The Global Market for Graphene, 23rd edition

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There are over 350 companies globally producing graphene materials or developing products incorporating graphene and this number is growing as manufacturers witness the benefits offered by graphene. Recent product launches include graphene-based bicycle and automotive tires, smart phone batteries, supercapacitors, water filtration membranes and composites. Major corporations including Ford (automotive composites) and Huawei (cooling films for smartphones) have recently integrated graphene into their products.

Now in it’s 23rd edition (first published 2009), The Global Market for Graphene  provides a complete analysis for the market for these exceptional materials, including competition, production, revenues, markets, applications, producers and product developers.

Published: August 27 2019 | Pages: 570 pages | 229 tables, 214 figures | Price: £1000 | Table of contents

Report contents include:

  • Global production capacities-historical, current and forecast to 2030.
  • Current and planned graphene products.
  • Description of the graphene market 2017-2019.
  • Market segmentation by graphene type.
  • Stage of commercialization for graphene applications, from basic research to market entry.
  • Market drivers, trends and challenges, by end user markets.
  • Competitive landscape of graphene among other carbon-based additives (MWCNT, SWCNT, Carbon Fibers, Carbon Black, etc.)
  • Key graphene events.
  • In-depth market assessment of opportunities for graphene including tonnage demand by market, growth rates, pricing, most likely applications and market challenges.
  • Market demand in tonnes, USD, CAGR 2018-2030
  • In-depth company profiles, including products, capacities, and commercial activities.
  • Detailed forecasts for key growth areas, opportunities and user demand.
  • Assessment of applications for other 2D materials.
  • Over 190 company profiles including production, products, target markets.
  • Data on addressable markets for graphene (revenues), relevant applications, graphene technology fit and competition from other materials.
  • New information on demand by regional market.
  • Latest product and investment news.
  • Commercial production capacities by company, and by year, for Graphene Oxide, Graphene Nanolatelets and CVD Graphene in tons and m2
  • Industrial collaborations and licence agreements
  • Markets targeted, by product developers and end users
  • Types of graphene produced, by producer
  • Graphene applications by industry, material, and product

 

The Global Market for Graphene, 23rd Edition
The Global Market for Graphene, 23rd Edition
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The Global Market for Graphene, 23rd Edition
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The Global Market for Graphene, 23rd Edition
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TABLE OF CONTENTS

1        RESEARCH METHODOLOGY……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 33

  • 1.1     Market opportunity analysis……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 33
  • 1.2     Market challenges rating system……………………………………………………………………………………………… 35
  • 1.3     Properties of nanomaterials……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 36

2        EXECUTIVE SUMMARY……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 39

  • 2.1     Two-dimensional (2D) materials………………………………………………………………………………………………. 39
  • 2.2     Graphene…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 39
    • 2.2.1       The market in 2016………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 40
    • 2.2.2       The market in 2017………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 40
    • 2.2.3       The market in 2018………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 40
    • 2.2.4       The market in 2019………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 41
    • 2.2.5       The market by 2025……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 41
    • 2.2.6       Production………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 42
    • 2.2.7       Products……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 44
    • 2.2.8       Graphene investments 2017-2019…………………………………………………………………………………… 46
  • 2.3     Market outlook for 2019…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 48
    • 2.3.1       Global funding and initiatives………………………………………………………………………………………….. 53
    • 2.3.2       Products and applications……………………………………………………………………………………………… 54
    • 2.3.3       Production capacities in 2019…………………………………………………………………………………………. 55
  • 2.4     Market drivers and trends………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 56
  • 2.5     Graphene industrial collaborations and licence agreements…………………………………………………………… 59
  • 2.6     Market and technical challenges……………………………………………………………………………………………… 63
  • 2.7     Global demand for graphene by region to 2030…………………………………………………………………………… 65
    • 2.7.1       Asia………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 65
    • 2.7.2       Australia…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 71
    • 2.7.3       North America…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 72
    • 2.7.4       Europe………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 74

3        OVERVIEW OF GRAPHENE……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 79

  • 3.1     History……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 79
  • 3.2     Types of graphene……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 80
  • 3.3     Properties…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 82
  • 3.4     3D Graphene………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 82
  • 3.5     Graphene Quantum Dots……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 83
    • 3.5.1       Synthesis…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 84
    • 3.5.2       Applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 84
      • 3.5.2.1    Optoelectronics, electronics and photonics……………………………………………………………………. 85
      • 3.5.2.2    Energy………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 85
      • 3.5.2.3    Biomedicine and healthcare……………………………………………………………………………………….. 85
      • 3.5.2.4    Other…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 85
    • 3.5.3    Pricing…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 86
    • 3.5.4       Producers………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 86

4        CARBON NANOTUBES VERSUS GRAPHENE……………………………………………………………………………… 88

  • 4.1     Comparative properties…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 88
  • 4.2     Cost and production……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 89
  • 4.3     Carbon nanotube-graphene hybrids…………………………………………………………………………………………. 90
  • 4.4     Competitive analysis of carbon nanotubes and graphene………………………………………………………………. 90

5        OTHER 2-D MATERIALS………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 92

  • 5.1     Beyond moore’s law……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 93
  • 5.2     Batteries…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 94
  • 5.3     BOROPHENE……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 94
    • 5.3.1       Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 94
    • 5.3.2       Applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 95
  • 5.4     PHOSPHORENE…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 96
      • 5.4.1       Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 96
        • 5.4.1.1    Fabrication methods…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 97
        • 5.4.1.2    Challenges for the use of phosphorene in devices…………………………………………………………… 98
      • 5.4.2       Applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 98
        • 5.4.2.1    Electronics……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 98
        • 5.4.2.2    Batteries………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 99
        • 5.4.2.3    Photodetectors………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 100
        • 5.4.2.4    Sensors……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 100
      • 5.4.3       Market opportunity assessment……………………………………………………………………………………… 100
  • 5.5     GRAPHITIC CARBON NITRIDE (g-C3N4)……………………………………………………………………………….. 101
    • 5.5.1       Properties…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 101
    • 5.5.2       Synthesis…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 101
    • 5.5.3       C2N…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 101
    • 5.5.4       Applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 102
      • 5.5.4.1    Electronics……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 102
      • 5.5.4.2    Filtration membranes………………………………………………………………………………………………. 102
      • 5.5.4.3    Photocatalysts………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 102
      • 5.5.4.4    Batteries (LIBs)……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 102
      • 5.5.4.5    Sensors……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 102
    • 5.5.5       Market opportunity assessment……………………………………………………………………………………… 103
  • 5.6     GERMANENE……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 103
    • 5.6.1       Properties…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 103
    • 5.6.2       Applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 104
      • 5.6.2.1    Electronics……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 104
      • 5.6.2.2    Batteries………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 104
    • 5.6.3       Market opportunity assessment……………………………………………………………………………………… 104
  • 5.7     GRAPHDIYNE…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 105
    • 5.7.1       Properties…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 105
    • 5.7.2       Applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 105
      • 5.7.2.1    Electronics……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 105
      • 5.7.2.2    Batteries………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 106
      • 5.7.2.3    Separation membranes…………………………………………………………………………………………… 106
      • 5.7.2.4    Water filtration……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 106
      • 5.7.2.5    Photocatalysts………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 106
      • 5.7.2.6    Photovoltaics………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 106
    • 5.7.3       Market opportunity assessment……………………………………………………………………………………… 107
  • 5.8     GRAPHANE……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 107
    • 5.8.1       Properties…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 108
    • 5.8.2       Applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 108
      • 5.8.2.1    Electronics……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 108
      • 5.8.2.2    Hydrogen storage…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 108
    • 5.8.3       Market opportunity assessment……………………………………………………………………………………… 108
  • 5.9     HEXAGONAL BORON-NITRIDE……………………………………………………………………………………………. 109
    • 5.9.1       Properties…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 109
    • 5.9.2       Applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 110
      • 5.9.2.1    Electronics……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 110
      • 5.9.2.2    Fuel cells……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 110
      • 5.9.2.3    Adsorbents…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 110
      • 5.9.2.4    Photodetectors………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 110
      • 5.9.2.5    Textiles………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 110
      • 5.9.2.6    Biomedical……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 111
    • 5.9.3       Market opportunity assessment……………………………………………………………………………………… 111
  • 5.10        MOLYBDENUM DISULFIDE (MoS2)…………………………………………………………………………………… 111
    • 5.10.1     Properties…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 112
    • 5.10.2     Applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 113
      • 5.10.2.1       Electronics……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 113
      • 5.10.2.2       Photovoltaics…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 114
      • 5.10.2.3       Piezoelectrics……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 114
      • 5.10.2.4       Sensors…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 114
      • 5.10.2.5       Filtration…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 115
      • 5.10.2.6       Batteries………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 115
      • 5.10.2.7       Fiber lasers………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 115
    • 5.10.3     Market opportunity assessment……………………………………………………………………………………… 115
  • 5.11        RHENIUM DISULFIDE (ReS2) AND DISELENIDE (ReSe2)…………………………………………………….. 115
    • 5.11.1     Properties…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 116
    • 5.11.2     Applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 116
      • 5.11.2.1       Electronics……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 116
    • 5.11.3     Market opportunity assessment……………………………………………………………………………………… 116
  • 5.12        SILICENE…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 117
    • 5.12.1     Properties…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 117
    • 5.12.2     Applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 118
      • 5.12.2.1       Electronics……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 118
      • 5.12.2.2       Photovoltaics…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 118
      • 5.12.2.3       Thermoelectrics…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 118
      • 5.12.2.4       Batteries………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 118
      • 5.12.2.5       Sensors…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 119
    • 5.12.3     Market opportunity assessment……………………………………………………………………………………… 119
  • 5.13        STANENE/TINENE…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 120
    • 5.13.1     Properties…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 120
    • 5.13.2     Applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 121
      • 5.13.2.1       Electronics……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 121
    • 5.13.3     Market opportunity assessment……………………………………………………………………………………… 121
  • 5.14        TUNGSTEN DISELENIDE……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 122
    • 5.14.1     Properties…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 122
    • 5.14.2     Applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 122
      • 5.14.2.1       Electronics……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 122
    • 5.14.3     Market opportunity assessment……………………………………………………………………………………… 123
  • 5.15        ANTIMONENE………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 123
    • 5.15.1     Properties…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 123
    • 5.15.2     Applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 123
  • 5.16        DIAMENE…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 123
    • 5.16.1     Properties…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 123
    • 5.16.2     Applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 124
  • 5.17        INDIUM SELENIDE………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 124
    • 5.17.1     Properties…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 124
    • 5.17.2     Applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 124
      • 5.17.2.1       Electronics……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 124
  • 5.18        COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF GRAPHENE AND OTHER 2D MATERIALS………………………………. 125

