The Global Market for Graphene to 2030

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Future Markets, Inc. produced the first ever market report on graphene (2009) and the latest edition is over 800 pages on the market for these remarkable materials.

The graphene market has grown considerably in 2018, with weekly announcements of new collaborations, agreements, investments and product launches. There are over 350 companies globally producing graphene materials or developing products incorporating graphene and this number is growing as manufacturers witness the benefits offered by graphene. Recent product launches include graphene-based bicycle and automotive tires, smart phone batteries, supercapacitors, water filtration membranes and composites.

Published: September 2018 | Pages: 815 pages | 226 tables, 206 figures | Price: £1000 | Table of contents

Report contents include:

  • Global production capacities-historical, current and forecast to 2030.
  • Current and planned graphene products.
  • Description of the graphene market 2017-2018.
  • Market segmentation by graphene type.
  • Stage of commercialization for graphene applications, from basic research to market entry.
  • Market drivers, trends and challenges, by end user markets.
  • Competitive landscape of graphene among other carbon-based additives (MWCNT, SWCNT, Carbon Fibers, Carbon Black, etc.)
  • Key graphene events.
  • In-depth market assessment of opportunities for graphene including tonnage demand by market, growth rates, pricing, most likely applications and market challenges.
  • Market demand in tonnes, USD, CAGR 2017-2030
  • In-depth company profiles, including products, capacities, and commercial activities.
  • Detailed forecasts for key growth areas, opportunities and user demand.
  • Assessment of applications for other 2D materials.
  • Over 250 company profiles.
  • Data on addressable markets for graphene (revenues), relevant applications, graphene technology fit and competition from other materials.
  • New information on demand by regional market.
  • Latest product and investment news to September 2018.
  • Commercial production capacities by company, and by year, for Graphene Oxide, Graphene Nanolatelets and CVD Graphene in tons and m2
  • Industrial collaborations and licence agreements
  • Markets targeted, by product developers and end users
  • Types of graphene produced, by producer
  • Graphene applications by industry, material, and product

 

The Global Market for Graphene to 2030
The Global Market for Graphene to 2030
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The Global Market for Graphene to 2030
The Global Market for Graphene to 2030
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The Global Market for Graphene to 2030
The Global Market for Graphene to 2030
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TABLE OF CONTENTS

1    RESEARCH METHODOLOGY………………………………………………… 61

  • 1.1    Market opportunity analysis……………………………………………………………………………………………. 61
  • 1.2    Market challenges rating system……………………………………………………………………………………. 63

2    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY…………………………………………………………. 66

  • 2.1    Two-dimensional (2D) materials…………………………………………………………………………………….. 66
  • 2.2    Graphene……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 66
    • 2.2.1     The market in 2016………………………………………………………………………………………………… 67
    • 2.2.2     The market in 2017………………………………………………………………………………………………… 67
    • 2.2.3     The market in 2018………………………………………………………………………………………………… 68
    • 2.2.4     The market to 2030-Applications and markets with greatest potential returns……….. 69
    • 2.2.5     Production……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 71
    • 2.2.6     Products…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 72
    • 2.2.7     Graphene investments 2016-2018…………………………………………………………………………. 74
  • 2.3    Market outlook for 2018………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 75
  • 2.3.1     Global funding and initiatives…………………………………………………………………………………. 81
  • 2.3.2     Products and applications………………………………………………………………………………………. 81
  • 2.3.3     Production……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 83
  • 2.3.4     Market drivers and trends………………………………………………………………………………………. 85
  • 2.3.5     Market and technical challenges……………………………………………………………………………. 92
  • 2.4    Key players…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 94
  • 2.4.1     Asia-Pacific…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 94
  • 2.4.1.1       Australia…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 98
  • 2.4.2     North America………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 99
  • 2.4.3     Europe…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 100

3    PROPERTIES OF NANOMATERIALS…………………………………….. 102

  • 3.1    Categorization………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 103

