The Global Market for Conductive Inks to 2030

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The global market for conductive inks is estimated at >$2.5 billion in annual revenues, and will continue to grow as applications proliferate in sensors, wearables, smart packaging, flexible electronics, OLEDs, thin film transistors, photovoltaics, smart textiles, automotive and more.

Not only will demand across all current markets grow, but the development of new materials and processes is leading to the creation of new market opportunities for conductive ink producers and suppliers in flexible, customized and 3D printed electronics. Opportunities explored in this report include:

  • Flexible and stretchable electronics.
  • Printed electronics for smartphones (printed antennas, touch screens).
  • Printed circuit boards.
  • 3D printing.
  • Smart packaging.
  • Photovoltaics.
  • Flexible lighting.
  • Flexible displays.
  • Wearables and IoT.
  • Healthcare wearable monitoting.
  • Smart textiles.

Copper and silver inks will continue to dominate the market for the next few years but growth in flexible electronics necessitates the development of new materials. Conductive ink materials explored in this report include:

  • Copper ink.
  • Silver ink.
  • Conductive polymers.
  • Copper nanoparticles.
  • Metal nanoparticles.
  • Carbon nanotubes.
  • Graphene.
  • Gold nanoparticles.

Report contents include:

  • Conductive inks market forecasts.
  • In depth assessment of conductive ink types including properties, advantages, disadvantages, prospects, applications and revenues.
  • Opportunity assessment by application and market including photovoltaics, touch screens, flexible displays, automotive, 3D printing, sensors, printed circuit boards, electronic textiles and wearables, RFID, printed memory and transistors, printed heaters, conductive pens etc.
  • Latest products.
  • >125 company profiles. Companies profiled include Agfa-Gevaert N.V., Asahi Kasei, Bando Chemical Industries
    BeBop Sensors, BotFactory, Daicel Corporation, DuPont Advanced Materials, Electroninks Writeables, Fujikura Kasei Co Ltd., Genes ‘Ink, Henkel, Hitachi Chemical, Kishu Giken Kogyo Co.,Ltd., Liquid X Printed Metals, Inc., Sun Chemical, The Sixth Element, T-Ink, Toyobo etc.

Published January 2020 | 290 pages, 64 tables, 80 figures | Table of contents

The Global Market for Conductive Inks to 2030
The Global Market for Conductive Inks to 2030
PDF download.
The Global Market for Conductive Inks to 2030
The Global Market for Conductive Inks to 2030
Print edition (including tracked delivery).
The Global Market for Conductive Inks to 2030
The Global Market for Conductive Inks to 2030
PDF and print edition (including tracked delivery).

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY…………………………………………………………. 17

  • 1.1     Market drivers……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 18
  • 1.2     The evolution of electronics……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 20
    • 1.2.1       The wearables revolution………………………………………………………………………………………………. 21
    • 1.2.2       Flexible, thin, and large-area form factors………………………………………………………………………….. 22
  • 1.3     Flexible and stretchable electronics………………………………………………………………………………………….. 23
    • 1.3.1       From rigid to flexible and stretchable………………………………………………………………………………… 23
    • 1.3.2       Organic and printed electronics……………………………………………………………………………………….. 25
    • 1.3.3       New conductive materials………………………………………………………………………………………………. 25
    • 1.3.4       Stretchable conductors………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 28
    • 1.3.5       Applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 28
  • 1.4     Products…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 29
  • 1.5     Global market for conductive inks 2015-2030, by type………………………………………………………………….. 34