6        GRAPHENE SYNTHESIS………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 126

  • 6.1     Large area graphene films……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 126
  • 6.2     Graphene oxide flakes and graphene nanoplatelets……………………………………………………………………. 126
  • 6.3     Production methods……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 127
    • 6.3.1       Production directly from natural graphite ore…………………………………………………………………….. 129
    • 6.3.2       Alternative starting materials…………………………………………………………………………………………. 129
    • 6.3.3       Quality……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 130
  • 6.4     Synthesis and production by types of graphene…………………………………………………………………………. 130
    • 6.4.1       Graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs)……………………………………………………………………………………. 131
    • 6.4.2       Graphene nanoribbons………………………………………………………………………………………………… 131
    • 6.4.3       Large-area graphene films……………………………………………………………………………………………. 132
    • 6.4.4       Graphene oxide (GO)………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 133
  • 6.5     Pros and cons of graphene production methods………………………………………………………………………… 133
    • 6.5.1       Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD)…………………………………………………………………………………. 134
    • 6.5.2       Exfoliation method……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 136
    • 6.5.3       Epitaxial growth method………………………………………………………………………………………………. 137
    • 6.5.4       Wet chemistry method (liquid phase exfoliation)………………………………………………………………… 137
    • 6.5.5       Micromechanical cleavage method…………………………………………………………………………………. 138
    • 6.5.6       Green reduction of graphene oxide………………………………………………………………………………… 139
    • 6.5.7       Plasma…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 139
  • 6.6     Other synthesis methods……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 140

7        GRAPHENE MARKET STRUCTURE AND ROUTES TO COMMERCIALIZATION……………………………….. 144

  • 7.1     Commercialization route………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 144
  • 7.2     Market structure…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 144
    • 7.2.1       Graphite Ore Producers………………………………………………………………………………………………. 144
    • 7.2.2       Tools and CVD equipment providers………………………………………………………………………………. 145
    • 7.2.3       Research Labs………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 145
    • 7.2.4       Graphene Manufacturers……………………………………………………………………………………………… 145
      • 7.2.4.1    Large Area Graphene Film Producers…………………………………………………………………………. 145
      • 7.2.4.2    Graphene Materials Producers………………………………………………………………………………….. 145
    • 7.2.5       Intermediate component developers……………………………………………………………………………….. 145
    • 7.2.6       Product developers/OEMs……………………………………………………………………………………………. 146

8        REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS…………………………………………………………………………………………… 148

  • 8.1     Standards…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 148
  • 8.2     Environmental, health and safety regulation……………………………………………………………………………… 148
    • 8.2.1       Europe…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 148
    • 8.2.2       United States…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 149
    • 8.2.3       Asia………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 149
  • 8.3     Workplace exposure……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 149

9        PATENTS AND PUBLICATIONS………………………………………………………………………………………………. 151

  • 9.1     Fabrication processes………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 151
  • 9.2     Academia…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 151
  • 9.3     Regional leaders………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 151
  • 9.4     Patent publications 2004-2018………………………………………………………………………………………………. 151
  • 9.5     Leading graphene patentees…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 152

10      GRAPHENE COMMERCIAL ROADMAP…………………………………………………………………………………….. 154

11      END USER MARKET SEGMENT ANALYSIS………………………………………………………………………………. 156

  • 11.1        Graphene production volumes 2010-2030……………………………………………………………………………. 156
  • 11.2        Commercial production capacities……………………………………………………………………………………… 157
    • 11.2.1     Graphene oxide production capacities…………………………………………………………………………….. 158
      • 11.2.1.1       By producer……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 158
      • 11.2.1.2       By region…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 158
    • 11.2.2     Graphene nanoplatelets production capacities………………………………………………………………….. 159
      • 11.2.2.1       By producer……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 159
      • 11.2.2.2       Production capacity by region……………………………………………………………………………….. 160
    • 11.2.3     CVD graphene film……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 161
      • 11.2.3.1       By producer……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 162
    • 11.2.4     Planned graphene capacities 2018 onwards…………………………………………………………………….. 162
  • 11.3        Graphene pricing……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 163
    • 11.3.1     Pristine Graphene Flakes pricing……………………………………………………………………………………. 164
    • 11.3.2     Few-Layer Graphene pricing…………………………………………………………………………………………. 164
    • 11.3.3     Graphene Nanoplatelets pricing…………………………………………………………………………………….. 165
    • 11.3.4     Reduced Graphene Oxide pricing………………………………………………………………………………….. 165
    • 11.3.5     Graphene Quantum Dots pricing……………………………………………………………………………………. 166
    • 11.3.6     Graphene Oxide Nanosheets pricing………………………………………………………………………………. 167
    • 11.3.7     Multilayer Graphene (MLG) pricing…………………………………………………………………………………. 167
  • 11.4        Mass production challenges……………………………………………………………………………………………… 168
    • 11.4.1     Mass production of lower grade graphene materials…………………………………………………………… 168
    • 11.4.2     High grade graphene difficult to mass produce………………………………………………………………….. 168
    • 11.4.3     Bulk supply……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 168
    • 11.4.4     Commoditisation………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 169

12      GRAPHENE IN 3D PRINTING…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 169

  • 12.1        MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS……………………………………………………………………………………. 169
  • 12.2        PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………………………….. 170
  • 12.3        GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY…………………………………………………………………….. 171
  • 12.4        MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 173
  • 12.5        PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………………………. 174

13      GRAPHENE IN ADHESIVES…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 174

  • 13.1        MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS……………………………………………………………………………………. 175
  • 13.2        PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………………………….. 175
  • 13.3        GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY…………………………………………………………………….. 176
  • 13.4        MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 179
  • 13.5        PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………………………. 180

14      GRAPHENE IN AVIATION AND AEROSPACE…………………………………………………………………………….. 180

  • 14.1        MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS……………………………………………………………………………………. 181
  • 14.2        PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………………………….. 182
    • 14.2.1     Composites………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 182
    • 14.2.2     Coatings…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 183
  • 14.3        GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY…………………………………………………………………….. 184
  • 14.4        MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 187
  • 14.5        PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………………………. 188

15      GRAPHENE IN AUTOMOTIVE………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 191

  • 15.1        MARKET DRIVER AND TRENDS……………………………………………………………………………………… 191
  • 15.2        PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………………………….. 192
    • 15.2.1     Composites………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 193
    • 15.2.2     Thermally conductive additives……………………………………………………………………………………… 193
    • 15.2.3     Tires……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 193
  • 15.3        GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY…………………………………………………………………….. 194
  • 15.4        MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 198
  • 15.5        PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………………………. 198