4    OVERVIEW OF GRAPHENE…………………………………………………. 105

  • 4.1    History………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 105
  • 4.2    Forms of graphene……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 106
  • 4.3    Properties…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 107
  • 4.4    3D Graphene………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 109
  • 4.5    Graphene Quantum Dots……………………………………………………………………………………………… 109
    • 4.5.1     Synthesis……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 111
    • 4.5.2     Applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 111
      • 4.5.2.1       Optoelectronics, electronics and photonics………………………………………………….. 111
      • 4.5.2.2       Energy…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 111
      • 4.5.2.3       Biomedicine and healthcare………………………………………………………………………… 112
      • 4.5.2.4       Other……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 112
      • 4.5.2.5       Pricing………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 113
  • 4.5.3     Producers…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 113

5    CARBON NANOTUBES VERSUS GRAPHENE……………………….. 115

  • 5.1    Comparative properties………………………………………………………………………………………………… 116
  • 5.2    Cost and production……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 117
  • 5.3    Carbon nanotube-graphene hybrids…………………………………………………………………………….. 118
  • 5.4    Competitive analysis of carbon nanotubes and graphene……………………………………………. 119

6    OTHER 2-D MATERIALS………………………………………………………. 121

  • 6.1    Beyond moore’s law……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 123
  • 6.2    Batteries……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 123
  • 6.3    PHOSPHORENE………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 124
    • 6.3.1     Properties…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 124
      • 6.3.1.1       Fabrication methods…………………………………………………………………………………….. 126
      • 6.3.1.2       Challenges for the use of phosphorene in devices………………………………………. 126
    • 6.3.2     Applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 126
      • 6.3.2.1       Electronics…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 126
      • 6.3.2.2       Thermoelectrics…………………………………………………………………………………………… 127
      • 6.3.2.3       Batteries………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 127
      • 6.3.2.4       Supercapacitors…………………………………………………………………………………………… 128
      • 6.3.2.5       Photodetectors…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 129
      • 6.3.2.6       Sensors……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 129
    • 6.3.3     Market opportunity assessment……………………………………………………………………………. 129
  • 6.4    GRAPHITIC CARBON NITRIDE (g-C3N4)…………………………………………………………………… 130
    • 6.4.1     Properties…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 130
    • 6.4.2     Synthesis……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 131
    • 6.4.3     C2N………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 131
    • 6.4.4     Applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 132
      • 6.4.4.1       Electronics…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 132
      • 6.4.4.2       Filtration membranes…………………………………………………………………………………… 132
      • 6.4.4.3       Photocatalysts……………………………………………………………………………………………… 132
      • 6.4.4.4       Batteries (LIBs)……………………………………………………………………………………………. 132
      • 6.4.4.5       Sensors……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 132
    • 6.4.5     Market opportunity assessment……………………………………………………………………………. 133
  • 6.5    GERMANENE………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 133
    • 6.5.1     Properties…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 134
    • 6.5.2     Applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 134
      • 6.5.2.1       Electronics…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 134
      • 6.5.2.2       Batteries………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 134
    • 6.5.3     Market opportunity assessment……………………………………………………………………………. 135
  • 6.6    GRAPHDIYNE……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 135
    • 6.6.1     Properties…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 136
    • 6.6.2     Applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 136
      • 6.6.2.1       Electronics…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 136
      • 6.6.2.2       Batteries………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 136
      • 6.6.2.3       Separation membranes……………………………………………………………………………….. 137
      • 6.6.2.4       Water filtration……………………………………………………………………………………………… 137
      • 6.6.2.5       Photocatalysts……………………………………………………………………………………………… 137
      • 6.6.2.6       Photovoltaics……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 137
    • 6.6.3     Market opportunity assessment……………………………………………………………………………. 138
  • 6.7    GRAPHANE…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 138
