The Global Market for Graphene to 2030

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There are over 350 companies globally producing graphene materials or developing products incorporating graphene and this number is growing as manufacturers witness the benefits offered by graphene. Recent product launches include graphene-based bicycle and automotive tires, smart phone batteries, supercapacitors, water filtration membranes and composites. Major corporations including Ford and Huawei have recently integrated graphene into their products.

The Global Market for Graphene to 2030 provides a complete analysis for the market for these exceptional materials, including competition, production, revenues, markets, applications, producers and product developers.

Published: May 2019 | Pages: 666 pages | 226 tables, 207 figures | Price: £1000 | Table of contents

Report contents include:

  • Global production capacities-historical, current and forecast to 2030.
  • Current and planned graphene products.
  • Description of the graphene market 2017-2018.
  • Market segmentation by graphene type.
  • Stage of commercialization for graphene applications, from basic research to market entry.
  • Market drivers, trends and challenges, by end user markets.
  • Competitive landscape of graphene among other carbon-based additives (MWCNT, SWCNT, Carbon Fibers, Carbon Black, etc.)
  • Key graphene events.
  • In-depth market assessment of opportunities for graphene including tonnage demand by market, growth rates, pricing, most likely applications and market challenges.
  • Market demand in tonnes, USD, CAGR 2017-2030
  • In-depth company profiles, including products, capacities, and commercial activities.
  • Detailed forecasts for key growth areas, opportunities and user demand.
  • Assessment of applications for other 2D materials.
  • Over 270 company profiles.
  • Data on addressable markets for graphene (revenues), relevant applications, graphene technology fit and competition from other materials.
  • New information on demand by regional market.
  • Latest product and investment news to May 2019.
  • Commercial production capacities by company, and by year, for Graphene Oxide, Graphene Nanolatelets and CVD Graphene in tons and m2
  • Industrial collaborations and licence agreements
  • Markets targeted, by product developers and end users
  • Types of graphene produced, by producer
  • Graphene applications by industry, material, and product
The Global Market for Graphene to 2030
The Global Market for Graphene to 2030
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The Global Market for Graphene to 2030
The Global Market for Graphene to 2030
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TABLE OF CONTENTS

1        RESEARCH METHODOLOGY……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 43

2        EXECUTIVE SUMMARY………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 47

  • 2.1     Two-dimensional (2D) materials………………………………………………………………………………………………. 47
  • 2.2     Graphene…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 47
    • 2.2.1       The market in 2016………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 48
    • 2.2.2       The market in 2017………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 48
    • 2.2.3       The market in 2018………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 48
    • 2.2.4       Production………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 49
    • 2.2.5       Products……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 50
    • 2.2.6       Graphene investments 2017-2018…………………………………………………………………………………… 52
  • 2.3     Market outlook for 2018…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 54
  • 2.4       Global funding and initiatives………………………………………………………………………………………….. 58
  • 2.5       Products and applications……………………………………………………………………………………………… 59
  • 2.6       Production………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 60
  • 2.7       Market drivers and trends………………………………………………………………………………………………. 62
  • 2.8       Market and technical challenges……………………………………………………………………………………… 68

3        PROPERTIES OF NANOMATERIALS…………………………………………………………………………………………. 80

4        OVERVIEW OF GRAPHENE……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 82

  • 4.1     History……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 82
  • 4.2     Forms of graphene……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 83
  • 4.3     Properties…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 84
  • 4.4     3D Graphene………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 85
  • 4.5     Graphene Quantum Dots……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 85

5        CARBON NANOTUBES VERSUS GRAPHENE……………………………………………………………………………… 90

  • 5.1     Comparative properties…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 90
  • 5.2     Cost and production……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 91
  • 5.3     Carbon nanotube-graphene hybrids…………………………………………………………………………………………. 92
  • 5.4     Competitive analysis of carbon nanotubes and graphene………………………………………………………………. 92

6        OTHER 2-D MATERIALS………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 94

  • 6.1     Beyond moore’s law……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 95
  • 6.2     Batteries…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 96
  • 6.3     BOROPHENE……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 96
  • 6.4     PHOSPHORENE…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 98
  • 6.5     GRAPHITIC CARBON NITRIDE (g-C3N4)……………………………………………………………………………….. 103
  • 6.6     GERMANENE……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 106
  • 6.7     GRAPHDIYNE…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 107
  • 6.8     GRAPHANE……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 110
  • 6.9     HEXAGONAL BORON-NITRIDE……………………………………………………………………………………………. 111
  • 6.10        MOLYBDENUM DISULFIDE (MoS2)…………………………………………………………………………………… 114
  • 6.11        RHENIUM DISULFIDE (ReS2) AND DISELENIDE (ReSe2)…………………………………………………….. 118
  • 6.12        SILICENE…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 121
  • 6.13        STANENE/TINENE…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 124
  • 6.14        TUNGSTEN DISELENIDE……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 126
  • 6.15        ANTIMONENE………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 127
  • 6.16        DIAMENE…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 127
  • 6.17        INDIUM SELENIDE………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 128
  • 6.18        COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF GRAPHENE AND OTHER 2D MATERIALS………………………………. 129

7        GRAPHENE SYNTHESIS………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 130

  • 7.1     Large area graphene films……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 130
  • 7.2     Graphene oxide flakes and graphene nanoplatelets……………………………………………………………………. 130
  • 7.3     Production methods……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 131
    • 7.3.1       Production directly from natural graphite ore…………………………………………………………………….. 133
    • 7.3.2       Alternative starting materials…………………………………………………………………………………………. 133
    • 7.3.3       Quality……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 134
  • 7.4     Synthesis and production by types of graphene…………………………………………………………………………. 134
    • 7.4.1       Graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs)……………………………………………………………………………………. 135
    • 7.4.2       Graphene nanoribbons………………………………………………………………………………………………… 135
    • 7.4.3       Large-area graphene films……………………………………………………………………………………………. 136
    • 7.4.4       Graphene oxide (GO)………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 137
  • 7.5     Pros and cons of graphene production methods………………………………………………………………………… 137
    • 7.5.1       Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD)…………………………………………………………………………………. 138
    • 7.5.2       Exfoliation method……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 140
    • 7.5.3       Epitaxial growth method………………………………………………………………………………………………. 141
    • 7.5.4       Wet chemistry method (liquid phase exfoliation)………………………………………………………………… 141
    • 7.5.5       Micromechanical cleavage method…………………………………………………………………………………. 142
    • 7.5.6       Green reduction of graphene oxide………………………………………………………………………………… 143
    • 7.5.7       Plasma…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 143
  • 7.6     Recent synthesis methods……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 144
  • 7.7     Synthesis methods by company…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 148

8        GRAPHENE MARKET STRUCTURE AND ROUTES TO COMMERCIALIZATION……………………………….. 150

  • 8.1     Commercialization route………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 150
  • 8.2     Market structure…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 150
    • 8.2.1       Graphite Ore Producers………………………………………………………………………………………………. 150
    • 8.2.2       Tools and CVD equipment providers………………………………………………………………………………. 151
    • 8.2.3       Research Labs………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 151
    • 8.2.4       Graphene Manufacturers……………………………………………………………………………………………… 151
      • 8.2.4.1    Large Area Graphene Film Producers…………………………………………………………………………. 151
      • 8.2.4.2    Graphene Materials Producers………………………………………………………………………………….. 151
    • 8.2.5       Intermediate component developers……………………………………………………………………………….. 151
    • 8.2.6       Product developers/OEMs……………………………………………………………………………………………. 152

9        REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS…………………………………………………………………………………………… 154

  • 9.1     Standards…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 154
  • 9.2     Environmental, health and safety regulation……………………………………………………………………………… 154
    • 9.2.1       Europe…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 154
    • 9.2.2       United States…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 155
    • 9.2.3       Asia………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 155
  • 9.3     Workplace exposure……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 155

10      PATENTS AND PUBLICATIONS………………………………………………………………………………………………. 157

  • 10.1        Fabrication processes……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 157
  • 10.2        Academia……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 157
  • 10.3        Regional leaders……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 157
  • 10.4        Patent publications 2004-2018………………………………………………………………………………………….. 157
  • 10.5        Leading graphene patentees…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 158