16      GRAPHENE IN COATINGS……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 200

  • 16.1        MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS……………………………………………………………………………………. 201
  • 16.2        PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………………………….. 205
    • 16.2.1     Anti-corrosion coatings………………………………………………………………………………………………… 206
      • 16.2.1.1       Marine…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 207
    • 16.2.2     Anti-microbial…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 207
    • 16.2.3     Anti-icing………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 208
    • 16.2.4     Barrier coatings………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 208
    • 16.2.5     Heat protection………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 209
    • 16.2.6     Anti-fouling……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 210
    • 16.2.7     Wear and abrasion resistance……………………………………………………………………………………….. 211
    • 16.2.8     Smart windows………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 211
  • 16.3        GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY…………………………………………………………………….. 211
    • 16.3.1     Thermal barrier coatings………………………………………………………………………………………………. 215
    • 16.3.2     Barrier coatings………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 215
    • 16.3.3     Anti-microbial coatings………………………………………………………………………………………………… 215
    • 16.3.4     De-icing or anti-icing coatings……………………………………………………………………………………….. 215
    • 16.3.5     Abrasion and wear resistant coatings……………………………………………………………………………… 215
    • 16.3.6     Anti-corrosion coatings………………………………………………………………………………………………… 215
  • 16.4        MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 219
  • 16.5        PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………………………. 220

17      GRAPHENE IN COMPOSITES………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 222

  • 17.1        MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS……………………………………………………………………………………. 223
  • 17.2        PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………………………….. 225
    • 17.2.1     Polymer composites……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 225
    • 17.2.2     Barrier packaging……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 226
    • 17.2.3     Electrostatic discharge (ESD) and electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding……………………….. 227
    • 17.2.4     Wind turbines…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 227
    • 17.2.5     Ballistic protection………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 227
    • 17.2.6     Sporting and leisure composites……………………………………………………………………………………. 227
  • 17.3        GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY…………………………………………………………………….. 228
  • 17.4        MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 231
  • 17.5        PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………………………. 232

18      GRAPHENE IN FLEXIBLE ELECTRONICS, WEARABLES, CONDUCTIVE FILMS AND DISPLAYS………. 234

  • 18.1        MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS……………………………………………………………………………………. 235
  • 18.2        APPLICATIONS…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 236
    • 18.2.1     Transparent electrodes in flexible electronics……………………………………………………………………. 239
    • 18.2.2     Electronic paper…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 241
    • 18.2.3     Wearable electronics…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 241
      • 18.2.3.1       Wearable sensors………………………………………………………………………………………………. 244
    • 18.2.4     Industrial monitoring……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 249
    • 18.2.5     Military…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 249
  • 18.3        GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY…………………………………………………………………….. 250
    • 18.3.1.1       Transparent conductive electrodes………………………………………………………………………… 254
  • 18.4        MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 255
  • 18.5        PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………………………. 258

19      GRAPHENE IN CONDUCTIVE INKS………………………………………………………………………………………….. 259

  • 19.1        MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS……………………………………………………………………………………. 260
  • 19.2        APPLICATIONS…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 260
    • 19.2.1     RFID……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 263
    • 19.2.2     Smart labels……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 264
    • 19.2.3     Smart clothing……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 265
    • 19.2.4     Printable sensors……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 265
    • 19.2.5     Printable antennas……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 267
  • 19.3        GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY…………………………………………………………………….. 267
  • 19.4        MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 272
  • 19.5        PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………………………. 273

20      GRAPHENE TRANSISTORS AND INTEGRATED CIRCUITS………………………………………………………….. 274

  • 20.1        MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS……………………………………………………………………………………. 275
  • 20.2        APPLICATIONS…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 276
    • 20.2.1     Integrated circuits……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 276
    • 20.2.2     Flexible integrated circuits……………………………………………………………………………………………. 277
    • 20.2.3     Transistors……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 277
    • 20.2.4     Graphene Radio Frequency (RF) circuits…………………………………………………………………………. 277
    • 20.2.5     Other 2D transistors……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 278
    • 20.2.6     Graphene spintronics………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 278
  • 20.3        GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY…………………………………………………………………….. 279
  • 20.4        MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 282
  • 20.5        PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………………………. 284

21      GRAPHENE MEMORY DEVICES………………………………………………………………………………………………. 286

  • 21.1        MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS……………………………………………………………………………………. 286
  • 21.2        APPLICATIONS…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 286
  • 21.3        GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY…………………………………………………………………….. 289
  • 21.4        MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 291
  • 21.5        PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………………………. 292

22      GRAPHENE IN PHOTONICS……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 292

  • 22.1        MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS……………………………………………………………………………………. 293
  • 22.2        PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………………………….. 293
    • 22.2.1     Si photonics versus graphene……………………………………………………………………………………….. 293
    • 22.2.2     Optical modulators……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 294
    • 22.2.3     Photodetectors………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 294
    • 22.2.4     Saturable absorbers……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 296
    • 22.2.5     Plasmonics……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 296
    • 22.2.6     Fiber lasers………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 296
  • 22.3        GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY…………………………………………………………………….. 297
  • 22.4        MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 299
  • 22.5        PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………………………. 300

23      GRAPHENE IN BATTERIES…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 301

  • 23.1        MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS……………………………………………………………………………………. 302
  • 23.2        APPLICATIONS…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 304
    • 23.2.1     Lithium-ion batteries (LIB)…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 304
    • 23.2.2     Fiber-shaped Lithium-Ion batteries…………………………………………………………………………………. 305
    • 23.2.3     Lithium-air batteries…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 305
    • 23.2.4     Lithium–sulfur batteries (Li–S)……………………………………………………………………………………….. 305
    • 23.2.5     Sodium-ion batteries…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 306
    • 23.2.6     Flexible and stretchable batteries…………………………………………………………………………………… 306
  • 23.3        GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY…………………………………………………………………….. 309
  • 23.4        MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 313
  • 23.5        PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………………………. 314

24      GRAPHENE IN SUPERCAPACITORS……………………………………………………………………………………….. 317

  • 24.1        MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS……………………………………………………………………………………. 317
  • 24.2        APPLICATIONS…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 318
    • 24.2.1     Flexible and stretchable supercapacitors…………………………………………………………………………. 320
  • 24.3        GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY…………………………………………………………………….. 322
  • 24.4        MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 325
  • 24.5        PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………………………. 325

25      GRAPHENE IN SOLAR…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 326

  • 25.1        MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS……………………………………………………………………………………. 327
  • 25.2        APPLICATIONS…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 327
    • 25.2.1     ITO replacement………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 328
    • 25.2.2     Graphene–silicon (Gr–Si) Schottky junction solar cells……………………………………………………….. 328
    • 25.2.3     Halide perovskites/graphene hybrids………………………………………………………………………………. 329
    • 25.2.4     Solar energy harvesting textiles…………………………………………………………………………………….. 329
  • 25.3        GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY…………………………………………………………………….. 330
  • 25.4        MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 333
  • 25.5        PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………………………. 334

26      GRAPHENE IN FUEL CELLS…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 335

  • 26.1        MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS……………………………………………………………………………………. 335
  • 26.2        APPLICATIONS…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 336
    • 26.2.1     Electrocatalyst supports………………………………………………………………………………………………. 336
  • 26.3        GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY…………………………………………………………………….. 337
  • 26.4        MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 339
  • 26.5        PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………………………. 340

27      GRAPHENE IN LED LIGHTING AND UVC………………………………………………………………………………….. 341

  • 27.1        MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS……………………………………………………………………………………. 341
  • 27.2        APPLICATIONS…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 341
    • 27.2.1     Flexible OLED lighting…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 342
  • 27.3        GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY…………………………………………………………………….. 343
  • 27.4        MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 345
  • 27.5        PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………………………. 346

28      GRAPHENE IN OIL AND GAS………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 346

  • 28.1        MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS……………………………………………………………………………………. 347
  • 28.2        APPLICATIONS…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 348
    • 28.2.1     Sensing and reservoir management……………………………………………………………………………….. 348
    • 28.2.2     Coatings…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 349
    • 28.2.3     Drilling fluids……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 350
    • 28.2.4     Sorbent materials……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 351
    • 28.2.5     Catalysts………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 351
    • 28.2.6     Separation………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 351
  • 28.3        GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY…………………………………………………………………….. 352
  • 28.4        MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 355
  • 28.5        PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………………………. 356

29      GRAPHENE IN FILTRATION……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 357

  • 29.1        MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS……………………………………………………………………………………. 357
  • 29.2        APPLICATIONS…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 358
    • 29.2.1     Graphene membranes…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 358
    • 29.2.2     Water filtration…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 359
    • 29.2.3     Gas separation………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 360
    • 29.2.4     Photocatalytic absorbents…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 360
    • 29.2.5     Air filtration……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 360
  • 29.3        GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY…………………………………………………………………….. 361
  • 29.4        MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 365
  • 29.5        PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………………………. 366

