The Global Market for Thin Film Batteries, Printed Batteries, Flexible & Stretchable Batteries to 2030

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Materials, technologies, applications, production and producers

The energy demands of the ever-growing consumer electronics industry has consistently pushed the technological boundaries of batteries. The next wave of wearables will revolutionize society and dramatically improve quality of life. FitBit and Apple Watch will seem like early primitive devices compared to upcoming devices.

Advances over recent years in advanced materials, nanotechnology, MEMs fabrication, low-power microprocessors, new device architectures etc. has resulted in the rapid development of fitness and activity trackers, smart clothing, wearable technology, e-skins, and printable, rollable & stretchable electronic devices. The growth in flexible electronics has resulted in increased demand for flexible, stretchable, bendable, rollable and foldable batteries as power sources for application in flexible and wearable devices.

New developments in bendable smartphones have reached market readiness. These connected devices underpin the further development of the ‘Internet of Things’ (IOT).

However, the battery requirements of these technologies are fundamentally different from those currently serviced by Li-ion batteries (e.g. electric vehicles, laptops, handheld consumer electronic devices). A crucial challenge is developing fully integrated, lightweight, wearable and high-performance energy-storage devices to power the functioning devices in a wearable system.  Flexible and stretchable batteries will play an important role in achieving the vision of wearable and conforming electronics.

As well as requiring characteristics such as low cost and high energy density and power density, battery requirements for new technologies require:

  • small footprint (conventional batteries take up to 40% of the space of wearables and mobile phones)
  • flexibility
  • various form factors
  • shape conformability
  • easy integration with devices.

Report contents include:

  • Battery device trends, competitive forces and dynamics, market drivers, emerging applications, and disruptive technologies
  • Emerging types of wearable batteries, materials, and smart fabrics
  • Market revenues, CAGR 2017-2030
  • In depth assessment of ultra-low power systems and components, energy harvesters, micro batteries and energy storage, supercapacitors, and power management solutions
  • Business trends, market projections, M&A developments, and startup activity
  • Wearable device applications for medical diagnostics and screening
  • Wearable device applications for medical diagnostics and screening
  • Flexible, stretchable, printed, and hybrid electronics
  • Connectivity, sensor fusion, body area networks, software algorithms, contextual awareness, virtual sensors, data transmission, and processing
  • Fabrication, packaging, and assembly techniques
  • Impacts of enabling technologies such as genomics, artificial intelligence, virtual and augmented reality for wearables applications
  • Technology transfer, ecosystems and hubs, company formation. Companies profiled include Panasonic Corporation, STMicroelectronics, Enfucell, Samsung, Blue Spark Technologies, Brightvolt, Inc., Fuelium, Nippon Chemi-Con Corporation, Nanusens and more (81 company profiles)

Published March 2019 | 222 pages | Table of contents

The Global Market for Thin Film Batteries, Printed Batteries, Flexible & Stretchable Batteries to 2030
The Global Market for Thin Film Batteries, Printed Batteries, Flexible & Stretchable Batteries to 2030
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The Global Market for Thin Film Batteries, Printed Batteries, Flexible & Stretchable Batteries to 2030
The Global Market for Thin Film Batteries, Printed Batteries, Flexible & Stretchable Batteries to 2030
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The Global Market for Thin Film Batteries, Printed Batteries, Flexible & Stretchable Batteries to 2030
The Global Market for Thin Film Batteries, Printed Batteries, Flexible & Stretchable Batteries to 2030
PDF and print edition.
The Global Market for Thin Film Batteries, Printed Batteries, Flexible & Stretchable Batteries to 2030
The Global Market for Thin Film Batteries, Printed Batteries, Flexible & Stretchable Batteries to 2030
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TABLE OF CONTENTS