11      GRAPHENE COMMERCIAL ROADMAP…………………………………………………………………………………….. 160

12      GRAPHENE INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENTS 2013-2018-INVESTMENTS, PRODUCTS AND PRODUCTION 162

13      END USER MARKET SEGMENT ANALYSIS………………………………………………………………………………. 211

  • 13.1        Graphene production volumes 2010-2030……………………………………………………………………………. 211
  • 13.2        Commercial production capacities……………………………………………………………………………………… 212
    • 13.2.1     Graphene oxide…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 213
    • 13.2.2     Graphene nanoplatelets………………………………………………………………………………………………. 214
    • 13.2.3     CVD graphene film……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 216
    • 13.2.4     Planned graphene capacities 2018 onwards…………………………………………………………………….. 217
  • 13.3        Graphene pricing……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 218
    • 13.3.1     Pristine Graphene Flakes pricing……………………………………………………………………………………. 219
    • 13.3.2     Few-Layer Graphene pricing…………………………………………………………………………………………. 219
    • 13.3.3     Graphene Nanoplatelets pricing…………………………………………………………………………………….. 220
    • 13.3.4     Reduced Graphene Oxide pricing………………………………………………………………………………….. 220
    • 13.3.5     Graphene Quantum Dots pricing……………………………………………………………………………………. 221
    • 13.3.6     Graphene Oxide Nanosheets pricing………………………………………………………………………………. 222
    • 13.3.7     Multilayer Graphene (MLG) pricing…………………………………………………………………………………. 222
  • 13.4        Mass production challenges……………………………………………………………………………………………… 223
    • 13.4.1     Mass production of lower grade graphene materials…………………………………………………………… 223
    • 13.4.2     High grade graphene difficult to mass produce………………………………………………………………….. 223
    • 13.4.3     Blk supply……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 223
    • 13.4.4     Commoditisation………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 224

14      GRAPHENE IN 3D PRINTING…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 225

  • 14.1        MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS……………………………………………………………………………………. 225
  • 14.2        PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………………………….. 225
  • 14.3        GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY…………………………………………………………………….. 226
  • 14.4        MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 228
  • 14.5        PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………………………. 229

15      GRAPHENE IN ADHESIVES…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 230

  • 15.1        MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS……………………………………………………………………………………. 230
  • 15.2        PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………………………….. 230
  • 15.3        GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY…………………………………………………………………….. 231
  • 15.4        MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 234
  • 15.5        PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………………………. 235

16      GRAPHENE IN AVIATION AND AEROSPACE…………………………………………………………………………….. 236

  • 16.1        MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS……………………………………………………………………………………. 236
  • 16.2        PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………………………….. 237
    • 16.2.1     Composites………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 237
    • 16.2.2     Coatings…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 238
  • 16.3        GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY…………………………………………………………………….. 239
  • 16.4        MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 243
  • 16.5        PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………………………. 243

17      GRAPHENE IN AUTOMOTIVE………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 246

  • 17.1        MARKET DRIVER AND TRENDS……………………………………………………………………………………… 246
  • 17.2        PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………………………….. 247
    • 17.2.1     Composites………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 247
    • 17.2.2     Thermally conductive additives……………………………………………………………………………………… 248
    • 17.2.3     Tires……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 248
  • 17.3        GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY…………………………………………………………………….. 249
  • 17.4        MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 252
  • 17.5        PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………………………. 253

18      GRAPHENE IN COATINGS……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 256

  • 18.1        MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS……………………………………………………………………………………. 256
  • 18.2        PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………………………….. 260
    • 18.2.1     Anti-corrosion coatings………………………………………………………………………………………………… 261
      • 18.2.1.1       Marine…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 262
    • 18.2.2     Anti-microbial…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 262
    • 18.2.3     Anti-icing………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 263
    • 18.2.4     Barrier coatings………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 263
    • 18.2.5     Heat protection………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 264
    • 18.2.6     Anti-fouling……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 265
    • 18.2.7     Wear and abrasion resistance……………………………………………………………………………………….. 266
    • 18.2.8     Smart windows………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 266
  • 18.3        GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY…………………………………………………………………….. 267
    • 18.3.1     Thermal barrier coatings………………………………………………………………………………………………. 270
    • 18.3.2     Barrier coatings………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 270
    • 18.3.3     Anti-microbial coatings………………………………………………………………………………………………… 270
    • 18.3.4     De-icing or anti-icing coatings……………………………………………………………………………………….. 270
    • 18.3.5     Abrasion and wear resistant coatings……………………………………………………………………………… 270
    • 18.3.6     Anti-corrosion coatings………………………………………………………………………………………………… 270
  • 18.4        MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 275
  • 18.5        PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………………………. 275

19      GRAPHENE IN COMPOSITES………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 278

  • 19.1        MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS……………………………………………………………………………………. 278
  • 19.2        PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………………………….. 280
    • 19.2.1     Polymer composites……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 280
    • 19.2.2     Barrier packaging……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 282
    • 19.2.3     Electrostatic discharge (ESD) and electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding……………………….. 282
    • 19.2.4     Wind turbines…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 282
    • 19.2.5     Ballistic protection………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 282
  • 19.3        GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY…………………………………………………………………….. 282
  • 19.4        MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 286
  • 19.5        PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………………………. 287

20      GRAPHENE IN FLEXIBLE ELECTRONICS, WEARABLES, CONDUCTIVE FILMS AND DISPLAYS………. 290

  • 20.1        MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS……………………………………………………………………………………. 290
  • 20.2        APPLICATIONS…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 292
    • 20.2.1     Transparent electrodes in flexible electronics……………………………………………………………………. 294
    • 20.2.2     Electronic paper…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 296
    • 20.2.3     Wearable electronics…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 296
      • 20.2.3.1       Wearable sensors………………………………………………………………………………………………. 299
    • 20.2.4     Industrial monitoring……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 304
    • 20.2.5     Military…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 304
  • 20.3        GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY…………………………………………………………………….. 305
  • 20.3.1.1       Transparent conductive electrodes………………………………………………………………………… 309
  • 20.4        MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 310
  • 20.5        PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………………………. 313

21      GRAPHENE IN CONDUCTIVE INKS………………………………………………………………………………………….. 315

  • 21.1        MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS……………………………………………………………………………………. 315
  • 21.2        APPLICATIONS…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 316
    • 21.2.1     RFID……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 318
    • 21.2.2     Smart labels……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 320
    • 21.2.3     Smart clothing……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 320
    • 21.2.4     Printable sensors……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 320
    • 21.2.5    Printed batteries…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 321
    • 21.2.6     Printable antennas……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 322
  • 21.3        GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY…………………………………………………………………….. 323
  • 21.4        MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 328
  • 21.5        PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………………………. 329

22      GRAPHENE TRANSISTORS AND INTEGRATED CIRCUITS………………………………………………………….. 330

  • 22.1        MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS……………………………………………………………………………………. 330
  • 22.2        APPLICATIONS…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 332
    • 22.2.1     Integrated circuits……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 332
    • 22.2.2     Flexible integrated circuits……………………………………………………………………………………………. 332
    • 22.2.3     Transistors……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 333
    • 22.2.4     Graphene Radio Frequency (RF) circuits…………………………………………………………………………. 333
    • 22.2.5     Other 2D transistors……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 334
    • 22.2.6     Graphene spintronics………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 334
  • 22.3        GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY…………………………………………………………………….. 335
  • 22.4        MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 338
  • 22.5        PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………………………. 340

23      GRAPHENE MEMORY DEVICES………………………………………………………………………………………………. 342

  • 23.1        MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS……………………………………………………………………………………. 342
  • 23.2        APPLICATIONS…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 342
  • 23.3        GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY…………………………………………………………………….. 345
  • 23.4        MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 347
  • 23.5        PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………………………. 348