30      GRAPHENE IN LIFE SCIENCES AND BIOMEDICINE…………………………………………………………………… 368

  • 30.1        MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS……………………………………………………………………………………. 368
  • 30.2        APPLICATIONS…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 370
    • 30.2.1     Cancer therapy………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 373
      • 30.2.1.1       Graphene oxide for therapy and drug delivery………………………………………………………….. 373
      • 30.2.1.2       Graphene nanosheets………………………………………………………………………………………… 373
    • 30.2.2     Gene delivery……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 373
      • 30.2.2.1       Photodynamic Therapy……………………………………………………………………………………….. 373
    • 30.2.3     Medical implants and devices……………………………………………………………………………………….. 373
    • 30.2.4     Wound dressings……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 374
    • 30.2.5     Biosensors……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 374
      • 30.2.5.1       FRET biosensors for DNA detection………………………………………………………………………. 375
    • 30.2.6     Medical imaging…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 375
    • 30.2.7     Tissue engineering……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 376
    • 30.2.8     Dental……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 376
    • 30.2.9     Electrophysiology……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 376
    • 30.2.10        Wearable and mobile health monitoring………………………………………………………………………. 376
    • 30.2.11        Graphene devices………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 378
    • 30.2.12        Patch-type skin sensors…………………………………………………………………………………………… 379
    • 30.2.13        Skin temperature monitoring…………………………………………………………………………………….. 381
    • 30.2.14        Hydration sensors………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 382
    • 30.2.15        Wearable sweat sensors………………………………………………………………………………………….. 383
    • 30.2.16        Smart footwear………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 384
  • 30.3        GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY…………………………………………………………………….. 385
    • 30.3.1     Wearable healthcare…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 386
  • 30.4        MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 390
  • 30.5        PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………………………. 392

31      GRAPHENE IN LUBRICANTS………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 393

  • 31.1        MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS……………………………………………………………………………………. 394
  • 31.2        APPLICATIONS…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 394
  • 31.3        GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY…………………………………………………………………….. 395
  • 31.4        MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 398
  • 31.5        PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………………………. 398

32      GRAPHENE IN RUBBER AND TIRES………………………………………………………………………………………… 398

  • 32.1        APPLICATIONS…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 399
  • 32.2        GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY…………………………………………………………………….. 399
  • 32.3        MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 401
  • 32.4        PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………………………. 402

33      GRAPHENE IN SENSORS……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 403

  • 33.1        MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS……………………………………………………………………………………. 404
  • 33.2        APPLICATIONS…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 404
    • 33.2.1     Infrared (IR) sensors…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 407
    • 33.2.2     Electrochemical and gas sensors…………………………………………………………………………………… 407
    • 33.2.3     Graphene foam………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 408
    • 33.2.4     Pressure sensors……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 408
    • 33.2.5     Biosensors……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 408
    • 33.2.6     Optical sensors………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 410
    • 33.2.7     Humidity sensors……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 410
    • 33.2.8     Strain sensors……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 411
    • 33.2.9     Acoustic sensors………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 411
    • 33.2.10        Wireless sensors……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 411
    • 33.2.11        Surface enhanced Raman scattering………………………………………………………………………….. 411
  • 33.3        GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY…………………………………………………………………….. 411
  • 33.4        MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 414
  • 33.5        PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………………………. 415

34      GRAPHENE IN SMART TEXTILES AND APPAREL……………………………………………………………………… 417

  • 34.1        MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS……………………………………………………………………………………. 418
  • 34.2        APPLICATONS……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 420
    • 34.2.1     Conductive coatings……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 424
    • 34.2.2     Conductive yarns……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 425
  • 34.3        GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY…………………………………………………………………….. 426
  • 34.4        MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 432
  • 34.5        PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………………………. 432

35      GRAPHENE IN CONSTRUCTION……………………………………………………………………………………………… 434

  • 35.1        GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY…………………………………………………………………….. 434
  • 35.2        PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………………………. 436

36      COMPANY PROFILES……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 439 (199 company profiles)

37      REFERENCES…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 553

 