    • 6.7.1     Properties…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 139
    • 6.7.2     Applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 139
      • 6.7.2.1       Electronics…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 139
      • 6.7.2.2       Hydrogen storage………………………………………………………………………………………… 139
    • 6.7.3     Market opportunity assessment……………………………………………………………………………. 140
  • 6.8    HEXAGONAL BORON-NITRIDE………………………………………………………………………………….. 140
    • 6.8.1     Properties…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 141
    • 6.8.2     Applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 142
      • 6.8.2.1       Electronics…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 142
      • 6.8.2.2       Fuel cells……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 142
      • 6.8.2.3       Adsorbents…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 142
      • 6.8.2.4       Photodetectors…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 142
      • 6.8.2.5       Textiles………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 142
      • 6.8.2.6       Biomedical…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 143
    • 6.8.3     Market opportunity assessment……………………………………………………………………………. 143
  • 6.9    MOLYBDENUM DISULFIDE (MoS2)……………………………………………………………………………. 144
    • 6.9.1     Properties…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 144
    • 6.9.2     Applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 145
      • 6.9.2.1       Electronics…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 145
      • 6.9.2.2       Photovoltaics……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 146
      • 6.9.2.3       Piezoelectrics………………………………………………………………………………………………. 146
      • 6.9.2.4       Sensors……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 147
      • 6.9.2.5       Filtration……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 147
      • 6.9.2.6       Batteries………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 147
      • 6.9.2.7       Fiber lasers………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 147
    • 6.9.3     Market opportunity assessment……………………………………………………………………………. 148
  • 6.10      RHENIUM DISULFIDE (ReS2) AND DISELENIDE (ReSe2)……………………………………. 148
    • 6.10.1        Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 149
    • 6.10.2        Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 149
      • 6.10.2.1     Electronics…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 149
    • 6.10.3        Market opportunity assessment……………………………………………………………………….. 149
  • 6.11      SILICENE…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 150
    • 6.11.1        Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 150
    • 6.11.2        Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 151
      • 6.11.2.1     Electronics…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 151
      • 6.11.2.2     Photovoltaics……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 152
      • 6.11.2.3     Thermoelectrics…………………………………………………………………………………………… 152
      • 6.11.2.4     Batteries………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 152
      • 6.11.2.5     Sensors……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 152
    • 6.11.3        Market opportunity assessment……………………………………………………………………….. 153
  • 6.12      STANENE/TINENE………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 153
    • 6.12.1        Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 154
    • 6.12.2        Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 154
      • 6.12.2.1     Electronics…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 154
    • 6.12.3        Market opportunity assessment……………………………………………………………………….. 155
  • 6.13      TUNGSTEN DISELENIDE……………………………………………………………………………………….. 155
    • 6.13.1        Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 156
    • 6.13.2        Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 156
      • 6.13.2.1     Electronics…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 156
    • 6.13.3        Market opportunity assessment……………………………………………………………………….. 157
  • 6.14      ANTIMONENE…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 157
    • 6.14.1        Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 157
    • 6.14.2        Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 157
  • 6.15      DIAMENE…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 158
    • 6.15.1        Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 158
    • 6.15.2        Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 158
  • 6.16      INDIUM SELENIDE………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 158
    • 6.16.1        Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 158
    • 6.16.2        Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 159
    • 6.16.2.1     Electronics…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 159
  • 6.17      COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF GRAPHENE AND OTHER 2D MATERIALS…………. 160

