGULATIONS……………………………………………………. 95
    • 4.1       Europe………………………………………………………………………………………. 96
      • 4.1.1   REACH……………………………………………………………………………………. 96
      • 4.1.2   Biocidal Products Regulation………………………………………………….. 96
      • 4.1.3   National nanomaterials registers……………………………………………… 97
      • 4.1.4   Cosmetics regulation………………………………………………………………. 98
      • 4.1.5   Food safety………………………………………………………………………….. 100
    • 4.2       United States…………………………………………………………………………… 101
      • 4.2.1   Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA)……………………………………… 101
    • 4.3       Asia…………………………………………………………………………………………. 103
      • 4.3.1   Japan………………………………………………………………………………….. 103
      • 4.3.2   South Korea………………………………………………………………………….. 103
      • 4.3.3   Taiwan…………………………………………………………………………………. 104
      • 4.3.4   Australia……………………………………………………………………………….. 104
  • 5    GLOBAL FUNDING AND POLICY…………………………………………………… 106
    • 5.1       United States…………………………………………………………………………… 106
      • 5.1.1   National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI)………………………………. 106
    • 5.2       Japan…………………………………………………………………………………….. 107
      • 5.2.1   Science and technology basic plans……………………………………. 108
        • 5.2.1.1    Strategic Innovation Promotion Program…………………………. 109
        • 5.2.1.2    Science and Technology Basic Plan……………………………….. 110
        • 5.2.1.3    5th Science and Technology Basic Plan (FY2016-2020)……. 111
      • 5.2.2   Government bodies……………………………………………………………… 111
        • 5.2.2.1    Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT)         111
        • 5.2.2.2    Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI)……………….. 112
      • 5.2.3   Research centres and platforms……………………………………………. 112
        • 5.2.3.1    Tsukuba Innovation Arena for Nanotechnology (TIA – NANO) 112
        • 5.2.3.2    National Institute of Materials Science (NIMS)………………….. 113
        • 5.2.3.3    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST)     113
      • 5.3       China……………………………………………………………………………………… 114
        • 5.3.1   Graphene funding and development………………………………….. 114
        • 5.3.2   Future graphene strategy……………………………………………………… 116
        • 5.3.3   13th Five-Year Plan……………………………………………………………….. 119
      • 5.4       South Korea…………………………………………………………………………….. 119
        • 5.4.1   Nanotechnology funding in South Korea………………………………. 119
        • 5.4.2   Graphene funding……………………………………………………………….. 120
      • 5.5       Taiwan……………………………………………………………………………………. 121
        • 5.5.1   National Nanotechnology Program Phase 1………………………….. 122
        • 5.5.2   Phase 2………………………………………………………………………………… 123
      • 5.6       Germany…………………………………………………………………………………. 124
        • 5.6.1   Nanotechnology 2015 Action Plan……………………………………….. 125
        • 5.6.2   Networks………………………………………………………………………………. 125
      • 5.7       European Union………………………………………………………………………. 126
        • 5.7.1   Horizon 2020…………………………………………………………………………. 126
        • 5.7.2   Graphene Flagship………………………………………………………………. 127
  • 6    PATENTING……………………………………………………………………………………. 128
  • 7    THE GLOBAL MARKET FOR NANOMATERIALS………………………………. 131
    • 7.1       ALUMINIUM OXIDE NANOPARTICLES…………………………………………… 131
      • 7.1.1   Market prospects………………………………………………………………….. 131
      • 7.1.2   Market snapshot…………………………………………………………………… 132
      • 7.1.3   Properties……………………………………………………………………………… 133
      • 7.1.4   Applications…………………………………………………………………………. 134
      • 7.1.5   Demand by market………………………………………………………………. 136
      • 7.1.6   Technology readiness level (TRL)……………………………………………. 138
      • 7.1.7   Production volumes in tons, 2010-2025………………………………….. 139
      • 7.1.8   Production volumes, by region……………………………………………… 141
      • 7.1.9   Prices……………………………………………………………………………………. 142
      • 7.1.10     Producers………………………………………………………………………….. 142
    • 7.2       ANTIMONY TIN OXIDE NANOPARTICLES………………………………………. 149
      • 7.2.1   Market prospects………………………………………………………………….. 149
      • 7.2.2   Market snapshot…………………………………………………………………… 149
      • 7.2.3   Properties……………………………………………………………………………… 150
      • 7.2.4   Applications…………………………………………………………………………. 151
      • 7.2.5   Demand by market………………………………………………………………. 153
      • 7.2.6   Technology readiness level (TRL)……………………………………………. 153
      • 7.2.7   Production volume in tons, 2010-2025……………………………………. 154
      • 7.2.8   Production volumes, by region……………………………………………… 157
      • 7.2.9   Prices……………………………………………………………………………………. 158
      • 7.2.10     Producers………………………………………………………………………….. 158
    • 7.3       BISMUTH OXIDE NANOPARTICLES……………………………………………….. 163
      • 7.3.1   Market prospects………………………………………………………………….. 163
      • 7.3.2   Market snapshot…………………………………………………………………… 163
      • 7.3.3   Properties……………………………………………………………………………… 164
      • 7.3.4   Applications…………………………………………………………………………. 165
      • 7.3.5   Demand by market………………………………………………………………. 167
      • 7.3.6   Technology readiness level (TRL)……………………………………………. 168
      • 7.3.7   Production volume in tons, 2010-2025……………………………………. 169
      • 7.3.8   Production volumes, by region……………………………………………… 171
      • 7.3.9   Prices……………………………………………………………………………………. 172
      • 7.3.10     Producers………………………………………………………………………….. 172
    • 7.4       CARBON NANOTUBES……………………………………………………………….. 175
      • 7.4.1   Market prospects………………………………………………………………….. 175
      • 7.4.2   Market snapshot…………………………………………………………………… 175
      • 7.4.3   Properties……………………………………………………………………………… 177
      • 7.4.4   Applications…………………………………………………………………………. 179
      • 7.4.5   Demand by market………………………………………………………………. 183
      • 7.4.6   Technology readiness level (TRL)……………………………………………. 185
      • 7.4.7   Production volumes in tons, 2010-2025………………………………….. 187
      • 7.4.8   Production volumes, by region……………………………………………… 190
      • 7.4.9   Prices……………………………………………………………………………………. 191
      • 7.4.10     Producers………………………………………………………………………….. 193
    • 7.5       CERIUM OXIDE NANOPARTICLES………………………………………………… 206
      • 7.5.1   Market prospects………………………………………………………………….. 206
      • 7.5.2   Market snapshot…………………………………………………………………… 206
      • 7.5.3   Properties……………………………………………………………………………… 208
      • 7.5.4   Applications…………………………………………………………………………. 208
      • 7.5.5   Demand by market………………………………………………………………. 211
      • 7.5.6   Technology readiness level (TRL)……………………………………………. 212
      • 7.5.7   Production volumes in tons, 2010-2025………………………………….. 213
      • 7.5.8   Production volumes, by region……………………………………………… 215
      • 7.5.9   Prices……………………………………………………………………………………. 216
      • 7.5.10     Producers………………………………………………………………………….. 216
    • 7.6       COBALT OXIDE NANOPARTICLES………………………………………………… 220
      • 7.6.1   Market prospects………………………………………………………………….. 220
      • 7.6.2   Market snapshot…………………………………………………………………… 220
      • 7.6.3   Properties……………………………………………………………………………… 221
      • 7.6.4   Applications…………………………………………………………………………. 222
      • 7.6.5   Demand by market………………………………………………………………. 224
      • 7.6.6   Technology readiness level (TRL)……………………………………………. 225
      • 7.6.7   Production volumes in tons, 2010-2025………………………………….. 225
      • 7.6.8   Production volumes, by region……………………………………………… 228
      • 7.6.9   Prices……………………………………………………………………………………. 229
      • 7.6.10     Producers………………………………………………………………………….. 229
    • 7.7       COPPER OXIDE NANOPARTICLES……………………………………………….. 231
      • 7.7.1   Market prospects………………………………………………………………….. 231
      • 7.7.2   Market summary…………………………………………………………………… 231
      • 7.7.3   Properties……………………………………………………………………………… 232
      • 7.7.4   Applications…………………………………………………………………………. 234
      • 7.7.5   Demand by market………………………………………………………………. 236
      • 7.7.6   Technology readiness level (TRL)……………………………………………. 237
      • 7.7.7   Production volumes in tons, 2010-2025………………………………….. 238
      • 7.7.8   Production volumes, by region……………………………………………… 240
      • 7.7.9   Prices……………………………………………………………………………………. 240
      • 7.7.10     Producers………………………………………………………………………….. 241
    • 7.8       DENDRIMERS…………………………………………………………………………….. 244
      • 7.8.1   Market prospects………………………………………………………………….. 244
      • 7.8.2   Market summary…………………………………………………………………… 244
      • 7.8.3   Properties……………………………………………………………………………… 246
      • 7.8.3.1    Types……………………………………………………………………………… 246
      • 7.8.4   Applications…………………………………………………………………………. 249
      • 7.8.5   Demand by market………………………………………………………………. 251
      • 7.8.6   Technology readiness level (TRL)……………………………………………. 252
      • 7.8.7   Production volumes in tons, 2010-2025………………………………….. 253
      • 7.8.8   Production volumes, by region……………………………………………… 255
      • 7.8.9   Prices……………………………………………………………………………………. 255
      • 7.8.10     Producers………………………………………………………………………….. 256
    • 7.9       FULLERENES………………………………………………………………………………. 259
      • 7.9.1   Market prospects………………………………………………………………….. 259
      • 7.9.2   Market summary…………………………………………………………………… 259
      • 7.9.3   Properties……………………………………………………………………………… 260
      • 7.9.4   Applications…………………………………………………………………………. 261
      • 7.9.5   Demand by market………………………………………………………………. 263
      • 7.9.6   Technology readiness level (TRL)……………………………………………. 264
      • 7.9.7   Production volume in tons, 2010-2025……………………………………. 264
      • 7.9.8   Production volumes, by region……………………………………………… 267
      • 7.9.9   Prices……………………………………………………………………………………. 267
      • 7.9.10     Producers………………………………………………………………………….. 268
    • 7.10     GOLD NANOPARTICLES……………………………………………………………… 272
      • 7.10.1     Market prospects………………………………………………………………. 272
      • 7.10.2     Market summary……………………………………………………………….. 272
      • 7.10.3     Properties………………………………………………………………………….. 274
      • 7.10.4     Applications……………………………………………………………………… 275
      • 7.10.5     Demand by market…………………………………………………………… 276
      • 7.10.6     Technology readiness level (TRL)………………………………………… 277
      • 7.10.7     Production volumes in tons, 2010-2025……………………………….. 278
      • 7.10.8     Production volumes, by region…………………………………………… 280
      • 7.10.9     Prices………………………………………………………………………………… 281
      • 7.10.10   Producers………………………………………………………………………….. 282
    • 7.11     GRAPHENE………………………………………………………………………………. 287
      • 7.11.1     Market prospects………………………………………………………………. 287
      • 7.11.2     Market summary……………………………………………………………….. 287
      • 7.11.3     Properties………………………………………………………………………….. 288
      • 7.11.4     Applications……………………………………………………………………… 291
      • 7.11.5     Demand by market…………………………………………………………… 298
      • 7.11.6     Technology readiness level (TRL)………………………………………… 300
      • 7.11.7     Production volumes in tons, 2010-2025……………………………….. 301
      • 7.11.8     Production volumes, by region…………………………………………… 304
      • 7.11.9     Prices………………………………………………………………………………… 305
      • 7.11.10   Producers………………………………………………………………………….. 306
    • 7.12     IRON OXIDE NANOPARTICLES…………………………………………………….. 319
      • 7.12.1     Market prospects………………………………………………………………. 319
      • 7.12.2     Market summary……………………………………………………………….. 319
      • 7.12.3     Properties………………………………………………………………………….. 320
      • 7.12.4     Applications……………………………………………………………………… 321
      • 7.12.5     Demand by market…………………………………………………………… 324
      • 7.12.6     Technology readiness level (TRL)………………………………………… 326
      • 7.12.7     Production volumes in tons, 2010-2025……………………………….. 327
      • 7.12.8     Production volumes, by region…………………………………………… 328
      • 7.12.9     Prices………………………………………………………………………………… 329
      • 7.12.10   Producers………………………………………………………………………….. 330
    • 7.13     MAGNESIUM OXIDE NANOPARTICLES…………………………………………. 335
      • 7.13.1     Market prospects………………………………………………………………. 335
      • 7.13.2     Market summary……………………………………………………………….. 335
      • 7.13.3     Properties………………………………………………………………………….. 336
      • 7.13.4     Applications……………………………………………………………………… 337
      • 7.13.5     Demand by market…………………………………………………………… 338
      • 7.13.6     Technology readiness level (TRL)………………………………………… 338
      • 7.13.7     Production volumes in tons, 2010-2025……………………………….. 339
      • 7.13.8     Production volumes, by region…………………………………………… 342
      • 7.13.9     Prices………………………………………………………………………………… 342
      • 7.13.10   Producers………………………………………………………………………….. 343
    • 7.14     MANGANESE OXIDE NANOPARTICLES………………………………………… 346
      • 7.14.1     Market prospects………………………………………………………………. 346
      • 7.14.2     Market summary……………………………………………………………….. 346
      • 7.14.3     Properties………………………………………………………………………….. 347
      • 7.14.4     Applications……………………………………………………………………… 348
      • 7.14.5     Demand by market…………………………………………………………… 349
      • 7.14.6     Technology readiness level (TRL)………………………………………… 350
      • 7.14.7     Production volumes in tons, 2010-2025……………………………….. 351
      • 7.14.8     Production volumes, by region…………………………………………… 353
      • 7.14.9     Prices………………………………………………………………………………… 353
      • 7.14.10   Producers………………………………………………………………………….. 354
    • 7.15     NANOCELLULOSE……………………………………………………………………… 356
      • 7.15.1     Market prospects………………………………………………………………. 356
      • 7.15.2     Market summary……………………………………………………………….. 356
      • 7.15.3     Properties………………………………………………………………………….. 358
      • 7.15.4     Applications……………………………………………………………………… 363
      • 7.15.5     Demand by market…………………………………………………………… 368
      • 7.15.6     Technology readiness level (TRL)………………………………………… 369
      • 7.15.7     Production volumes in tons, 2010-2025……………………………….. 370
      • 7.15.8     Production volumes, by region…………………………………………… 373
      • 7.15.9     Prices………………………………………………………………………………… 373
      • 7.15.10   Producers………………………………………………………………………….. 374
      • 7.15.10.1   Cellulose nanofibers…………………………………………………….. 374
      • 7.15.10.2   Cellulose nanocrystals…………………………………………………. 375
    • 7.16     NANOCLAYS…………………………………………………………………………….. 382
      • 7.16.1     Market prospects………………………………………………………………. 382
      • 7.16.2     Market summary……………………………………………………………….. 382
      • 7.16.3     Properties………………………………………………………………………….. 383
      • 7.16.4     Applications……………………………………………………………………… 387
      • 7.16.5     Demand by market…………………………………………………………… 388
      • 7.16.6     Technology readiness level (TRL)………………………………………… 390
      • 7.16.7     Production volumes in tons, 2010-2025……………………………….. 390
      • 7.16.8     Production volumes, by region…………………………………………… 393
      • 7.16.9     Prices………………………………………………………………………………… 393
      • 7.16.10   Producers………………………………………………………………………….. 394
    • 7.17     NANODIAMONDS……………………………………………………………………… 400
      • 7.17.1     Market prospects………………………………………………………………. 400
      • 7.17.2     Market summary……………………………………………………………….. 400
      • 7.17.3     Properties………………………………………………………………………….. 401
      • 7.17.4     Applications……………………………………………………………………… 402
      • 7.17.5     Demand by market…………………………………………………………… 403
      • 7.17.6     Technology readiness level (TRL)………………………………………… 405
      • 7.17.7     Production volumes in tons, 2010-2025……………………………….. 405
      • 7.17.8     Production volumes, by region…………………………………………… 407
      • 7.17.9     Prices………………………………………………………………………………… 408
      • 7.17.10   Producers………………………………………………………………………….. 408
    • 7.18     NANOFIBERS…………………………………………………………………………….. 410