2    RESEARCH METHODOLOGY………………………………………………… 36

3    CONDUCTIVE INK MATERIALS……………………………………………… 37

  • 3.1     Conductive ink types…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 37
    • 3.1.1       Conductive ink materials……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 38
    • 3.1.2       Advanced materials solutions…………………………………………………………………………………………. 39
    • 3.1.3       Commercially available conductive ink products………………………………………………………………….. 41
    • 3.1.4       Improvements in conductive ink performance…………………………………………………………………….. 43
  • 3.2     Printing methods………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 43
    • 3.2.1       Nanoparticle ink…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 46
  • 3.3     Sintering…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 47
  • 3.4     Conductive Filaments……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 47
  • 3.5     Conductive films, foils and grids………………………………………………………………………………………………. 47
  • 3.6     Inkjet printing in flexible electronics………………………………………………………………………………………….. 47
  • 3.7     CARBON NANOTUBES………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 48
    • 3.7.1       Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 48
      • 3.7.1.1    Single-walled carbon nanotubes………………………………………………………………………………….. 50
    • 3.7.2       Applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 51
    • 3.8     Prices………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 51
    • 3.9     Companies…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 52
  • 3.10        CONDUCTIVE POLYMERS (CP)………………………………………………………………………………………… 53
    • 3.10.1     Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 53
      • 3.10.1.1       PDMS……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 54
      • 3.10.1.2       PEDOT: PSS……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 54
        • 3.10.1.2.1    Transparency…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 54
    • 3.10.2     Applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 55
    • 3.10.3     Prices……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 55
    • 3.10.4     Companies…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 56
  • 3.11        GRAPHENE…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 57
    • 3.11.1     Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 58
    • 3.11.2     Applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 60
    • 3.11.3     Prices……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 63
    • 3.11.4     Companies…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 64
  • 3.12        SILVER INK (Flake, nanoparticles, nanowires, ion)………………………………………………………………….. 66
    • 3.12.1     Silver flake…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 66
    • 3.12.2     Silver (Ag) nanoparticle ink…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 66
      • 3.12.2.1       Conductivity……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 68
    • 3.12.3     Silver nanowires………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 69
    • 3.12.4     Applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 70
    • 3.12.5     Prices……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 71
      • 3.12.5.1       Cost for printed area…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 72
    • 3.12.6     Companies…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 73
  • 3.13        COPPER INK AND PASTE………………………………………………………………………………………………… 75
    • 3.13.1     Copper (Cu) nanoparticle ink………………………………………………………………………………………….. 75
    • 3.13.2     Silver-coated copper…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 76
    • 3.13.3     Applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 77
    • 3.13.4     Prices……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 77
    • 3.13.5     Companies…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 78
  • 3.14        NANOCELLULOSE………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 80
    • 3.14.1     Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 80
    • 3.14.2     Applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 82
    • 3.14.2.1       Cellulose nanofibers in conductive inks…………………………………………………………………….. 83
    • 3.14.2.2       Cellulose nanocrystals in conductive inks………………………………………………………………….. 83
    • 3.14.3     Prices……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 83
  • 3.15        GOLD (Au) INK……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 84
    • 3.15.1     Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 84
    • 3.15.2     Applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 84
    • 3.15.3     Prices……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 84
    • 3.15.4     Companies…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 85
  • 3.16        SILOXANE INKS……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 86
    • 3.16.1     Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 86
  • 3.17        SINTERED DIE ATTACH PASTE………………………………………………………………………………………… 90
    • 3.17.1     Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 90
    • 3.17.2     Prices……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 91
    • 3.17.3     Companies…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 91