24      GRAPHENE IN PHOTONICS……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 349

  • 24.1        MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS……………………………………………………………………………………. 349
  • 24.2        PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………………………….. 349
    • 24.2.1     Si photonics versus graphene……………………………………………………………………………………….. 349
    • 24.2.2     Optical modulators……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 350
    • 24.2.3     Photodetectors………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 350
    • 24.2.4     Saturable absorbers……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 352
    • 24.2.5     Plasmonics……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 352
    • 24.2.6     Fiber lasers………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 352
  • 24.3        GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY…………………………………………………………………….. 353
  • 24.4        MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 355
  • 24.5        PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………………………. 356

25      GRAPHENE IN BATTERIES…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 357

  • 25.1        MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS……………………………………………………………………………………. 358
  • 25.2        APPLICATIONS…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 360
  • 25.2.1     Lithium-ion batteries (LIB)…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 360
  • 25.2.2     Fiber-shaped Lithium-Ion batteries…………………………………………………………………………………. 361
  • 25.2.3     Lithium-air batteries…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 361
  • 25.2.4     Lithium–sulfur batteries (Li–S)……………………………………………………………………………………….. 361
  • 25.2.5     Sodium-ion batteries…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 361
  • 25.2.6     Flexible and stretchable batteries…………………………………………………………………………………… 362
  • 25.3        GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY…………………………………………………………………….. 365
  • 25.4        MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 369
  • 25.5        PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………………………. 370

26      GRAPHENE IN SUPERCAPACITORS……………………………………………………………………………………….. 374

  • 26.1        MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS……………………………………………………………………………………. 374
  • 26.2        APPLICATIONS…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 374
    • 26.2.1     Flexible and stretchable supercapacitors…………………………………………………………………………. 376
  • 26.3        GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY…………………………………………………………………….. 378
  • 26.4        MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 381
  • 26.5        PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………………………. 381

27      GRAPHENE IN SOLAR…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 383

  • 27.1        MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS……………………………………………………………………………………. 383
  • 27.2        APPLICATIONS…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 384
    • 27.2.1     ITO replacement………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 384
    • 27.2.2     Graphene–silicon (Gr–Si) Schottky junction solar cells……………………………………………………….. 385
    • 27.2.3     Halide perovskites/graphene hybrids………………………………………………………………………………. 385
    • 27.2.4     Solar energy harvesting textiles…………………………………………………………………………………….. 385
  • 27.3        GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY…………………………………………………………………….. 387
  • 27.4        MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 390
  • 27.5        PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………………………. 391

28      GRAPHENE IN FUEL CELLS…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 392

  • 28.1        MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS……………………………………………………………………………………. 392
  • 28.2        APPLICATIONS…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 393
    • 28.2.1     Electrocatalyst supports………………………………………………………………………………………………. 393
  • 28.3        GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY…………………………………………………………………….. 394
  • 28.4        MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 396
  • 28.5        PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………………………. 397

29      GRAPHENE IN LED LIGHTING AND UVC………………………………………………………………………………….. 398

  • 29.1        MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS……………………………………………………………………………………. 398
  • 29.2        APPLICATIONS…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 398
    • 29.2.1     Flexible OLED lighting…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 399
  • 29.3        GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY…………………………………………………………………….. 399
  • 29.4        MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 402
  • 29.5        PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………………………. 403

30      GRAPHENE IN OIL AND GAS………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 404

  • 30.1        MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS……………………………………………………………………………………. 404
  • 30.2        APPLICATIONS…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 405
    • 30.2.1     Sensing and reservoir management……………………………………………………………………………….. 405
    • 30.2.2     Coatings…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 406
    • 30.2.3     Drilling fluids……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 407
    • 30.2.4     Sorbent materials……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 408
    • 30.2.5     Catalysts………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 408
    • 30.2.6     Separation………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 408
  • 30.3        GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY…………………………………………………………………….. 409
  • 30.4        MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 413
  • 30.5        PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………………………. 413

31      GRAPHENE IN FILTRATION……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 415

  • 31.1        MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS……………………………………………………………………………………. 415
  • 31.2        APPLICATIONS…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 416
    • 31.2.1     Graphene membranes…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 416
    • 31.2.2     Water filtration…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 417
    • 31.2.3     Gas separation………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 418
    • 31.2.4     Photocatalytic absorbents…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 418
    • 31.2.5     Air filtration……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 418
  • 31.3        GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY…………………………………………………………………….. 419
  • 31.4        MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 423
  • 31.5        PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………………………. 423

32      GRAPHENE IN LIFE SCIENCES AND BIOMEDICINE…………………………………………………………………… 426

  • 32.1        MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS……………………………………………………………………………………. 426
  • 32.2        APPLICATIONS…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 428
    • 32.2.1     Cancer therapy………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 430
      • 32.2.1.1       Graphene oxide for therapy and drug delivery………………………………………………………….. 430
      • 32.2.1.2       Graphene nanosheets………………………………………………………………………………………… 431
    • 32.2.2     Gene delivery……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 431
      • 32.2.2.1       Photodynamic Therapy……………………………………………………………………………………….. 431
    • 32.2.3     Medical implants and devices……………………………………………………………………………………….. 431
    • 32.2.4     Wound dressings……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 432
    • 32.2.5     Biosensors……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 432
      • 32.2.5.1       FRET biosensors for DNA detection………………………………………………………………………. 433
    • 32.2.6     Medical imaging…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 433
    • 32.2.7     Tissue engineering……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 434
    • 32.2.8     Dental……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 434
    • 32.2.9     Electrophysiology……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 434
    • 32.2.10        Wearable and mobile health monitoring………………………………………………………………………. 434
    • 32.2.11        Graphene devices………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 436
    • 32.2.12        Patch-type skin sensors…………………………………………………………………………………………… 437
    • 32.2.13        Skin temperature monitoring…………………………………………………………………………………….. 439
    • 32.2.14        Hydration sensors………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 440
    • 32.2.15        Wearable sweat sensors………………………………………………………………………………………….. 441
    • 32.2.16        Smart footwear………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 442
  • 32.3        GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY…………………………………………………………………….. 443
    • 32.3.1     Wearable healthcare…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 444
  • 32.4        MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 448
  • 32.5        PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………………………. 450

33      GRAPHENE IN LUBRICANTS………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 452

  • 33.1        MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS……………………………………………………………………………………. 452
  • 33.2        APPLICATIONS…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 452
  • 33.3        GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY…………………………………………………………………….. 453
  • 33.4        MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 455
  • 33.5        PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………………………. 456

34      GRAPHENE IN RUBBER AND TIRES………………………………………………………………………………………… 457

  • 34.1        APPLICATIONS…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 457
  • 34.2        GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY…………………………………………………………………….. 457
  • 34.3        MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 460
  • 34.4        PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………………………. 461

35      GRAPHENE IN SENSORS……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 463

  • 35.1        MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS……………………………………………………………………………………. 463
  • 35.2        APPLICATIONS…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 464
    • 35.2.1     Infrared (IR) sensors…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 466
    • 35.2.2     Electrochemical and gas sensors…………………………………………………………………………………… 466
    • 35.2.3     Graphene foam………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 467
    • 35.2.4     Pressure sensors……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 467
    • 35.2.5     Biosensors……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 467
    • 35.2.6     Optical sensors………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 469
    • 35.2.7     Humidity sensors……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 469
    • 35.2.8     Strain sensors……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 470
    • 35.2.9     Acoustic sensors………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 470
    • 35.2.10        Wireless sensors……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 470
    • 35.2.11        Surface enhanced Raman scattering………………………………………………………………………….. 470
  • 35.3        GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY…………………………………………………………………….. 470
  • 35.4        MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 473
  • 35.5        PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………………………. 474

36      GRAPHENE IN SMART TEXTILES AND APPAREL……………………………………………………………………… 477

  • 36.1        MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS……………………………………………………………………………………. 477
  • 36.2        APPLICATONS……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 480
    • 36.2.1     Conductive coatings……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 483
    • 36.2.2     Conductive yarns……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 484
  • 36.3        GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY…………………………………………………………………….. 485
  • 36.4        MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 491
  • 36.5        PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………………………. 491

