The Graphene Investment and Pricing Report 2019

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The most comprehensive guide to graphene production, commercial opportunities and current pricing. The Graphene Investment and Pricing Report 2019 examines:

  • Advantages and shortcomings of graphene as a technology component.
  • Pricing analysis for graphene, by types and producers.
  • Production volumes by graphene producer.
  • Graphene applications by industry.
  • Graphene market size 2018 and growth forecast 2019-2030 (tonnes, CAGR 2018-2030)
  • Production capacities globally 2010-2018.
  • Segmentation by type of graphene materials and production.
  • Provides a map of the current competitive landscape by market.
  • Investments in graphene over the past 12 months.
  • Market impediments for graphene by target market.
  • Profiles all the major players in graphene production. Companies profiled include
  • Companies profiled include Garmor, Xolve, Beijing Carbon Century Technology Co., Ltd., BTR New Energy Materials, Inc., Jining Leader Nano Co., Ltd., KNano, Ningbo Morsh, The Sixth Element, SuperC Technology Limited, Abalonyx AS, Apply Nanosolutions, Graphenea, Aztrong, Taiwan Carbon Nanotube, IDT International, Standard Graphene, Nanesa, Group NanoXplore Inc., Nippon Shokubai, Angstron Materials, Vorbeck Materials, XG Sciences, Inc., 2-DTech Limited, Applied Graphene Materials plc, Cambridge Nanosystems, Haydale, Metalysis, Thomas Swan, Perpetuus Advanced Materials Plc, Versarien, Deyang Carbonene Tech, KNano, Ningbo Morsh, The Sixth Element, Avanzare, Gnanomat, Directa Plus, Nanesa
    First Graphite Ltd, FlexeGRAPH 2D Materials, Imagine Intelligent Materials, Talga Resources, Grafoid, BGT Materials, Grolltex, 2D Carbon Graphene Material Co., Ltd., Chongqing Graphene Technology, Wuxi Graphene Film, Graphenea, Cealtech AS and Graphene Square.
  • Profiles all the major application developers including current and intended products.
  • Global map of graphene producers.

Published February 2019 | 380 pages, 138 tables, 138 figures | Table of contents

The Graphene Investment and Pricing Report 2019-PDF
The Graphene Investment and Pricing Report 2019-PDF
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The Graphene Investment and Pricing Report 2019-Print Edition
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The Graphene Investment and Pricing Report 2019-PDF and Print Edition
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TABLE OF CONTENTS

1    RESEARCH METHODOLOGY………………………………………………… 28

  • 1.1     Market opportunity analysis……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 29

2    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY…………………………………………………………. 31

  • 2.1     The market in 2018………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 32
  • 2.2     Graphene production and demand 2010-2030……………………………………………………………………………. 32
  • 2.3     Products on the market…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 35
  • 2.4     Graphene investments and funding 2017-2018…………………………………………………………………………… 36
  • 2.5     Market outlook…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 38
  • 2.6     Market opportunity matrix………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 41
  • 2.7     Collaborations and licence agreements…………………………………………………………………………………….. 44

3    GRAPHENE HISTORY……………………………………………………………. 48

4    TYPES OF COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE GRAPHENE……………. 50

  • 4.1     Properties…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 50
  • 4.2     3D Graphene………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 51
  • 4.3     Graphene Quantum Dots……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 51

5    PRODUCER PRODUCTION CAPACITIES BY GRAPHENE TYPE. 56

  • 5.1     Graphene oxide…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 58
  • 5.2     Graphene nanoplatelets………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 60
  • 5.3     CVD graphene film……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 62
  • 5.4     Planned graphene capacities 2018 onwards………………………………………………………………………………. 63

6    GRAPHENE PRICING…………………………………………………………….. 64

  • 6.1     Pristine Graphene Flakes………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 65
  • 6.2     Few-Layer Graphene……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 66
  • 6.3     Graphene Nanoplatelets………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 66
  • 6.4     Reduced Graphene Oxide……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 67
  • 6.5     Graphene Quantum Dots……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 68
  • 6.6     Graphene Oxide Nanosheets………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 68
  • 6.7     Multilayer Graphene (MLG)……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 69
  • 6.8     Mass production of lower grade graphene materials…………………………………………………………………….. 69
  • 6.9     High grade graphene difficult to mass produce……………………………………………………………………………. 69
  • 6.10        Bulk supply…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 70
  • 6.11        Commoditisation……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 70