4    MARKETS FOR CONDUCTIVE INKS……………………………………….. 92

  • 4.1     TOUCHSCREENS AND DISPLAYS…………………………………………………………………………………………. 94
    • 4.1.1       Transparent conductive electrodes…………………………………………………………………………………… 95
    • 4.1.2       Flexible and stretchable transparent electrodes………………………………………………………………….. 98
        • 4.1.2.1    Carbon nanotubes (SWNT)………………………………………………………………………………………… 99
        • 4.1.2.2    Double-walled carbon nanotubes………………………………………………………………………………. 100
        • 4.1.2.3    Graphene…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 100
        • 4.1.2.4    Silver nanowires…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 101
        • 4.1.2.5    Nanocellulose……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 102
          • 4.1.2.5.1      Flexible energy storage…………………………………………………………………………………… 103
      • 4.1.2.6    Copper nanowires………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 103
    • 4.1.3       E-Readers………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 104
    • 4.1.4       Global market size……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 105
  • 4.2     PRINTED AND FLEXIBLE SENSORS…………………………………………………………………………………….. 107
    • 4.2.1       Flexible and stretchable transistors………………………………………………………………………………… 110
    • 4.2.2       Flexible and stretchable actuators………………………………………………………………………………….. 112
    • 4.2.3       Stretchable artificial skin………………………………………………………………………………………………. 113
    • 4.2.4       Wearable gas sensors…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 115
    • 4.2.5       Wearable strain sensors………………………………………………………………………………………………. 116
    • 4.2.6       Piezoresistive sensors…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 116
    • 4.2.7       Glucose sensors………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 116
    • 4.2.8       Capacitive sensors……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 116
    • 4.2.9       Global market size……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 117
  • 4.3     RFID……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 122
    • 4.3.1       Smart labels……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 124
    • 4.3.2       Printed antennas………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 124
    • 4.3.3       Global market size……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 126
  • 4.4     MEDICAL AND HEALTHCARE SENSORS AND WEARABLES……………………………………………………. 126
    • 4.4.1       Biosensors……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 131
    • 4.4.1.1    Nanomaterials-based devices…………………………………………………………………………………… 131
    • 4.4.2       Patch-type skin sensors………………………………………………………………………………………………. 134
    • 4.4.3       Skin temperature monitoring…………………………………………………………………………………………. 136
    • 4.4.4       Hydration sensors………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 137
    • 4.4.5       Wearable sweat sensors……………………………………………………………………………………………… 137
    • 4.4.6       Smart footwear………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 139
    • 4.4.7       Global market size……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 141
  • 4.5     ELECTRONIC TEXTILES (E-TEXTILES)…………………………………………………………………………………. 144
    • 4.5.1       Thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) films………………………………………………………………………….. 149
    • 4.5.2       Stretchable e-textile inks………………………………………………………………………………………………. 149
    • 4.5.3       Conductive fibres……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 150
    • 4.5.4       Conductive yarns……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 151
    • 4.5.5       Stretchable yarns for electronics……………………………………………………………………………………. 152
    • 4.5.6       Stretchable E-fabrics…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 152
    • 4.5.7       Conductive coatings……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 153
    • 4.5.8       Solar energy harvesting textiles…………………………………………………………………………………….. 155
    • 4.5.9       Global market size……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 156
  • 4.6     ENERGY STORAGE AND HARVESTING……………………………………………………………………………….. 160
    • 4.6.1       Printed, flexible and stretchable batteries…………………………………………………………………………. 163
      • 4.6.1.1    Flexible and stretchable LIBs……………………………………………………………………………………. 165
        • 4.6.1.1.1      Fiber-shaped Lithium-Ion batteries…………………………………………………………………….. 166
        • 4.6.1.1.2      Stretchable lithium-ion battery…………………………………………………………………………… 166
        • 4.6.1.1.3      Kirigami lithium-ion battery……………………………………………………………………………….. 167
        • 4.6.1.1.4      Stretchable Zn-based batteries…………………………………………………………………………. 168
    • 4.6.2       Flexible and stretchable supercapacitors…………………………………………………………………………. 168
    • 4.6.3       Stretchable heaters…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 170
    • 4.6.4       Photovoltaics…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 172
    • 4.6.5       Printed heaters………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 175
    • 4.6.6       Global market size……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 176
  • 4.7     OTHER ELECTRONICS………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 180
    • 4.7.1       In-mold electronics……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 180
    • 4.7.2       Printed, flexible and stretchable circuit boards and interconnects………………………………………….. 183
    • 4.7.3       Printed, flexible and stretchable transistors………………………………………………………………………. 185
    • 4.7.4       LED lighting………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 186
    • 4.7.5       Stretchable lighting……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 187
    • 4.7.6       Printed transistors………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 188
    • 4.7.7       Printed logic and memory…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 189
    • 4.7.8       EMI shielding…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 191
    • 4.7.9       3D printed electronics………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 191
    • 4.7.10     Global market size……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 192
  • 4.8     AUTOMOTIVE…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 193
    • 4.8.1       Applications of conductive inks in automotive……………………………………………………………………. 193