7    GRAPHENE SYNTHESIS……………………………………………………… 162

  • 7.1    Large area graphene films……………………………………………………………………………………………. 162
  • 7.2    Graphene oxide flakes and graphene nanoplatelets…………………………………………………….. 163
  • 7.3    Production methods……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 164
    • 7.3.1     Production directly from natural graphite ore……………………………………………………….. 167
    • 7.3.2     Alternative starting materials………………………………………………………………………………… 167
    • 7.3.3     Quality………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 168
  • 7.4    Synthesis and production by types of graphene…………………………………………………………… 169
    • 7.4.1     Graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs)………………………………………………………………………….. 169
    • 7.4.2     Graphene nanoribbons………………………………………………………………………………………… 170
    • 7.4.3     Large-area graphene films…………………………………………………………………………………… 171
    • 7.4.4     Graphene oxide (GO)…………………………………………………………………………………………… 172
  • 7.5    Pros and cons of graphene production methods………………………………………………………….. 173
    • 7.5.1     Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD)……………………………………………………………………….. 174
    • 7.5.2     Exfoliation method……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 176
    • 7.5.3     Epitaxial growth method……………………………………………………………………………………….. 178
    • 7.5.4     Wet chemistry method (liquid phase exfoliation)………………………………………………….. 178
    • 7.5.5     Micromechanical cleavage method………………………………………………………………………. 179
    • 7.5.6     Green reduction of graphene oxide……………………………………………………………………… 180
    • 7.5.7     Plasma…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 181
  • 7.6    Recent synthesis methods……………………………………………………………………………………………. 181
  • 7.7    Synthesis methods by company…………………………………………………………………………………… 186

8    GRAPHENE MARKET STRUCTURE AND ROUTES TO COMMERCIALIZATION…………………………………………………………….. 188

9    REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS……………………………………….. 192

  • 9.1    Standards…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 192
  • 9.2    Environmental, health and safety regulation………………………………………………………………… 192
    • 9.2.1     Europe…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 193
    • 9.2.2     United States……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 193
    • 9.2.3     Asia………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 193
  • 9.3    Workplace exposure…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 194

10 PATENTS AND PUBLICATIONS……………………………………………. 195

  • 10.1      Fabrication processes………………………………………………………………………………………………. 195
  • 10.2      Academia…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 195
  • 10.3      Regional leaders………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 196

11 TECHNOLOGY READINESS LEVEL……………………………………… 199

12 GRAPHENE INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENTS 2013-2018-INVESTMENTS, PRODUCTS AND PRODUCTION………………………. 201

13 END USER MARKET SEGMENT ANALYSIS………………………….. 260

  • 13.1      Graphene production volumes 2010-2030……………………………………………………………….. 260
  • 13.2      Commercial production capacities……………………………………………………………………………. 262
    • 13.2.1        Graphene oxide……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 262
    • 13.2.2        Graphene nanoplatelets…………………………………………………………………………………… 264
    • 13.2.3        CVD graphene film…………………………………………………………………………………………… 267
    • 13.2.4        Planned graphene capacities 2018 onwards……………………………………………………. 268
  • 13.3      Graphene pricing……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 268
    • 13.3.1        Pristine Graphene Flakes pricing…………………………………………………………………….. 270
    • 13.3.2        Few-Layer Graphene pricing……………………………………………………………………………. 271
    • 13.3.3        Graphene Nanoplatelets pricing………………………………………………………………………. 271
    • 13.3.4        Reduced Graphene Oxide pricing……………………………………………………………………. 272
    • 13.3.5        Graphene Quantum Dots pricing……………………………………………………………………… 273
    • 13.3.6        Graphene Oxide Nanosheets pricing……………………………………………………………….. 274
    • 13.3.7        Multilayer Graphene (MLG) pricing………………………………………………………………….. 274
    • 13.3.8        Mass production of lower grade graphene materials……………………………………….. 275
    • 13.3.9        High grade graphene difficult to mass produce………………………………………………… 275
    • 13.3.10      Bulk supply………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 276
    • 13.3.11      Commoditisation………………………………………………………………………………………………. 276

14 GRAPHENE IN THE 3D PRINTING MARKET………………………………………………………………………. 277

  • 14.1      MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………………………………………. 277
  • 14.2      PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………………. 277
  • 14.3      GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY………………………………………………………. 279
  • 14.4      MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………………. 281
  • 14.5      PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………………. 282