37      GRAPHENE IN CONSTRUCTION……………………………………………………………………………………………… 493

  • 37.1        GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY…………………………………………………………………….. 493
  • 37.2        PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………………………. 495

38         GRAPHENE PRODUCERS AND PRODUCT DEVELOPERS       498 (279 COMPANY PROFILES)

39      References…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 647

 

Tables

  • Table 1: Demand for graphene (tons), 2010-2030……………………………………………………………………………………. 49
  • Table 2: Consumer products incorporating graphene………………………………………………………………………………… 51
  • Table 3: Graphene investments and financial agreements 2017-2018………………………………………………………….. 52
  • Table 4: Market opportunity assessment matrix for graphene applications…………………………………………………….. 56
  • Table 5: Graphene target markets-Applications and potential addressable market size…………………………………….. 59
  • Table 6: Main graphene producers by country and annual production capacities 2019……………………………………… 61
  • Table 7: Graphene industrial collaborations, licence agreements and target markets……………………………………….. 63
  • Table 8: Categorization of nanomaterials……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 80
  • Table 9: Properties of graphene…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 84
  • Table 10: Comparison of graphene QDs and semiconductor QDs……………………………………………………………….. 86
  • Table 11: Graphene quantum dot producers…………………………………………………………………………………………… 89
  • Table 12: Comparative properties of carbon materials………………………………………………………………………………. 91
  • Table 13: Comparative properties of graphene with nanoclays and carbon nanotubes……………………………………… 92
  • Table 14: Competitive analysis of Carbon nanotubes and graphene by application area and potential impact by 2030. 93
  • Table 15: 2D materials types……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 94
  • Table 17: Market opportunity assessment for borophene applications…………………………………………………………… 98
  • Table 16: Electronic and mechanical properties of monolayer phosphorene, graphene and MoS2……………………….. 99
  • Table 17: Market opportunity assessment for phosphorene applications……………………………………………………… 103
  • Table 18: Market opportunity assessment for graphitic carbon nitride applications…………………………………………. 105
  • Table 19: Market opportunity assessment for germanene applications………………………………………………………… 107
  • Table 20: Market opportunity assessment for graphdiyne applications………………………………………………………… 109
  • Table 21: Market opportunity assessment for graphane applications…………………………………………………………… 111
  • Table 22: Market opportunity assessment for hexagonal boron nitride applications………………………………………… 114
  • Table 23: Market opportunity assessment for molybdenum disulfide applications…………………………………………… 118
  • Table 24: Market opportunity assessment for Rhenium disulfide (ReS2) and diselenide (ReSe2) applications……… 119
  • Table 25: Market opportunity assessment for silicene applications……………………………………………………………… 123
  • Table 26: Market opportunity assessment for stanine/tinene applications…………………………………………………….. 125
  • Table 27: Market opportunity assessment for tungsten diselenide applications……………………………………………… 127
  • Table 28: Comparative analysis of graphene and other 2-D nanomaterials…………………………………………………… 129
  • Table 29: Large area graphene films-Markets, applications and current global market……………………………………. 130
  • Table 30: Graphene oxide flakes/graphene nanoplatelets-Markets, applications and current global market…………. 130
  • Table 31: Main production methods for graphene…………………………………………………………………………………… 131
  • Table 32: Large area graphene films-Markets, applications and current global market……………………………………. 136
  • Table 33: Graphene synthesis methods, by company……………………………………………………………………………… 148
  • Table 34: Graphene market structure…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 150
  • Table 35: Published patent publications for graphene, 2004-2018……………………………………………………………… 157
  • Table 36: Leading graphene patentees………………………………………………………………………………………………… 158
  • Table 38: Demand for graphene (tons), 2010-2030…………………………………………………………………………………. 211
  • Table 39: Graphene oxide production capacity in tons by country/year, 2010-2018………………………………………… 213
  • Table 40: Graphene oxide production capacity in tons by region, 2010-2018………………………………………………… 213
  • Table 41: Graphene nanoplatelets capacity in tons by country/year, 2010-2018……………………………………………. 214
  • Table 42: Graphene nanoplatelets capacity in tons by region, 2010-2018…………………………………………………….. 215
  • Table 43: CVD graphene film capacity in tons by country/year, 2010-2018/ 000s m2………………………………………. 217
  • Table 44: Planned graphene production capacities…………………………………………………………………………………. 217
  • Table 45: Types of graphene and prices………………………………………………………………………………………………. 218
  • Table 46: Pristine graphene flakes pricing by producer……………………………………………………………………………. 219
  • Table 47: Few-layer graphene pricing by producer…………………………………………………………………………………. 220
  • Table 48: Graphene nanoplatelets pricing by producer…………………………………………………………………………….. 220
  • Table 49: Reduced graphene oxide pricing, by producer………………………………………………………………………….. 221
  • Table 50: Graphene quantum dots pricing by producer……………………………………………………………………………. 221
  • Table 51: Graphene oxide nanosheets pricing by producer………………………………………………………………………. 222
  • Table 52: Multi-layer graphene pricing by producer…………………………………………………………………………………. 222
  • Table 53: Market drivers for use of graphene in 3D printing………………………………………………………………………. 225
  • Table 54: Graphene properties relevant to application in 3D printing…………………………………………………………… 226
  • Table 55: Market size for graphene in 3D printing…………………………………………………………………………………… 226
  • Table 56: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in 3D printing…………………………………………………………. 226
  • Table 57: Demand for graphene in 3-D printing (tons), 2018-2030……………………………………………………………… 227
  • Table 58: Market challenges rating for nanotechnology and nanomaterials in the 3D printing market…………………. 228
  • Table 59: Market drivers for use of graphene in adhesives……………………………………………………………………….. 230
  • Table 60: Graphene properties relevant to application in adhesives……………………………………………………………. 231
  • Table 61: Applications and benefits of graphene in adhesives…………………………………………………………………… 231
  • Table 62: Market size for graphene in adhesives……………………………………………………………………………………. 231
  • Table 63: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in adhesives………………………………………………………….. 232
  • Table 64: Demand for graphene in adhesives (tons), 2018-2030……………………………………………………………….. 233
  • Table 65: Market challenges rating for graphene in the adhesives market……………………………………………………. 234
  • Table 66: Market drivers for use of graphene in aviation and aerospace………………………………………………………. 236
  • Table 67: Applications and benefits of graphene in aviation and aerospace………………………………………………….. 239
  • Table 68: Market size for graphene in aviation and aerospace…………………………………………………………………… 239
  • Table 69: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in aviation and aerospace………………………………………… 240
  • Table 70: Demand for graphene in aviation and aerospace (tons), 2018-2030………………………………………………. 242
  • Table 71: Market challenges rating for graphene in the aerospace market……………………………………………………. 243
  • Table 72: Market drivers for use of graphene in the automotive sector………………………………………………………… 246
  • Table 73: Applications and benefits of graphene in the automotive industry………………………………………………….. 248
  • Table 74: Market size for graphene in the automotive industry…………………………………………………………………… 249
  • Table 75: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in the automotive industry………………………………………… 250