      • 7.18.1     Market summary……………………………………………………………….. 410
      • 7.18.2     Market prospects………………………………………………………………. 410
      • 7.18.3     Properties………………………………………………………………………….. 411
      • 7.18.4     Applications……………………………………………………………………… 411
      • 7.18.5     Demand by market…………………………………………………………… 413
      • 7.18.6     Production volumes in tons, 2010-2025……………………………….. 414
      • 7.18.7     Production volumes, by region…………………………………………… 416
      • 7.18.8     Technology readiness level (TRL)………………………………………… 417
      • 7.18.9     Producers………………………………………………………………………….. 417
    • 7.19     NANOSILVER…………………………………………………………………………….. 424
      • 7.19.1     Market prospects………………………………………………………………. 424
      • 7.19.2     Market summary……………………………………………………………….. 424
      • 7.19.3     Properties………………………………………………………………………….. 425
      • 7.19.4     Applications……………………………………………………………………… 426
      • 7.19.5     Demand by market…………………………………………………………… 429
      • 7.19.6     Technology readiness level (TRL)………………………………………… 430
      • 7.19.7     Production volumes in tons, 2010-2025……………………………….. 431
      • 7.19.8     Production volumes, by region…………………………………………… 433
      • 7.19.9     Prices………………………………………………………………………………… 433
      • 7.19.10   Producers………………………………………………………………………….. 434
    • 7.20     NANOWIRES……………………………………………………………………………… 438
      • 7.20.1     Market prospects………………………………………………………………. 438
      • 7.20.2     Market summary……………………………………………………………….. 438
      • 7.20.3     Properties………………………………………………………………………….. 439
      • 7.20.4     Applications……………………………………………………………………… 440
      • 7.20.5     Demand by market…………………………………………………………… 442
      • 7.20.6     Technology readiness level (TRL)………………………………………… 443
      • 7.20.7     Production volumes, by region…………………………………………… 444
      • 7.20.8     Prices………………………………………………………………………………… 444
      • 7.20.9     Producers………………………………………………………………………….. 445
    • 7.21     NICKEL NANOPARTICLES……………………………………………………………. 448
      • 7.21.1     Market prospects………………………………………………………………. 448
      • 7.21.2     Market summary……………………………………………………………….. 448
      • 7.21.3     Properties………………………………………………………………………….. 449
      • 7.21.4     Applications……………………………………………………………………… 450
      • 7.21.5     Technology readiness level (TRL)………………………………………… 451
      • 7.21.6     Production volumes in tons, 2010-2025……………………………….. 451
      • 7.21.7     Production volumes, by region…………………………………………… 453
      • 7.21.8     Prices………………………………………………………………………………… 453
      • 7.21.9     Producers………………………………………………………………………….. 454
    • 7.22     QUANTUM DOTS……………………………………………………………………….. 456
      • 7.22.1     Market prospects………………………………………………………………. 456
      • 7.22.2     Properties………………………………………………………………………….. 456
      • 7.22.3     Applications……………………………………………………………………… 459
      • 7.22.4     Demand by market…………………………………………………………… 464
      • 7.22.5     Technology readiness level (TRL)………………………………………… 467
      • 7.22.6     Production volumes in tons, 2010-2025……………………………….. 468
      • 7.22.7     Production volumes, by region…………………………………………… 470
      • 7.22.8     Prices………………………………………………………………………………… 471
      • 7.22.9     Producers………………………………………………………………………….. 471
    • 7.23     SILICON OXIDE NANOPARTICLES………………………………………………… 477
      • 7.23.1     Market prospects………………………………………………………………. 477
      • 7.23.2     Market summary……………………………………………………………….. 477
      • 7.23.3     Properties………………………………………………………………………….. 479
      • 7.23.4     Applications……………………………………………………………………… 480
      • 7.23.5     Demand by market…………………………………………………………… 482
      • 7.23.6     Technology readiness level (TRL)………………………………………… 483
      • 7.23.7     Production volumes in tons, 2010-2025……………………………….. 484
      • 7.23.8     Production volumes, by region…………………………………………… 486
      • 7.23.9     Prices………………………………………………………………………………… 486
      • 7.23.10   Producers………………………………………………………………………….. 487
    • 7.24     TITANIUM DIOXIDE NANOPARTICLES……………………………………………. 494
      • 7.24.1     Market prospects………………………………………………………………. 494
      • 7.24.2     Market summary……………………………………………………………….. 494
      • 7.24.3     Properties………………………………………………………………………….. 496
        • 7.24.3.1      Photocatalytic……………………………………………………………. 497
        • 7.24.3.2      UV-filter……………………………………………………………………….. 497
      • 7.24.4     Applications……………………………………………………………………… 498
      • 7.24.5     Demand by market…………………………………………………………… 499
      • 7.24.6     Technology readiness level (TRL)………………………………………… 500
      • 7.24.7     Production volumes in tons, 2010-2025……………………………….. 501
      • 7.24.8     Production volumes, by region…………………………………………… 503
      • 7.24.9     Producers………………………………………………………………………….. 504
    • 7.25     ZINC OXIDE NANOPARTICLES…………………………………………………….. 510
      • 7.25.1     Market prospects………………………………………………………………. 510
      • 7.25.2     Market summary……………………………………………………………….. 510
      • 7.25.3     Properties………………………………………………………………………….. 512
      • 7.25.4     Applications……………………………………………………………………… 513
      • 7.25.5     Demand by market…………………………………………………………… 515
      • 7.25.6     Technology readiness level (TRL)………………………………………… 517
      • 7.25.7     Production volumes in tons, 2010-2025……………………………….. 517
      • 7.25.8     Production volumes, by region…………………………………………… 519
      • 7.25.9     Producers………………………………………………………………………….. 520
    • 7.26     ZIRCONIUM OXIDE NANOPARTICLES…………………………………………… 528
      • 7.26.1     Market prospects………………………………………………………………. 528
      • 7.26.2     Market summary……………………………………………………………….. 528
      • 7.26.3     Properties………………………………………………………………………….. 530
      • 7.26.4     Applications……………………………………………………………………… 530
      • 7.26.5     Demand by market…………………………………………………………… 533
      • 7.26.6     Technology readiness level (TRL)………………………………………… 534
      • 7.26.7     Production volumes in tons, 2010-2025……………………………….. 535
      • 7.26.8     Production volumes, by region…………………………………………… 537
      • 7.26.9     Prices………………………………………………………………………………… 538
      • 7.26.10   Producers………………………………………………………………………….. 538
    • 7.27     OTHER NANOMATERIALS……………………………………………………………. 544
      • 7.27.1     NANOPRECIPITATED CALCIUM CARBONATE………………………….. 544
        • 7.27.1.1      Properties……………………………………………………………………. 544
        • 7.27.1.2      Applications……………………………………………………………….. 544
        • 7.27.1.3      Producers……………………………………………………………………. 546
      • 7.27.2     GRAPHENE AND CARBON QUANTUM DOTS………………………….. 547
        • 7.27.2.1      Properties……………………………………………………………………. 548
        • 7.27.2.2      Applications……………………………………………………………….. 551
        • 7.27.2.3      Producers……………………………………………………………………. 551
      • 7.27.3     HYDROXYAPATITE NANOPARTICLES………………………………………. 552
        • 7.27.3.1      Properties……………………………………………………………………. 552
        • 7.27.3.2      Applications……………………………………………………………….. 552
        • 7.27.3.3      Producers……………………………………………………………………. 553
      • 7.27.4     PALLADIUM NANOPARTICLES……………………………………………….. 553
        • 7.27.4.1      Properties……………………………………………………………………. 553
        • 7.27.4.2      Applications……………………………………………………………….. 554
        • 7.27.4.3      Producers……………………………………………………………………. 554
      • 7.27.5     YTTRIUM OXIDE NANOPARTICLES………………………………………….. 555
        • 7.27.5.1      Properties……………………………………………………………………. 555
        • 7.27.5.2      Applications……………………………………………………………….. 555
        • 7.27.5.3      Producers……………………………………………………………………. 556
      • 7.27.6     CARBON ONIONS……………………………………………………………….. 557
        • 7.27.6.1      Properties……………………………………………………………………. 557
        • 7.27.6.2      Applications……………………………………………………………….. 559
    • 7.28     OTHER 2D MATERIALS………………………………………………………………… 560
      • 7.28.1     Black phosphorus/Phosphorene…………………………………………. 561
        • 7.28.1.1      Properties……………………………………………………………………. 562
        • 7.28.1.2      Applications……………………………………………………………….. 564
      • 7.28.2     C2N……………………………………………………………………………………. 566
        • 7.28.2.1      Properties……………………………………………………………………. 567
        • 7.28.2.2      Applications……………………………………………………………….. 568
      • 7.28.3     Carbon nitride…………………………………………………………………… 569
        • 7.28.3.1      Properties……………………………………………………………………. 569
        • 7.28.3.2      Applications……………………………………………………………….. 569
      • 7.28.4     Germanene………………………………………………………………………. 570
        • 7.28.4.1      Properties……………………………………………………………………. 570
        • 7.28.4.2      Applications……………………………………………………………….. 571
      • 7.28.5     Graphdiyne………………………………………………………………………. 572
        • 7.28.5.1      Properties……………………………………………………………………. 574
        • 7.28.5.2      Applications……………………………………………………………….. 574
      • 7.28.6     Graphane…………………………………………………………………………. 576
        • 7.28.6.1      Properties……………………………………………………………………. 576
        • 7.28.6.2      Applications……………………………………………………………….. 577
      • 7.28.7     Hexagonal boron nitride……………………………………………………. 578
        • 7.28.7.1      Properties……………………………………………………………………. 579
        • 7.28.7.2      Applications……………………………………………………………….. 580
        • 7.28.7.3      Producers……………………………………………………………………. 581
      • 7.28.8     Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2)…………………………………………….. 581
        • 7.28.8.1      Properties……………………………………………………………………. 582
        • 7.28.8.2      Applications……………………………………………………………….. 582
      • 7.28.9     Rhenium disulfide (ReS2) and diselenide (ReSe2)………………… 586
        • 7.28.9.1      Properties……………………………………………………………………. 587
        • 7.28.9.2      Applications……………………………………………………………….. 588
      • 7.28.10   Silicene……………………………………………………………………………… 588
        • 7.28.10.1   Properties……………………………………………………………………. 589
        • 7.28.10.2   Applications……………………………………………………………….. 591
      • 7.28.11   Stanene/tinene…………………………………………………………………. 593
        • 7.28.11.1   Properties……………………………………………………………………. 594
        • 7.28.11.2   Applications……………………………………………………………….. 595
      • 7.28.12   Tungsten diselenide…………………………………………………………… 595
        • 7.28.12.1   Properties……………………………………………………………………. 596
        • 7.28.12.2   Applications……………………………………………………………….. 597
  • 8    MARKETS FOR NANOMATERIALS………………………………………………….. 598
    • 8.1       ADHESIVES……………………………………………………………………………….. 598
      • 8.1.1   MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS………………………………………………… 598
        • 8.1.1.1    Thermal management in high temperature electronics…… 598
        • 8.1.1.2    Environmental sustainability……………………………………………. 598
      • 8.1.2   APPLICATIONS……………………………………………………………………….. 599
      • 8.1.3   MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY……………………………………………… 603
        • 8.1.3.1    Total market size…………………………………………………………….. 603
        • 8.1.3.2    Nanotechnology and nanomaterials opportunity…………… 603
      • 8.1.4   MARKET CHALLENGES……………………………………………………………. 605
      • 8.1.5   APPLICATION AND PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………. 606
    • 8.2       AEROSPACE AND AVIATION………………………………………………………. 608
      • 8.2.1   MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS………………………………………………… 608
        • 8.2.1.1    Safety…………………………………………………………………………….. 610
        • 8.2.1.2    Reduced fuel consumption and costs…………………………….. 610
        • 8.2.1.3    Increased durability……………………………………………………….. 611
        • 8.2.1.4    Multi-functionality………………………………………………………….. 611
        • 8.2.1.5    Need for new de-icing solutions………………………………………. 612
        • 8.2.1.6    Weight reduction……………………………………………………………. 613
        • 8.2.1.7         Need for improved lightning protection materials       613
      • 8.2.2   APPLICATIONS……………………………………………………………………….. 614
        • 8.2.2.1    Composites…………………………………………………………………….. 614
        • 8.2.2.2    Coatings………………………………………………………………………… 616
      • 8.2.3   MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY……………………………………………… 620
        • 8.2.3.1    Total market size…………………………………………………………….. 620
        • 8.2.3.2    Nanotechnology and nanomaterials opportunity…………… 620
      • 8.2.4   MARKET CHALLENGES……………………………………………………………. 622
      • 8.2.5   APPLICATION AND PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………. 623
    • 8.3       AUTOMOTIVE……………………………………………………………………………. 630
      • 8.3.1   MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS………………………………………………… 630
        • 8.3.1.1    Environmental regulations………………………………………………. 630
        • 8.3.1.2    Lightweighting……………………………………………………………….. 631
        • 8.3.1.3    Increasing use of natural fiber composites……………………….. 632
        • 8.3.1.4    Safety…………………………………………………………………………….. 634
        • 8.3.1.5    Cost……………………………………………………………………………….. 634
        • 8.3.1.6    Need for enhanced conductivity in fuel components…….. 635
        • 8.3.1.7    Increase in the use of touch-based automotive applications 636
      • 8.3.2   APPLICATIONS……………………………………………………………………….. 637
        • 8.3.2.1    Composites…………………………………………………………………….. 638
        • 8.3.2.2    Paints and coatings……………………………………………………….. 640
        • 8.3.2.3    Tires………………………………………………………………………………… 644
      • 8.3.3   MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY……………………………………………… 645
        • 8.3.3.1    Composites…………………………………………………………………….. 645
        • 8.3.3.2    Coatings………………………………………………………………………… 647
      • 8.3.4   MARKET CHALLENGES……………………………………………………………. 650
      • 8.3.5   APPLICATION AND PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………. 651
    • 8.4       BATTERIES…………………………………………………………………………………. 662
      • 8.4.1   MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS………………………………………………… 662
        • 8.4.1.1    Growth in personal electronics, electric vehicles and smart grids markets      663
        • 8.4.1.2    Reduce dependence on lithium…………………………………….. 664
        • 8.4.1.3    Shortcomings of existing battery and supercapacitor technology         664
        • 8.4.1.4    Reduced costs for widespread application…………………….. 666
        • 8.4.1.5    Power sources for flexible electronics……………………………….. 666
      • 8.4.2   APPLICATIONS……………………………………………………………………….. 667
        • 8.4.2.1    Lithium-ion batteries (LIB)………………………………………………… 667
        • 8.4.2.2    Lithium-air batteries………………………………………………………… 670
        • 8.4.2.3    Sodium-ion batteries………………………………………………………. 671
        • 8.4.2.4    Magnesium batteries……………………………………………………… 672
      • 8.4.3   MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY……………………………………………… 673
        • 8.4.3.1    Total market size…………………………………………………………….. 673
        • 8.4.3.2    Nanotechnology and nanomaterials opportunity…………… 674
      • 8.4.4   MARKET CHALLENGES……………………………………………………………. 675
      • 8.4.5   APPLICATION AND PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………. 677
    • 8.5       BIOMEDICINE AND HEALTHCARE……………………………………………….. 686
      • 8.5.1   BIOSENSORS………………………………………………………………………….. 687
        • 8.5.1.1    MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS………………………………………….. 687
        • 8.5.1.2    APPLICATIONS…………………………………………………………………. 689
        • 8.5.1.3    MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY……………………………………….. 692
        • 8.5.1.4    MARKET CHALLENGES……………………………………………………… 694
        • 8.5.1.5    APPLICATION AND PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………… 695
      • 8.5.2   DRUG FORMULATION AND DELIVERY……………………………………….. 697