15 GRAPHENE IN THE ADHESIVES MARKET………………………………………………………………………… 284

  • 15.1      MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………………………………………. 284
  • 15.2      PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………………. 284
  • 15.3      GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY………………………………………………………. 286
  • 15.4      MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………………. 290
  • 15.5      PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………………. 291

16 GRAPHENE IN THE AEROSPACE MARKET………………………………………………………………………. 293

  • 16.1      MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………………………………………. 293
  • 16.2      PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………………. 294
    • 16.2.1        Composites……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 294
    • 16.2.2        Coatings…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 295
  • 16.3      GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORUNTIY…………………………………………………………. 297
  • 16.4      MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………………. 301
  • 16.5      PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………………. 302

17 GRAPHENE IN THE AUTOMOTIVE MARKET……………………………………………………………………… 306

  • 17.1      MARKET DRIVER AND TRENDS……………………………………………………………………………. 306
  • 17.2      PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………………. 307
    • 17.2.1        Composites……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 308
    • 17.2.2        Thermally conductive additives………………………………………………………………………… 308
    • 17.2.3        Tires…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 309
  • 17.3      GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY………………………………………………………. 310
  • 17.4      MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………………. 314
  • 17.5      PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………………. 315

18 GRAPHENE IN THE COATINGS MARKET………………………………………………………………………….. 320

  • 18.1      MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………………………………………. 320
  • 18.2      PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………………. 325
    • 18.2.1        Anti-corrosion coatings…………………………………………………………………………………….. 327
      • 18.2.1.1     Marine………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 328
      • 18.2.2        Anti-microbial…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 328
      • 18.2.3        Anti-icing………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 329
      • 18.2.4        Barrier coatings………………………………………………………………………………………………… 330
      • 18.2.5        Heat protection………………………………………………………………………………………………… 331
      • 18.2.6        Anti-fouling……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 332
      • 18.2.7        Wear and abrasion resistance…………………………………………………………………………. 333
      • 18.2.8        Smart windows………………………………………………………………………………………………… 334
  • 18.3      GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY………………………………………………………. 335
    • 18.3.1        Thermal barrier coatings………………………………………………………………………………….. 338
    • 18.3.2        Barrier coatings………………………………………………………………………………………………… 339
    • 18.3.3        Anti-microbial coatings…………………………………………………………………………………….. 339
    • 18.3.4        De-icing or anti-icing coatings………………………………………………………………………….. 339
    • 18.3.5        Abrasion and wear resistant coatings………………………………………………………………. 339
    • 18.3.6        Anti-corrosion coatings…………………………………………………………………………………….. 339
  • 18.4      MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………………. 344
  • 18.5      PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………………. 345

19 GRAPHENE IN THE COMPOSITES MARKET……………………………………………………………………… 348

  • 19.1      MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………………………………………. 349
  • 19.2      PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………………. 351
    • 19.2.1        Polymer composites…………………………………………………………………………………………. 351
    • 19.2.2        Barrier packaging…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 354
    • 19.2.3        Electrostatic discharge (ESD) and electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding 355
    • 19.2.4        Wind turbines…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 355
    • 19.2.5        Ballistic protection……………………………………………………………………………………………. 355
  • 19.3      GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY………………………………………………………. 355
  • 19.4      MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………………. 359
  • 19.5      PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………………. 360