Tables

  • Table 1: Categorization of nanomaterials……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 37
  • Table 2: Demand for graphene (tons), 2010-2030……………………………………………………………………………………. 42
  • Table 3: Consumer products incorporating graphene………………………………………………………………………………… 44
  • Table 4: Graphene investments and financial agreements 2017-2019………………………………………………………….. 46
  • Table 5: Market opportunity assessment matrix for graphene applications…………………………………………………….. 50
  • Table 6: Graphene target markets-Applications and potential addressable market size…………………………………….. 54
  • Table 7: Main graphene producers by country and annual production capacities 2019……………………………………… 55
  • Table 8: Graphene industrial collaborations, licence agreements and target markets……………………………………….. 59
  • Table 9: Market and techical challenges in graphene………………………………………………………………………………… 63
  • Table 10: Demand for graphene by region, 2015-2030, tons………………………………………………………………………. 69
  • Table 11: Graphene producers in China………………………………………………………………………………………………… 70
  • Table 12: Graphene producers in Asia…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 71
  • Table 13: Graphene producers in Australia…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 72
  • Table 14: Graphene producers in North America……………………………………………………………………………………… 72
  • Table 15: Properties of graphene…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 82
  • Table 16: Comparison of graphene QDs and semiconductor QDs……………………………………………………………….. 83
  • Table 17: Graphene quantum dot producers…………………………………………………………………………………………… 86
  • Table 18: Comparative properties of carbon materials………………………………………………………………………………. 89
  • Table 19: Comparative properties of graphene with nanoclays and carbon nanotubes……………………………………… 90
  • Table 20: Competitive analysis of Carbon nanotubes and graphene by application area and potential impact by 2030. 91
  • Table 21: 2D materials types……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 92
  • Table 22: Electronic and mechanical properties of monolayer phosphorene, graphene and MoS2……………………….. 97
  • Table 23: Market opportunity assessment for phosphorene applications……………………………………………………… 100
  • Table 24: Market opportunity assessment for graphitic carbon nitride applications…………………………………………. 103
  • Table 25: Market opportunity assessment for germanene applications………………………………………………………… 104
  • Table 26: Market opportunity assessment for graphdiyne applications………………………………………………………… 107
  • Table 27: Market opportunity assessment for graphane applications…………………………………………………………… 108
  • Table 28: Market opportunity assessment for hexagonal boron nitride applications………………………………………… 111
  • Table 29: Market opportunity assessment for molybdenum disulfide applications…………………………………………… 115
  • Table 30: Market opportunity assessment for Rhenium disulfide (ReS2) and diselenide (ReSe2) applications……… 116
  • Table 31: Market opportunity assessment for silicene applications……………………………………………………………… 119
  • Table 32: Market opportunity assessment for stanine/tinene applications…………………………………………………….. 121
  • Table 33: Market opportunity assessment for tungsten diselenide applications……………………………………………… 123
  • Table 34: Comparative analysis of graphene and other 2-D nanomaterials…………………………………………………… 125
  • Table 35: Large area graphene films-Markets, applications and current global market……………………………………. 126
  • Table 36: Graphene oxide flakes/graphene nanoplatelets-Markets, applications and current global market…………. 126
  • Table 37: Main production methods for graphene…………………………………………………………………………………… 127
  • Table 38: Large area graphene films-Markets, applications and current global market……………………………………. 133
  • Table 39: Graphene market structure…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 144
  • Table 40: Published patent publications for graphene, 2004-2018……………………………………………………………… 151
  • Table 41: Leading graphene patentees………………………………………………………………………………………………… 152
  • Table 42: Demand for graphene (tons), 2010-2030…………………………………………………………………………………. 156
  • Table 43: Graphene oxide production capacity by producer, 2010-2018………………………………………………………. 158
  • Table 44: Graphene oxide production capacity in tons by region, 2010-2018………………………………………………… 158
  • Table 45: Graphene nanoplatelets capacity in tons by producer, 2010-2018…………………………………………………. 159
  • Table 46: Graphene nanoplatelets capacity in tons by region, 2010-2018…………………………………………………….. 160
  • Table 47: CVD graphene film capacity in tons by producer, 2010-2018/ 000s m2…………………………………………… 162
  • Table 48: Planned graphene production capacities…………………………………………………………………………………. 162
  • Table 49: Types of graphene and prices………………………………………………………………………………………………. 163
  • Table 50: Pristine graphene flakes pricing by producer……………………………………………………………………………. 164
  • Table 51: Few-layer graphene pricing by producer…………………………………………………………………………………. 165
  • Table 52: Graphene nanoplatelets pricing by producer…………………………………………………………………………….. 165
  • Table 53: Reduced graphene oxide pricing, by producer………………………………………………………………………….. 166
  • Table 54: Graphene quantum dots pricing by producer……………………………………………………………………………. 166
  • Table 55: Graphene oxide nanosheets pricing by producer………………………………………………………………………. 167
  • Table 56: Multi-layer graphene pricing by producer…………………………………………………………………………………. 167
  • Table 57: Market drivers for use of graphene in 3D printing………………………………………………………………………. 170
  • Table 58: Graphene properties relevant to application in 3D printing…………………………………………………………… 170
  • Table 59: Market size for graphene in 3D printing…………………………………………………………………………………… 171
  • Table 60: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in 3D printing…………………………………………………………. 171
  • Table 61: Demand for graphene in 3-D printing (tons), 2018-2030……………………………………………………………… 172
  • Table 62: Market challenges rating for nanotechnology and nanomaterials in the 3D printing market…………………. 173
  • Table 63: Market drivers for use of graphene in adhesives……………………………………………………………………….. 175
  • Table 64: Graphene properties relevant to application in adhesives……………………………………………………………. 176
  • Table 65: Applications and benefits of graphene in adhesives…………………………………………………………………… 176
  • Table 66: Market size for graphene in adhesives……………………………………………………………………………………. 176
  • Table 67: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in adhesives………………………………………………………….. 177
  • Table 68: Demand for graphene in adhesives (tons), 2018-2030……………………………………………………………….. 178
  • Table 69: Market challenges rating for graphene in the adhesives market……………………………………………………. 179
  • Table 70: Market drivers for use of graphene in aviation and aerospace………………………………………………………. 181
  • Table 71: Applications and benefits of graphene in aviation and aerospace………………………………………………….. 183
  • Table 72: Market size for graphene in aviation and aerospace…………………………………………………………………… 184
  • Table 73: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in aviation and aerospace………………………………………… 185
  • Table 74: Demand for graphene in aviation and aerospace (tons), 2018-2030………………………………………………. 186
  • Table 75: Market challenges rating for graphene in the aerospace market……………………………………………………. 187
  • Table 76: Market drivers for use of graphene in the automotive sector………………………………………………………… 191
  • Table 77: Applications and benefits of graphene in the automotive industry………………………………………………….. 194
  • Table 78: Market size for graphene in the automotive industry…………………………………………………………………… 194
  • Table 79: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in the automotive industry………………………………………… 195
  • Table 80: Demand for graphene in automotive (tons), 2018-2030………………………………………………………………. 197
  • Table 81: Market challenges rating for graphene in the automotive sector……………………………………………………. 198
  • Table 82: Properties of nanocoatings…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 201
  • Table 83: Graphene properties relevant to application in coatings………………………………………………………………. 205
  • Table 84: Markets for nanocoatings…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 212
  • Table 85: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in the coatings market……………………………………………… 217
  • Table 86: Demand for graphene in coatings (tons), 2018-2030………………………………………………………………….. 219
  • Table 87: Market challenges rating for graphene in the coatings market………………………………………………………. 220
  • Table 88: Market drivers for use of graphene in composites……………………………………………………………………… 223
  • Table 89: Graphene properties relevant to application in polymer composites………………………………………………. 225
  • Table 90: Applications and benefits of graphene in composites…………………………………………………………………. 225
  • Table 91: Market size for graphene in composites………………………………………………………………………………….. 228
  • Table 92: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in the composites market…………………………………………. 229
  • Table 93: Demand for graphene in composites (tons), 2018-2030……………………………………………………………… 230
  • Table 94: Market challenges rating for graphene in the composites market………………………………………………….. 232
  • Table 95: Market drivers for use of graphene in flexible electronics and conductive films…………………………………. 235
  • Table 96: Applications and benefits of graphene in flexible electronics and conductive films…………………………….. 238
  • Table 97: Comparison of ITO replacements………………………………………………………………………………………….. 239
  • Table 98: Wearable electronics devices and stage of development…………………………………………………………….. 242
  • Table 99: Graphene properties relevant to application in sensors………………………………………………………………. 247
  • Table 100: Market size for graphene in flexible electronics and conductive films……………………………………………. 250
  • Table 101: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in flexible electronics, wearables, conductive films and displays………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 251
  • Table 102: Global market for wearable electronics, 2015-2027, by application, billions $…………………………………. 253
  • Table 103: Demand for graphene in flexible electronics (tons), 2018-2030…………………………………………………… 253
  • Table 104: Market challenges rating for graphene in the flexible electronics, wearables, conductive films and displays market……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 257
  • Table 105: Market drivers for use of graphene in conductive inks………………………………………………………………. 260
  • Table 106: Comparative properties of conductive inks…………………………………………………………………………….. 261
  • Table 107: Printable electronics products……………………………………………………………………………………………… 262
  • Table 108: Opportunities for advanced materials in printed electronics………………………………………………………… 264
  • Table 109: Applications in flexible and stretchable batteries, by nanomaterials type and benefits thereof……………. 266
  • Table 110: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in conductive inks…………………………………………………. 269
  • Table 111: Conductive inks in the flexible and stretchable electronics market 2017-2027 revenue forecast (million $), by ink types…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 270
  • Table 112: Demand for graphene in conductive ink (tons), 2018-2027………………………………………………………… 271
  • Table 113: Market impediments for graphene in conductive inks……………………………………………………………….. 272
  • Table 114: Market drivers for use of graphene in transistors, integrated circuits and other components………………. 275
  • Table 115: Comparative properties of silicon and graphene transistors……………………………………………………….. 277