5    COMPANY PROFILES………………………………………………………….. 196

6    REFERENCES…………………………………………………………………….. 278

Tables

  • Table 1: Market drivers for conductive inks…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 18
  • Table 2: Evolution of wearable devices, 2011-2017………………………………………………………………………………….. 21
  • Table 3: Advanced materials for Printed, flexible and stretchable  sensors and Electronics-Advantages and disadvantages……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 26
  • Table 4: Sheet resistance (RS) and transparency (T) values for transparent conductive oxides and alternative materials for transparent conductive electrodes (TCE)……………………………………………………………………………………… 27
  • Table 5: Main markets for conductive inks, applications and revenues………………………………………………………….. 34
  • Table 6: Global market for conductive inks 2015-2030, revenues (million $), by ink types…………………………………. 35
  • Table 7: Typical conductive ink formulation…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 38
  • Table 8. Comparative properties of conductive inks………………………………………………………………………………….. 38
  • Table 9: Comparative properties of conductive inks………………………………………………………………………………….. 39
  • Table 10: Applications in conductive inks by type and benefits thereof………………………………………………………….. 39
  • Table 11. Commercially available conductive ink products…………………………………………………………………………. 41
  • Table 12:  Characteristics of analog printing processes for conductive inks……………………………………………………. 44
  • Table 13: Characteristics of digital printing processes for conductive inks……………………………………………………… 45
  • Table 14: Properties of CNTs and comparable materials……………………………………………………………………………. 49
  • Table 15. Price of carbon nanotubes in conductive inks…………………………………………………………………………….. 51
  • Table 16: Carbon nanotube conductive ink producers……………………………………………………………………………….. 52
  • Table 17: Types of flexible conductive polymers, properties and applications…………………………………………………. 54
  • Table 18. Conductive polymer prices…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 55
  • Table 19: Conductive polymer producers……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 56
  • Table 20: Properties of graphene…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 58
  • Table 21. Price of graphene in conductive inks………………………………………………………………………………………… 63
  • Table 22: Graphene conductive ink producers…………………………………………………………………………………………. 64
  • Table 23. Price of silver conductive inks………………………………………………………………………………………………… 71
  • Table 24: Silver conductive ink producers………………………………………………………………………………………………. 73
  • Table 25. Price of copper conductive inks………………………………………………………………………………………………. 77
  • Table 26: Copper conductive ink producers……………………………………………………………………………………………. 78
  • Table 27: Nanocellulose properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 80
  • Table 28: Properties and applications of nanocellulose……………………………………………………………………………… 81
  • Table 29: Properties of flexible electronics‐cellulose nanofiber film (nanopaper)……………………………………………… 81
  • Table 30. Price of nanocellulose conductive inks……………………………………………………………………………………… 83
  • Table 31. Price of gold conductive inks………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 84
  • Table 32: Copper conductive ink producers……………………………………………………………………………………………. 85
  • Table 33. Prices for sintered die attach paste………………………………………………………………………………………….. 91
  • Table 34: Sintered die attach paste producers…………………………………………………………………………………………. 91
  • Table 35: Transparent conductive switches-PEDOT…………………………………………………………………………………. 95
  • Table 36: Comparison of ITO replacements……………………………………………………………………………………………. 96
  • Table 37: Applications in printed, flexible and stretchable electronics, by advanced materials type and benefits thereof……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 97
  • Table 38. Materials, transmittance, electrical property, and stretchability of stretchable transparent electrodes………. 98
  • Table 39: Graphene properties relevant to application in sensors………………………………………………………………. 114
  • Table 40: Global market for wearable electronics, 2015-2030, by application, billions $…………………………………… 118
  • Table 41: Opportunities for advanced materials in printed electronics…………………………………………………………. 123
  • Table 42: Wearable medical device products and stage of development……………………………………………………… 128
  • Table 43: Applications in flexible and stretchable health monitors, by advanced materials type and benefits thereof. 132
  • Table 44: Applications in patch-type skin sensors, by materials type and benefits thereof………………………………… 136
  • Table 45: Types of smart textiles………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 145
  • Table 46: Examples of smart textile products………………………………………………………………………………………… 145
  • Table 47: Currently available technologies for smart textiles……………………………………………………………………… 146
  • Table 48: Electronic textiles products…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 147
  • Table 49: Applications in E-textiles, by advanced materials type and benefits thereof…………………………………….. 148
  • Table 51: Applications and benefits of graphene in textiles and apparel………………………………………………………. 154
  • Table 52: Global electronic textiles market 2015-2030, revenues (billions USD)……………………………………………. 157
  • Table 54: Wearable energy storage and energy harvesting products………………………………………………………….. 161
  • Table 55: Applications in flexible and stretchable batteries, by nanomaterials type and benefits thereof……………… 163
  • Table 56: Applications in flexible and stretchable batteries, by materials type and benefits thereof…………………….. 164
  • Table 57: Applications in flexible and stretchable supercapacitors, by nanomaterials type and benefits thereof…….. 169
  • Table 58. Examples of materials used in flexible heaters and applications……………………………………………………. 170
  • Table 59: Applications in energy harvesting textiles, by nanomaterials type and benefits thereof………………………. 171
  • Table 60: Potential addressable market for thin film, flexible and printed batteries…………………………………………. 176
  • Table 61. Applications for conductive inks in in-mold electronics………………………………………………………………… 180
  • Table 62: Applications in flexible and stretchable circuit boards, by advanced materials type and benefits thereof… 183
  • Table 63: Price comparison of thin-film transistor (TFT) electronics technology……………………………………………… 185
  • Table 64: Price comparison of thin-film transistor (TFT) electronics technology……………………………………………… 188