1        Executive summary………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 13

  • 1.1     Current market for batteries……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 15
  • 1.2     Batteries market trends…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 16
    • 1.2.1       Smaller, flexible, lightweight and increased power……………………………………………………………….. 16
    • 1.2.2       Advanced batteries for new products………………………………………………………………………………… 16
    • 1.2.3       Li-ion batteries market…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 17
      • 1.2.3.1    All-electric and hybrid vehicles……………………………………………………………………………………. 19
    • 1.2.4       Solid-state batteries……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 19
    • 1.2.5       Competition with conventional batteries…………………………………………………………………………….. 20
  • 1.3     Current flexible, stretchable, printed and thin film batteries market…………………………………………………… 21
    • 1.3.1       Device constraint due to battery size………………………………………………………………………………… 21
    • 1.3.2       Foldable smartphones…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 21
  • 1.4     Future market directions………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 23
  • 1.5     Market drivers……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 24
    • 1.5.1       Growth of Internet of Things (IoT)……………………………………………………………………………………. 24
    • 1.5.2       Size constraints of current battery technology…………………………………………………………………….. 24
    • 1.5.3       Inadequacies of current battery technology for wearables……………………………………………………… 24
    • 1.5.4       Energy harvesting………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 25
    • 1.5.5       Power sources for flexible electronics……………………………………………………………………………….. 25
    • 1.5.6       Healthcare market……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 26
  • 1.6     Market challenges………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 28
  • 1.7     Roadmap for battery development…………………………………………………………………………………………… 29
  • 1.8     Electronics multi-nationals product development activities in flexible, stretchable, printed and thin film batteries         30
  • 1.9     Supercapacitors market…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 31
  • 1.10        Energy harvesting devices…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 32
  • 1.11        Impact of enabling technologies such as genomics, artificial intelligence, virtual and augmented reality for wearables applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 33
  • 1.12        Use of nanomaterials and other advanced materials………………………………………………………………… 35
  • 1.13        The global market for thin film, printed, flexible & stretchable, batteries………………………………………… 36
    • 1.13.1     Addressable market by application areas………………………………………………………………………….. 36
    • 1.13.2     Global market to 2030, by units sales, revenues and applications…………………………………………… 37
    • 1.13.3     Regional markets…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 41
      • 1.13.3.1       Asia-Pacific………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 42
      • 1.13.3.2       North America…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 43
      • 1.13.3.3       Europe……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 44

2        Research methodology……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 46

3        Thin film batteries…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 48

  • 3.1     Current market status……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 48
  • 3.2     Flexibility……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 50
  • 3.3     Advantages and disadvantages………………………………………………………………………………………………. 51
  • 3.4     Types of solid-state lithium-based batteries………………………………………………………………………………… 52
  • 3.5     Materials……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 52
  • 3.5.1       Cathodes…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 53
  • 3.5.2       Anodes……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 54
  • 3.6     Chip-type ceramic secondary batteries……………………………………………………………………………………… 54
  • 3.7     Nanomaterials…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 56
    • 3.7.1       Light-weight, large-area, flexible conductive CNT films for electrodes………………………………………. 56
    • 3.7.2       Metal-organic frameworks……………………………………………………………………………………………… 57
  • 3.8     Commercial application of thin film batteries………………………………………………………………………………. 57
  • 3.9     Market challenges………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 58
  • 3.10        Ultrathin rechargeable lithium polymer batteries……………………………………………………………………… 59
  • 3.11        Thin film batteries in wearables…………………………………………………………………………………………… 60
  • 3.12        Thin film battery companies……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 62

4        Printed batteries…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 64

  • 4.1     Current market status……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 64
  • 4.2     Types of printed batteries………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 65
  • 4.3     Advantages and disadvantages………………………………………………………………………………………………. 68
  • 4.4     Capacities………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 68
  • 4.5     Fabrication…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 69
    • 4.5.1       Green printing……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 70
  • 4.6     Types of printed batteries………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 70
    • 4.6.1       Printed microbatteries…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 70
    • 4.6.2       Printed primary batteries……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 71
    • 4.6.3       Printed rechargeable batteries………………………………………………………………………………………… 72
      • 4.6.3.1    Flexible, stretchable and rechargeable printed batteries……………………………………………………. 72
    • 4.6.4       3-D printed batteries…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 73
    • 4.6.5       Graphene batteries………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 74
  • 4.7     Commercial printed battery products………………………………………………………………………………………… 74
    • 4.7.1       Electronic devices………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 75
    • 4.7.2       Health-monitoring devices……………………………………………………………………………………………… 75
  • 4.8     Printed battery companies……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 76
  • 4.9     Market outlook…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 77