  • Table 76: Demand for graphene in automotive (tons), 2018-2030………………………………………………………………. 251
  • Table 77: Market challenges rating for graphene in the automotive sector……………………………………………………. 253
  • Table 78: Properties of nanocoatings…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 256
  • Table 79: Graphene properties relevant to application in coatings………………………………………………………………. 261
  • Table 80: Markets for nanocoatings…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 267
  • Table 81: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in the coatings market……………………………………………… 272
  • Table 82: Demand for graphene in coatings (tons), 2018-2030………………………………………………………………….. 274
  • Table 83: Market challenges rating for graphene in the coatings market………………………………………………………. 275
  • Table 84: Market drivers for use of graphene in composites……………………………………………………………………… 278
  • Table 85: Graphene properties relevant to application in polymer composites………………………………………………. 280
  • Table 86: Applications and benefits of graphene in composites…………………………………………………………………. 281
  • Table 87: Market size for graphene in composites………………………………………………………………………………….. 282
  • Table 88: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in the composites market…………………………………………. 283
  • Table 89: Demand for graphene in composites (tons), 2018-2030……………………………………………………………… 285
  • Table 90: Market challenges rating for graphene in the composites market………………………………………………….. 287
  • Table 91: Market drivers for use of graphene in flexible electronics and conductive films…………………………………. 290
  • Table 92: Applications and benefits of graphene in flexible electronics and conductive films…………………………….. 293
  • Table 93: Comparison of ITO replacements………………………………………………………………………………………….. 294
  • Table 94: Wearable electronics devices and stage of development…………………………………………………………….. 297
  • Table 95: Graphene properties relevant to application in sensors………………………………………………………………. 302
  • Table 96: Market size for graphene in flexible electronics and conductive films……………………………………………… 305
  • Table 97: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in flexible electronics, wearables, conductive films and displays……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 306
  • Table 98: Global market for wearable electronics, 2015-2027, by application, billions $…………………………………… 308
  • Table 99: Demand for graphene in flexible electronics (tons), 2018-2030…………………………………………………….. 308
  • Table 100: Market challenges rating for graphene in the flexible electronics, wearables, conductive films and displays market……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 312
  • Table 101: Market drivers for use of graphene in conductive inks………………………………………………………………. 315
  • Table 102: Comparative properties of conductive inks…………………………………………………………………………….. 316
  • Table 103: Printable electronics products……………………………………………………………………………………………… 317
  • Table 104: Opportunities for advanced materials in printed electronics………………………………………………………… 319
  • Table 105: Applications in flexible and stretchable batteries, by nanomaterials type and benefits thereof……………. 321
  • Table 106: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in conductive inks…………………………………………………. 324
  • Table 107: Conductive inks in the flexible and stretchable electronics market 2017-2027 revenue forecast (million $), by ink types…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 326
  • Table 108: Demand for graphene in conductive ink (tons), 2018-2027………………………………………………………… 327
  • Table 109: Market impediments for graphene in conductive inks……………………………………………………………….. 328
  • Table 110: Market drivers for use of graphene in transistors, integrated circuits and other components………………. 330
  • Table 111: Comparative properties of silicon and graphene transistors……………………………………………………….. 333
  • Table 112: Applications and benefits of graphene in transistors, integrated circuits and other components………….. 334
  • Table 113: Market size for graphene in transistors, integrated circuits and other components…………………………… 335
  • Table 114: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in transistors, integrated circuits and other components… 336
  • Table 115: Demand for graphene in transistors and integrated circuits (tons), 2018-2030……………………………….. 337
  • Table 116: Market challenges rating for graphene in the transistors and integrated circuits market……………………. 339
  • Table 117: Market drivers for use of graphene in memory devices……………………………………………………………… 342
  • Table 118: Market size for graphene in memory devices………………………………………………………………………….. 345
  • Table 119: Demand for graphene in memory devices (tons), 2018-2030……………………………………………………… 346
  • Table 120: Applications and commercialization challenges for graphene in the memory devices market…………….. 347
  • Table 121: Market drivers for use of graphene in photonics………………………………………………………………………. 349
  • Table 122: Graphene properties relevant to application in optical modulators……………………………………………….. 350
  • Table 123: Applications and benefits of graphene in photonics………………………………………………………………….. 353
  • Table 124: Market size for graphene in photonics…………………………………………………………………………………… 353
  • Table 125: Demand for graphene in photonics (tons), 2018-2030………………………………………………………………. 354
  • Table 126: Market challenges rating for graphene in the photonics market…………………………………………………… 356
  • Table 127: Market drivers for use of graphene in batteries……………………………………………………………………….. 358
  • Table 128: Wearable energy and energy harvesting devices and stage of development………………………………….. 362
  • Table 129: Applications in flexible and stretchable batteries, by materials type and benefits thereof…………………… 364
  • Table 130: Market size for graphene in batteries……………………………………………………………………………………. 366
  • Table 131: Potential addressable market for thin film, flexible and printed batteries………………………………………… 366
  • Table 132: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in batteries………………………………………………………….. 367
  • Table 133: Demand for graphene in batteries (tons), 2018-2030………………………………………………………………… 368
  • Table 134: Market challenges for graphene in batteries…………………………………………………………………………… 369
  • Table 135: Market challenges rating for graphene in the batteries market……………………………………………………. 369
  • Table 136: Market drivers for use of graphene in supercapacitors………………………………………………………………. 374
  • Table 137: Comparative properties of graphene supercapacitors and lithium-ion batteries………………………………. 375
  • Table 138: Applications and benefits of graphene in supercapacitors………………………………………………………….. 376
  • Table 139: Applications in flexible and stretchable supercapacitors, by nanomaterials type and benefits thereof…… 377
  • Table 140: Market size for graphene in supercapacitors…………………………………………………………………………… 378
  • Table 141: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in supercapacitors………………………………………………… 379
  • Table 142: Demand for graphene in supercapacitors (tons), 2018-2030………………………………………………………. 380
  • Table 143: Market challenges rating for graphene in the supercapacitors market…………………………………………… 381
  • Table 144: Market drivers for use of graphene in photovoltaics………………………………………………………………….. 383
  • Table 145: Market size for graphene in photovoltaics………………………………………………………………………………. 387
  • Table 146: Market size for graphene in photovoltaics………………………………………………………………………………. 387
  • Table 147: Potential addressable market for photovoltaics……………………………………………………………………….. 388
  • Table 148: Demand for graphene in photovoltaics (tons), 2018-2030………………………………………………………….. 389
  • Table 149: Market challenges rating for graphene in the solar market…………………………………………………………. 390