 

Figures

  • Figure 1: Evolution of electronics………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 21
  • Figure 2: Wove Band…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 24
  • Figure 3: Wearable graphene medical sensor…………………………………………………………………………………………. 24
  • Figure 4: Applications timeline for organic and printed electronics……………………………………………………………….. 25
  • Figure 5. Conductive ink products………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 29
  • Figure 6: Global market for conductive inks 2015-2030, revenues (million $), by ink types………………………………… 35
  • Figure 7: Schematic of single-walled carbon nanotube………………………………………………………………………………. 50
  • Figure 8: Stretchable SWNT memory and logic devices for wearable electronics…………………………………………….. 51
  • Figure 9: Stretchable carbon aerogel incorporating carbon nanotubes. Credit: Guo et al…………………………………… 53
  • Figure 10: Graphene layer structure schematic……………………………………………………………………………………….. 59
  • Figure 11: Moxi flexible film developed for smartphone application………………………………………………………………. 60
  • Figure 12: Flexible graphene touch screen……………………………………………………………………………………………… 60
  • Figure 13: Graphene electrochromic devices. Top left: Exploded-view illustration of the graphene electrochromic device. The device is formed by attaching two graphene-coated PVC substrates face-to-face and filling the gap with a liquid ionic electrolyte………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 61
  • Figure 14: Flexible mobile phones with graphene transparent conductive film………………………………………………… 62
  • Figure 15: BGT Materials graphene ink product………………………………………………………………………………………. 63
  • Figure 16: Silver nanocomposite ink after sintering and resin bonding of discrete electronic components……………… 68
  • Figure 17: Flexible silver nanowire wearable mesh…………………………………………………………………………………… 70
  • Figure 18: Copper based inks on flexible substrate…………………………………………………………………………………… 75
  • Figure 19:  Cellulose nanofiber films……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 82
  • Figure 20: Nanocellulose photoluminescent paper……………………………………………………………………………………. 82
  • Figure 21: LEDs shining on circuitry imprinted on a 5x5cm sheet of CNF………………………………………………………. 83
  • Figure 22: CNT stretchable Resin Film………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 97
  • Figure 23: Bending durability of Ag nanowires……………………………………………………………………………………….. 101
  • Figure 24: NFC computer chip……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 102
  • Figure 25: NFC translucent diffuser schematic………………………………………………………………………………………. 103
  • Figure 26: Global transparent conductive electrodes market forecast by materials type, 2012-2030, millions $…….. 106
  • Figure 27: Softceptor sensor……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 108
  • Figure 28: Media Arm Controller…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 108
  • Figure 29: Flexible textile pressure sensor……………………………………………………………………………………………. 109
  • Figure 30: Flexible sensor…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 110
  • Figure 31. Stretchable transistor…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 111
  • Figure 32. Artificial skin prototype for gesture recognition…………………………………………………………………………. 113
  • Figure 33: Wearable gas sensor…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 115
  • Figure 34: Global market for wearable electronics, 2015-2030, by application, billions $………………………………….. 118
  • Figure 35: Flexible RFID tag………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 123
  • Figure 36: Graphene printed antenna………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 125
  • Figure 37: Printed antennas for aircraft………………………………………………………………………………………………… 125
  • Figure 38. Global market for conductive inks in RFID, 2015-2030 (millions USD)…………………………………………… 126
  • Figure 39: Connected human body……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 128