  • Table 116: Applications and benefits of graphene in transistors, integrated circuits and other components………….. 278
  • Table 117: Market size for graphene in transistors, integrated circuits and other components…………………………… 279
  • Table 118: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in transistors, integrated circuits and other components… 280
  • Table 119: Demand for graphene in transistors and integrated circuits (tons), 2018-2030……………………………….. 281
  • Table 120: Market challenges rating for graphene in the transistors and integrated circuits market……………………. 283
  • Table 121: Market drivers for use of graphene in memory devices……………………………………………………………… 286
  • Table 122: Market size for graphene in memory devices………………………………………………………………………….. 289
  • Table 123: Demand for graphene in memory devices (tons), 2018-2030……………………………………………………… 290
  • Table 124: Applications and commercialization challenges for graphene in the memory devices market…………….. 291
  • Table 125: Market drivers for use of graphene in photonics………………………………………………………………………. 293
  • Table 126: Graphene properties relevant to application in optical modulators……………………………………………….. 294
  • Table 127: Applications and benefits of graphene in photonics………………………………………………………………….. 296
  • Table 128: Market size for graphene in photonics…………………………………………………………………………………… 297
  • Table 129: Demand for graphene in photonics (tons), 2018-2030………………………………………………………………. 298
  • Table 130: Market challenges rating for graphene in the photonics market…………………………………………………… 300
  • Table 131: Market drivers for use of graphene in batteries……………………………………………………………………….. 302
  • Table 132: Wearable energy and energy harvesting devices and stage of development………………………………….. 306
  • Table 133: Applications in flexible and stretchable batteries, by materials type and benefits thereof…………………… 308
  • Table 134: Market size for graphene in batteries……………………………………………………………………………………. 310
  • Table 135: Potential addressable market for thin film, flexible and printed batteries………………………………………… 311
  • Table 136: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in batteries………………………………………………………….. 311
  • Table 137: Demand for graphene in batteries (tons), 2018-2030………………………………………………………………… 312
  • Table 138: Market challenges for graphene in batteries…………………………………………………………………………… 313
  • Table 139: Market challenges rating for graphene in the batteries market……………………………………………………. 314
  • Table 140: Market drivers for use of graphene in supercapacitors………………………………………………………………. 318
  • Table 141: Comparative properties of graphene supercapacitors and lithium-ion batteries………………………………. 319
  • Table 142: Applications and benefits of graphene in supercapacitors………………………………………………………….. 319
  • Table 143: Applications in flexible and stretchable supercapacitors, by nanomaterials type and benefits thereof…… 321
  • Table 144: Market size for graphene in supercapacitors…………………………………………………………………………… 322
  • Table 145: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in supercapacitors………………………………………………… 323
  • Table 146: Demand for graphene in supercapacitors (tons), 2018-2030………………………………………………………. 324
  • Table 147: Market challenges rating for graphene in the supercapacitors market…………………………………………… 325
  • Table 148: Market drivers for use of graphene in photovoltaics………………………………………………………………….. 327
  • Table 149: Market size for graphene in photovoltaics………………………………………………………………………………. 330
  • Table 150: Market size for graphene in photovoltaics………………………………………………………………………………. 331
  • Table 151: Potential addressable market for photovoltaics……………………………………………………………………….. 331
  • Table 152: Demand for graphene in photovoltaics (tons), 2018-2030………………………………………………………….. 332
  • Table 153: Market challenges rating for graphene in the solar market…………………………………………………………. 333
  • Table 154: Market drivers for use of graphene in fuel cells and hydrogen storage………………………………………….. 335
  • Table 155: Applications and benefits of graphene in fuel cells and hydrogen storage……………………………………… 337
  • Table 156: Market size for graphene in fuel cells and hydrogen storage………………………………………………………. 337
  • Table 157: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in fuel cells and hydrogen storage…………………………….. 338
  • Table 158: Demand for graphene in fuel cells (tons), 2018-2030……………………………………………………………….. 338
  • Table 159: Market challenges rating for graphene in the fuel cells market……………………………………………………. 340
  • Table 160: Market drivers for use of graphene in LED lighting and UVC………………………………………………………. 341
  • Table 161: Applications of graphene in lighting………………………………………………………………………………………. 341
  • Table 162: Market size for graphene in LED lighting and UVC…………………………………………………………………… 343
  • Table 163: Investment opportunity assessment for graphene in the lighting market………………………………………… 344
  • Table 164: Demand for graphene in lighting (tons), 2018-2030………………………………………………………………….. 344
  • Table 165: Market impediments for graphene in lighting…………………………………………………………………………… 345
  • Table 166: Market drivers for graphene in oil and gas……………………………………………………………………………… 347
  • Table 167: Applications of graphene in the oil and gas market…………………………………………………………………… 348
  • Table 168: Application markets, competing materials, graphene advantages and current market size in oil and gas. 352
  • Table 169: Market summary and revenues for graphene in the oil and gas market………………………………………… 353
  • Table 170: Potential addressable market for graphene in the oil and gas market…………………………………………… 354
  • Table 171: Demand for graphene in oil and gas (tons), 2018-2030…………………………………………………………….. 355
  • Table 172: Market challenges rating for graphene in the oil and gas market…………………………………………………. 356
  • Table 173: Market drivers for use of graphene in filtration………………………………………………………………………… 357
  • Table 174: Applications and benefits of graphene in filtration and separation………………………………………………… 359
  • Table 175: Market size for graphene in filtration……………………………………………………………………………………… 361
  • Table 176: Potential addressable market for graphene in the filtration market……………………………………………….. 363
  • Table 177: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in the filtration and separation market………………………… 363
  • Table 178: Demand for graphene in filtration (tons), 2018-2030…………………………………………………………………. 364
  • Table 179: Market challenges rating for graphene in the filtration and separation market…………………………………. 365
  • Table 180: Market drivers for use of graphene in the life sciences and medical market…………………………………… 368
  • Table 181: Graphene properties relevant to application in biomedicine and healthcare…………………………………… 370
  • Table 182: Applications and benefits of graphene in life sciences and medical……………………………………………… 371
  • Table 183: Applications in flexible and stretchable health monitors, by advanced materials type and benefits thereof. 379
  • Table 184: Market size for graphene in biomedical and healthcare…………………………………………………………….. 385
  • Table 185: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in biomedical & healthcare markets…………………………… 387
  • Table 186: Potential addressable market for graphene in biomedical & healthcare markets……………………………… 388
  • Table 187: Demand for graphene in life sciences and medical (tons), 2018-2030………………………………………….. 389
  • Table 188: Market challenges in graphene in biomedicine and healthcare……………………………………………………. 391
  • Table 189: Market challenges rating for graphene in the biomedical and healthcare market…………………………….. 392
  • Table 190: Market drivers for use of graphene in lubricants………………………………………………………………………. 394
  • Table 191: Applications of graphene in the lubricants market……………………………………………………………………. 394
  • Table 192: Applications of carbon nanomaterials in lubricants…………………………………………………………………… 395
  • Table 193: Market size for graphene in lubricants…………………………………………………………………………………… 395
  • Table 194: Potential addressable market for graphene in the lubricants market…………………………………………….. 396
  • Table 195: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in lubricants…………………………………………………………. 397
  • Table 196: Demand for graphene in lubricants (tons), 2018-2030………………………………………………………………. 397
  • Table 197: Market challenges rating for graphene in the lubricants market…………………………………………………… 398
  • Table 198: Applications of graphene in rubber and tires…………………………………………………………………………… 399
  • Table 199: Market summary and revenues for graphene in the rubber and tires market………………………………….. 399
  • Table 200: Potential addressable market for graphene in the rubber and tires market…………………………………….. 400
  • Table 201: Investment opportunity assessment for graphene in the rubber and tires market…………………………….. 400
  • Table 202: Demand for graphene in rubber and tires (tons), 2018-2030………………………………………………………. 400
  • Table 203: Market challenges for graphene in rubber and tires………………………………………………………………….. 401
  • Table 204: Market drivers for use of graphene in sensors………………………………………………………………………… 404
  • Table 205: Applications and benefits of graphene in sensors…………………………………………………………………….. 405
  • Table 206: Graphene properties relevant to application in sensors……………………………………………………………… 406
  • Table 207: Comparison of ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) and graphene biosensor…………………… 410
  • Table 208: Market size for graphene in sensors……………………………………………………………………………………… 411
  • Table 209: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in the sensors market…………………………………………….. 412
  • Table 210: Demand for graphene in sensors (tons), 2018-2030…………………………………………………………………. 413
  • Table 211: Market challenges rating for graphene in the sensors market……………………………………………………… 415
  • Table 212: Types of smart textiles………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 418
  • Table 213: Smart textile products……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 419
  • Table 214: Market drivers for use of graphene in smart textiles and apparel…………………………………………………. 419
  • Table 215: Nanocoatings applied in the textiles industry-type of coating, nanomaterials utilized, benefits and applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 421
  • Table 216: Desirable functional properties for the textiles industry afforded by the use of nanomaterials…………….. 423
  • Table 217: Applications and benefits of graphene in textiles and apparel…………………………………………………….. 424
  • Table 218: Global smart clothing, interactive fabrics and apparel market……………………………………………………… 427
  • Table 219: Potential addressable market for graphene in the smart textiles market………………………………………… 430
  • Table 220: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in smart textiles and apparel……………………………………. 430
  • Table 221: Demand for graphene in textiles (tons), 2018-2030………………………………………………………………….. 431
  • Table 222: Market impediments for graphene in textiles…………………………………………………………………………… 432
  • Table 223: Market challenges for graphene in textiles and apparel…………………………………………………………….. 432
  • Table 224: Potential addressable market for graphene in the cement market……………………………………………….. 435
  • Table 225: Demand for graphene in cement (tons), 2018-2030…………………………………………………………………. 435
  • Table 226: Graphene producers and types produced………………………………………………………………………………. 439
  • Table 227: Graphene producers target market matrix……………………………………………………………………………… 442
  • Table 228: Graphene industrial collaborations, licence agreements and target markets………………………………….. 445
  • Table 229: Graphene product developers and end users target market matrix………………………………………………. 449