        • 8.5.2.1    MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS………………………………………….. 697
        • 8.5.2.2    APPLICATIONS…………………………………………………………………. 699
        • 8.5.2.3    MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY……………………………………….. 709
        • 8.5.2.4    MARKET CHALLENGES……………………………………………………… 711
        • 8.5.2.5    APPLICATION AND PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………… 712
      • 8.5.3   IMAGING AND DIAGNOSTICS…………………………………………………. 720
        • 8.5.3.1    MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS………………………………………….. 720
        • 8.5.3.2    APPLICATIONS…………………………………………………………………. 723
        • 8.5.3.3    MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY……………………………………….. 727
        • 8.5.3.4    MARKET CHALLENGES……………………………………………………… 730
        • 8.5.3.5    APPLICATION AND PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………… 731
      • 8.5.4   MEDICAL COATINGS AND FILMS……………………………………………… 740
        • 8.5.4.1    MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS………………………………………….. 740
        • 8.5.4.2    APPLICATIONS…………………………………………………………………. 744
        • 8.5.4.3    MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY……………………………………….. 753
        • 8.5.4.4    MARKET CHALLENGES……………………………………………………… 756
        • 8.5.4.5    APPLICATION AND PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………… 757
      • 8.5.5   MEDICAL IMPLANTS……………………………………………………………….. 764
        • 8.5.5.1    MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS………………………………………….. 764
        • 8.5.5.2    APPLICATIONS…………………………………………………………………. 766
        • 8.5.5.3    MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY……………………………………….. 769
        • 8.5.5.4    MARKET CHALLENGES……………………………………………………… 771
        • 8.5.5.5    APPLICATION AND PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………… 772
      • 8.5.6   THERAPEUTICS……………………………………………………………………….. 775
        • 8.5.6.1    MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS………………………………………….. 775
        • 8.5.6.2    APPLICATIONS…………………………………………………………………. 776
        • 8.5.6.3    MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY……………………………………….. 781
        • 8.5.6.4    MARKET CHALLENGES……………………………………………………… 783
        • 8.5.6.5    APPLICATION AND PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………… 785
      • 8.5.7   WOUND CARE……………………………………………………………………….. 789
        • 8.5.7.1    MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS………………………………………….. 789
        • 8.5.7.2    APPLICATIONS…………………………………………………………………. 791
        • 8.5.7.3    MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY……………………………………….. 795
        • 8.5.7.4    MARKET CHALLENGES……………………………………………………… 796
        • 8.5.7.5    APPLICATION AND PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………… 797
      • 8.5.8   DENTAL…………………………………………………………………………………. 798
        • 8.5.8.1    MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS………………………………………….. 798
        • 8.5.8.2    APPLICATIONS…………………………………………………………………. 799
        • 8.5.8.3    MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY……………………………………….. 800
        • 8.5.8.4    MARKET CHALLENGES……………………………………………………… 801
        • 8.5.8.5    APPLICATION AND PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………… 802
    • 8.6       COMPOSITES……………………………………………………………………………. 804
      • 8.6.1   MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS………………………………………………… 804
        • 8.6.1.1    Growing use of polymer composites………………………………… 804
        • 8.6.1.2    Increased need for advanced, protective materials……….. 804
        • 8.6.1.3    Improved performance over traditional composites………… 805
        • 8.6.1.4    Multi-functionality………………………………………………………….. 806
        • 8.6.1.5    Growth in use in the wind energy market………………………… 807
        • 8.6.1.6    Need for new flame retardant materials…………………………. 807
        • 8.6.1.7    Environmental impact of carbon fibers…………………………… 808
        • 8.6.1.8    Shortcomings of natural fiber composites and glass fiber reinforced composites    808
      • 8.6.2   APPLICATIONS……………………………………………………………………….. 809
        • 8.6.2.1    Polymer composites………………………………………………………… 810
        • 8.6.2.2    Thermal management……………………………………………………. 813
        • 8.6.2.3    Electrostatic discharge (ESD) and electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding    814
        • 8.6.2.4    Rubber and elastomers…………………………………………………… 815
        • 8.6.2.5    Flame retardants……………………………………………………………. 816
      • 8.6.3   MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY……………………………………………… 817
        • 8.6.3.1    Total market size…………………………………………………………….. 817
        • 8.6.3.2    Nanotechnology and nanomaterials opportunity…………… 817
      • 8.6.4   MARKET CHALLENGES……………………………………………………………. 819
      • 8.6.5   APPLICATION AND PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………. 821
    • 8.7       CONSTRUCTION, BUILDING PROTECTION AND ARCHITECTURAL EXTERIOR COATINGS  832
      • 8.7.1   MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS………………………………………………… 832
        • 8.7.1.1    Regulatory……………………………………………………………………… 833
        • 8.7.1.2    Problems with conventional coatings……………………………… 833
        • 8.7.1.3    Long-term maintenance with reduced cleaning cycles….. 833
        • 8.7.1.4    Need for improved insulation………………………………………….. 834
        • 8.7.1.5    Increased durability and cleanability of exterior and interior surfaces  834
        • 8.7.1.6    Need for advanced materials in the construction industry. 835
      • 8.7.2   APPLICATIONS……………………………………………………………………….. 835
        • 8.7.2.1    INSULATION AND HEATING……………………………………………….. 835
        • 8.7.2.2    EXTERIOR COATINGS (PROTECTIVE, WOOD AND GLASS)…….. 837
        • 8.7.2.3    SMART WINDOWS……………………………………………………………. 845
        • 8.7.2.4    VOC MITIGATION AND INDOOR AIR FILTRATION…………………. 849
        • 8.7.2.5    CEMENT AND CONCRETE………………………………………………… 852
      • 8.7.3   MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY……………………………………………… 856
        • 8.7.3.1    Concrete and cement…………………………………………………… 856
        • 8.7.3.2    Exterior coatings…………………………………………………………….. 856
        • 8.7.3.3    Smart windows……………………………………………………………….. 859
        • 8.7.3.4    Insulation……………………………………………………………………….. 860
      • 8.7.4   MARKET CHALLENGES……………………………………………………………. 861
        • 8.7.4.1    Agglomeration……………………………………………………………….. 861
        • 8.7.4.2    Cost……………………………………………………………………………….. 861
      • 8.8       COSMETICS AND SUNSCREENS…………………………………………………… 863
        • 8.8.1   MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS………………………………………………… 863
          • 8.8.1.1    Demand for high quality products with enhanced properties 863
          • 8.8.1.2    Demand for high sun protection……………………………………… 864
          • 8.8.1.3    Increasing demand for non-chemical sun filters………………. 865
          • 8.8.1.4    Regulatory approval………………………………………………………. 866
          • 8.8.1.5    Improved delivery of active ingredients………………………….. 866
          • 8.8.1.6    Growth in the anti-aging products market………………………. 867
        • 8.8.2   APPLICATIONS……………………………………………………………………….. 868
        • 8.8.3   MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY……………………………………………… 880
          • 8.8.3.1    Total market size…………………………………………………………….. 880
          • 8.8.3.2    Nanotechnology and nanomaterials opportunity…………… 880
        • 8.8.4   MARKET CHALLENGES……………………………………………………………. 882
        • 8.8.5   APPLICATION AND PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………. 883
      • 8.9       ELECTRONICS AND PHOTONICS…………………………………………………. 891
        • 8.9.1   FLEXIBLE ELECTRONICS, CONDUCTIVE FILMS AND DISPLAYS………. 891
          • 8.9.1.1    MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS………………………………………….. 891
          • 8.9.1.2    APPLICATONS………………………………………………………………….. 896
          • 8.9.1.3    MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY……………………………………….. 904
          • 8.9.1.4    MARKET CHALLENGES……………………………………………………… 913
          • 8.9.1.5    APPLICATION AND PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………… 919
        • 8.9.2   CONDUCTIVE INKS…………………………………………………………………. 925
          • 8.9.2.1    MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS………………………………………….. 925
          • 8.9.2.2    APPLICATIONS…………………………………………………………………. 928
          • 8.9.2.3    MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY……………………………………….. 932
          • 8.9.2.4    MARKET CHALLENGES……………………………………………………… 935
          • 8.9.2.5    APPLICATION AND PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………… 936
        • 8.9.3   TRANSISTORS, INTEGRATED CIRCUITS AND OTHER COMPONENTS.. 940
          • 8.9.3.1    MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS………………………………………….. 940
          • 8.9.3.2    APPLICATIONS…………………………………………………………………. 944
          • 8.9.3.3    MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY……………………………………….. 946
          • 8.9.3.4    MARKET CHALLENGES……………………………………………………… 949
          • 8.9.3.5    APPLICATION AND PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………… 953
        • 8.9.4   MEMORY DEVICES…………………………………………………………………. 956
          • 8.9.4.1    MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS………………………………………….. 956
          • 8.9.4.2    APPLICATIONS…………………………………………………………………. 957
          • 8.9.4.3    MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY……………………………………….. 960
          • 8.9.4.4    MARKET CHALLENGES……………………………………………………… 961
          • 8.9.4.5    APPLICATION AND PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………… 963
        • 8.9.5   ELECTRONICS COATINGS……………………………………………………….. 965
          • 8.9.5.1    MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS………………………………………….. 965
          • 8.9.5.2    APPLICATIONS…………………………………………………………………. 969
          • 8.9.5.3    MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY……………………………………….. 970
          • 8.9.5.4    MARKET CHALLENGES……………………………………………………… 972
          • 8.9.5.5    APPLICATION AND PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………… 973
        • 8.9.6   PHOTONICS…………………………………………………………………………… 977
          • 8.9.6.1    MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS………………………………………….. 977
          • 8.9.6.2    APPLICATIONS…………………………………………………………………. 978
          • 8.9.6.3    MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY……………………………………….. 988
          • 8.9.6.4    MARKET CHALLENGES……………………………………………………… 990
          • 8.9.6.5    APPLICATION AND PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………… 992
      • 8.10     FILTRATION AND ENVIRONMENTAL REMEDIATION………………………… 994
        • 8.10.1     MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………….. 994
          • 8.10.1.1      Water shortage and population growth………………………. 994
          • 8.10.1.2      Need for improved and low cost membrane technology 995
          • 8.10.1.3      Need for improved groundwater treatment technologies 995
          • 8.10.1.4      Cost and efficiency…………………………………………………….. 996
          • 8.10.1.5      Growth in the air filter market………………………………………. 996
          • 8.10.1.6      Need for environmentally, safe filters……………………………. 997
        • 8.10.2     APPLICATIONS……………………………………………………………………. 997
          • 8.10.2.1      Desalination and water filtration………………………………… 1000
          • 8.10.2.2      Airborne filters……………………………………………………………. 1004
          • 8.10.2.3      Gas separation………………………………………………………….. 1007
        • 8.10.3     MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY………………………………………… 1008
          • 8.10.3.1      Total market size………………………………………………………… 1008
          • 8.10.3.2      Nanotechnology and nanomaterials opportunity……… 1008
        • 8.10.4     MARKET CHALLENGES……………………………………………………….. 1009
          • 8.10.4.1      Uniform pore size and distribution………………………………. 1010
          • 8.10.4.2      Cost………………………………………………………………………….. 1010
        • 8.10.5     APPLICATION AND PRODUCT DEVELOPERS…………………………. 1011
      • 8.11     FOOD AND AGRICULTURE………………………………………………………… 1018
        • 8.11.1     MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………… 1018
          • 8.11.1.1      Sustainability, improved varieties and increased productivity   1018
          • 8.11.1.2      Need for environmentally sustainable and active food packaging   1018
          • 8.11.1.3      Need for improved food storage………………………………… 1019
          • 8.11.1.4      Reducing costs and improving hygiene in food processing 1020
        • 8.11.2     APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………….. 1020
          • 8.11.2.1      Food packaging……………………………………………………….. 1021
          • 8.11.2.2      Coatings……………………………………………………………………. 1025
          • 8.11.2.3      Sensors………………………………………………………………………. 1028
          • 8.11.2.4      Additives in food additives and supplements…………….. 1028
          • 8.11.2.5      Agricultural production……………………………………………… 1029
        • 8.11.3     MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY………………………………………… 1031
          • 8.11.3.1      Total market size………………………………………………………… 1031
          • 8.11.3.2      Nanotechnology and nanomaterials opportunity……… 1032
        • 8.11.4     MARKET CHALLENGES……………………………………………………….. 1035
        • 8.11.5     APPLICATION AND PRODUCT DEVELOPERS…………………………. 1037
      • 8.12     FUEL CELLS AND HYDROGEN STORAGE…………………………………….. 1043
        • 8.12.1     MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………… 1043
          • 8.12.1.1      Need for alternative energy sources…………………………… 1043
          • 8.12.1.2      Demand from transportation and portable and stationary power sectors 1043
          • 8.12.1.3      Temperature problems with current fuel cell technology 1044
          • 8.12.1.4      Reducing corrosion problems…………………………………….. 1044
          • 8.12.1.5      Limitations of platinum………………………………………………. 1045
          • 8.12.1.6      Reducing cost and increasing reliability of current fuel cell technology     1045
        • 8.12.2     APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………….. 1045
          • 8.12.2.1      Fuel cells……………………………………………………………………. 1047
          • 8.12.2.2      Hydrogen storage……………………………………………………… 1048
          • 8.12.3     MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY………………………………………… 1049
            • 8.12.3.1      Total market size………………………………………………………… 1049
            • 8.12.3.2      Nanotechnology and nanomaterials opportunity……… 1050
          • 8.12.4     MARKET CHALLENGES……………………………………………………….. 1051
          • 8.12.5     APPLICATION AND PRODUCT DEVELOPERS…………………………. 1052
      • 8.13     HOUSEHOLD CARE AND SANITARY……………………………………………. 1055
        • 8.13.1     MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………… 1055
          • 8.13.1.1      Need for new anti-microbial solutions………………………… 1055
          • 8.13.1.2      Reducing the use of chemical agents………………………… 1056
          • 8.13.1.3      Food safety on surfaces……………………………………………… 1056
          • 8.13.1.4      Reducing cleaning cycles…………………………………………. 1056
          • 8.13.1.5      Reducing indoor pollutants and improving air quality… 1057
          • 8.13.1.6      Increase in the demand for mar-free decorative surfaces 1058
        • 8.13.2     APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………….. 1058