  • Table 150: Market drivers for use of graphene in fuel cells and hydrogen storage………………………………………….. 392
  • Table 151: Applications and benefits of graphene in fuel cells and hydrogen storage……………………………………… 393
  • Table 152: Market size for graphene in fuel cells and hydrogen storage………………………………………………………. 394
  • Table 153: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in fuel cells and hydrogen storage…………………………….. 395
  • Table 154: Demand for graphene in fuel cells (tons), 2018-2030……………………………………………………………….. 396
  • Table 155: Market challenges rating for graphene in the fuel cells market……………………………………………………. 397
  • Table 156: Market drivers for use of graphene in LED lighting and UVC………………………………………………………. 398
  • Table 157: Applications of graphene in lighting………………………………………………………………………………………. 398
  • Table 158: Market size for graphene in LED lighting and UVC…………………………………………………………………… 400
  • Table 159: Investment opportunity assessment for graphene in the lighting market………………………………………… 401
  • Table 160: Demand for graphene in lighting (tons), 2018-2030………………………………………………………………….. 402
  • Table 161: Market impediments for graphene in lighting…………………………………………………………………………… 402
  • Table 162: Market drivers for graphene in oil and gas……………………………………………………………………………… 404
  • Table 163: Applications of graphene in the oil and gas market…………………………………………………………………… 405
  • Table 164: Application markets, competing materials, graphene advantages and current market size in oil and gas. 409
  • Table 165: Market summary and revenues for graphene in the oil and gas market………………………………………… 410
  • Table 166: Potential addressable market for graphene in the oil and gas market…………………………………………… 411
  • Table 167: Demand for graphene in oil and gas (tons), 2018-2030…………………………………………………………….. 412
  • Table 168: Market challenges rating for graphene in the oil and gas market…………………………………………………. 413
  • Table 169: Market drivers for use of graphene in filtration………………………………………………………………………… 415
  • Table 170: Applications and benefits of graphene in filtration and separation………………………………………………… 417
  • Table 171: Market size for graphene in filtration……………………………………………………………………………………… 419
  • Table 172: Potential addressable market for graphene in the filtration market……………………………………………….. 421
  • Table 173: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in the filtration and separation market………………………… 421
  • Table 174: Demand for graphene in filtration (tons), 2018-2030…………………………………………………………………. 422
  • Table 175: Market challenges rating for graphene in the filtration and separation market…………………………………. 423
  • Table 176: Market drivers for use of graphene in the life sciences and medical market…………………………………… 426
  • Table 177: Graphene properties relevant to application in biomedicine and healthcare…………………………………… 428
  • Table 178: Applications and benefits of graphene in life sciences and medical……………………………………………… 429
  • Table 179: Applications in flexible and stretchable health monitors, by advanced materials type and benefits thereof. 437
  • Table 180: Market size for graphene in biomedical and healthcare…………………………………………………………….. 443
  • Table 181: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in biomedical & healthcare markets…………………………… 445
  • Table 182: Potential addressable market for graphene in biomedical & healthcare markets……………………………… 446
  • Table 183: Demand for graphene in life sciences and medical (tons), 2018-2030………………………………………….. 447
  • Table 184: Market challenges in graphene in biomedicine and healthcare……………………………………………………. 449
  • Table 185: Market challenges rating for graphene in the biomedical and healthcare market…………………………….. 450
  • Table 186: Market drivers for use of graphene in lubricants………………………………………………………………………. 452
  • Table 187: Applications of graphene in the lubricants market……………………………………………………………………. 452
  • Table 188: Applications of carbon nanomaterials in lubricants…………………………………………………………………… 453
  • Table 189: Market size for graphene in lubricants…………………………………………………………………………………… 453
  • Table 190: Potential addressable market for graphene in the lubricants market…………………………………………….. 454
  • Table 191: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in lubricants…………………………………………………………. 454
  • Table 192: Demand for graphene in lubricants (tons), 2018-2030………………………………………………………………. 455
  • Table 193: Market challenges rating for graphene in the lubricants market…………………………………………………… 456
  • Table 194: Applications of graphene in rubber and tires…………………………………………………………………………… 457
  • Table 195: Market summary and revenues for graphene in the rubber and tires market………………………………….. 457
  • Table 196: Potential addressable market for graphene in the rubber and tires market…………………………………….. 458
  • Table 197: Investment opportunity assessment for graphene in the rubber and tires market…………………………….. 458
  • Table 198: Demand for graphene in rubber and tires (tons), 2018-2030………………………………………………………. 459
  • Table 199: Market challenges for graphene in rubber and tires………………………………………………………………….. 460
  • Table 200: Market drivers for use of graphene in sensors………………………………………………………………………… 463
  • Table 201: Applications and benefits of graphene in sensors…………………………………………………………………….. 464
  • Table 202: Graphene properties relevant to application in sensors……………………………………………………………… 465
  • Table 203: Comparison of ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) and graphene biosensor…………………… 469
  • Table 204: Market size for graphene in sensors……………………………………………………………………………………… 470
  • Table 205: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in the sensors market…………………………………………….. 471
  • Table 206: Demand for graphene in sensors (tons), 2018-2030…………………………………………………………………. 472
  • Table 207: Market challenges rating for graphene in the sensors market……………………………………………………… 474
  • Table 208: Types of smart textiles………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 477
  • Table 209: Smart textile products……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 478
  • Table 210: Market drivers for use of graphene in smart textiles and apparel…………………………………………………. 478
  • Table 211: Nanocoatings applied in the textiles industry-type of coating, nanomaterials utilized, benefits and applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 480
  • Table 212: Desirable functional properties for the textiles industry afforded by the use of nanomaterials…………….. 482
  • Table 213: Applications and benefits of graphene in textiles and apparel…………………………………………………….. 483
  • Table 214: Global smart clothing, interactive fabrics and apparel market……………………………………………………… 486
  • Table 215: Potential addressable market for graphene in the smart textiles market………………………………………… 489
  • Table 216: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in smart textiles and apparel……………………………………. 489
  • Table 217: Demand for graphene in textiles (tons), 2018-2030………………………………………………………………….. 490
  • Table 218: Market impediments for graphene in textiles…………………………………………………………………………… 491
  • Table 219: Market challenges for graphene in textiles and apparel…………………………………………………………….. 491
  • Table 220: Potential addressable market for graphene in the cement market……………………………………………….. 494
  • Table 221: Demand for graphene in cement (tons), 2018-2030…………………………………………………………………. 494
  • Table 222: Graphene producers and types produced………………………………………………………………………………. 498
  • Table 223: Graphene producers target market matrix……………………………………………………………………………… 501
  • Table 224: Graphene industrial collaborations, licence agreements and target markets………………………………….. 503
  • Table 225: Graphene product developers and end users target market matrix………………………………………………. 507