5        Flexible and stretchable batteries……………………………………………………………………………………………… 77

  • 5.1     Current market status……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 78
  • 5.2     Growth in flexible electronics………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 80
  • 5.3     Recent smartphone products………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 80
  • 5.4     Materials design…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 81
    • 5.4.1       Electrolytes………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 83
    • 5.4.2       Electrodes………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 83
  • 5.5     Flexible lithium-ion batteries (LIBs)…………………………………………………………………………………………… 84
    • 5.5.1       Textile/fiber-based LIBs…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 85
  • 5.6     Flexible lithium–sulfur (Li–S) batteries………………………………………………………………………………………. 86
  • 5.7     Flexible lithium–air (Li–air) batteries…………………………………………………………………………………………. 86
  • 5.8     Flexible zinc–air batteries………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 87
  • 5.9     Flexible sodium–ion batteries………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 88
  • 5.10        Carbon nanomaterial flexible batteries………………………………………………………………………………….. 88
  • 5.11        Fiber-shaped Lithium-Ion batteries………………………………………………………………………………………. 90
  • 5.12        Cable-type batteries…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 90
  • 5.13        Bendable microbatteries……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 90
  • 5.14        Paper batteries………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 91
  • 5.15        Stretchable batteries…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 92
    • 5.15.1     Stretchable conductors and electrodes……………………………………………………………………………… 92
    • 5.15.2     Stretchable LIBs………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 92
    • 5.15.3     Stretchable Zn-based batteries……………………………………………………………………………………….. 93
    • 5.15.4     Origami structures……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 94
    • 5.15.5     Foldable kirigami lithium-ion batteries……………………………………………………………………………….. 95
    • 5.15.6     Island-Bridge Structures………………………………………………………………………………………………… 95
    • 5.15.7     Arched electrode architecture…………………………………………………………………………………………. 96
    • 5.15.8     Stretchable nanogenerators……………………………………………………………………………………………. 97
    • 5.15.9     Batteries in stretchable fabrics………………………………………………………………………………………… 97
  • 5.16        Carbon nanomaterials for flexible and stretchable batteries……………………………………………………….. 99
    • 5.16.1     Single-wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) flexible batteries………………………………………………………. 99
    • 5.16.2     Ultra-transparent and stretchable graphene electrodes……………………………………………………….. 100
  • 5.17        Other nanomaterials for flexible and stretchable batteries………………………………………………………… 101
    • 5.17.1     Cellulose batteries……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 101
    • 5.17.2     Nanowire elastic conductors…………………………………………………………………………………………. 103
    • 5.17.3     2D nanomaterials beyond graphene……………………………………………………………………………….. 104
  • 5.18        Challenges in materials design for flexible batteries……………………………………………………………….. 105
  • 5.19        Flexible and stretchable supercapacitors……………………………………………………………………………… 106
    • 5.19.1     Materials for electrodes……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 106
    • 5.19.2     Paper-based flexible micro-supercapacitors……………………………………………………………………… 108
    • 5.19.3     Graphene flexible supercapacitors…………………………………………………………………………………. 109
  • 5.20        Flexible and stretchable energy harvesting…………………………………………………………………………… 110
    • 5.20.1     Stretchable piezoelectric energy harvesting……………………………………………………………………… 110
    • 5.20.2     Stretchable triboelectric energy harvesting……………………………………………………………………….. 111
  • 5.21        Flexible thermoelectrics (TEs)…………………………………………………………………………………………… 111
  • 5.22        Stretchable heaters………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 112
  • 5.23        Company profiles…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 112
  • 5.24        Recent research…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 114

6        APPLICATIONS ANALYSIS…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 115

  • 6.1     Wearable electronics…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 115
    • 6.1.1       The wearables revolution……………………………………………………………………………………………… 116
    • 6.1.2       Current trends……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 118
    • 6.1.3       Flexible, thin, and large-area form factors………………………………………………………………………… 118
    • 6.1.4       From rigid to flexible and stretchable………………………………………………………………………………. 119
    • 6.1.5       Importance of battery technologies…………………………………………………………………………………. 120
    • 6.1.6       Internet of Things (IoT)………………………………………………………………………………………………… 122
      • 6.1.6.1    Batteries for IoT…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 123
      • 6.1.6.2    Batteryless Internet of Things (IoT) devices………………………………………………………………….. 124
    • 6.1.7       Future growth……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 126
    • 6.1.8       Smart watches, fitness wristbands and bracelets……………………………………………………………….. 127
    • 6.1.9       Current batteries………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 128
    • 6.1.10     Flexible batteries………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 128
    • 6.1.11     Smart shoes……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 129
    • 6.1.12     Electronic apparel and textiles………………………………………………………………………………………. 130
      • 6.1.12.1       Conductive yarns……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 131
    • 6.1.13     Headwear/Smart helmets…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 131
    • 6.1.14     Eyewear…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 132
    • 6.1.15     Wearable strain sensors………………………………………………………………………………………………. 132
    • 6.1.16     Wearable tactile sensors……………………………………………………………………………………………… 133
    • 6.1.17     Industrial monitoring……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 133
    • 6.1.18     Military…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 134
    • 6.1.19     Power Exoskeletons……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 135
    • 6.1.20     Wearable power bank vests………………………………………………………………………………………….. 136
    • 6.1.21     Market outlook…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 136
  • 6.2     RFID sensors/tracking tags…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 136
  • 6.3     Smart labels and packaging………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 138
    • 6.3.1       Batteries in smart cards……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 139
  • 6.4     Healthcare………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 140
    • 6.4.1       Printable, flexible and stretchable health monitors……………………………………………………………… 141
    • 6.4.2       Wearable sensors for healthcare……………………………………………………………………………………. 144
    • 6.4.3       Skin patches……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 145
      • 6.4.3.1    Disposable medical patches……………………………………………………………………………………… 147
    • 6.4.4       Cosmetic skin patches/”E-masks”………………………………………………………………………………….. 148