20 GRAPHENE IN THE ELECTRONICS AND PHOTONICS MARKET………………………………………… 365

  • 20.1      FLEXIBLE ELECTRONICS, WEARABLES, CONDUCTIVE FILMS AND DISPLAYS. 365
    • 20.1.1        MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………………………………. 365
    • 20.1.2        PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………. 367
      • 20.1.2.1     Transparent electrodes in flexible electronics………………………………………………. 371
      • 20.1.2.2     Electronic paper…………………………………………………………………………………………… 373
      • 20.1.2.3     Wearable electronics…………………………………………………………………………………… 373
      • 20.1.2.4     Wearable sensors………………………………………………………………………………………… 377
      • 20.1.2.5     Industrial monitoring…………………………………………………………………………………….. 383
      • 20.1.2.6     Military…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 383
    • 20.1.3        GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY………………………………………………. 384
      • 20.1.3.1     Transparent conductive electrodes……………………………………………………………… 389
    • 20.1.4        MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………. 390
    • 20.1.5        PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………. 394
  • 20.2      CONDUCTIVE INKS………………………………………………………………………………………………… 396
    • 20.2.1        MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………………………………. 396
    • 20.2.2        PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………. 397
      • 20.2.2.1     RFID…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 399
      • 20.2.2.2     Smart labels…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 402
      • 20.2.2.3     Smart clothing……………………………………………………………………………………………… 402
      • 20.2.2.4     Printable sensors…………………………………………………………………………………………. 403
      • 20.2.2.5     Printed batteries…………………………………………………………………………………………… 403
      • 20.2.2.6     Printable antennas………………………………………………………………………………………. 405
    • 20.2.3        GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY………………………………………………. 406
    • 20.2.4        MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………. 411
    • 20.2.5        PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………. 412
  • 20.3      TRANSISTORS AND INTEGRATED CIRCUITS……………………………………………………… 415
    • 20.3.1        MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………………………………. 415
    • 20.3.2        PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………. 416
      • 20.3.2.1     Integrated circuits………………………………………………………………………………………… 416
      • 20.3.2.2     Transistors…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 418
      • 20.3.2.3     Graphene Radio Frequency (RF) circuits…………………………………………………….. 418
      • 20.3.2.4     Graphene spintronics…………………………………………………………………………………… 419
    • 20.3.3        GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY………………………………………………. 420
    • 20.3.4        MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………. 424
    • 20.3.5        PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………. 426
  • 20.4      MEMORY DEVICES………………………………………………………………………………………………… 428
    • 20.4.1        MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………………………………. 428
    • 20.4.2        PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………. 429
    • 20.4.3        GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY………………………………………………. 433
    • 20.4.4        MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………. 435
    • 20.4.5        PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………. 437
  • 20.5      PHOTONICS……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 438
    • 20.5.1        MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………………………………. 438
    • 20.5.2        PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………. 438
      • 20.5.2.1     Si photonics versus graphene……………………………………………………………………… 439
      • 20.5.2.2     Optical modulators………………………………………………………………………………………. 440
      • 20.5.2.3     Photodetectors…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 440
      • 20.5.2.4     Saturable absorbers…………………………………………………………………………………….. 442
      • 20.5.2.5     Plasmonics………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 442
      • 20.5.2.6     Fiber lasers………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 442
    • 20.5.3        GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY………………………………………………. 443
    • 20.5.4        MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………. 445
    • 20.5.5        PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………. 446