 

Figures

  • Figure 1: Demand for graphene, 2010-2030……………………………………………………………………………………………. 49
  • Figure 2: Vittoria bike tires incorporating graphene…………………………………………………………………………………… 50
  • Figure 3: Demand for graphene, by market, 2018. Figures based on market graphene producers sell to, including samples……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 54
  • Figure 4: Global government funding for graphene in millions USD to 2018…………………………………………………… 58
  • Figure 5: Global consumption of graphene 2017, by region………………………………………………………………………… 66
  • Figure 6: Demand for graphene in China, by market, 2017…………………………………………………………………………. 69
  • Figure 7: Demand for graphene in China, by market, 2030…………………………………………………………………………. 70
  • Figure 8: Demand for graphene in Asia-Pacific, by market, 2017…………………………………………………………………. 71
  • Figure 9: Demand for graphene in Asia-Pacific, by market, 2030…………………………………………………………………. 72
  • Figure 10: 15-inch single-layer graphene sheet being prepared in the Chongqing Institute of Green and Intelligent Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences……………………………………………………………………………………… 73
  • Figure 11: Demand for graphene in North America, by market, 2017……………………………………………………………. 75
  • Figure 12: Demand for graphene in North America, by market, 2030……………………………………………………………. 76
  • Figure 13: Demand for graphene in Europe, by market, 2017……………………………………………………………………… 77
  • Figure 14: Demand for graphene in Europe, by market, 2030……………………………………………………………………… 78
  • Figure 15: Graphene layer structure schematic……………………………………………………………………………………….. 81
  • Figure 16: Graphite and graphene………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 82
  • Figure 17: Graphene and its descendants: top right: graphene; top left: graphite = stacked graphene; bottom right: nanotube=rolled graphene; bottom left: fullerene=wrapped graphene. …………………………………………………… 83
  • Figure 18: Schematic of (a) CQDs and (c) GQDs. HRTEM images of (b) C-dots and (d) GQDs showing combination of zigzag and armchair edges (positions marked as 1–4)………………………………………………………………………… 85
  • Figure 19: Green-fluorescing graphene quantum dots………………………………………………………………………………. 87
  • Figure 20: Graphene quantum dots………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 87
  • Figure 21: Graphene can be rolled up into a carbon nanotube, wrapped into a fullerene, and stacked into graphite… 89
  • Figure 22: Schematic of 2-D materials…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 94
  • Figure 23: Borophene schematic………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 96
  • Figure 24: Black phosphorus structure…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 97
  • Figure 25: Black Phosphorus crystal……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 98
  • Figure 26: Bottom gated flexible few-layer phosphorene transistors with the hydrophobic dielectric encapsulation… 100
  • Figure 27: Graphitic carbon nitride………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 103
  • Figure 28: Structural difference between graphene and C2N-h2D crystal: (a) graphene; (b) C2N-h2D crystal. Credit: Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology………………………………………………………………………….. 103
  • Figure 29: Schematic of germanene……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 105
  • Figure 30: Graphdiyne structure…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 107
  • Figure 31: Schematic of Graphane crystal…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 109
  • Figure 32: Structure of hexagonal boron nitride……………………………………………………………………………………… 111
  • Figure 33: BN nanosheet textiles application…………………………………………………………………………………………. 112
  • Figure 34: Structure of 2D molybdenum disulfide……………………………………………………………………………………. 114
  • Figure 35: SEM image of MoS2………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 115
  • Figure 36: Atomic force microscopy image of a representative MoS2 thin-film transistor………………………………….. 116
  • Figure 37: Schematic of the molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) thin-film sensor with the deposited molecules that create additional charge………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 116
  • Figure 38: Schematic of a monolayer of rhenium disulfide………………………………………………………………………… 118
  • Figure 39: Silicene structure………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 120
  • Figure 40: Monolayer silicene on a silver (111) substrate…………………………………………………………………………. 120
  • Figure 41: Silicene transistor……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 121
  • Figure 42: Crystal structure for stanene……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 123
  • Figure 43: Atomic structure model for the 2D stanene on Bi2Te3(111)………………………………………………………… 123
  • Figure 44: Schematic of tungsten diselenide…………………………………………………………………………………………. 125
  • Figure 45: Schematic of Indium Selenide (InSe)…………………………………………………………………………………….. 127
  • Figure 46: Fabrication methods of graphene…………………………………………………………………………………………. 131
  • Figure 47: Graphene synthesis methods………………………………………………………………………………………………. 132
  • Figure 48: TEM micrographs of: A) HR-CNFs; B) GANF® HR-CNF, it can be observed its high graphitic structure; C) Unraveled ribbon from the HR-CNF; D) Detail of the ribbon; E) Scheme of the structure of the HR-CNFs; F) Large single graphene oxide sheets derived from GANF……………………………………………………………………………. 133
  • Figure 49: Graphene nanoribbons grown on germanium………………………………………………………………………….. 135
  • Figure 50: Schematic illustration of the main graphene production techniques………………………………………………. 137
  • Figure 51: Graphene synthesis-CVD technique……………………………………………………………………………………… 138
  • Figure 52: (a) Graphene powder production line in The Sixth Element Materials Technology Co. Ltd. (b) Graphene film production line of Wuxi Graphene Films Co. Ltd………………………………………………………………………………. 139
  • Figure 53: Illustrative procedure of the Scotch-tape based micromechanical cleavage of HOPG……………………….. 142
  • Figure 54: Roll-to-roll graphene production process………………………………………………………………………………… 143
  • Figure 55: Schematic of roll-to-roll manufacturing process………………………………………………………………………… 144
  • Figure 56: Microwave irradiation of graphite to produce single-layer graphene……………………………………………… 146
  • Figure 57: Schematic of typical commercialization route for graphene producer…………………………………………….. 149
  • Figure 58: Published patent publications for graphene, 2004-2018…………………………………………………………….. 157
  • Figure 59: Roadmap for graphene applications……………………………………………………………………………………… 160
  • Figure 60: Demand for graphene, 2010-2030………………………………………………………………………………………… 211
  • Figure 61: Graphene oxide production capacity in tons by region, 2010-2018……………………………………………….. 213
  • Figure 62: Graphene nanoplatelets capacity in tons by region, 2010-2018…………………………………………………… 215
  • Figure 63: CVD Graphene on Cu Foil………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 215
  • Figure 64: 3D Printed tweezers incorporating Carbon Nanotube Filament……………………………………………………. 224
  • Figure 65: Demand for graphene in 3-D printing (tons), 2018-2030…………………………………………………………….. 227
  • Figure 66: Graphene Adhesives…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 230
  • Figure 67: Potential addressable market for graphene in adhesives……………………………………………………………. 232
  • Figure 68: Demand for graphene in adhesives (tons), 2018-2030………………………………………………………………. 233
  • Figure 69: Graphene aircraft……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 237
  • Figure 70: Potential addressable market for graphene in aviation and aerospace………………………………………….. 240
  • Figure 71: Potential addressable market for graphene-enabled applications in aviation and aerospace………………. 241
  • Figure 72: Demand for graphene in aerospace (tons), 2018-2030………………………………………………………………. 241
  • Figure 73: Graphene enhanced aircraft cargio container………………………………………………………………………….. 243
  • Figure 74: Graphene-based automotive components………………………………………………………………………………. 246
  • Figure 75: Antistatic graphene tire………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 247
  • Figure 76: Potential addressable market for graphene in the automotive sector…………………………………………….. 249
  • Figure 77: Potential addressable market for graphene in the automotive sector…………………………………………….. 250
  • Figure 78: Demand for graphene in automotive(tons), 2018-2030………………………………………………………………. 251
  • Figure 79: Supercar incorporating graphene………………………………………………………………………………………….. 253
  • Figure 80: Graphene tire…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 254
  • Figure 81: Heat transfer coating developed at MIT………………………………………………………………………………….. 259
  • Figure 82: Water permeation through a brick without (left) and with (right) “graphene paint” coating…………………… 263
  • Figure 83: Four layers of graphene oxide coatings on polycarbonate………………………………………………………….. 265
  • Figure 84: Global Paints and Coatings Market, share by end user market……………………………………………………. 266
  • Figure 85: Graphene based anti-corrosion steel coatings…………………………………………………………………………. 270
  • Figure 86: Potential addressable market for graphene in the coatings market……………………………………………….. 272
  • Figure 87: Potential addressable market for graphene in the coatings market……………………………………………….. 272
  • Figure 88: Demand for graphene in coatings (tons), 2018-2030…………………………………………………………………. 273
  • Figure 89: Potential addressable market for graphene in composites………………………………………………………….. 283
  • Figure 90: Potential addressable market for graphene in the composites market…………………………………………… 284
  • Figure 91: Demand for graphene in composites (tons), 2018-2030…………………………………………………………….. 285
  • Figure 92: Moxi flexible film developed for smartphone application…………………………………………………………….. 291
  • Figure 93: Flexible graphene touch screen……………………………………………………………………………………………. 291
  • Figure 94: Galapad Settler smartphone………………………………………………………………………………………………… 292
  • Figure 95: Flexible organic light emitting diode (OLED) using graphene electrode………………………………………….. 293
  • Figure 96: Graphene electrochromic devices. Top left: Exploded-view illustration of the graphene electrochromic device. The device is formed by attaching two graphene-coated PVC substrates face-to-face and filling the gap with a liquid ionic electrolyte………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 294
  • Figure 97: Flexible mobile phones with graphene transparent conductive film……………………………………………….. 295
  • Figure 98: Foldable graphene E-paper…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 295
  • Figure 99: Covestro wearables…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 297
  • Figure 100: Softceptor sensor……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 299
  • Figure 101: BeBop Media Arm Controller……………………………………………………………………………………………… 300
  • Figure 102: LG Innotek flexible textile pressure sensor……………………………………………………………………………. 300
  • Figure 103: C2Sense flexible sensor……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 301
  • Figure 104: Wearable gas sensor……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 302