          • 8.13.2.1      Anti-microbial coatings……………………………………………… 1058
          • 8.13.2.2      Self-cleaning & easy clean coatings………………………….. 1060
          • 8.13.2.3      Photocatalytic coatings…………………………………………….. 1060
          • 8.13.2.4      Anti-fingerprint nanocoatings…………………………………….. 1061
        • 8.13.3     MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY………………………………………… 1063
          • 8.13.3.1      Total market size………………………………………………………… 1063
          • 8.13.3.2      Nanotechnology and nanomaterials opportunity……… 1064
          • 8.13.4     MARKET CHALLENGES……………………………………………………….. 1065
          • 8.13.5     APPLICATION AND PRODUCT DEVELOPERS…………………………. 1065
        • 8.14     LIGHTING AND UVC………………………………………………………………… 1073
          • 8.14.1     MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………… 1073
            • 8.14.1.1      Need to develop low-cost lighting……………………………… 1073
            • 8.14.1.2      Environmental regulation…………………………………………… 1074
            • 8.14.1.3      Limited efficiency of phosphors in LEDs……………………….. 1074
            • 8.14.1.4      Shortcomings with LED lighting technologies………………. 1075
            • 8.14.1.5      Improving flexibility……………………………………………………. 1075
            • 8.14.1.6      Improving performance and costs of UV-LEDs…………….. 1075
            • 8.14.2     APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………….. 1076
            • 8.14.3     MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY………………………………………… 1077
              • 8.14.3.1      Total market size………………………………………………………… 1077
              • 8.14.3.2      Nanotechnology and nanomaterials opportunity……… 1078
              • 8.14.4     MARKET CHALLENGES……………………………………………………….. 1079
              • 8.14.5     APPLICATION AND PRODUCT DEVELOPERS…………………………. 1080
      • 8.15     LUBRICANTS……………………………………………………………………………. 1083
        • 8.15.1     MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………… 1083
          • 8.15.1.1      Need for new additives that provide “more for less”…… 1083
          • 8.15.1.2      Need for higher-performing lubricants for fuel efficiency 1084
          • 8.15.1.3      Environmental concerns……………………………………………. 1084
          • 8.15.2     APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………….. 1084
          • 8.15.3     MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY………………………………………… 1086
            • 8.15.3.1      Total market size………………………………………………………… 1086
            • 8.15.3.2      Nanotechnology and nanomaterials opportunity……… 1086
          • 8.15.4     MARKET CHALLENGES……………………………………………………….. 1087
          • 8.15.5     APPLICATION AND PRODUCT DEVELOPERS…………………………. 1088
      • 8.16     MARINE………………………………………………………………………………….. 1090
        • 8.16.1     MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………… 1090
          • 8.16.1.1      Need to reduce biofouling………………………………………… 1090
          • 8.16.1.2      Reducing fuel consumption and costs……………………….. 1090
          • 8.16.1.3      Reducing pollution and environmental protection…….. 1091
          • 8.16.1.4      Need to increase durability of marine coatings………….. 1091
          • 8.16.1.5      Need for marine de-icing solutions……………………………… 1092
        • 8.16.2     APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………….. 1092
        • 8.16.3     MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY………………………………………… 1094
          • 8.16.3.1      Total market size………………………………………………………… 1094
          • 8.16.3.2      Nanotechnology and nanomaterials opportunity……… 1094
        • 8.16.4     MARKET CHALLENGES……………………………………………………….. 1095
        • 8.16.5     APPLICATION AND PRODUCT DEVELOPERS…………………………. 1096
      • 8.17     OIL & GAS EXPLORATION…………………………………………………………. 1100
        • 8.17.1     MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………… 1100
          • 8.17.1.1      Need to reduce operating costs and improve operation efficiency  1100
          • 8.17.1.2      Increased demands of drilling environments………………. 1101
          • 8.17.1.3      Increased exploration in extreme environments…………. 1102
          • 8.17.1.4      Environmental and regulatory…………………………………… 1102
        • 8.17.2     PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS…………………………………………. 1103
          • 8.17.2.1      Sensing and reservoir management…………………………… 1103
          • 8.17.2.2      Coatings……………………………………………………………………. 1104
          • 8.17.2.3      Drilling fluids………………………………………………………………. 1105
          • 8.17.2.4      Sorbent materials………………………………………………………. 1108
          • 8.17.2.5      Separation………………………………………………………………… 1109
        • 8.17.3     MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY………………………………………… 1109
          • 8.17.3.1      Total market size………………………………………………………… 1109
          • 8.17.3.2      Nanotechnology and nanomaterials opportunity……… 1110
        • 8.17.4     MARKET CHALLENGES……………………………………………………….. 1112
        • 8.17.5     APPLICATION AND PRODUCT DEVELOPERS…………………………. 1113
      • 8.18     PACKAGING…………………………………………………………………………… 1117
        • 8.18.1     MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………… 1117
          • 8.18.1.1      Rise in demand for environmentally sustainable packaging 1118
          • 8.18.1.2      Shortcoming of packaging biopolymers…………………….. 1118
          • 8.18.1.3      High demand for packaging films resistant to oxygen and moisture to increase shelf life                  1119
          • 8.18.1.4      Growth in active packaging……………………………………… 1120
          • 8.18.1.5      Anti-microbial packaging biofilm market is growing……. 1120
          • 8.18.1.6      Need for improved barrier packaging………………………… 1121
          • 8.18.1.7      Growth in barrier food packaging sector……………………. 1121
        • 8.18.2     APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………….. 1123
        • 8.18.3     MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY………………………………………… 1127
          • 8.18.3.1      Total market size………………………………………………………… 1127
          • 8.18.3.2      Nanotechnology and nanomaterials opportunity……… 1127
        • 8.18.4     MARKET CHALLENGES……………………………………………………….. 1132
        • 8.18.5     APPLICATION AND PRODUCT DEVELOPERS…………………………. 1133
      • 8.19     SECURITY AND DEFENCE………………………………………………………….. 1138
        • 8.19.1     MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………… 1138
          • 8.19.1.1      Growth in counterfeiting and need for improved security 1138
          • 8.19.1.2      Combating counterfeiting in 3D Printing…………………….. 1139
          • 8.19.1.3      Protecting military equipment……………………………………. 1139
          • 8.19.1.4      Threat detection and prevention………………………………. 1139
          • 8.19.1.5      Demands of extreme environments……………………………. 1140
          • 8.19.1.6      Increased use of electronic devices in military and security 1140
        • 8.19.2     APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………….. 1141
          • 8.19.2.1      Military textiles…………………………………………………………… 1141
          • 8.19.2.2      Military equipment……………………………………………………. 1141
          • 8.19.2.3      Anti-counterfeiting…………………………………………………….. 1143
          • 8.19.2.4      Sensors and detection……………………………………………….. 1145
          • 8.19.2.5      Ballistic protection……………………………………………………… 1147
        • 8.19.3     MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY………………………………………… 1148
          • 8.19.3.1      Total market size………………………………………………………… 1148
          • 8.19.3.2      Nanotechnology and nanomaterials opportunity……… 1149
        • 8.19.4     MARKET CHALLENGES……………………………………………………….. 1150
        • 8.19.5     APPLICATION AND PRODUCT DEVELOPERS…………………………. 1151
      • 8.20     SENSORS………………………………………………………………………………… 1158
        • 8.20.1     MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………… 1158
          • 8.20.1.1      Increased power and performance with reduced cost. 1158
          • 8.20.1.2      Enhanced sensitivity………………………………………………….. 1158
          • 8.20.1.3      Replacing silver electrodes………………………………………… 1159
          • 8.20.1.4      Growth in the home diagnostics and point of care market 1160
          • 8.20.1.5      Improved thermal stability…………………………………………. 1160
        • 8.20.2     APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………….. 1161
          • 8.20.2.1      Gas sensors………………………………………………………………… 1163
          • 8.20.2.2      Strain sensors……………………………………………………………… 1166
          • 8.20.2.3      Biosensors………………………………………………………………….. 1167
          • 8.20.2.4      Food sensors………………………………………………………………. 1170
          • 8.20.2.5      Image sensors……………………………………………………………. 1171
          • 8.20.2.6      Infrared (IR) sensors…………………………………………………….. 1171
          • 8.20.2.7      Optical sensors………………………………………………………….. 1172
          • 8.20.2.8      Pressure sensors………………………………………………………….. 1173
          • 8.20.2.9      Humidity sensors………………………………………………………… 1174
          • 8.20.2.10   Acoustic sensors…………………………………………………………. 1175
          • 8.20.2.11   Wireless sensors…………………………………………………………… 1175
        • 8.20.3     MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY………………………………………… 1176
          • 8.20.3.1      Total market size………………………………………………………… 1176
          • 8.20.3.2      Nanotechnology and nanomaterials opportunity……… 1177
        • 8.20.4     MARKET CHALLENGES……………………………………………………….. 1178
        • 8.20.5     APPLICATION AND PRODUCT DEVELOPERS…………………………. 1179
      • 8.21     SOLAR……………………………………………………………………………………. 1185
        • 8.21.1     MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………… 1185
          • 8.21.1.1      Need for new materials and novel devices………………… 1185
          • 8.21.1.2      Need for cost-effective solar energy for wider adoptions 1186
          • 8.21.1.3      Varying environmental conditions require new coating technology 1187
        • 8.21.2     APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………….. 1188
          • 8.21.2.1      Solar cells………………………………………………………………….. 1188
          • 8.21.2.2      Solar water splitting……………………………………………………. 1194
          • 8.21.2.3      Solar coatings……………………………………………………………. 1195
        • 8.21.3     MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY………………………………………… 1196
          • 8.21.3.1      Total market size………………………………………………………… 1196
          • 8.21.3.2      Nanotechnology and nanomaterials opportunity……… 1197
        • 8.21.4     MARKET CHALLENGES……………………………………………………….. 1199
        • 8.21.5     APPLICATION AND PRODUCT DEVELOPERS…………………………. 1201
      • 8.22     SUPERCAPACITORS…………………………………………………………………. 1207
        • 8.22.1     MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………… 1207
          • 8.22.1.1      Reducing costs………………………………………………………….. 1207
          • 8.22.1.2      Demand from portable electronics…………………………….. 1207
          • 8.22.1.3      Inefficiencies of standard battery technology……………. 1207
          • 8.22.1.4      Problems with activated carbon……………………………….. 1208
        • 8.22.2     APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………….. 1208
        • 8.22.3     MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY………………………………………… 1209
          • 8.22.3.1      Total market size………………………………………………………… 1209
          • 8.22.3.2      Nanotechnology and nanomaterials opportunity……… 1209
        • 8.22.4     MARKET CHALLENGES……………………………………………………….. 1211
        • 8.22.5     APPLICATION AND PRODUCT DEVELOPERS…………………………. 1212
      • 8.23     TEXTILES & APPAREL………………………………………………………………… 1215
        • 8.23.1     MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………… 1215
          • 8.23.1.1      Growth in the wearable electronics market……………….. 1215
          • 8.23.1.2      Growth in remote health monitoring and diagnostics…. 1217
          • 8.23.1.3      Growth in the market for anti-microbial textiles…………… 1218
          • 8.23.1.4      Need to improve the properties of cloth or fabric materials 1219
          • 8.23.1.5      Environmental and regulatory…………………………………… 1220
          • 8.23.1.6      Increase in demand for UV protection textiles and apparel 1220
        • 8.23.2     APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………….. 1221
          • 8.23.2.1      Protective textiles………………………………………………………. 1223
          • 8.23.2.2      Electronic textiles………………………………………………………. 1224
        • 8.23.3     MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY………………………………………… 1234
          • 8.23.3.1      Protective textiles………………………………………………………. 1234
          • 8.23.3.2      Electronic textiles………………………………………………………. 1235
        • 8.23.4     MARKET CHALLENGES……………………………………………………….. 1236
        • 8.23.5     APPLICATION AND PRODUCT DEVELOPERS…………………………. 1238
      • 8.24     TOOLS & MANUFACTURING……………………………………………………… 1244
        • 8.24.1     MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………… 1244
          • 8.24.1.1      Improved machining tools…………………………………………. 1244
          • 8.24.1.2      Need for enhanced wear resistant coatings………………. 1244
          • 8.24.1.3      Cost of abrasion damage………………………………………….. 1245
          • 8.24.1.4      Regulatory and safety requirements…………………………… 1245
        • 8.24.2     APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………….. 1246
        • 8.24.3     MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY………………………………………… 1247
          • 8.24.3.1      Total market size………………………………………………………… 1247
          • 8.24.3.2      Nanotechnology and nanomaterials opportunity……… 1248
        • 8.24.4     MARKET CHALLENGES……………………………………………………….. 1248
        • 8.24.5     APPLICATION AND PRODUCT DEVELOPERS…………………………. 1249
      • 8.25     3D PRINTING…………………………………………………………………………… 1255
        • 8.25.1     MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………… 1255
          • 8.25.1.1      Improved materials at lower cost……………………………….. 1255
          • 8.25.1.2      Limitations of current thermoplastics…………………………… 1255
        • 8.25.2     APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………….. 1256
        • 8.25.3     MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY………………………………………… 1258
          • 8.25.3.1      Total market size………………………………………………………… 1258
          • 8.25.3.2      Nanotechnology and nanomaterials opportunity……… 1258
        • 8.25.4     MARKET CHALLENGES……………………………………………………….. 1259
        • 8.25.5     APPLICATION AND PRODUCT DEVELOPERS…………………………. 1260
      • 8.26     OTHER MARKETS……………………………………………………………………… 1263
        • 8.26.1     CATALYSTS……………………………………………………………………….. 1263
          • 8.26.1.1      APPLICATIONS……………………………………………………………. 1263
          • 8.26.1.2      APPLICATION AND PRODUCT DEVELOPERS…………………… 1265
        • 8.26.2     WIRE AND CABLE………………………………………………………………. 1266
          • 8.26.2.1      Applications……………………………………………………………… 1266
          • 8.26.2.2      Application and product developers………………………… 1267
        • 8.26.3     SPORTING GOODS……………………………………………………………. 1268
          • 8.26.3.1      Applications……………………………………………………………… 1268
          • 8.26.3.2      Application and product developers………………………… 1270
        • 8.26.4     WIND ENERGY………………………………………………………………….. 1271
          • 8.26.4.1      Market drivers and trends………………………………………….. 1271
          • 8.26.4.2      Applications……………………………………………………………… 1272
          • 8.26.4.3      Application and product developers………………………… 1274
        • 8.26.5     THERMOELECTRICS……………………………………………………………. 1276