7    GRAPHENE IN 3D PRINTING…………………………………………………. 71

  • 7.1     APPLICATIONS…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 71
  • 7.2     GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY………………………………………………………………………….. 71

8    GRAPHENE IN ADHESIVES…………………………………………………… 73

  • 8.1     APPLICATIONS…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 73
  • 8.2     GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY………………………………………………………………………….. 75

9    GRAPHENE IN AIRCRAFT AND AEROSPACE…………………………. 77

  • 9.1     APPLICATIONS…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 77
  • 9.2     GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY………………………………………………………………………….. 80

10 GRAPHENE IN AUTOMOTIVE………………………………………………… 84

  • 10.1        APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 84
  • 10.2        GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY………………………………………………………………………. 87

11 GRAPHENE IN COATINGS…………………………………………………….. 90

  • 11.1        APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 90
  • 11.2        GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY………………………………………………………………………. 93

12 GRAPHENE IN COMPOSITES………………………………………………… 96

  • 12.1        APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 97
  • 12.2        GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY…………………………………………………………………….. 100

13 GRAPHENE IN FLEXIBLE ELECTRONICS, WEARABLES, CONDUCTIVE FILMS AND DISPLAYS……………………………………….. 104

  • 13.1        APPLICATIONS…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 104
  • 13.2        GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY…………………………………………………………………….. 112

14 GRAPHENE IN CONDUCTIVE INKS………………………………………. 119

  • 14.1        APPLICATIONS…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 119
  • 14.2        GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY…………………………………………………………………….. 124

15 GRAPHENE IN TRANSISTORS AND INTEGRATED CIRCUITS… 129

  • 15.1        APPLICATIONS…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 129
  • 15.2        GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY…………………………………………………………………….. 133

16 GRAPHENE IN MEMORY DEVICES………………………………………. 137

  • 16.1        APPLICATIONS…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 137
  • 16.2        GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY…………………………………………………………………….. 139

17 GRAPHENE IN PHOTONICS…………………………………………………. 143

  • 17.1        APPLICATIONS…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 143
  • 17.2        GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY…………………………………………………………………….. 147

18 GRAPHENE IN BATTERIES………………………………………………….. 150

  • 18.1        APPLICATIONS…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 150
  • 18.2        GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY…………………………………………………………………….. 152

19 GRAPHENE IN SUPERCAPACITORS……………………………………. 156

  • 19.1        APPLICATIONS…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 156
  • 19.2        GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY…………………………………………………………………….. 160

20 GRAPHENE IN SOLAR………………………………………………………… 164

  • 20.1        APPLICATIONS…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 164
  • 20.2        GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY…………………………………………………………………….. 166

21 GRAPHENE IN FUEL CELLS………………………………………………… 169

  • 21.1        APPLICATIONS…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 169
  • 21.2        GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY…………………………………………………………………….. 170

22 GRAPHENE IN LED LIGHTING AND UVC………………………………. 173

  • 22.1.1     APPLICATIONS…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 173
  • 22.1.3     GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY………………………………………………………………… 175

23 GRAPHENE IN OIL AND GAS……………………………………………….. 177

  • 23.1        APPLICATIONS…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 178
  • 23.2        GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY…………………………………………………………………….. 182

24 GRAPHENE IN FILTRATION…………………………………………………. 186

  • 24.1        APPLICATIONS…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 186
  • 24.2        GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY…………………………………………………………………….. 189

25 GRAPHENE IN LIFE SCIENCES AND BIOMEDICINE………………. 194

  • 25.1        APPLICATIONS…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 194
  • 25.2        GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY…………………………………………………………………….. 208

26 GRAPHENE IN LUBRICANTS……………………………………………….. 213

  • 26.1        APPLICATIONS…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 213
  • 26.2        GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY…………………………………………………………………….. 214

27 GRAPHENE IN RUBBER AND TIRES…………………………………….. 217

  • 27.1        APPLICATIONS…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 217
  • 27.2        GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY…………………………………………………………………….. 218