 

Figures

  • Figure 1: Demand for graphene, 2010-2030……………………………………………………………………………………………. 43
  • Figure 2: Vittoria bike tires incorporating graphene…………………………………………………………………………………… 44
  • Figure 3: Demand for graphene, by market, 2018. Figures based on market graphene producers sell to, including samples……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 49
  • Figure 4: Global government funding for graphene in millions USD to 2018…………………………………………………… 53
  • Figure 5: Market drivers and trends in graphene………………………………………………………………………………………. 56
  • Figure 6: Demand for graphene in China, by market, 2017…………………………………………………………………………. 65
  • Figure 7: Demand for graphene in China, by market, 2018…………………………………………………………………………. 66
  • Figure 8: Demand for graphene in China, by market, 2030…………………………………………………………………………. 66
  • Figure 9: Demand for graphene in Asia-Pacific, by market, 2017…………………………………………………………………. 67
  • Figure 10: Demand for graphene in Asia-Pacific, by market, 2018……………………………………………………………….. 67
  • Figure 11: Demand for graphene in Asia-Pacific, by market, 2030……………………………………………………………….. 68
  • Figure 12; Demand for graphene by region, 2015-2030, tons……………………………………………………………………… 69
  • Figure 13: Demand for graphene in North America, by market, 2017……………………………………………………………. 73
  • Figure 14: Demand for graphene in North America, by market, 2018……………………………………………………………. 74
  • Figure 15: Demand for graphene in North America, by market, 2030……………………………………………………………. 74
  • Figure 16: Demand for graphene in Europe, by market, 2017……………………………………………………………………… 75
  • Figure 17: Demand for graphene in Europe, by market, 2018……………………………………………………………………… 76
  • Figure 18: Demand for graphene in Europe, by market, 2018……………………………………………………………………… 76
  • Figure 19: Demand for graphene in Europe, by market, 2030……………………………………………………………………… 77
  • Figure 20: Graphene layer structure schematic……………………………………………………………………………………….. 79
  • Figure 21: Graphite and graphene………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 80
  • Figure 22: Graphene and its descendants: top right: graphene; top left: graphite = stacked graphene; bottom right: nanotube=rolled graphene; bottom left: fullerene=wrapped graphene. …………………………………………………… 81
  • Figure 23: Schematic of (a) CQDs and (c) GQDs. HRTEM images of (b) C-dots and (d) GQDs showing combination of zigzag and armchair edges (positions marked as 1–4)………………………………………………………………………… 84
  • Figure 24: Green-fluorescing graphene quantum dots………………………………………………………………………………. 85
  • Figure 25: Graphene quantum dots………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 86
  • Figure 26: Graphene can be rolled up into a carbon nanotube, wrapped into a fullerene, and stacked into graphite… 88
  • Figure 27: Schematic of 2-D materials…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 93
  • Figure 28: Borophene schematic………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 95
  • Figure 29: Black phosphorus structure…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 96
  • Figure 30: Black Phosphorus crystal……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 97
  • Figure 31: Bottom gated flexible few-layer phosphorene transistors with the hydrophobic dielectric encapsulation….. 98
  • Figure 32: Graphitic carbon nitride………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 101
  • Figure 33: Structural difference between graphene and C2N-h2D crystal: (a) graphene; (b) C2N-h2D crystal. Credit: Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology………………………………………………………………………….. 102
  • Figure 34: Schematic of germanene……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 103
  • Figure 35: Graphdiyne structure…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 105
  • Figure 36: Schematic of Graphane crystal…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 107
  • Figure 37: Structure of hexagonal boron nitride……………………………………………………………………………………… 109
  • Figure 38: BN nanosheet textiles application…………………………………………………………………………………………. 111
  • Figure 39: Structure of 2D molybdenum disulfide……………………………………………………………………………………. 112
  • Figure 40: SEM image of MoS2………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 113
  • Figure 41: Atomic force microscopy image of a representative MoS2 thin-film transistor………………………………….. 114
  • Figure 42: Schematic of the molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) thin-film sensor with the deposited molecules that create additional charge………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 114
  • Figure 43: Schematic of a monolayer of rhenium disulfide………………………………………………………………………… 116
  • Figure 44: Silicene structure………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 117
  • Figure 45: Monolayer silicene on a silver (111) substrate…………………………………………………………………………. 117
  • Figure 46: Silicene transistor……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 118
  • Figure 47: Crystal structure for stanene……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 120
  • Figure 48: Atomic structure model for the 2D stanene on Bi2Te3(111)………………………………………………………… 120
  • Figure 49: Schematic of tungsten diselenide…………………………………………………………………………………………. 122
  • Figure 50: Schematic of Indium Selenide (InSe)…………………………………………………………………………………….. 124
  • Figure 51: Fabrication methods of graphene…………………………………………………………………………………………. 128
  • Figure 52: Graphene synthesis methods………………………………………………………………………………………………. 129
  • Figure 53: TEM micrographs of: A) HR-CNFs; B) GANF® HR-CNF, it can be observed its high graphitic structure; C) Unraveled ribbon from the HR-CNF; D) Detail of the ribbon; E) Scheme of the structure of the HR-CNFs; F) Large single graphene oxide sheets derived from GANF……………………………………………………………………………. 130
  • Figure 54: Graphene nanoribbons grown on germanium………………………………………………………………………….. 132
  • Figure 55: Schematic illustration of the main graphene production techniques………………………………………………. 134
  • Figure 56: Graphene synthesis-CVD technique……………………………………………………………………………………… 135
  • Figure 57: (a) Graphene powder production line in The Sixth Element Materials Technology Co. Ltd. (b) Graphene film production line of Wuxi Graphene Films Co. Ltd………………………………………………………………………………. 136
  • Figure 58: Illustrative procedure of the Scotch-tape based micromechanical cleavage of HOPG……………………….. 139
  • Figure 59: Roll-to-roll graphene production process………………………………………………………………………………… 140
  • Figure 60: Schematic of roll-to-roll manufacturing process………………………………………………………………………… 141
  • Figure 61: Microwave irradiation of graphite to produce single-layer graphene……………………………………………… 142
  • Figure 62: Schematic of typical commercialization route for graphene producer…………………………………………….. 144
  • Figure 63: Published patent publications for graphene, 2004-2018…………………………………………………………….. 152
  • Figure 64: Roadmap for graphene applications……………………………………………………………………………………… 155
  • Figure 65: Demand for graphene, 2010-2030………………………………………………………………………………………… 157
  • Figure 66: Graphene oxide production capacity in tons by region, 2010-2018……………………………………………….. 159
  • Figure 67: Graphene nanoplatelets capacity in tons by region, 2010-2018…………………………………………………… 161
  • Figure 68: CVD Graphene on Cu Foil………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 161
  • Figure 69: 3D Printed tweezers incorporating Carbon Nanotube Filament……………………………………………………. 170
  • Figure 70: Demand for graphene in 3-D printing (tons), 2018-2030…………………………………………………………….. 173
  • Figure 71: Graphene Adhesives…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 175
  • Figure 72: Potential addressable market for graphene in adhesives……………………………………………………………. 178
  • Figure 73: Demand for graphene in adhesives (tons), 2018-2030………………………………………………………………. 179
  • Figure 74: Graphene aircraft……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 183
  • Figure 75: Potential addressable market for graphene in aviation and aerospace………………………………………….. 185
  • Figure 76: Potential addressable market for graphene-enabled applications in aviation and aerospace………………. 186
  • Figure 77: Demand for graphene in aerospace (tons), 2018-2030………………………………………………………………. 187
  • Figure 78: Graphene enhanced aircraft cargio container………………………………………………………………………….. 189
  • Figure 79: Graphene-based automotive components………………………………………………………………………………. 192
  • Figure 80: Antistatic graphene tire………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 193
  • Figure 81: Potential addressable market for graphene in the automotive sector…………………………………………….. 195
  • Figure 82: Potential addressable market for graphene in the automotive sector…………………………………………….. 196
  • Figure 83: Demand for graphene in automotive(tons), 2018-2030………………………………………………………………. 197
  • Figure 84: Supercar incorporating graphene………………………………………………………………………………………….. 199
  • Figure 85: Graphene tire…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 200
  • Figure 86: Heat transfer coating developed at MIT………………………………………………………………………………….. 205
  • Figure 87: Water permeation through a brick without (left) and with (right) “graphene paint” coating…………………… 209
  • Figure 88: Four layers of graphene oxide coatings on polycarbonate………………………………………………………….. 211
  • Figure 89: Global Paints and Coatings Market, share by end user market……………………………………………………. 212
  • Figure 90: Graphene based anti-corrosion steel coatings…………………………………………………………………………. 216
  • Figure 91: Potential addressable market for graphene in the coatings market……………………………………………….. 217
  • Figure 92: Potential addressable market for graphene in the coatings market……………………………………………….. 218
  • Figure 93: Demand for graphene in coatings (tons), 2018-2030…………………………………………………………………. 219
  • Figure 94: Potential addressable market for graphene in composites………………………………………………………….. 229
  • Figure 95: Potential addressable market for graphene in the composites market…………………………………………… 230
  • Figure 96: Demand for graphene in composites (tons), 2018-2030…………………………………………………………….. 231
  • Figure 97: Moxi flexible film developed for smartphone application…………………………………………………………….. 237
  • Figure 98: Flexible graphene touch screen……………………………………………………………………………………………. 237
  • Figure 99: Galapad Settler smartphone………………………………………………………………………………………………… 238
  • Figure 100: Flexible organic light emitting diode (OLED) using graphene electrode………………………………………… 239
  • Figure 101: Graphene electrochromic devices. Top left: Exploded-view illustration of the graphene electrochromic device. The device is formed by attaching two graphene-coated PVC substrates face-to-face and filling the gap with a liquid ionic electrolyte………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 240
  • Figure 102: Flexible mobile phones with graphene transparent conductive film……………………………………………… 241
  • Figure 103: Foldable graphene E-paper……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 241
  • Figure 104: Covestro wearables…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 243
  • Figure 105: Softceptor sensor……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 245
  • Figure 106: BeBop Media Arm Controller……………………………………………………………………………………………… 246
  • Figure 107: LG Innotek flexible textile pressure sensor……………………………………………………………………………. 246
  • Figure 108: C2Sense flexible sensor……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 247