          • 8.26.5.1      Market drivers and trends………………………………………….. 1276
          • 8.26.5.2      Applications……………………………………………………………… 1277
          • 8.26.5.3      Application and product developers………………………… 1280

TABLES

  • Table 1: The Global market for nanomaterials in 2015 in tons, market characteristics and growth prospects………………………………………………………………………………………….. 81
  • Table 2: Categorization of nanomaterials……………………………………………….. 93
  • Table 3: National nanomaterials registries in Europe………………………………… 98
  • Table 4: Nanomaterials regulatory bodies in Australia……………………………. 105
  • Table 5: Top ten countries based on number of nanotechnology patents in USPTO 2014-2015.   129
  • Table 6: Nanomaterials scorecard for aluminium oxide nanoparticles……. 131
  • Table 7: Market summary for aluminium oxide nanoparticles-Selling grade particle diameter, usage, advantages, average price/ton, high volume applications, low volume applications and novel applications……………………………………………………………………………………. 132
  • Table 8: Markets, benefits and applications of aluminium oxide nanoparticles   134
  • Table 9: Production volumes of aluminium oxide nanoparticles (tons), 2010-2025.       139
  • Table 10: Prices of aluminium oxide nanoparticles………………………………… 142
  • Table 11: Aluminium oxide nanoparticles producers……………………………… 143
  • Table 12: Nanomaterials scorecard for antimony tin oxide nanoparticles. 149
  • Table 13: Market summary for antimony tin oxide nanoparticles-Selling grade particle diameter, usage, advantages, average price/ton, high volume applications, low volume applications and novel applications……………………………………………………………………………………. 149
  • Table 14: Markets, benefits and applications of antimony tin oxide nanoparticles      151
  • Table 15: Production volume of antimony tin oxide nanoparticles (tons), 2010-2025.  154
  • Table 16: Prices of antimony tin oxide nanoparticles……………………………… 158
  • Table 17: Antimony tin oxide nanoparticles producers………………………….. 159
  • Table 18: Nanomaterials scorecard for bismuth oxide nanoparticles……… 163
  • Table 19: Market summary for bismuth oxide nanoparticles-Selling grade particle diameter, usage, advantages, average price/ton, high volume applications, low volume applications and novel applications……………………………………………………………………………………. 163
  • Table 20: Markets, benefits and applications of aluminium oxide nanoparticles 165
  • Table 21: Production volume of bismuth oxide nanoparticles (tons), 2010-2025. 169
  • Table 22: Prices of bismuth oxide nanoparticles…………………………………….. 172
  • Table 23: Bismuth oxide nanoparticles producers………………………………….. 172
  • Table 24: Nanomaterials scorecard for carbon nanotubes……………………. 175
  • Table 25: Market summary for carbon nanotubes-Selling grade particle diameter, usage, advantages, average price/ton, high volume applications, low volume applications and novel applications.  175
  • Table 26: Properties of CNTs and comparable materials………………………… 178
  • Table 27: Markets, benefits and applications of Carbon Nanotubes……… 179
  • Table 28: Production volumes of carbon nanotubes (tons), 2010-2025…… 187
  • Table 29: Prices of carbon nanotubes…………………………………………………… 192
  • Table 30: Annual production capacity of MWNT producers…………………… 194
  • Table 31: SWNT producers production capacities 2015………………………….. 195
  • Table 32: Other carbon nanotubes producers………………………………………. 196
  • Table 33: Nanomaterials scorecard for cerium oxide nanoparticles……….. 206
  • Table 34: Market summary for cerium oxide nanoparticles-Selling grade particle diameter, usage, advantages, average price/ton, high volume applications, low volume applications and novel applications……………………………………………………………………………………. 206
  • Table 35: Markets, benefits and applications of cerium oxide nanoparticles 208
  • Table 36: Production volumes of cerium oxide nanoparticles (tons), 2010-2025.  213
  • Table 37: Prices of cerium oxide nanoparticles………………………………………. 216
  • Table 38: Cerium oxide nanoparticles producers…………………………………… 216
  • Table 39: Nanomaterials scorecard for cobalt oxide nanoparticles……….. 220
  • Table 40: Market summary for cobalt oxide nanoparticles-Selling grade particle diameter, usage, advantages, average price/ton, high volume applications, low volume applications and novel applications……………………………………………………………………………………. 220
  • Table 41: Markets, benefits and applications of cobalt oxide nanoparticles. 222
  • Table 42: Production volumes of cobalt oxide nanoparticles (tons), 2010-2025.  225
  • Table 43: Prices of cobalt oxide nanoparticles………………………………………. 229
  • Table 44: Cobalt oxide nanoparticles producers…………………………………… 229
  • Table 45: Nanomaterials scorecard for copper oxide nanoparticles………. 231
  • Table 46: Market summary for copper oxide nanoparticles -Selling grade particle diameter, usage, advantages, average price/ton, high volume applications, low volume applications and novel applications……………………………………………………………………………………. 231
  • Table 47: Markets, benefits and applications of copper oxide nanoparticles. 234
  • Table 48: Production volumes of copper oxide nanoparticles (tons), 2010-2025. 238
  • Table 49: Example prices of copper oxide nanoparticles………………………. 240
  • Table 50: Copper oxide nanoparticles producers………………………………….. 241
  • Table 51: Nanomaterials scorecard for dendrimers………………………………… 244
  • Table 52: Market summary for dendrimer -Selling grade particle diameter, usage, advantages, average price/ton, high volume applications, low volume applications and novel applications.         244
  • Table 53: Types of dendrimer………………………………………………………………… 247
  • Table 54: Markets, benefits and applications of dendrimers…………………… 249
  • Table 55: Dendrimer products………………………………………………………………. 250
  • Table 56: Production volumes of dendrimers (tons), 2010-2025……………….. 253
  • Table 57: Example prices of dendrimers………………………………………………… 255
  • Table 58: Dendrimers producers……………………………………………………………. 256
  • Table 59: Nanomaterials scorecard for fullerenes…………………………………… 259
  • Table 60: Market summary for fullerenes-Selling grade particle diameter, usage, advantages, average price/ton, high volume applications, low volume applications and novel applications.         259
  • Table 61: Markets, benefits and applications of fullerenes……………………… 261
  • Table 62: Production volume of fullerenes (tons), 2010-2025…………………… 264
  • Table 63: Example prices of fullerenes…………………………………………………… 267
  • Table 64: Fullerene producers……………………………………………………………….. 269
  • Table 65: Nanomaterials scorecard for gold nanoparticles……………………. 272
  • Table 66: Market summary for gold nanoparticles-Selling grade particle diameter, usage, advantages, average price/ton, high volume applications, low volume applications and novel applications.  272
  • Table 67: Markets, benefits and applications of gold nanoparticles………. 275
  • Table 68: Production volumes of gold nanoparticles (tons), 2010-2025…… 278
  • Table 69: Example prices of gold nanoparticles…………………………………….. 282
  • Table 70: Gold nanoparticle producers………………………………………………… 283
  • Table 71: Nanomaterials scorecard for graphene………………………………….. 287
  • Table 72: Market summary for graphene-Selling grade particle diameter, usage, advantages, average price/ton, high volume applications, low volume applications and novel applications.         287
  • Table 73: Properties of graphene………………………………………………………….. 289
  • Table 74: Markets, benefits and applications of graphene……………………. 292
  • Table 75: Consumer products incorporating graphene…………………………. 297
  • Table 76: Production volumes of graphene (tons), 2010-2025………………… 302
  • Table 77: Graphene types and cost per kg…………………………………………… 306
  • Table 78: Graphene producers…………………………………………………………….. 307
  • Table 79: Nanomaterials scorecard for iron oxide nanoparticles……………. 319
  • Table 80: Market summary for iron oxide nanoparticles-Selling grade particle diameter, usage, advantages, average price/ton, high volume applications, low volume applications and novel applications……………………………………………………………………………………. 319
  • Table 81: Markets, benefits and applications of iron oxide nanoparticles. 322
  • Table 82: Production volumes of iron oxide nanoparticles (tons), 2010-2025. 327
  • Table 83: Example prices of iron oxide nanoparticles…………………………….. 329
  • Table 84: Iron oxide nanoparticles producers………………………………………… 330
  • Table 85: Nanomaterials scorecard for magnesium oxide nanoparticles… 335
  • Table 86: Market summary for magnesium oxide nanoparticles-Selling grade particle diameter, usage, advantages, average price/ton, market estimates, high volume applications, low volume applications and novel applications……………………………………………….. 335
  • Table 87: Markets, benefits and applications of magnesium oxide nanoparticles.       337
  • Table 88: Production volumes of magnesium oxide nanoparticles (tons), 2010-2025.   339
  • Table 89: Example prices of magnesium oxide nanoparticles………………… 342
  • Table 90: Magnesium oxide nanoparticles producers……………………………. 343
  • Table 91: Nanomaterials scorecard for manganese oxide nanoparticles.. 346
  • Table 92: Market summary for manganese oxide nanoparticles-Selling grade particle diameter, usage, advantages, average price/ton, high volume applications, low volume applications and novel applications……………………………………………………………………………………. 346
  • Table 93: Markets, benefits and applications of manganese oxide nanoparticles.      348
  • Table 94: Production volumes of manganese oxide nanoparticles (tons), 2010-2025.  351
  • Table 95: Example prices of manganese oxide nanoparticles……………….. 353
  • Table 96: Manganese oxide nanoparticles producers…………………………… 354
  • Table 97: Nanomaterials scorecard for nanocellulose……………………………. 356
  • Table 98: Market summary for nanocellulose-Selling grade particle diameter, usage, advantages, average price/ton, high volume applications, low volume applications and novel applications.  356
  • Table 99: Nanocellulose properties……………………………………………………….. 361
  • Table 100: Properties and applications of nanocellulose……………………….. 361
  • Table 101: Markets and applications of nanocellulose………………………….. 363
  • Table 102: Production volumes of nanocellulose (tons), 2010-2025…………. 370
  • Table 103: Example prices of nanocellulose………………………………………….. 373
  • Table 104: Production capacities of CNF producers per annum in tons, current and planned.   375
  • Table 105: Production capacities of CNC producers per annum in tons, current and planned.  375
  • Table 106: Nanocellulose producers……………………………………………………… 376
  • Table 107: Nanomaterials scorecard for nanoclays……………………………….. 382
  • Table 108: Market summary for nanoclays -Selling grade particle diameter, usage, advantages, average price/ton, high volume applications, low volume applications and novel applications.  382
  • Table 109: Markets, benefits and applications of nanoclays………………….. 387
  • Table 110: Production volumes of nanoclays (tons), 2010-2025………………. 390
  • Table 111: Example prices of nanoclays……………………………………………….. 393
  • Table 112: Main nanoclays producers, products and target markets…….. 394
  • Table 113: Nanoclay producers……………………………………………………………. 395
  • Table 114: Nanomaterials scorecard for nanodiamonds……………………….. 400
  • Table 115: Markets, benefits and applications of nanodiamonds………….. 402
  • Table 116: Production volumes of nanodiamonds (tons), 2010-2025………. 405
  • Table 117: Example prices of nanodiamonds………………………………………… 408
  • Table 118: Nanodiamonds producers…………………………………………………… 408
  • Table 119: Nanomaterials scorecard for nanofibers……………………………….. 410
  • Table 120: Market summary for nanofibers- Selling grade particle diameter, advantages, average price/ton, high volume applications, low volume applications and novel applications.         410
  • Table 121: Markets and applications of nanofibers……………………………….. 412
  • Table 122: Markets for nanofiber air and liquid filtration………………………… 413
  • Table 123: Production volumes of nanofibers (tons), 2010-2025………………. 414
  • Table 124: Nanofibers producers…………………………………………………………… 417
  • Table 125: Nanomaterials scorecard for nanosilver………………………………… 424
  • Table 126: Market summary for nanosilver-Selling grade particle diameter, usage, advantages, average price/ton, high volume applications, low volume applications and novel applications.  424
  • Table 127: Markets, benefits and applications of nanosilver………………….. 427
  • Table 128: Production volumes of nanosilver (tons), 2010-2025………………. 431
  • Table 129: Example prices of nanosilver………………………………………………… 434
  • Table 130: Nanosilver producers……………………………………………………………. 434
  • Table 131: Nanomaterials scorecard for nanowires……………………………….. 438
  • Table 132: Market summary for nanowires-Selling grade particle diameter, usage, advantages, average price/ton, market estimates, high volume applications, low volume applications and novel applications……………………………………………………………………………………. 438
  • Table 133: Markets, benefits and applications of nanowires………………….. 441
  • Table 134: Example prices of nanowires………………………………………………… 444
  • Table 135: Nanowires producers…………………………………………………………… 445
  • Table 136: Nanomaterials scorecard for nickel nanoparticles………………… 448
  • Table 137: Market summary for nickel nanoparticles -Selling grade particle diameter, usage, advantages, average price/ton, high volume applications, low volume applications and novel applications……………………………………………………………………………………. 448
  • Table 138: Markets, benefits and applications of nickel nanoparticles…… 450
  • Table 139: Production volumes of nickel nanoparticles (tons), 2010-2025.. 451
  • Table 140: Example prices of nickel nanoparticles………………………………… 453
  • Table 141: Nickel nanoparticles producers……………………………………………. 454
  • Table 142: Nanomaterials scorecard for quantum dots…………………………. 456
  • Table 143: Markets, benefits and applications of quantum dots……………. 459
  • Table 144: Total QD revenues 2013-2025 ($M), conservative and optimistic estimates.         468
  • Table 145: Example prices of quantum dots………………………………………….. 471
  • Table 146: Production of quantum dots………………………………………………… 471
  • Table 147: Quantum dot producers……………………………………………………… 472
  • Table 148: Nanomaterials scorecard for silicon oxide nanoparticles………. 477
  • Table 149: Market summary for silicon oxide nanoparticles-Selling grade particle diameter, usage, advantages, average price/ton, high volume applications, low volume applications and novel applications……………………………………………………………………………………. 477
  • Table 150: Markets, benefits and applications of silicon oxide nanoparticles. 480
  • Table 151: Production volumes of silicon oxide nanoparticles (tons), 2010-2025. 484
  • Table 152: Example prices of silicon oxide nanoparticles……………………….. 486
  • Table 153: Silicon oxide nanoparticles producers………………………………….. 487
  • Table 154: Nanomaterials scorecard for titanium dioxide nanoparticles… 494
  • Table 155: Market summary for titanium dioxide nanoparticles -Selling grade particle diameter, usage, advantages, average price/ton, high volume applications, low volume applications and novel applications……………………………………………………………………………………. 495
  • Table 156: Markets, benefits and applications of titanium dioxide nanoparticles.       498
  • Table 157: Production volumes of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (tons),  conservative and optimistic estimates…………………………………………………………………………………………. 502
  • Table 158: Titanium dioxide nanoparticles producers……………………………. 506