28 GRAPHENE IN SENSORS…………………………………………………….. 221

  • 28.1        APPLICATIONS…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 221
  • 28.2        GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY…………………………………………………………………….. 228

29 GRAPHENE IN SMART TEXTILES AND APPAREL…………………. 231

  • 29.1        APPLICATIONS……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 232
  • 29.2        GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY…………………………………………………………………….. 237

30 GRAPHENE IN CEMENT ADDITIVES…………………………………….. 243

  • 30.1        APPLICATIONS…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 243
  • 30.2        GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY…………………………………………………………………….. 243

31 GRAPHENE PRODUCERS……………………………………………………. 246

32 GRAPHENE PRODUCT AND APPLICATION DEVELOPERS……. 314

33 REFERENCES…………………………………………………………………….. 370

TABLES

  • Table 1: Demand for graphene (tons), 2010-2030……………………………………………………………………………………. 32
  • Table 2: Main graphene producers by country and annual production capacities…………………………………………….. 34
  • Table 3: Consumer products incorporating graphene………………………………………………………………………………… 35
  • Table 4: Graphene investments and financial agreements 2017-2018………………………………………………………….. 36
  • Table 5: Market opportunity assessment matrix for graphene applications…………………………………………………….. 41
  • Table 6: Graphene industrial collaborations, licence agreements and target markets……………………………………….. 44
  • Table 7: Properties of graphene…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 51
  • Table 8: Comparison of graphene QDs and semiconductor QDs…………………………………………………………………. 52
  • Table 9: Graphene quantum dot producers…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 55
  • Table 10: Graphene oxide production capacity in tons by country/year, 2010-2018………………………………………….. 58
  • Table 11: Graphene oxide production capacity in tons by region, 2010-2018………………………………………………….. 59
  • Table 12: Graphene nanoplatelets capacity in tons by country/year, 2010-2018……………………………………………… 60
  • Table 13: Graphene nanoplatelets capacity in tons by region, 2010-2018……………………………………………………… 61
  • Table 14: CVD graphene film capacity in tons by country/year, 2010-2018/ 000s m2………………………………………… 63
  • Table 15: Planned graphene production capacities…………………………………………………………………………………… 63
  • Table 16: Types of graphene and prices………………………………………………………………………………………………… 64
  • Table 17: Pristine graphene flakes pricing by producer……………………………………………………………………………… 65
  • Table 18: Few-layer graphene pricing by producer…………………………………………………………………………………… 66
  • Table 19: Graphene nanoplatelets pricing by producer……………………………………………………………………………… 67
  • Table 20: Reduced graphene oxide pricing, by producer……………………………………………………………………………. 67
  • Table 21: Graphene quantum dots pricing by producer……………………………………………………………………………… 68
  • Table 22: Graphene oxide nanosheets pricing by producer………………………………………………………………………… 68
  • Table 23: Multi-layer graphene pricing by producer………………………………………………………………………………….. 69
  • Table 24: Graphene properties relevant to application in 3D printing…………………………………………………………….. 71
  • Table 25: Market size for graphene in 3D printing…………………………………………………………………………………….. 71
  • Table 26: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in 3D printing………………………………………………………….. 71
  • Table 27: Demand for graphene in 3-D printing (tons), 2018-2030……………………………………………………………….. 72
  • Table 28: Graphene properties relevant to application in adhesives……………………………………………………………… 74
  • Table 29: Applications and benefits of graphene in adhesives…………………………………………………………………….. 74
  • Table 30: Market size for graphene in adhesives……………………………………………………………………………………… 75
  • Table 31: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in adhesives……………………………………………………………. 75
  • Table 32: Demand for graphene in adhesives (tons), 2018-2030…………………………………………………………………. 77
  • Table 33: Applications and benefits of graphene in aerospace……………………………………………………………………. 79
  • Table 34: Market size for graphene in aircfaft and aerospace……………………………………………………………………… 80
  • Table 35: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in aerospace…………………………………………………………… 81
  • Table 36: Demand for graphene in aerospace (tons), 2018-2030………………………………………………………………… 83
  • Table 37: Applications and benefits of graphene in the automotive industry…………………………………………………… 86
  • Table 38: Market size for graphene in the automotive industry……………………………………………………………………. 87
  • Table 39: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in the automotive industry………………………………………….. 87
  • Table 40: Demand for graphene in automotive (tons), 2018-2030………………………………………………………………… 89
  • Table 41: Graphene properties relevant to application in coatings……………………………………………………………….. 91
  • Table 42: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in the coatings market………………………………………………. 93
  • Table 43: Demand for graphene in coatings (tons), 2018-2030……………………………………………………………………. 95