  • Figure 105: BeBop Sensors Marcel Modular Data Gloves………………………………………………………………………… 303
  • Figure 106: BeBop Sensors Smart Helmet Sensor System………………………………………………………………………. 303
  • Figure 107: Torso and Extremities Protection (TEP) system……………………………………………………………………… 304
  • Figure 108: Potential addressable market for graphene in the flexible electronics, wearables, conductive films and displays market………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 306
  • Figure 109: Global market for wearable electronics, 2015-2027, by application, billions $………………………………… 307
  • Figure 110: Demand for graphene in flexible electronics (tons), 2018-2030………………………………………………….. 308
  • Figure 111: Global transparent conductive electrodes market forecast by materials type, 2012-2027, millions $…… 309
  • Figure 112: Schematic of the wet roll-to-roll graphene transfer from copper foils to polymeric substrates…………….. 310
  • Figure 113: The transmittance of glass/ITO, glass/ITO/four organic layers, and glass/ITO/four organic layers/4-layer graphene………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 311
  • Figure 114: BGT Materials graphene ink product……………………………………………………………………………………. 316
  • Figure 115: Printed graphene conductive ink…………………………………………………………………………………………. 317
  • Figure 116: Flexible RFID tag…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 318
  • Figure 117: Textiles covered in conductive graphene ink………………………………………………………………………….. 319
  • Figure 118: Enfucell Printed Battery…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 321
  • Figure 119: Graphene printed antenna…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 321
  • Figure 120: Printed antennas for aircraft………………………………………………………………………………………………. 322
  • Figure 121: Vorbeck Materials conductive ink products……………………………………………………………………………. 323
  • Figure 122: Potential addressable market for graphene in the conductive ink market……………………………………… 323
  • Figure 123: Conductive inks in the flexible and stretchable electronics market 2017-2027 revenue forecast (million $), by ink types…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 325
  • Figure 124: Demand for graphene in conductive ink (tons), 2018-2030……………………………………………………….. 327
  • Figure 125: Graphene IC in wafer tester………………………………………………………………………………………………. 331
  • Figure 126: A monolayer WS2-based flexible transistor array……………………………………………………………………. 331
  • Figure 127: Schematic cross-section of a graphene based transistor (GBT, left) and a graphene field-effect transistor (GFET, right)……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 333
  • Figure 128: Potential addressable market for graphene in transistors and integrated circuits……………………………. 335
  • Figure 129: Potential addressable market for graphene in the transistors and integrated circuits market…………….. 336
  • Figure 130: Demand for graphene in transistors and integrated circuits (tons), 2018-2030………………………………. 337
  • Figure 131: The GF1 Graphene Watch………………………………………………………………………………………………… 340
  • Figure 132: Graphene oxide-based RRAm device on a flexible substrate…………………………………………………….. 342
  • Figure 133: Layered structure of tantalum oxide, multilayer graphene and platinum used for resistive random access memory (RRAM)………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 342
  • Figure 134: A schematic diagram for the mechanism of the resistive switching in metal/GO/Pt…………………………. 343
  • Figure 135: Carbon nanotubes NRAM chip…………………………………………………………………………………………… 343
  • Figure 136: Stretchable SWCNT memory and logic devices for wearable electronics……………………………………… 344
  • Figure 137: Potential addressable market for graphene in the memory devices market…………………………………… 345
  • Figure 138: Demand for graphene in memory devices (tons), 2018-2030…………………………………………………….. 346
  • Figure 139: Hybrid graphene phototransistors……………………………………………………………………………………….. 350
  • Figure 140: Wearable health monitor incorporating graphene photodetectors……………………………………………….. 350
  • Figure 141: Flexible PEN coated with graphene and a QD thin film (20nm) is highly visibly transparent and photosensitive………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 351
  • Figure 142: Potential addressable market for graphene in photonics…………………………………………………………… 353
  • Figure 143: Demand for graphene in photonics (tons), 2018-2030……………………………………………………………… 354
  • Figure 144: The SkelStart Engine Start Module 2.0 based on the graphene-based SkelCap ultracapacitors………… 357
  • Figure 145: Energy harvesting textile…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 359
  • Figure 146: LG Chem Heaxagonal battery……………………………………………………………………………………………. 361
  • Figure 147: Printed 1.5V battery…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 363
  • Figure 148: H600 concept car……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 364
  • Figure 149: Anion concept car……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 365
  • Figure 150: Potential addressable market for graphene in the thin film, flexible and printed batteries market……….. 367
  • Figure 151: Demand for graphene in batteries (tons), 2018-2030……………………………………………………………….. 368
  • Figure 152: Skeleton Technologies ultracapacitor…………………………………………………………………………………… 374
  • Figure 153: Zapgo supercapacitor phone charger…………………………………………………………………………………… 375
  • Figure 154: Stretchable graphene supercapacitor…………………………………………………………………………………… 376
  • Figure 155: Potential addressable market for graphene in supercapacitors………………………………………………….. 378
  • Figure 156: Demand for graphene in supercapacitors (tons), 2018-2030……………………………………………………… 380
  • Figure 157: Solar cell with nanowires and graphene electrode…………………………………………………………………… 384
  • Figure 158: Schematic illustration of the fabrication concept for textile-based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) made by sewing textile electrodes onto cloth or paper……………………………………………………………………………….. 385
  • Figure 159: Potential addressable market for graphene in photovoltaics………………………………………………………. 388
  • Figure 160: Demand for graphene in photovoltaics (tons), 2018-2030…………………………………………………………. 389
  • Figure 161: Potential addressable market for graphene in fuel cells……………………………………………………………. 394
  • Figure 162: Demand for graphene in fuel cells (tons), 2018-2030………………………………………………………………. 395
  • Figure 163: LG OLED flexible lighting panel………………………………………………………………………………………….. 398
  • Figure 164: Flexible OLED incorporated into automotive headlight……………………………………………………………… 398
  • Figure 165: Potential addressable market for graphene in lighting……………………………………………………………… 400
  • Figure 166: Demand for graphene in lighting (tons), 2018-2030…………………………………………………………………. 401
  • Figure 167: Schematic of boron doped graphene for application in gas sensors……………………………………………. 405
  • Figure 168: Directa Plus Grafysorber…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 407
  • Figure 169: Nanometer-scale pores in single-layer freestanding graphene membrane can effectively filter NaCl salt from water……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 408
  • Figure 170: Demand for graphene in oil and gas (tons), 2018-2030……………………………………………………………. 411
  • Figure 171: Degradation of organic dye molecules by graphene hybrid composite photocatalysts……………………… 417
  • Figure 172: Graphene anti-smog mask………………………………………………………………………………………………… 418
  • Figure 173: Potential addressable market for graphene in the filtration market………………………………………………. 418
  • Figure 174: Demand for graphene in filtration (tons), 2018-2030………………………………………………………………… 421
  • Figure 175: Graphene filtration membrane……………………………………………………………………………………………. 423
  • Figure 176: Graphene Frontiers’ Six™ chemical sensors consists of a field effect transistor (FET) with a graphene channel. Receptor molecules, such as DNA, are attached directly to the graphene channel………………………. 432
  • Figure 177: Graphene-Oxide based chip prototypes for biopsy-free early cancer diagnosis……………………………… 432
  • Figure 178: Connected human body……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 434
  • Figure 179: Flexible, lightweight temperature sensor……………………………………………………………………………….. 434
  • Figure 180: Graphene-based E-skin patch……………………………………………………………………………………………. 435
  • Figure 181: Smart e-skin system comprising health-monitoring sensors, displays, and ultra flexible PLEDs…………. 437
  • Figure 182: Graphene medical patch…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 438
  • Figure 183: TempTraQ wearable wireless thermometer…………………………………………………………………………… 439
  • Figure 184: Mimo baby monitor………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 439
  • Figure 185: Nanowire skin hydration patch……………………………………………………………………………………………. 440
  • Figure 186: Wearable sweat sensor…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 440
  • Figure 187: GraphWear wearable sweat sensor…………………………………………………………………………………….. 441
  • Figure 188: Global medical and healthcare smart textiles and wearables market, 2015-2027, billions $………………. 443
  • Figure 189: Global medical and healthcare smart textiles and wearables market, 2015-2027, billions $………………. 444
  • Figure 190: Potential addressable market for graphene-enabled applications in the biomedical and healthcare market……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 446
  • Figure 191: Demand for graphene in life sciences and medical (tons), 2018-2030…………………………………………. 447
  • Figure 192: Demand for graphene in lubricants (tons), 2018-2030……………………………………………………………… 454
  • Figure 193: Demand for graphene in rubber and tires (tons), 2018-2030……………………………………………………… 459
  • Figure 194: GFET sensors………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 466
  • Figure 195: First generation point of care diagnostics……………………………………………………………………………… 467
  • Figure 196: Graphene Field Effect Transistor Schematic………………………………………………………………………….. 468
  • Figure 197: Potential addressable market for graphene in the sensors market………………………………………………. 471
  • Figure 198: Demand for graphene in sensors (tons), 2018-2030………………………………………………………………… 472
  • Figure 199: Colmar graphene ski jacket……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 483
  • Figure 200: Conductive yarns…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 484
  • Figure 201: Global smart clothing, interactive fabrics and apparel market 2013-2030 revenue forecast (million $)…. 485
  • Figure 202 Global smart clothing, interactive fabrics and apparel sales by market segment, 2016…………………….. 486
  • Figure 203: Global market revenues for nanotech-enabled smart clothing and apparel 2014-2021, in US$, conservative estimate………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 487
  • Figure 204: Global market revenues for nanotech-enabled smart clothing and apparel 2014-2021, in US$, optimistic estimate………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 487
  • Figure 205: Demand for graphene in textiles (tons), 2018-2030…………………………………………………………………. 489
  • Figure 206: Demand for graphene in cement (tons), 2018-2030………………………………………………………………… 494
  • Figure 207: Graphene added to cement……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 495