  • Table 159: Nanomaterials scorecard for zinc oxide nanoparticles………….. 510
  • Table 160: Market summary for zinc oxide nanoparticles-Selling grade particle diameter, usage, advantages, average price/ton, high volume applications, low volume applications and novel applications……………………………………………………………………………………. 510
  • Table 161: Markets, benefits and applications of zinc oxide nanoparticles. 513
  • Table 162: Production volumes of zinc oxide nanoparticles (tons), 2010-2025. 518
  • Table 163: Main Zinc oxide nanoparticles-Suppliers, products, primary particle size.   521
  • Table 164: Zinc oxide nanoparticles producers……………………………………… 523
  • Table 165: Nanomaterials scorecard for zirconium oxide nanoparticles…. 528
  • Table 166: Market summary for zirconium oxide nanoparticles-Selling grade particle diameter, usage, advantages, average price/ton, high volume applications, low volume applications and novel applications……………………………………………………………………………………. 528
  • Table 167: Markets, benefits and applications of zirconium oxide nanoparticles.        530
  • Table 168: Production volumes of zirconium oxide nanoparticles (tons), 2010-2025.    535
  • Table 169: Prices of zirconium oxide nanoparticles………………………………… 538
  • Table 170: Zirconium oxide nanoparticles producers…………………………….. 539
  • Table 171: Markets, benefits and applications of zirconium oxide nanoparticles.        544
  • Table 172: Nanoprecipitated calcium carbonate nanoparticles producers. 546
  • Table 173: Schematic of (a) CQDs and (c) GQDs. HRTEM images of (b) C-dots and (d) GQDs showing combination of zigzag and armchair edges (positions marked as 1–4.. 548
  • Table 174: Properties of graphene quantum dots………………………………….. 549
  • Table 175: Graphene and carbon quantum dots producers…………………. 551
  • Table 176: Markets, benefits and applications of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles.        552
  • Table 177: Hydroxyapatite nanoparticles producers…………………………….. 553
  • Table 178: Markets, benefits and applications of palladium nanoparticles. 554
  • Table 179: Palladium nanoparticles producers……………………………………… 554
  • Table 180: Yttrium oxide nanoparticles producers…………………………………. 556
  • Table 181: Electronic and mechanical properties of monolayer phosphorene, graphene and MoS2.  563
  • Table 182: Markets and applications of phosphorene…………………………… 564
  • Table 183: Markets and applications of C2N…………………………………………. 568
  • Table 184: Markets and applications of germanene……………………………… 571
  • Table 185: Markets and applications of graphdiyne……………………………… 574
  • Table 186: Markets and applications of graphane………………………………… 577
  • Table 187: Markets and applications of hexagonal boron-nitride………….. 580
  • Table 188: Markets and applications of MoS2………………………………………… 583
  • Table 189: Markets and applications of Rhenium disulfide (ReS2) and diselenide (ReSe2).  588
  • Table 190: Markets and applications of silicene…………………………………….. 591
  • Table 191: Markets and applications of stanene/tinene………………………… 595
  • Table 192: Markets and applications of tungsten diselenide………………….. 597
  • Table 193: Nanomaterials properties relevant to application in adhesives. 599
  • Table 194: Applications in adhesives, by nanomaterials type and benefits thereof.    600
  • Table 195: Nanomaterials in the adhesives market-applications, stage of commercialization and estimated economic impact……………………………………………………………. 604
  • Table 196: Market challenges rating for nanotechnology and nanomaterials in the adhesives market………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 605
  • Table 197: Nanomaterials application and product developers in adhesives.    606
  • Table 198: Applications in aerospace composites, by nanomaterials type and benefits thereof.         612
  • Table 199: Types of nanocoatings utilized in aerospace and application. 614
  • Table 200: Applications in aerospace coatings, by nanomaterials type and benefits thereof.    616
  • Table 201: Nanomaterials in the aerospace market-applications, stage of commercialization and estimated economic impact……………………………………………………………. 619
  • Table 202: Market challenges rating for nanotechnology and nanomaterials in the aerospace market………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 620
  • Table 203: Nanomaterials application and product developers in the aerospace industry.        621
  • Table 204: Applications of natural fiber composites in vehicles by manufacturers.      631
  • Table 205: Applications in automotive composites, by nanomaterials type and benefits thereof.        636
  • Table 206: Nanocoatings applied in the automotive industry……………….. 639
  • Table 207: Applications in automotive tires, by nanomaterials type and benefits thereof.  642
  • Table 208: Application markets, competing materials, nanomaterials advantages and current market size in the automotive sector……………………………………………………………. 644
  • Table 209: Nanotechnology and nanomaterials in the automotive market-applications, stage of commercialization and estimated economic impact……………………….. 646
  • Table 210: Applications and commercilization challenges in the automotive market.         648
  • Table 211: Market challenges rating for nanotechnology and nanomaterials in the aerospace market………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 648
  • Table 212: Nanomaterials application and product developers in the automotive industry.       649
  • Table 213: Applications in LIB, by nanomaterials type and benefits thereof. 666
  • Table 214: Applications in lithium-air batteries, by nanomaterials type and benefits thereof.      669
  • Table 215: Applications in sodium-ion batteries, by nanomaterials type and benefits thereof.    669
  • Table 216: Applications in magesium batteries, by nanomaterials type and benefits thereof.     670
  • Table 217: Nanotechnology and nanomaterials opportunity in the batteries market-applications, stage of commercialization and estimated economic impact…………………… 672
  • Table 218: Market challenges in batteries……………………………………………… 673
  • Table 219: Market challenges rating for nanotechnology and nanomaterials in the batteries market………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 674
  • Table 220: Nanomaterials application and product developers in batteries and supercapacitors.     675
  • Table 221: Applications in medical biosensors, by nanomaterials type and benefits thereof.       687
  • Table 222: Nanotechnology and nanomaterials opportunity in the medical biosensors market-applications, stage of commercialization and estimated economic impact. 691
  • Table 223: Market challenges in medical biosensors……………………………… 692
  • Table 224: Market challenges rating for nanotechnology and nanomaterials in the medical biosensors market…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 692
  • Table 225: Nanotechnology and nanomaterials application and product developers in medical biosensors………………………………………………………………………………………… 693
  • Table 226: Applications in drug formulation and delivery, by nanomaterials type and benefits thereof………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 697
  • Table 227: Nanotechnology drug products…………………………………………… 703
  • Table 228: Nanotechnology and nanomaterials opportunity in the drug formulation and delivery market-applications, stage of commercialization and estimated economic impact.     708
  • Table 229: Market challenges rating for nanotechnology and nanomaterials in the drug formulation and delivery market………………………………………………………………………… 710
  • Table 230: Nanotechnology application developers in drug formulation and delivery.       711
  • Table 231: Applications in medical imaging and diagnostics, by nanomaterials type and benefits thereof…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 721
  • Table 232: Nanotechnology and nanomaterials opportunity in the imaging and diagnostics market-applications, stage of commercialization and estimated economic impact. 726
  • Table 233: Market challenges in imaging and diagnostics…………………….. 728
  • Table 234: Market challenges rating for nanotechnology and nanomaterials in the medical imaging and diagnostics market…………………………………………………………………… 729
  • Table 235: Nanotechnology application developers in medical imaging and diagnositcs 729
  • Table 236: Nanocoatings applied in the medical industry-type of coating, nanomaterials utilized, benefits and applications………………………………………………………………… 742
  • Table 237: Types of advanced coatings applied in medical devices and implants.   745
  • Table 238: Nanomaterials utilized in medical implants…………………………… 746
  • Table 239: Nanomaterials utilized in medical coatings and films coatings-benefits and applications. 747
  • Table 240: Nanotechnology and nanomaterials opportunity in the medical coatings and films market-applications, stage of commercialization and estimated economic impact. 753
  • Table 241: Market challenges rating for nanotechnology and nanomaterials in the medical coatings and films market………………………………………………………………………………. 754
  • Table 242: Nanotechnology application developers in medical coatings and films.   755
  • Table 243: Applications in medical implants and devices, by nanomaterials type and benefits thereof………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 765
  • Table 244: Nanotechnology and nanomaterials opportunity in medical implants and devices market-applications, stage of commercialization and estimated economic impact. 768
  • Table 245: Market challenges rating for nanotechnology and nanomaterials in the medical implants market…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 770
  • Table 246: Nanotechnology application developers in medical implants and devices.      770
  • Table 247: Applications in therapeutics, by nanomaterials type and benefits thereof.        777
  • Table 248: Nanotechnology and nanomaterials opportunity in the therapeutics market-applications, stage of commercialization and estimated economic impact………….. 780
  • Table 249: Market challenges rating for nanotechnology and nanomaterials in the therapeutics market…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 782
  • Table 250: Nanotechnology and nanomaterials application and product developers in therapeutics………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 783
  • Table 251: Medical products incorporating nanosilver………………………….. 789
  • Table 252: Applications in wound care, by nanomaterials type and benefits thereof.         790
  • Table 253: Nanotechnology and nanomaterials opportunity in the wound care market-applications, stage of commercialization and estimated economic impact………….. 793
  • Table 254: Market challenges rating for nanotechnology and nanomaterials in the woundcare market………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 794
  • Table 255: Nanotechnology and nanomaterials application developers in wound care.   795
  • Table 256: Applications in dental, by nanomaterials type and benefits thereof. 797
  • Table 257: Nanotechnology and nanomaterials opportunity in dental market-applications, stage of commercialization and estimated economic impact……………………….. 798
  • Table 258: Market challenges rating for nanotechnology and nanomaterials in the medical implants market…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 800
  • Table 259: Nanomaterials application and product developers in dentistry. 800
  • Table 260: Comparative properties of polymer composites reinforcing materials.         807
  • Table 261: Graphene properties relevant to application in polymer composites.        808
  • Table 262: Applications in polymer composites, by nanomaterials type and benefits thereof.     809
  • Table 263: Applications in thermal management composites, by nanomaterials type and benefits thereof…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 811
  • Table 264: Applications in ESD and EMI shielding composites, by nanomaterials type and benefits thereof…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 812
  • Table 265: Applications in rubber and elastomers, by nanomaterials type and benefits thereof.         813
  • Table 266: Applications in flame retardants, by nanomaterials type and benefits thereof. 814
  • Table 267: Nanotechnology and nanomaterials in the composites market-applications, stage of commercialization and estimated economic impact……………………….. 816
  • Table 268: Market challenges rating for nanotechnology and nanomaterials in the composites market………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 819
  • Table 269: Nanomaterials application and product developers in composites.  820
  • Table 270: Applications in insulation and heating, by nanomaterials type and benefits thereof.         834
  • Table 271: Nanomaterials application developers in insulation and heating. 834
  • Table 272: Applications in exterior coatings by nanomaterials type and benefits thereof.   836
  • Table 273: Nanomaterials application and product developers in exterior coatings.  837
  • Table 274: Applications in smart windows by nanomaterials type and benefits thereof.      845
  • Table 275: Nanomaterials application and product developers in smart windows.     847
  • Table 276: Applications in VOC mitigation and filtration by nanomaterials type and benefits thereof………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 848
  • Table 277: Nanotechnology and nanomaterials application and product developers in VOC mitigation and filtration……………………………………………………………………. 849
  • Table 278: Applications in cement and concrete by nanomaterials type and benefits thereof. 851
  • Table 279: Nanomaterials application and product developers in cement and concrete. 853
  • Table 280: Nanotechnology and nanomaterials in the construction, building protection and exterior coatings market-applications, stage of commercialization and estimated economic impact.        858
  • Table 281: Market challenges rating for nanotechnology and nanomaterials in the construction, building protection and architectural exterior coatings  market……….. 860
  • Table 282: Applications in cosmetics and sunscreens, by nanomaterials type and benefits thereof.    866
  • Table 283: Main titanium dioxide nanoparticles suppliers, products, primary particle size.  872
  • Table 284: Main zinc oxide nanoparticle suppliers, products, primary particle size.     872
  • Table 285: Cosmetics, personal care and sunscreen products and formulations incorporating nanoemulsions………………………………………………………………………………… 874
  • Table 286: Cosmetics, personal care and sunscreen products incorporating liposomes.      874
  • Table 287: Cosmetics, personal care and sunscreen  products incorporating niosomes.      875
  • Table 288: Cosmetics, personal care and sunscreen products incorporating solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN)………………………………………………………………………………………………… 875
  • Table 289: Cosmetics, personal care and sunscreen products incorporating nanostructured lipid carriers…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 876
  • Table 290: Cosmetics, personal care and sunscreen products incorporating nanocapsules & nanospheres……………………………………………………………………………………. 877
  • Table 291: Cosmetics, personal care and sunscreen products incorporating fullerenes.       877
  • Table 292: Nanotechnology and nanomaterials in the cosmetics and sun care market-applications, stage of commercialization and estimated economic impact………….. 880