  • Table 44: Graphene properties relevant to application in polymer composites………………………………………………… 97
  • Table 45: Applications and benefits of graphene in composites…………………………………………………………………… 98
  • Table 46: Market size for graphene in composites………………………………………………………………………………….. 100
  • Table 47: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in the composites market…………………………………………. 100
  • Table 48: Demand for graphene in composites (tons), 2018-2030……………………………………………………………… 102
  • Table 49: Applications and benefits of graphene in flexible electronics and conductive films…………………………….. 105
  • Table 50: Graphene properties relevant to application in sensors………………………………………………………………. 111
  • Table 51: Market size for graphene in flexible electronics and conductive films……………………………………………… 112
  • Table 52: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in flexible electronics, wearables, conductive films and displays……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 113
  • Table 53: Demand for graphene in flexible electronics (tons), 2018-2030…………………………………………………….. 114
  • Table 54: Market challenges rating for graphene in the flexible electronics, wearables, conductive films and displays market……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 118
  • Table 55: Comparative properties of conductive inks………………………………………………………………………………. 119
  • Table 56: Printable electronics products……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 120
  • Table 57: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in conductive inks…………………………………………………… 126
  • Table 58: Conductive inks in the flexible and stretchable electronics market 2017-2027 revenue forecast (million $), by ink types…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 127
  • Table 59: Demand for graphene in conductive ink (tons), 2018-2027………………………………………………………….. 128
  • Table 60: Comparative properties of silicon and graphene transistors…………………………………………………………. 131
  • Table 61: Applications and benefits of graphene in transistors, integrated circuits and other components……………. 132
  • Table 62: Market size for graphene in transistors, integrated circuits and other components…………………………….. 133
  • Table 63: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in transistors, integrated circuits and other components….. 133
  • Table 64: Demand for graphene in transistors and integrated circuits (tons), 2018-2030…………………………………. 135
  • Table 65: Market size for graphene in memory devices……………………………………………………………………………. 139
  • Table 66: Demand for graphene in memory devices (tons), 2018-2030……………………………………………………….. 141
  • Table 67: Graphene properties relevant to application in optical modulators…………………………………………………. 144
  • Table 68: Applications and benefits of graphene in photonics……………………………………………………………………. 146
  • Table 69: Market size for graphene in photonics…………………………………………………………………………………….. 147
  • Table 70: Demand for graphene in photonics (tons), 2018-2030………………………………………………………………… 148
  • Table 71: Market size for graphene in batteries……………………………………………………………………………………… 153
  • Table 72: Potential addressable market for thin film, flexible and printed batteries…………………………………………. 154
  • Table 73: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in batteries……………………………………………………………. 155
  • Table 74: Demand for graphene in batteries (tons), 2018-2030…………………………………………………………………. 155
  • Table 75: Comparative properties of graphene supercapacitors and lithium-ion batteries………………………………… 157
  • Table 76: Applications and benefits of graphene in supercapacitors……………………………………………………………. 158
  • Table 77: Market size for graphene in supercapacitors…………………………………………………………………………….. 160
  • Table 78: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in supercapacitors………………………………………………….. 161
  • Table 79: Demand for graphene in supercapacitors (tons), 2018-2030………………………………………………………… 162
  • Table 80: Market size for graphene in photovoltaics………………………………………………………………………………… 166
  • Table 81: Market size for graphene in photovoltaics………………………………………………………………………………… 167
  • Table 82: Potential addressable market for photovoltaics…………………………………………………………………………. 167
  • Table 83: Demand for graphene in photovoltaics (tons), 2018-2030……………………………………………………………. 168
  • Table 84: Applications and benefits of graphene in fuel cells and hydrogen storage……………………………………….. 170
  • Table 85: Market size for graphene in fuel cells and hydrogen storage………………………………………………………… 171
  • Table 86: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in fuel cells and hydrogen storage……………………………… 172
  • Table 87: Demand for graphene in fuel cells (tons), 2018-2030…………………………………………………………………. 172
  • Table 88: Applications of graphene in lighting………………………………………………………………………………………… 173
  • Table 89: Market size for graphene in LED lighting and UVC…………………………………………………………………….. 175
  • Table 90: Investment opportunity assessment for graphene in the lighting market…………………………………………. 176