  • Figure 109: Wearable gas sensor……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 248
  • Figure 110: BeBop Sensors Marcel Modular Data Gloves………………………………………………………………………… 249
  • Figure 111: BeBop Sensors Smart Helmet Sensor System………………………………………………………………………. 249
  • Figure 112: Torso and Extremities Protection (TEP) system……………………………………………………………………… 250
  • Figure 113: Potential addressable market for graphene in the flexible electronics, wearables, conductive films and displays market………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 252
  • Figure 114: Global market for wearable electronics, 2015-2027, by application, billions $………………………………… 253
  • Figure 115: Demand for graphene in flexible electronics (tons), 2018-2030………………………………………………….. 254
  • Figure 116: Global transparent conductive electrodes market forecast by materials type, 2012-2027, millions $…… 255
  • Figure 117: Schematic of the wet roll-to-roll graphene transfer from copper foils to polymeric substrates…………….. 256
  • Figure 118: The transmittance of glass/ITO, glass/ITO/four organic layers, and glass/ITO/four organic layers/4-layer graphene………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 257
  • Figure 119: BGT Materials graphene ink product……………………………………………………………………………………. 262
  • Figure 120: Printed graphene conductive ink…………………………………………………………………………………………. 263
  • Figure 121: Flexible RFID tag…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 263
  • Figure 122: Textiles covered in conductive graphene ink………………………………………………………………………….. 265
  • Figure 123: Enfucell Printed Battery…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 267
  • Figure 124: Graphene printed antenna…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 267
  • Figure 125: Printed antennas for aircraft………………………………………………………………………………………………. 267
  • Figure 126: Vorbeck Materials conductive ink products……………………………………………………………………………. 268
  • Figure 127: Potential addressable market for graphene in the conductive ink market……………………………………… 269
  • Figure 128: Conductive inks in the flexible and stretchable electronics market 2017-2027 revenue forecast (million $), by ink types…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 270
  • Figure 129: Demand for graphene in conductive ink (tons), 2018-2030……………………………………………………….. 272
  • Figure 130: Graphene IC in wafer tester………………………………………………………………………………………………. 276
  • Figure 131: A monolayer WS2-based flexible transistor array……………………………………………………………………. 276
  • Figure 132: Schematic cross-section of a graphene based transistor (GBT, left) and a graphene field-effect transistor (GFET, right)……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 278
  • Figure 133: Potential addressable market for graphene in transistors and integrated circuits……………………………. 280
  • Figure 134: Potential addressable market for graphene in the transistors and integrated circuits market…………….. 281
  • Figure 135: Demand for graphene in transistors and integrated circuits (tons), 2018-2030………………………………. 282
  • Figure 136: The GF1 Graphene Watch………………………………………………………………………………………………… 285
  • Figure 137: Graphene oxide-based RRAm device on a flexible substrate…………………………………………………….. 287
  • Figure 138: Layered structure of tantalum oxide, multilayer graphene and platinum used for resistive random access memory (RRAM)………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 287
  • Figure 139: A schematic diagram for the mechanism of the resistive switching in metal/GO/Pt…………………………. 288
  • Figure 140: Carbon nanotubes NRAM chip…………………………………………………………………………………………… 288
  • Figure 141: Stretchable SWCNT memory and logic devices for wearable electronics……………………………………… 289
  • Figure 142: Potential addressable market for graphene in the memory devices market…………………………………… 290
  • Figure 143: Demand for graphene in memory devices (tons), 2018-2030…………………………………………………….. 291
  • Figure 144: Hybrid graphene phototransistors……………………………………………………………………………………….. 295
  • Figure 145: Wearable health monitor incorporating graphene photodetectors……………………………………………….. 295
  • Figure 146: Flexible PEN coated with graphene and a QD thin film (20nm) is highly visibly transparent and photosensitive………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 296
  • Figure 147: Potential addressable market for graphene in photonics…………………………………………………………… 298
  • Figure 148: Demand for graphene in photonics (tons), 2018-2030……………………………………………………………… 299
  • Figure 149: The SkelStart Engine Start Module 2.0 based on the graphene-based SkelCap ultracapacitors………… 302
  • Figure 150: Energy harvesting textile…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 304
  • Figure 151: LG Chem Heaxagonal battery……………………………………………………………………………………………. 306
  • Figure 152: Printed 1.5V battery…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 308
  • Figure 153: H600 concept car……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 309
  • Figure 154: Anion concept car……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 310
  • Figure 155: Potential addressable market for graphene in the thin film, flexible and printed batteries market……….. 312
  • Figure 156: Demand for graphene in batteries (tons), 2018-2030……………………………………………………………….. 313
  • Figure 157: Skeleton Technologies ultracapacitor…………………………………………………………………………………… 319
  • Figure 158: Zapgo supercapacitor phone charger…………………………………………………………………………………… 320
  • Figure 159: Stretchable graphene supercapacitor…………………………………………………………………………………… 321
  • Figure 160: Potential addressable market for graphene in supercapacitors………………………………………………….. 323
  • Figure 161: Demand for graphene in supercapacitors (tons), 2018-2030……………………………………………………… 324
  • Figure 162: Solar cell with nanowires and graphene electrode…………………………………………………………………… 328
  • Figure 163: Schematic illustration of the fabrication concept for textile-based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) made by sewing textile electrodes onto cloth or paper……………………………………………………………………………….. 329
  • Figure 164: Potential addressable market for graphene in photovoltaics………………………………………………………. 332
  • Figure 165: Demand for graphene in photovoltaics (tons), 2018-2030…………………………………………………………. 333
  • Figure 166: Potential addressable market for graphene in fuel cells……………………………………………………………. 338
  • Figure 167: Demand for graphene in fuel cells (tons), 2018-2030………………………………………………………………. 339
  • Figure 168: LG OLED flexible lighting panel………………………………………………………………………………………….. 342
  • Figure 169: Flexible OLED incorporated into automotive headlight……………………………………………………………… 343
  • Figure 170: Potential addressable market for graphene in lighting……………………………………………………………… 344
  • Figure 171: Demand for graphene in lighting (tons), 2018-2030…………………………………………………………………. 345
  • Figure 172: Schematic of boron doped graphene for application in gas sensors……………………………………………. 349
  • Figure 173: Directa Plus Grafysorber…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 351
  • Figure 174: Nanometer-scale pores in single-layer freestanding graphene membrane can effectively filter NaCl salt from water……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 352
  • Figure 175: Demand for graphene in oil and gas (tons), 2018-2030……………………………………………………………. 355
  • Figure 176: Degradation of organic dye molecules by graphene hybrid composite photocatalysts……………………… 360
  • Figure 177: Graphene anti-smog mask………………………………………………………………………………………………… 361
  • Figure 178: Potential addressable market for graphene in the filtration market………………………………………………. 361
  • Figure 179: Demand for graphene in filtration (tons), 2018-2030………………………………………………………………… 365
  • Figure 180: Graphene filtration membrane……………………………………………………………………………………………. 366
  • Figure 181: Graphene Frontiers’ Six™ chemical sensors consists of a field effect transistor (FET) with a graphene channel. Receptor molecules, such as DNA, are attached directly to the graphene channel………………………. 375
  • Figure 182: Graphene-Oxide based chip prototypes for biopsy-free early cancer diagnosis……………………………… 375
  • Figure 183: Connected human body……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 377
  • Figure 184: Flexible, lightweight temperature sensor……………………………………………………………………………….. 377
  • Figure 185: Graphene-based E-skin patch……………………………………………………………………………………………. 378
  • Figure 186: Smart e-skin system comprising health-monitoring sensors, displays, and ultra flexible PLEDs…………. 380
  • Figure 187: Graphene medical patch…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 381
  • Figure 188: TempTraQ wearable wireless thermometer…………………………………………………………………………… 382
  • Figure 189: Mimo baby monitor………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 382
  • Figure 190: Nanowire skin hydration patch……………………………………………………………………………………………. 383
  • Figure 191: Wearable sweat sensor…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 383
  • Figure 192: GraphWear wearable sweat sensor…………………………………………………………………………………….. 384
  • Figure 193: Global medical and healthcare smart textiles and wearables market, 2015-2027, billions $………………. 386
  • Figure 194: Global medical and healthcare smart textiles and wearables market, 2015-2027, billions $………………. 387
  • Figure 195: Potential addressable market for graphene-enabled applications in the biomedical and healthcare market……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 389
  • Figure 196: Demand for graphene in life sciences and medical (tons), 2018-2030…………………………………………. 390
  • Figure 197: Demand for graphene in lubricants (tons), 2018-2030……………………………………………………………… 397
  • Figure 198: Demand for graphene in rubber and tires (tons), 2018-2030……………………………………………………… 401
  • Figure 199: GFET sensors………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 408
  • Figure 200: First generation point of care diagnostics……………………………………………………………………………… 409
  • Figure 201: Graphene Field Effect Transistor Schematic………………………………………………………………………….. 410
  • Figure 202: Potential addressable market for graphene in the sensors market………………………………………………. 413
  • Figure 203: Demand for graphene in sensors (tons), 2018-2030………………………………………………………………… 414
  • Figure 204: Colmar graphene ski jacket……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 425
  • Figure 205: Conductive yarns…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 426
  • Figure 206: Global smart clothing, interactive fabrics and apparel market 2013-2030 revenue forecast (million $)…. 427
  • Figure 207 Global smart clothing, interactive fabrics and apparel sales by market segment, 2016…………………….. 428
  • Figure 208: Global market revenues for nanotech-enabled smart clothing and apparel 2014-2021, in US$, conservative estimate………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 429
  • Figure 209: Global market revenues for nanotech-enabled smart clothing and apparel 2014-2021, in US$, optimistic estimate………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 429
  • Figure 210: Demand for graphene in textiles (tons), 2018-2030…………………………………………………………………. 431
  • Figure 211: Demand for graphene in cement (tons), 2018-2030………………………………………………………………… 436
  • Figure 212: Graphene added to cement……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 437
  • Figure 213: Graphene flake products…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 456
  • Figure 214: Prototype of Graphene-integrated UF filter cartridge……………………………………………………………….. 540