21 GRAPHENE IN THE ENERGY STORAGE, CONVERSION AND EXPLORATION MARKETS………. 448

  • 21.1      BATTERIES……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 449
    • 21.1.1        MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………………………………. 449
    • 21.1.2        PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………. 453
      • 21.1.2.1     Lithium-ion batteries (LIB)……………………………………………………………………………. 453
      • 21.1.2.2     Lithium-air batteries……………………………………………………………………………………… 454
      • 21.1.2.3     Lithium–sulfur batteries (Li–S)……………………………………………………………………… 454
      • 21.1.2.4     Sodium-ion batteries……………………………………………………………………………………. 454
      • 21.1.2.5     Flexible and stretchable batteries………………………………………………………………… 454
    • 21.1.3        GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY………………………………………………. 458
    • 21.1.4        MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………. 463
    • 21.1.5        PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………. 465
  • 21.2      SUPERCAPACITORS……………………………………………………………………………………………… 471
    • 21.2.1        MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………………………………. 471
    • 21.2.2        PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………. 471
      • 21.2.2.1     Flexible and stretchable supercapacitors…………………………………………………….. 474
    • 21.2.3        GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY………………………………………………. 476
    • 21.2.4        MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………. 479
    • 21.2.5        PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………. 480
  • 21.3      PHOTOVOLTAICS…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 482
    • 21.3.1        MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………………………………. 482
    • 21.3.2        PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………. 483
      • 21.3.2.1     ITO replacement………………………………………………………………………………………….. 484
      • 21.3.2.2     Graphene–silicon (Gr–Si) Schottky junction solar cells……………………………….. 484
      • 21.3.2.3     Halide perovskites/graphene hybrids…………………………………………………………… 485
      • 21.3.2.4     Solar energy harvesting textiles…………………………………………………………………… 485
    • 21.3.3        GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY………………………………………………. 487
    • 21.3.4        MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………. 490
    • 21.3.5        PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………. 491
  • 21.4      FUEL CELLS……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 493
    • 21.4.1        MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………………………………. 493
    • 21.4.2        PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………. 494
      • 21.4.2.1     Electrocatalyst supports………………………………………………………………………………. 495
    • 21.4.3        GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY………………………………………………. 496
    • 21.4.4        MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………. 499
    • 21.4.5        PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………. 500
  • 21.5      LED LIGHTING AND UVC……………………………………………………………………………………….. 502
    • 21.5.1        MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………………………………. 502
    • 21.5.2        PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………. 502
      • 21.5.2.1     Flexible OLED lighting…………………………………………………………………………………. 503
    • 21.5.3        GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY………………………………………………. 504
    • 21.5.4        MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………. 507
    • 21.5.5        PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………. 508
  • 21.6      OIL AND GAS………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 510
    • 21.6.1        MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………………………………. 510
    • 21.6.2        PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………. 511
      • 21.6.2.1     Sensing and reservoir management……………………………………………………………. 512
      • 21.6.2.2     Coatings………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 513
      • 21.6.2.3     Drilling fluids………………………………………………………………………………………………… 514
      • 21.6.2.4     Sorbent materials………………………………………………………………………………………… 515
      • 21.6.2.5     Catalysts……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 515
      • 21.6.2.6     Separation…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 516
    • 21.6.3        GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY………………………………………………. 517
    • 21.6.4        MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………. 521
    • 21.6.5        PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………. 522

22 GRAPHENE IN THE FILTRATION MARKET……………………………………………………………………….. 523

  • 22.1      MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………………………………………. 523
  • 22.2      PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………………. 524
    • 22.2.1        Graphene membranes…………………………………………………………………………………….. 525
    • 22.2.2        Water filtration………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 526
    • 22.2.3        Gas separation………………………………………………………………………………………………… 526
    • 22.2.4        Photocatalytic absorbents………………………………………………………………………………… 527
    • 22.2.5        Air filtration……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 527
  • 22.3      GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY………………………………………………………. 528
  • 22.4      MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………………. 532
  • 22.5      PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………………. 533
  • 23 GRAPHENE IN THE LIFE SCIENCES AND MEDICAL MARKET……………………………………………. 536
  • 23.1      MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………………………………………. 537
  • 23.2      PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………………. 540
    • 23.2.1        Cancer therapy………………………………………………………………………………………………… 543
      • 23.2.1.1     Graphene oxide for therapy and drug delivery…………………………………………….. 544
      • 23.2.1.2     Graphene nanosheets…………………………………………………………………………………. 544
      • 23.2.1.3     Gene delivery………………………………………………………………………………………………. 544
      • 23.2.1.4     Photodynamic Therapy………………………………………………………………………………… 544
    • 23.2.2        Medical implants and devices………………………………………………………………………….. 545
    • 23.2.3        Wound dressings……………………………………………………………………………………………… 545
    • 23.2.4        Biosensors……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 546
      • 23.2.4.1     FRET biosensors for DNA detection……………………………………………………………. 547
    • 23.2.5        Medical imaging……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 547
    • 23.2.6        Tissue engineering…………………………………………………………………………………………… 547
    • 23.2.7        Dental………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 548
    • 23.2.8        Electrophysiology…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 548
    • 23.2.9        Wearable and mobile health monitoring…………………………………………………………… 548
      • 23.2.9.1     Graphene devices……………………………………………………………………………………….. 550
      • 23.2.9.2     Patch-type skin sensors………………………………………………………………………………. 552
      • 23.2.9.3     Skin temperature monitoring………………………………………………………………………… 554
      • 23.2.9.4     Hydration sensors………………………………………………………………………………………… 555
      • 23.2.9.5     Wearable sweat sensors……………………………………………………………………………… 556
      • 23.2.9.6     Smart footwear…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 558
  • 23.3      GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY………………………………………………………. 558
    • 23.3.1        Wearable healthcare………………………………………………………………………………………… 559
  • 23.4      MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………………. 564
  • 23.5      PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………………. 566