  • Table 91: Demand for graphene in lighting (tons), 2018-2030……………………………………………………………………. 177
  • Table 92: Applications of graphene in the oil and gas market……………………………………………………………………. 178
  • Table 93: Application markets, competing materials, graphene advantages and current market size in oil and gas.. 182
  • Table 94: Market summary and revenues for graphene in the oil and gas market………………………………………….. 183
  • Table 95: Potential addressable market for graphene in the oil and gas market…………………………………………….. 184
  • Table 96: Demand for graphene in oil and gas (tons), 2018-2030………………………………………………………………. 185
  • Table 97: Applications and benefits of graphene in filtration and separation………………………………………………….. 187
  • Table 98: Market size for graphene in filtration………………………………………………………………………………………. 190
  • Table 99: Potential addressable market for graphene in the filtration market…………………………………………………. 191
  • Table 100: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in the filtration and separation market………………………… 191
  • Table 101: Demand for graphene in filtration (tons), 2018-2030…………………………………………………………………. 192
  • Table 102: Graphene properties relevant to application in biomedicine and healthcare…………………………………… 194
  • Table 103: Applications and benefits of graphene in life sciences and medical……………………………………………… 194
  • Table 104: Applications in flexible and stretchable health monitors, by advanced materials type and benefits thereof. 202
  • Table 105: Market size for graphene in biomedical and healthcare…………………………………………………………….. 208
  • Table 106: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in biomedical & healthcare markets…………………………… 210
  • Table 107: Potential addressable market for graphene in biomedical & healthcare markets……………………………… 211
  • Table 108: Demand for graphene in life sciences and medical (tons), 2018-2030………………………………………….. 212
  • Table 109: Applications of graphene in the lubricants market……………………………………………………………………. 214
  • Table 110: Applications of carbon nanomaterials in lubricants…………………………………………………………………… 214
  • Table 111: Market size for graphene in lubricants…………………………………………………………………………………… 214
  • Table 112: Potential addressable market for graphene in the lubricants market…………………………………………….. 215
  • Table 113: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in lubricants…………………………………………………………. 215
  • Table 114: Demand for graphene in lubricants (tons), 2018-2030………………………………………………………………. 216
  • Table 115: Applications of graphene in rubber and tires…………………………………………………………………………… 217
  • Table 116: Market summary and revenues for graphene in the rubber and tires market………………………………….. 218
  • Table 117: Potential addressable market for graphene in the rubber and tires market…………………………………….. 219
  • Table 118: Investment opportunity assessment for graphene in the rubber and tires market…………………………….. 219
  • Table 119: Demand for graphene in rubber and tires (tons), 2018-2030………………………………………………………. 220
  • Table 120: Applications and benefits of graphene in sensors…………………………………………………………………….. 222
  • Table 121: Graphene properties relevant to application in sensors……………………………………………………………… 223
  • Table 122: Comparison of ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) and graphene biosensor…………………… 227
  • Table 123: Market size for graphene in sensors……………………………………………………………………………………… 228
  • Table 124: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in the sensors market…………………………………………….. 229
  • Table 125: Demand for graphene in sensors (tons), 2018-2030…………………………………………………………………. 230
  • Table 126: Nanocoatings applied in the textiles industry-type of coating, nanomaterials utilized, benefits and applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 232
  • Table 127: Desirable functional properties for the textiles industry afforded by the use of nanomaterials…………….. 234
  • Table 128: Applications and benefits of graphene in textiles and apparel…………………………………………………….. 235
  • Table 129: Global smart clothing, interactive fabrics and apparel market……………………………………………………… 238
  • Table 130: Potential addressable market for graphene in the smart textiles market………………………………………… 241
  • Table 131: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in smart textiles and apparel……………………………………. 241
  • Table 132: Demand for graphene in textiles (tons), 2018-2030………………………………………………………………….. 242
  • Table 133: Potential addressable market for graphene in the cement market……………………………………………….. 244
  • Table 134: Demand for graphene in cement (tons), 2018-2030…………………………………………………………………. 244
  • Table 135: Graphene producers and types produced………………………………………………………………………………. 246
  • Table 136: Graphene producers target market matrix……………………………………………………………………………… 249
  • Table 137: Graphene industrial collaborations, licence agreements and target markets………………………………….. 314
  • Table 138: Graphene product developers and end users target market matrix………………………………………………. 318