  • Table 293: Market challenges rating for nanotechnology and nanomaterials in the cosmetics and sunscreens market……………………………………………………………………………. 881
  • Table 294: Nanomaterials application and product developers in cosmetics and sunscreens market………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 881
  • Table 295: Comparison of ITO replacements…………………………………………. 891
  • Table 296: Applications in flexible electronics, flexible conductive films and displays, by nanomaterials type and benefits thereof………………………………………………………………… 896
  • Table 297: Commercially available quantum dot display products………. 908
  • Table 298: Nanotechnology and nanomaterials in the flexible electronics, conductive films and displays market-applications, stage of commercialization and estimated economic impact.         910
  • Table 299: Market challenges rating for nanotechnology and nanomaterials in the flexible electronics, conductive films and displays market………………………………………………. 917
  • Table 300: Nanotechnology and nanomaterials application and product developers in flexible electronics, flexible conductive films and displays…………………………….. 917
  • Table 301: Comparative properties of conductive inks………………………….. 924
  • Table 302: Applications in conductive inks by nanomaterials type and benefits thereof.    926
  • Table 303: Opportunities for nanomaterials in printed electronics………….. 931
  • Table 304: Nanotechnology and nanomaterials in the conductive inks market-applications, stage of commercialization and estimated economic impact……………………….. 933
  • Table 305: Market challenges rating for nanotechnology and nanomaterials in the conductive inks market…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 934
  • Table 306: Nanomaterials application and product developers in conductive inks.   934
  • Table 307: Comparison of Cu, CNTs and graphene as interconnect materials.    941
  • Table 308: Applications in transistors, integrated circuits and other components, by nanomaterials type and benefits thereof………………………………………………………………………… 942
  • Table 309: Nanotechnology and nanomaterials in the transistors, integrated circuits and other components market-applications, stage of commercialization and estimated economic impact. 946
  • Table 310: Market challenges rating for nanotechnology and nanomaterials in the transistors, integrated circuits and other components market……………………………. 950
  • Table 311: Nanomaterials application and product developers in transistors, integrated circuits and other components…………………………………………………………………………… 951
  • Table 312: Applications in memory devices, by nanomaterials type and benefits thereof.  956
  • Table 313: Nanotechnology and nanomaterials in the memory devices market-applications, stage of commercialization and estimated economic impact……………………….. 958
  • Table 314: Market challenges rating for nanotechnology and nanomaterials in the memory devices market…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 960
  • Table 315: Nanotechnology and nanomaterials product and application developers in memory devices……………………………………………………………………………………………. 961
  • Table 316: Nanocoatings applied in the consumer electronics industry…. 967
  • Table 317: Nanotechnology and nanomaterials in the electronics coatings market-applications, stage of commercialization and estimated economic impact…………………… 969
  • Table 318: Market challenges rating for nanotechnology and nanomaterials in the electronics coatings market…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 970
  • Table 319: Nanomaterials application and product developers in electronics coatings.     971
  • Table 320: Applications in photonics, by nanomaterials type and benefits thereof.    976
  • Table 321: Graphene properties relevant to application in optical modulators. 980
  • Table 322: Nanotechnology and nanomaterials in the photonics market-applications, stage of commercialization and estimated economic impact……………………….. 987
  • Table 323: Market challenges rating for nanotechnology and nanomaterials in the photonics market………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 989
  • Table 324: Nanomaterials product and application developers in photonics.    990
  • Table 325: Types of filtration………………………………………………………………….. 996
  • Table 326: Applications in desalination and water filtration, by nanomaterials type and benefits thereof…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 998
  • Table 327: Applications in airborne filters, by nanomaterials type and benefits thereof.      1003
  • Table 328: Applications in gas separation, by nanomaterials type and benefits thereof.    1005
  • Table 329: Nanomaterials in the filtration and environmental remediation market-applications, stage of commercialization and estimated economic impact……………………… 1006
  • Table 330: Market challenges rating for nanotechnology and nanomaterials in the filtration and environmental remediation market………………………………………………… 1009
  • Table 331: Nanotechnology and nanomaterials application and product developers in filtration and environmental remediation……………………………………………………………. 1009
  • Table 332: Applications in food packaging, by nanomaterials type and benefits thereof.  1021
  • Table 333: Applications in food coatings, by nanomaterials type and benefits thereof.      1024
  • Table 334: Applications in food additives and supplements, by nanomaterials type and benefits thereof…………………………………………………………………………………………… 1026
  • Table 335: Applications in agricultural production, by nanomaterials type and benefits thereof………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 1027
  • Table 336: Food packaging products incorporating nanomaterials…….. 1031
  • Table 337: Nanotechnology and nanomaterials in the food and agriculture market-applications, stage of commercialization and estimated economic impact…………………. 1033
  • Table 338: Market challenges in food and agriculture…………………………. 1033
  • Table 339: Market challenges rating for nanotechnology and nanomaterials in the food and agriculture market…………………………………………………………………………. 1034
  • Table 340: Nanomaterials application and product developers in food and agriculture.   1035
  • Table 341: Applications in fuel cells, by nanomaterials type and benefits thereof.      1045
  • Table 342: Applications hydrogen storage, by nanomaterials type and benefits thereof.   1047
  • Table 343: Nanotechnology and nanomaterials in the fuel cells and hydrogen storage market-applications, stage of commercialization and estimated economic impact. 1048
  • Table 344: Market challenges rating for nanotechnology and nanomaterials in the fuel cells and hydrogen storage market………………………………………………………………. 1049
  • Table 345: Nanomaterials application and product developers in fuel cells and hydrogen storage………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 1050
  • Table 346: Applications in anti-microbial coatings, by nanomaterials type and benefits thereof………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 1056
  • Table 347: Applications in anti-fingerprint nanocoatings, by nanomaterials type and benefits thereof………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 1060
  • Table 348: Nanotechnology and nanomaterials in the household care and sanitary market-applications, stage of commercialization and estimated economic impact. 1062
  • Table 349: Market challenges rating for nanotechnology and nanomaterials in the household care and sanitary market………………………………………………………………………. 1063
  • Table 350: Nanomaterials application and product developers in household care and sanitary………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 1063
  • Table 351: Applications in lighting, by nanomaterials type and benefits thereof.        1074
  • Table 352: Nanotechnology and nanomaterials in the lighting and UVC market-applications, stage of commercialization and estimated economic impact……………………… 1077
  • Table 353: Market challenges rating for nanotechnology and nanomaterials in the lighting and UVC market…………………………………………………………………………………………… 1077
  • Table 354: Nanotechnology and nanomaterials application developers in lighting.   1078
  • Table 355: Applications in lubricants, by nanomaterials type and benefits thereof.    1083
  • Table 356: Nanotechnology and nanomaterials in lubricants market-applications, stage of commercialization and estimated economic impact……………………… 1084
  • Table 357: Market challenges rating for nanotechnology and nanomaterials in the lubricants market………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 1085
  • Table 358: Nanotechnology and nanomaterials application and product developers in lubricants………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 1086
  • Table 359: Nanocoatings applied in the marine industry-type of coating, nanomaterials utilized and benefits…………………………………………………………………………………………. 1090
  • Table 360: Nanotechnology and nanomaterials in the marine market-applications, stage of commercialization and estimated economic impact……………………… 1092
  • Table 361: Market challenges rating for nanotechnology and nanomaterials in the marine market………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 1093
  • Table 362: Nanomaterials application developers in the marine industry. 1094
  • Table 363: Applications in sensing and reservoir management, by nanomaterials type and benefits thereof…………………………………………………………………………………………… 1102
  • Table 364: Applications in oil & gas exploration coatings, by nanomaterials type and benefits thereof………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 1103
  • Table 365: Applications in oil & gas exploration drilling fluids, by nanomaterials type and benefits thereof…………………………………………………………………………………………… 1104
  • Table 366: Applications in oil & gas exploration sorbent materials, by nanomaterials type and benefits thereof…………………………………………………………………………………………… 1105
  • Table 367: Applications in separation, by nanomaterials type and benefits thereof.  1106
  • Table 368: Nanotechnology and nanomaterials in the oil and gas market-applications, stage of commercialization and estimated economic impact……………………… 1109
  • Table 369: Market challenges rating for nanotechnology and nanomaterials in the oil and gas exploration market………………………………………………………………………… 1110
  • Table 370: Nanomaterials application developers in oil & gas exploration. 1110
  • Table 371: Applications in packaging, by nanomaterials type and benefits thereof.  1122
  • Table 372: Application markets, competing materials, nanomaterials advantages and current market size in packaging…………………………………………………………………………… 1125
  • Table 373: Nanomaterials in the packaging market-applications, stage of commercialization and estimated economic impact………………………………………………………….. 1128
  • Table 374: Market challenges rating for nanotechnology and nanomaterials in the packaging market………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 1129
  • Table 375: Nanomaterials application developers in packaging…………. 1130
  • Table 376: Applications in military textiles, by nanomaterials type and benefits thereof.     1138
  • Table 377: Applications in military equipment, by nanomaterials type and benefits thereof.      1139
  • Table 378: Applications in anti-counterfeiting, by nanomaterials type and benefits thereof.       1141
  • Table 379: Applications in security and defence sensors and detection, by nanomaterials type and benefits thereof……………………………………………………………………………… 1142
  • Table 380: Applications in ballistic protection, by nanomaterials type and benefits thereof.       1144
  • Table 381: Nanomaterials in the security and defence market-applications, stage of commercialization and estimated economic impact………………………………………………….. 1146
  • Table 382: Market challenges rating for nanotechnology and nanomaterials in the security and defence market…………………………………………………………………………….. 1148
  • Table 383: Nanomaterials application developers in security and defence. 1148
  • Table 384: Graphene properties relevant to application in sensors………. 1159
  • Table 385: Applications in strain sensors, by nanomaterials type and benefits thereof.        1161
  • Table 386: Applications in strain sensors, by nanomaterials type and benefits thereof.        1164
  • Table 387: Applications in biosensors, by nanomaterials type and benefits thereof.    1164
  • Table 388: Applications in food sensors, by nanomaterials type and benefits thereof. 1167
  • Table 389: Applications in image sensors, by nanomaterials type and benefits thereof.      1168
  • Table 390: Applications in infrared (IR) sensors, by nanomaterials type and benefits thereof.       1168
  • Table 391: Applications in optical sensors, by nanomaterials type and benefits thereof.     1169
  • Table 392: Applications in pressure sensors, by nanomaterials type and benefits thereof.    1170
  • Table 393: Applications in humidity sensors, by nanomaterials type and benefits thereof.  1171
  • Table 394: Applications in acoustic sensors, by nanomaterials type and benefits thereof.   1172
  • Table 395: Applications in wireless sensors, by nanomaterials type and benefits thereof.     1172
  • Table 396: Nanotechnology and nanomaterials in the sensors market-applications, stage of commercialization and estimated economic impact……………………… 1174
  • Table 397: Market challenges rating for nanotechnology and nanomaterials in the sensors market………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 1176
  • Table 398: Nanotechnology and nanomaterials application and product developers in sensors………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 1176
  • Table 399: Applications in solar, by nanomaterials type and benefits thereof.    1186
  • Table 400: Applications in solar water splitting, by nanomaterials type and benefits thereof.      1191
  • Table 401: Applications in solar coatings, by nanomaterials type and benefits thereof.      1192
  • Table 402: Nanotechnology and nanomaterials in the solar market-applications, stage of commercialization and estimated economic impact……………………… 1195
  • Table 403: Market challenges for nanomaterials in solar………………………. 1197
  • Table 404: Market challenges rating for nanotechnology and nanomaterials in the solar market………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 1197
  • Table 405: Nanotechnology and nanomaterials application developers in solar.       1198
  • Table 406: Applications in supercapacitors, by nanomaterials type and benefits thereof.  1205
  • Table 407: Nanotechnology and nanomaterials in the supercapacitors market-applications, stage of commercialization and estimated economic impact……………………… 1207
  • Table 408: Market challenges rating for nanotechnology and nanomaterials in the supercapacitors market…………………………………………………………………………………………… 1209
  • Table 409: Nanotechnology and nanomaterials application developers in supercapacitors.     1209
  • Table 410: Desirable functional properties for the textiles industry afforded by the use of nanomaterials………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 1218
  • Table 411: Applications in textiles, by nanomaterials type and benefits thereof. 1221
  • Table 412: Nanocoatings applied in the textiles industry-type of coating, nanomaterials utilized, benefits and applications………………………………………………………………. 1225
  • Table 413: Nanomaterials in the textiles market-applications, stage of commercialization and estimated economic impact………………………………………………………….. 1233
  • Table 414: Market challenges rating for nanotechnology and nanomaterials in the textiles and apparel market…………………………………………………………………………………………… 1234