  • Figure 40: Flexible, lightweight temperature sensor………………………………………………………………………………… 128
  • Figure 41: Prototype ECG sensor patch……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 131
  • Figure 42: Graphene-based E-skin patch……………………………………………………………………………………………… 132
  • Figure 43: Wearable bio-fluid monitoring system for monitoring of hydration…………………………………………………. 133
  • Figure 44: Smart mouth guard……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 134
  • Figure 45: Smart e-skin system comprising health-monitoring sensors, displays, and ultra flexible PLEDs………….. 135
  • Figure 46: Graphene medical patch…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 135
  • Figure 47: Wearable wireless thermometer…………………………………………………………………………………………… 136
  • Figure 48: Baby monitor……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 136
  • Figure 49: Nanowire skin hydration patch……………………………………………………………………………………………… 137
  • Figure 50: Wearable sweat sensor……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 137
  • Figure 51: Wearable sweat sensor……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 138
  • Figure 52: Global medical and healthcare smart textiles and wearables market, 2015-2030, billions $, by product… 141
  • Figure 53: Global medical and healthcare smart textiles and wearables market, 2015-2030, billions $, by product… 141
  • Figure 55: Conductive yarns………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 152
  • Figure 56: Work out shirt incorporating ECG sensors, flexible lights and heating elements………………………………. 155
  • Figure 57: Schematic illustration of the fabrication concept for textile-based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) made by sewing textile electrodes onto cloth or paper…………………………………………………………………………………… 156
  • Figure 58: Global electronic textiles market 2015-2030, revenues (billions USD)…………………………………………… 157
  • Figure 59 Global smart clothing, interactive fabrics and apparel sales by market segment……………………………….. 158
  • Figure 60: Energy harvesting textile…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 160
  • Figure 61: StretchSense Energy Harvesting Kit……………………………………………………………………………………… 160
  • Figure 62: Hexagonal battery…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 161
  • Figure 63: Printed Battery…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 164
  • Figure 64: Printed 1.5V battery…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 164
  • Figure 65. Schematic of the structure of stretchable LIBs,………………………………………………………………………… 165
  • Figure 66: Energy densities and specific energy of rechargeable batteries…………………………………………………… 169
  • Figure 67: Stretchable graphene supercapacitor…………………………………………………………………………………….. 169
  • Figure 68. Origami-like silicon solar cells………………………………………………………………………………………………. 173
  • Figure 69. Flexible printed heater……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 175
  • Figure 70: Demand for thin film, flexible and printed batteries, by market…………………………………………………….. 177
  • Figure 71: Global thin film, flexible and printed batteries market 2015-2030, revenues (billions USD)…………………. 178
  • Figure 72: Stretchable material for formed an in-molded electronics…………………………………………………………… 180
  • Figure 73: Wearable patch with a skin-compatible, pressure-sensitive adhesive……………………………………………. 180
  • Figure 74: Thin film transistor incorporating CNTs………………………………………………………………………………….. 185
  • Figure 75: LG OLED flexible lighting panel……………………………………………………………………………………………. 187
  • Figure 76: Flexible OLED incorporated into automotive headlight………………………………………………………………. 187
  • Figure 77: Thin film transistor incorporating CNTs………………………………………………………………………………….. 188
  • Figure 78. Global market size of other electronics applications of conductive inks, 2015-2030 (billions USD)……….. 192
  • Figure 79. Touchcode technology……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 264
  • Figure 80. Smart label……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 275