FIGURES

  • Figure 1: Demand for graphene, 2010-2030……………………………………………………………………………………………. 33
  • Figure 2: Vittoria bike tires incorporating graphene…………………………………………………………………………………… 35
  • Figure 3: Demand for graphene, by market, 2018. Figures based on market graphene producers sell to, including samples……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 40
  • Figure 4: Graphene layer structure schematic…………………………………………………………………………………………. 49
  • Figure 5: Graphite and graphene………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 49
  • Figure 6: Graphene and its descendants: top right: graphene; top left: graphite = stacked graphene; bottom right: nanotube=rolled graphene; bottom left: fullerene=wrapped graphene. …………………………………………………… 50
  • Figure 7: Schematic of (a) CQDs and (c) GQDs. HRTEM images of (b) C-dots and (d) GQDs showing combination of zigzag and armchair edges (positions marked as 1–4)………………………………………………………………………… 53
  • Figure 8: Green-fluorescing graphene quantum dots………………………………………………………………………………… 54
  • Figure 9: Graphene quantum dots………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 55
  • Figure 10: Fabrication methods of graphene…………………………………………………………………………………………… 57
  • Figure 11: Graphene oxide production capacity in tons by region, 2010-2018…………………………………………………. 60
  • Figure 12: Graphene nanoplatelets capacity in tons by region, 2010-2018…………………………………………………….. 62
  • Figure 13: CVD Graphene on Cu Foil……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 62
  • Figure 14: Demand for graphene in 3-D printing (tons), 2018-2030………………………………………………………………. 73
  • Figure 15: Graphene Adhesives…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 74
  • Figure 16: Potential addressable market for graphene in adhesives……………………………………………………………… 76
  • Figure 17: Demand for graphene in adhesives (tons), 2018-2030………………………………………………………………… 77
  • Figure 18: Graphene enhanced aircraft cargo container…………………………………………………………………………….. 78
  • Figure 19: Graphene aircraft……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 79
  • Figure 20: Potential addressable market for graphene in aerospace…………………………………………………………….. 82
  • Figure 21: Potential addressable market for graphene-enabled applications in aerospace…………………………………. 83
  • Figure 22: Demand for graphene in aerospace (tons), 2018-2030……………………………………………………………….. 84
  • Figure 23: Graphene-based automotive components………………………………………………………………………………… 85
  • Figure 24: Antistatic graphene tire………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 86
  • Figure 25: Potential addressable market for graphene in the automotive sector………………………………………………. 88
  • Figure 26: Potential addressable market for graphene in the automotive sector………………………………………………. 89
  • Figure 27: Demand for graphene in automotive(tons), 2018-2030………………………………………………………………… 90
  • Figure 28: Water permeation through a brick without (left) and with (right) “graphene paint” coating……………………. 92
  • Figure 29: Four layers of graphene oxide coatings on polycarbonate……………………………………………………………. 93
  • Figure 30: Potential addressable market for graphene in the coatings market………………………………………………… 94
  • Figure 31: Potential addressable market for graphene in the coatings market………………………………………………… 95
  • Figure 32: Demand for graphene in coatings (tons), 2018-2030………………………………………………………………….. 96
  • Figure 33: Potential addressable market for graphene in composites………………………………………………………….. 101
  • Figure 34: Potential addressable market for graphene in the composites market…………………………………………… 102
  • Figure 35: Demand for graphene in composites (tons), 2018-2030…………………………………………………………….. 103
  • Figure 36: Moxi flexible film developed for smartphone application…………………………………………………………….. 104
  • Figure 37: Flexible graphene touch screen……………………………………………………………………………………………. 105
  • Figure 38: Galapad Settler smartphone………………………………………………………………………………………………… 105
  • Figure 39: Flexible organic light emitting diode (OLED) using graphene electrode………………………………………….. 106
  • Figure 40: Graphene electrochromic devices. Top left: Exploded-view illustration of the graphene electrochromic device. The device is formed by attaching two graphene-coated PVC substrates face-to-face and filling the gap with a liquid ionic electrolyte………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 107
  • Figure 41: Flexible mobile phones with graphene transparent conductive film……………………………………………….. 108
  • Figure 42: Foldable graphene E-paper…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 108