24 GRAPHENE IN THE LUBRICANTS MARKET……………………………………………………………………… 569

  • 24.1      MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………………………………………. 569
  • 24.2      PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………………. 570
  • 24.3      GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY………………………………………………………. 571
  • 24.4      MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………………. 574
  • 24.5      PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………………. 575

25 GRAPHENE IN THE RUBBER AND TIRES MARKET…………………………………………………………… 577

  • 25.1      APPLICATIONS……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 577
  • 25.2      GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY………………………………………………………. 577
  • 25.3      MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………………. 580
  • 25.4      PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………………. 581

26 GRAPHENE IN THE SENSORS MARKET…………………………………………………………………………… 582

  • 26.1      MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………………………………………. 582
  • 26.2      PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………………. 584
    • 26.2.1        Infrared (IR) sensors………………………………………………………………………………………… 587
    • 26.2.2        Electrochemical and gas sensors…………………………………………………………………….. 587
      • 26.2.2.1     Graphene foam……………………………………………………………………………………………. 588
    • 26.2.3        Pressure sensors…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 588
    • 26.2.4        Biosensors……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 589
    • 26.2.5        Optical sensors………………………………………………………………………………………………… 591
    • 26.2.6        Humidity sensors……………………………………………………………………………………………… 591
    • 26.2.7        Strain sensors………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 591
    • 26.2.8        Acoustic sensors……………………………………………………………………………………………… 591
    • 26.2.9        Wireless sensors……………………………………………………………………………………………… 591
    • 26.2.10      Surface enhanced Raman scattering……………………………………………………………….. 592
  • 26.3      GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY………………………………………………………. 592
  • 26.4      MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………………. 595
  • 26.5      PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………………. 596

27 GRAPHENE IN THE SMART TEXTILES AND APPAREL MARKET……………………………………….. 600

  • 27.1      MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………………………………………. 600
  • 27.2      PROPERTIES AND APPLICATONS……………………………………………………………………….. 604
    • 27.2.1        Conductive coatings…………………………………………………………………………………………. 608
    • 27.2.2        Conductive yarns……………………………………………………………………………………………… 609
  • 27.3      GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY………………………………………………………. 610
  • 27.4      MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………………. 616
  • 27.5      PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………………. 617

28 OTHER MARKETS FOR GRAPHENE……………………………………………………………….. 620

  • 28.1      CEMENT ADDITIVES………………………………………………………………………………………………. 620
    • 28.1.1        GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY………………………………………………. 620
    • 28.1.2        PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………. 622

29 GRAPHENE PRODUCERS……………………………………………………. 625-710 (130 COMPANY PROFILES)

30 GRAPHENE PRODUCT AND APPLICATION DEVELOPERS……. 711-779 (122 COMPANY PROFILES)

31 REFERENCES…………………………………………………………………….. 781