7        COMPANY PROFILES……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 151 (81 company profiles)

8        References…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 212

Tables

  • Table 1: Market drivers for Flexible, Stretchable, Printed and Thin Film Batteries……………………………………………. 24
  • Table 2. Market challenges for thin film, printed and flexible & stretchable batteries…………………………………………. 28
  • Table 3: Consumer electronics multi-nationals product development in flexible, stretchable, printed and thin film batteries…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 30
  • Table 4. Types of energy harvesting devices…………………………………………………………………………………………… 32
  • Table 5. Nanomaterials in thin film, printed, flexible & stretchable batteries……………………………………………………. 35
  • Table 6. Addressable market for thin film, flexible, stretchable and printed batteries………………………………………… 36
  • Table 7. Global market forecast to 2030 by technology (Millions USD)………………………………………………………….. 40
  • Table 8. Thicknesses of the traditional battery components………………………………………………………………………… 49
  • Table 9. Manufacturing of solid-state thin-film lithium batteries……………………………………………………………………. 49
  • Table 10. Comparison between thin-film batteries and bulk-size batteries……………………………………………………… 50
  • Table 11. Advantages and disadvantages of thin film battery materials…………………………………………………………. 52
  • Table 12. Nanomaterials in thin film batteries………………………………………………………………………………………….. 56
  • Table 13. Thin film battery products………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 57
  • Table 14. Market challenges for thin film batteries……………………………………………………………………………………. 58
  • Table 15: Thin film batteries in wearable energy devices and stage of development………………………………………… 60
  • Table 16. Thin film battery companies…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 62
  • Table 17. Types of printed batteries………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 66
  • Table 18. Materials and substrates used in printed batteries………………………………………………………………………. 66
  • Table 19. Analysis of printing techniques for printed batteries…………………………………………………………………….. 67
  • Table 20. Advantages and disadvantages of printed batteries…………………………………………………………………….. 68
  • Table 21. Comparison between printed and conventional batteries………………………………………………………………. 68
  • Table 22. Printting techniques for printed batteries…………………………………………………………………………………… 69
  • Table 23. Recent activity in 3D printed batteries………………………………………………………………………………………. 73
  • Table 24. Companies developing graphene batteries………………………………………………………………………………… 74
  • Table 25. Printed battery companies…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 76
  • Table 26: Applications in flexible and stretchable batteries, by materials type and benefits thereof……………………… 81
  • Table 27. Traditonal LIB versus flexible LIB……………………………………………………………………………………………. 84
  • Table 28. Material, Electrode Parameters and Cell Performance of Reported Fiber Based Lithium Ion Batteries……. 85
  • Table 29. Types of paper batteries……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 91
  • Table 30. Types of stretchable conductors……………………………………………………………………………………………… 92
  • Table 31. Companies producing carbon nanotubes and graphene batteries…………………………………………………… 99
  • Table 32. 2D nanomaterials beyond graphene in flexible and stretchable batteries………………………………………… 104
  • Table 33: Applications in flexible and stretchable supercapacitors, by nanomaterials type and benefits thereof…….. 109
  • Table 34: Companies producing flexible and stretchable batteries……………………………………………………………… 112
  • Table 35. Recent research in flexible & stretchable batteries…………………………………………………………………….. 114
  • Table 36. Summary of applications and markets for thin film, printed, flexible and stretchable batteries………………. 115
  • Table 37: Evolution of wearable devices, 2011-2019……………………………………………………………………………….. 117
  • Table 38: Markets for wearable devices and applications…………………………………………………………………………. 126
  • Table 39. J. Flex flexible battery…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 129
  • Table 40: Opportunities for advanced materials in printed electronics…………………………………………………………. 137
  • Table 41. Types of wearable health monitors………………………………………………………………………………………… 141
  • Table 42: Applications in flexible and stretchable health monitors, by advanced materials type and benefits thereof. 143
  • Table 43. Skin patch products……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 145