  • Figure 43: C2Sense flexible sensor…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 110
  • Figure 44: Wearable gas sensor…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 112
  • Figure 45: BeBop Sensors Marcel Modular Data Gloves………………………………………………………………………….. 112
  • Figure 46: Potential addressable market for graphene in the flexible electronics, wearables, conductive films and displays market………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 114
  • Figure 47: Demand for graphene in flexible electronics (tons), 2018-2030……………………………………………………. 115
  • Figure 48: Global transparent conductive electrodes market forecast by materials type, 2012-2027, millions $…….. 116
  • Figure 49: Schematic of the wet roll-to-roll graphene transfer from copper foils to polymeric substrates……………… 117
  • Figure 50: The transmittance of glass/ITO, glass/ITO/four organic layers, and glass/ITO/four organic layers/4-layer graphene………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 118
  • Figure 51: BGT Materials graphene ink product……………………………………………………………………………………… 120
  • Figure 52: Printed graphene conductive ink…………………………………………………………………………………………… 121
  • Figure 53: Flexible RFID tag………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 122
  • Figure 54: Textiles covered in conductive graphene ink…………………………………………………………………………… 123
  • Figure 55: Graphene printed antenna………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 124
  • Figure 56: Printed antennas for aircraft………………………………………………………………………………………………… 124
  • Figure 57: Vorbeck Materials conductive ink products……………………………………………………………………………… 125
  • Figure 58: Potential addressable market for graphene in the conductive ink market……………………………………….. 126
  • Figure 59: Conductive inks in the flexible and stretchable electronics market 2017-2027 revenue forecast (million $), by ink types…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 127
  • Figure 60: Demand for graphene in conductive ink (tons), 2018-2030…………………………………………………………. 129
  • Figure 61: Graphene IC in wafer tester………………………………………………………………………………………………… 130
  • Figure 62: A monolayer WS2-based flexible transistor array……………………………………………………………………… 130
  • Figure 63: Schematic cross-section of a graphene based transistor (GBT, left) and a graphene field-effect transistor (GFET, right)……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 131
  • Figure 64: Potential addressable market for graphene in transistors and integrated circuits……………………………… 134
  • Figure 65: Potential addressable market for graphene in the transistors and integrated circuits market………………. 135
  • Figure 66: Demand for graphene in transistors and integrated circuits (tons), 2018-2030………………………………… 136
  • Figure 67: Graphene oxide-based RRAm device on a flexible substrate………………………………………………………. 137
  • Figure 68: Layered structure of tantalum oxide, multilayer graphene and platinum used for resistive random access memory (RRAM)………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 138
  • Figure 69: A schematic diagram for the mechanism of the resistive switching in metal/GO/Pt…………………………… 138
  • Figure 70: Carbon nanotubes NRAM chip…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 139
  • Figure 71: Stretchable SWCNT memory and logic devices for wearable electronics……………………………………….. 139
  • Figure 72: Potential addressable market for graphene in the memory devices market…………………………………….. 141
  • Figure 73: Demand for graphene in memory devices (tons), 2018-2030………………………………………………………. 142
  • Figure 74: Hybrid graphene phototransistors…………………………………………………………………………………………. 145
  • Figure 75: Wearable health monitor incorporating graphene photodetectors…………………………………………………. 145
  • Figure 76: Flexible PEN coated with graphene and a QD thin film (20nm) is highly visibly transparent and photosensitive………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 146
  • Figure 77: Potential addressable market for graphene in photonics…………………………………………………………….. 148
  • Figure 78: Demand for graphene in photonics (tons), 2018-2030……………………………………………………………….. 149
  • Figure 79: LG Chem Heaxagonal battery……………………………………………………………………………………………… 152
  • Figure 80: H600 concept car……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 153
  • Figure 81: Anion concept car……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 153
  • Figure 82: Potential addressable market for graphene in the thin film, flexible and printed batteries market…………. 155
  • Figure 83: Demand for graphene in batteries (tons), 2018-2030………………………………………………………………… 156