  • Table 415: Nanotechnology and nanomaterials application and product developers in textiles………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 1235
  • Table 416: Applications in tools & manufacturing, by nanomaterials type and benefits thereof. 1243
  • Table 417: Nanotechnology and nanomaterials in the tools and manufacturing market-applications, stage of commercialization and estimated economic impact………… 1245
  • Table 418: Market challenges rating for nanotechnology and nanomaterials in the tools and manufacturing market…………………………………………………………………… 1246
  • Table 419: Nanomaterials application developers in tools & manufacturing. 1246
  • Table 420: Applications in 3D printing, by nanomaterials type and benefits thereof.  1253
  • Table 421: Nanotechnology and nanomaterials in the 3D printing market-applications, stage of commercialization and estimated economic impact……………………… 1255
  • Table 422: Market challenges rating for nanotechnology and nanomaterials in the 3D printing market………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 1256
  • Table 423: Nanomaterials application and product developers in 3D printing.   1257
  • Table 424: Applications in catalysts, by nanomaterials type and benefits thereof.      1261
  • Table 425: Nanotechnology and nanomaterials application and product developers in catalysts………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 1262
  • Table 426: Nanomaterials application and product developers in cabling. 1264
  • Table 427: Nanomaterials application and product developers in sporting goods.     1267
  • Table 428: Applications in wind energy nanocomposites, by nanomaterials type and benefits thereof………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 1271
  • Table 429: Applications in wind energy nanosensors, by nanomaterials type and benefits thereof………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 1271
  • Table 430: Applications in wind energy nanocoatings, by nanomaterials type and benefits thereof………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 1272
  • Table 431: Nanomaterials application and product developers in wind energy.         1272
  • Table 432: Applications in thermoelectrics, by nanomaterials type and benefits thereof.    1275
  • Table 433: Nanotechnology and nanomaterials application and product developers in thermoelectrics………………………………………………………………………………. 1277

 

FIGURES

  • Figure 1: National Nanotechnology (NNI) funding, 2001-2016………………… 107
  • Figure 2: Graphene-enabled bendable smartphone……………………………. 116
  • Figure 3: Graphene coated solar panels in China…………………………………. 118
  • Figure 4: Nanotechnology patent applications, 1991-2015……………………. 129
  • Figure 5: Share of nanotechnology related patent applications since 1972, by country.    130
  • Figure 6: Demand for aluminium oxide nanoparticles, by market………….. 137
  • Figure 7: Technology Readiness Level (TRL) for Aluminium Oxide Nanoparticles.  138
  • Figure 8: Production volumes of aluminium oxide nanoparticles (tons), 2010-2025.      140
  • Figure 9: Production volumes of of Aluminium Oxide Nanoparticles 2015, by region.   141
  • Figure 10: Demand for antimony tin oxide nanoparticles, by market……… 153
  • Figure 11: Technology Readiness Level (TRL) for Antimony Tin Oxide Nanoparticles.     154
  • Figure 12: Production volume of antimony tin oxide nanoparticles (tons), 2010-2025. 156
  • Figure 13: Production volumes of Antimony Tin Oxide Nanoparticles 2015, by region. 157
  • Figure 14: Demand for bismuth oxide nanoparticles, by market…………….. 168
  • Figure 15: Technology Readiness Level (TRL) for Bismuth Oxide Nanoparticles. 168
  • Figure 16: Production volume of bismuth oxide nanoparticles (tons), 2010-2025. 170
  • Figure 17: Production volumes of Bismuth Oxide Nanoparticles 2015, by region. 171
  • Figure 18: Demand for carbon nanotubes, by market…………………………… 184
  • Figure 19: Technology Readiness Level (TRL) for Carbon Nanotubes……….. 187
  • Figure 20: Production volumes of carbon nanotubes (tons), 2010-2025….. 189
  • Figure 21: Production volumes of Carbon Nanotubes 2015, by region……. 190
  • Figure 22: Production capacities for SWNTs in kilograms, 2005-2014………… 196
  • Figure 23: Demand for cerium oxide nanoparticles, by market………………. 211
  • Figure 24: Technology Readiness Level (TRL) for cerium oxide nanoparticles. 212
  • Figure 25: Production volumes of cerium oxide nanoparticles (tons), 2010-2025. 214
  • Figure 26: Production volumes of Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles 2015, by region.  215
  • Figure 27: Demand for cobalt oxide nanoparticles, by market………………. 224
  • Figure 28: Technology Readiness Level (TRL) for Cobalt Oxide Nanoparticles. 225
  • Figure 29: Production volumes of cobalt oxide nanoparticles (tons), 2010-2025. 227
  • Figure 30: Production volumes of Cobalt Oxide Nanoparticles 2015, by region.  228
  • Figure 31: Demand for copper oxide nanoparticles by market………………. 236
  • Figure 32: Technology Readiness Level (TRL) for copper oxide nanoparticles. 237
  • Figure 33: Production volumes of copper oxide nanoparticles (tons), 2010-2025.         239
  • Figure 34: Production volumes of copper oxide nanoparticles 2015, by region.   240
  • Figure 35: Dendrimer structure………………………………………………………………. 246
  • Figure 36: Dendrimer schematic for application in biomedicine…………….. 248
  • Figure 37: Demand for dendrimers by market………………………………………… 251
  • Figure 38: Technology Readiness Level (TRL) for dendrimers……………………. 252
  • Figure 39: Production volumes of dendrimers (tons), 2010-2025………………. 254
  • Figure 40: Production volumes of dendrimers 2015, by region………………… 255
  • Figure 41: Demand for fullerenes, by market………………………………………….. 263
  • Figure 42: Technology Readiness Level (TRL) for fullerenes………………………. 264
  • Figure 43: Production volume of fullerenes (tons), 2010-2025………………….. 266
  • Figure 44: Production volumes of fullerenes 2015, by region…………………… 267
  • Figure 45: Demand for gold nanoparticles, by market…………………………… 277
  • Figure 46: Technology Readiness Level (TRL) for gold nanoparticles………… 278
  • Figure 47: Production volumes of gold nanoparticles (tons), 2010-2025….. 280
  • Figure 48: Production volumes of gold nanoparticles 2015, by region…….. 281
  • Figure 49: Graphene layer structure schematic…………………………………….. 290
  • Figure 50: Demand for graphene, by market………………………………………… 300
  • Figure 51: Technology Readiness Level (TRL) for graphene……………………… 301
  • Figure 52: Production volumes of graphene (tons), 2010-2025………………… 304
  • Figure 53: Production volumes of graphene 2015, by region………………….. 305
  • Figure 54: Demand for iron oxide nanoparticles, by market…………………… 325
  • Figure 55: Technology Readiness Level (TRL) for iron oxide nanoparticles… 326
  • Figure 56: Production volumes of iron oxide nanoparticles (tons), 2010-2025. 328
  • Figure 57: Production volumes of iron oxide nanoparticles 2015, by region. 329
  • Figure 58: Demand for magnesium oxide nanoparticles, by market………. 338
  • Figure 59: Technology Readiness Level (TRL) for magnesium oxide nanoparticles.        339
  • Figure 60: Production volumes of magnesium oxide nanoparticles (tons), 2010-2025.  341
  • Figure 61: Production volumes of magnesium oxide nanoparticles 2015, by region.    342
  • Figure 62: Demand for manganese oxide nanoparticles, by market………. 349
  • Figure 63: Technology Readiness Level (TRL) for manganese oxide nanoparticles.       350
  • Figure 64: Production volumes of manganese oxide nanoparticles (tons), 2010-2025. 352
  • Figure 65: Production volumes of manganese oxide nanoparticles 2015, by region.    353
  • Figure 66: Hierarchical Structure of Wood Biomass…………………………………. 359
  • Figure 67: Types of nanocellulose………………………………………………………….. 360
  • Figure 68: Demand for nanocellulose, by market…………………………………… 368
  • Figure 69: Technology Readiness Level (TRL) for nanocellulose……………….. 370
  • Figure 70: Production volumes of nanocellulose (tons), 2010-2025………….. 372
  • Figure 71: Production volumes of nanocellulose 2015, by region……………. 373
  • Figure 72: Nanoclays structure. The dimensions of a clay platelet are typically 200-1000 nm in lateral dimension and 1 nm thick……………………………………………………………….. 384
  • Figure 73: TEM of montmorillonite………………………………………………………….. 385
  • Figure 74:  TEM of halloysite nanotubes…………………………………………………. 386
  • Figure 75: Demand for nanoclays, by market………………………………………… 389
  • Figure 76: Technology Readiness Level (TRL) for nanoclays…………………….. 390
  • Figure 77: Production volumes of nanoclays (tons), 2010-2025……………….. 392
  • Figure 78: Production volumes of nanoclays 2015, by region…………………. 393
  • Figure 79: Demand for nanodiamonds, by market………………………………… 404
  • Figure 80: Technology Readiness Level (TRL) for nanodiamonds……………… 405
  • Figure 81: Production volumes of nanodiamonds, 2010-2025…………………. 406
  • Figure 82: Production volumes of nanodiamonds 2015, by region………….. 407
  • Figure 83: Demand for nanofibers, by market………………………………………… 414
  • Figure 84: Production volumes of nanofibers (tons), 2010-2025……………….. 416
  • Figure 85: Production volumes of nanofibers 2015, by region…………………. 416
  • Figure 86: Technology Readiness Level (TRL) for nanofibers…………………….. 417
  • Figure 87: Supply chain for nanosilver products…………………………………….. 426
  • Figure 88: Demand for nanosilver, by market………………………………………… 429
  • Figure 89: Production volumes of nanosilver (tons), 2010-2025………………… 432
  • Figure 90: Production volumes of nanosilver 2015, by region………………….. 433
  • Figure 91: Demand for nanowires, by market………………………………………… 442
  • Figure 92: Technology Readiness Level (TRL) for nanowires……………………… 443
  • Figure 93: Production volumes of nanowires 2015, by region………………….. 444
  • Figure 95: Technology Readiness Level (TRL) for nickel nanoparticles……… 451
  • Figure 96: Production volumes of nickel nanoparticle (tons), 2010-2025…. 452
  • Figure 97: Global consumption of nickel nanoparticles 2015, by region…. 453
  • Figure 98: Quantum dot……………………………………………………………………….. 457
  • Figure 99: The light-blue curve represents a typical spectrum from a conventional white-LED LCD TV. With quantum dots, the spectrum is tunable to any colours of red, green, and blue, and each Color is limited to a narrow band………………………………………………………………. 458
  • Figure 100: Demand for quantum dots, by market………………………………… 466
  • Figure 101: Technology Readiness Level (TRL) for quantum dots……………… 467
  • Figure 102: Total QD revenues 2013-2025 ($M), conservative and optimistic estimates.        469
  • Figure 103: Production volumes of quantum dots 2015, by region………….. 470
  • Figure 104: Demand for silicon oxide nanoparticles, by market……………… 482
  • Figure 105: Technology Readiness Level (TRL) for silicon oxide nanoparticles. 483
  • Figure 106: Production volumes of silicon oxide nanoparticles (tons), 2010-2025. 485
  • Figure 107: Production volumes of silicon oxide nanoparticles 2015, by region.   486
  • Figure 108: Demand for titanium dioxide nanoparticles, by market……….. 500
  • Figure 109: Technology Readiness Level (TRL) for Titanium Oxide Nanoparticles.  501
  • Figure 110: Production volumes of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (tons),  conservative and optimistic estimates…………………………………………………………………………………………. 503
  • Figure 111: Production volumes of titanium dioxide nanoparticles 2015, by region.     504
  • Figure 112: Demand for zinc oxide nanoparticles, by market…………………. 516
  • Figure 113: Production volumes of zinc oxide nanoparticles (tons), 2010-2025.    519
  • Figure 114: Production volumes of zinc oxide nanoparticles 2015, by region. 520
  • Figure 115: Demand for zirconium oxide nanoparticles, by market………… 533
  • Figure 116: Production volumes of zirconium oxide nanoparticles (tons), 2010-2025.    536
  • Figure 117: Production volumes of zirconium oxide nanoparticles 2015, by region.      537
  • Figure 118: Applications of yttrium oxide nanoparticles…………………………. 555
  • Figure 119: TEM image of carbon onion………………………………………………… 558
  • Figure 120: Black phosphorus structure………………………………………………….. 562
  • Figure 121: Structural difference between graphene and C2N-h2D crystal: (a) graphene; (b) C2N-h2D crystal……………………………………………………………………………………………… 566
  • Figure 122: Schematic of germanene……………………………………………………. 570
  • Figure 123: Graphdiyne structure………………………………………………………….. 573
  • Figure 124: Schematic of Graphane crystal…………………………………………… 576
  • Figure 125: Structure of hexagonal boron nitride…………………………………… 579
  • Figure 126: Structure of 2D molybdenum disulfide…………………………………. 582
  • Figure 127: Atomic force microscopy image of a representative MoS2 thin-film transistor.    583
  • Figure 128: Schematic of the molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) thin-film sensor with the deposited molecules that create additional charge………………………………………… 586
  • Figure 129: Schematic of a monolayer of rhenium disulphide………………… 587
  • Figure 130: Silicene structure…………………………………………………………………. 589
  • Figure 131: Monolayer silicene on a silver (111) substrate……………………….. 590
  • Figure 132: Silicene transistor…………………………………………………………………. 593
  • Figure 133: Crystal structure for stanene………………………………………………… 594
  • Figure 134: Atomic structure model for the 2D stanene on Bi2Te3(111)……. 595
  • Figure 135: Schematic of tungsten diselenide……………………………………….. 596
  • Figure 136: Nanomaterials-based automotive components…………………… 633
  • Figure 137: The Tesla S’s touchscreen interface………………………………………. 634
  • Figure 138: Energy densities and specific energy of rechargeable batteries. 664
  • Figure 139: Nanoparticles and their application in theranostics…………….. 776
  • Figure 140: Tokyo Station GranRoof. The titanium dioxide coating ensures long-lasting whiteness.        856
  • Figure 141: Global market segmentation for cosmetics, personal care and sunscreen products incorporating nanomaterials, by market sub-sector, 2015…………………. 879
  • Figure 142: Global touch panel market ($ million), 2011-2018………………… 902
  • Figure 143: Capacitive touch panel market forecast by layer structure  (Ksqm). 903
  • Figure 144: Global transparent conductive film market forecast (million $). 904
  • Figure 145: Global transparent conductive film market forecast by materials type, 2015, %         905
  • Figure 146: Global transparent conductive film market forecast by materials type, 2020, %         906
  • Figure 147: Global market for smart wearables (Millions US$)………………….. 907
  • Figure 148: QD-LCD supply chain………………………………………………………….. 910
  • Figure 149: Schematic of the wet roll-to-roll graphene transfer from copper foils to polymeric substrates………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 914
  • Figure 150: The transmittance of glass/ITO, glass/ITO/four organic layers, and glass/ITO/four organic layers/4-layer graphene…………………………………………………………………… 916
  • Figure 151: Global market for conductive inks and pastes in printed electronics.         931
  • Figure 152: Transistor architecture trend chart……………………………………….. 939
  • Figure 153: CMOS Technology Roadmap……………………………………………… 940
  • Figure 154: Emerging logic devices……………………………………………………….. 946
  • Figure 155: Phone coated in WaterBlock submerged in water tank……….. 964
  • Figure 156: Hybrid graphene phototransistors………………………………………… 982
  • Figure 157: Wearable health monitor incorporating graphene photodetectors. 983
  • Figure 158: Schematic of QD laser device……………………………………………… 986