Figures

  • Figure 1. Various applications of printed paper batteries……………………………………………………………………………. 15
  • Figure 2. Li-ion batteries market to 2025………………………………………………………………………………………………… 17
  • Figure 3: Energy densities and specific energy of rechargeable batteries………………………………………………………. 18
  • Figure 4. Huawei Mate X……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 22
  • Figure 5: Mimo Baby Monitor………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 26
  • Figure 6: Wearable health monitor incorporating graphene photodetectors……………………………………………………. 27
  • Figure 7. Thin film battery, printed battery and flexible & stretchable battery roadmap………………………………………. 29
  • Figure 8. Supercapacitors market to 2030, revenues………………………………………………………………………………… 31
  • Figure 9. Energy harvesting textile……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 32
  • Figure 10: Demand for thin film, flexible and printed batteries 2018, by market……………………………………………….. 38
  • Figure 11: Demand for thin film, flexible and printed batteries 2030, by market……………………………………………….. 39
  • Figure 12. Global market forecast to 2030 by application (units)………………………………………………………………….. 39
  • Figure 13. Global market forecast to 2030 by technology (Millions USD)……………………………………………………….. 41
  • Figure 14. Market segmentation for flexible, stretchable, printed and thin film batteries, by region 2018……………….. 41
  • Figure 15. Market segmentation for flexible, stretchable, printed and thin film batteries, by region 2030……………….. 42
  • Figure 16. Global market forecast to 2030 by region…………………………………………………………………………………. 42
  • Figure 17. Lithium based thin film battery schematic…………………………………………………………………………………. 48
  • Figure 18: LG Chem Heaxagonal battery……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 49
  • Figure 19. EFL700A39 EnFilm™ Rechargeable Battery…………………………………………………………………………….. 49
  • Figure 20. EnerCera series of batteries………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 55
  • Figure 21. ULTRALIFE thin film battery………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 60
  • Figure 22: Enfucell Printed Battery……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 65
  • Figure 23. Flexible label and printed paper battery…………………………………………………………………………………… 65
  • Figure 24. Design of printed batteries……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 66
  • Figure 25. 3D printed microbattery……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 71
  • Figure 26. Prototype of Flexible, stretchable and rechargeable printed battery……………………………………………….. 73
  • Figure 27. Schematic of mechanical stresses generated in a battery during flexing………………………………………….. 79
  • Figure 28: Printed 1.5V battery…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 80
  • Figure 29. Galaxy fold……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 80
  • Figure 30. Prologium thin, flexible battery………………………………………………………………………………………………. 81
  • Figure 31. Flexible Lithium-ion Battery from Panasonic……………………………………………………………………………… 84
  • Figure 32. Li-ion battery composed of carbon nanotube fiber yarn……………………………………………………………….. 85
  • Figure 33. Schematic representation of a flexible zinc air battery configuration……………………………………………….. 87
  • Figure 34: Stretchable graphene supercapacitor……………………………………………………………………………………… 89
  • Figure 35. Bendable micro-battery………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 91
  • Figure 36. Cellulose nanofiber battery…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 91
  • Figure 37. Schematic illustration of the structure of stretchable LIBs…………………………………………………………….. 93
  • Figure 38. Concept of origami lithium-ion batteries…………………………………………………………………………………… 94
  • Figure 39. Foldable kirigami lithium-ion battery………………………………………………………………………………………… 95
  • Figure 40: Evolution of electronics………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 116
  • Figure 41: Wove Band……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 119
  • Figure 42: Wearable graphene medical sensor………………………………………………………………………………………. 120
  • Figure 43. Electronic paper display……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 126
  • Figure 44: Conductive yarns………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 131
  • Figure 45: Data Gloves…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 133
  • Figure 46: Smart Helmet…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 134
  • Figure 47: Torso and Extremities Protection (TEP) system……………………………………………………………………….. 134
  • Figure 48. Wearable conformal military battery………………………………………………………………………………………. 135
  • Figure 49: Flexible RFID tag………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 137
  • Figure 50. Disposable Health Patch…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 147
  • Figure 51. 24M battery……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 151