  • Figure 84: Skeleton Technologies ultracapacitor…………………………………………………………………………………….. 157
  • Figure 85: The SkelStart Engine Start Module 2.0 based on the graphene-based SkelCap ultracapacitors………….. 158
  • Figure 86: Zapgo supercapacitor phone charger…………………………………………………………………………………….. 159
  • Figure 87: Stretchable graphene supercapacitor…………………………………………………………………………………….. 160
  • Figure 88: Potential addressable market for graphene in supercapacitors……………………………………………………. 161
  • Figure 89: Demand for graphene in supercapacitors (tons), 2018-2030……………………………………………………….. 163
  • Figure 90: Solar cell with nanowires and graphene electrode…………………………………………………………………….. 164
  • Figure 91: Schematic illustration of the fabrication concept for textile-based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) made by sewing textile electrodes onto cloth or paper…………………………………………………………………………………… 165
  • Figure 92: Potential addressable market for graphene in photovoltaics……………………………………………………….. 168
  • Figure 93: Demand for graphene in photovoltaics (tons), 2018-2030…………………………………………………………… 169
  • Figure 94: Potential addressable market for graphene in fuel cells……………………………………………………………… 171
  • Figure 95: Demand for graphene in fuel cells (tons), 2018-2030………………………………………………………………… 173
  • Figure 96: LG OLED flexible lighting panel……………………………………………………………………………………………. 174
  • Figure 97: Flexible OLED incorporated into automotive headlight………………………………………………………………. 175
  • Figure 98: Potential addressable market for graphene in lighting……………………………………………………………….. 176
  • Figure 99: Demand for graphene in lighting (tons), 2018-2030…………………………………………………………………… 177
  • Figure 100: Schematic of boron doped graphene for application in gas sensors……………………………………………. 179
  • Figure 101: Directa Plus Grafysorber…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 181
  • Figure 102: Nanometer-scale pores in single-layer freestanding graphene membrane can effectively filter NaCl salt from water……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 182
  • Figure 103: Demand for graphene in oil and gas (tons), 2018-2030……………………………………………………………. 186
  • Figure 104: Degradation of organic dye molecules by graphene hybrid composite photocatalysts……………………… 189
  • Figure 105: Graphene anti-smog mask………………………………………………………………………………………………… 189
  • Figure 106: Potential addressable market for graphene in the filtration market………………………………………………. 190
  • Figure 107: Demand for graphene in filtration (tons), 2018-2030………………………………………………………………… 193
  • Figure 108: Graphene Frontiers’ Six™ chemical sensors consists of a field effect transistor (FET) with a graphene channel. Receptor molecules, such as DNA, are attached directly to the graphene channel………………………. 198
  • Figure 109: Graphene-Oxide based chip prototypes for biopsy-free early cancer diagnosis……………………………… 199
  • Figure 110: Connected human body……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 200
  • Figure 111: Flexible, lightweight temperature sensor……………………………………………………………………………….. 201
  • Figure 112: Graphene-based E-skin patch……………………………………………………………………………………………. 202
  • Figure 113: Smart e-skin system comprising health-monitoring sensors, displays, and ultra flexible PLEDs…………. 204
  • Figure 114: Graphene medical patch…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 204
  • Figure 115: TempTraQ wearable wireless thermometer…………………………………………………………………………… 205
  • Figure 116: Mimo baby monitor………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 205
  • Figure 117: Nanowire skin hydration patch……………………………………………………………………………………………. 206
  • Figure 118: Wearable sweat sensor…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 206
  • Figure 119: GraphWear wearable sweat sensor…………………………………………………………………………………….. 207
  • Figure 120: Global medical and healthcare smart textiles and wearables market, 2015-2027, billions $………………. 209
  • Figure 121: Global medical and healthcare smart textiles and wearables market, 2015-2027, billions $………………. 210
  • Figure 122: Potential addressable market for graphene-enabled applications in the biomedical and healthcare market……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 212
  • Figure 123: Demand for graphene in life sciences and medical (tons), 2018-2030…………………………………………. 213
  • Figure 124: Demand for graphene in lubricants (tons), 2018-2030……………………………………………………………… 217
  • Figure 125: Demand for graphene in rubber and tires (tons), 2018-2030……………………………………………………… 221
  • Figure 126: GFET sensors………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 225
  • Figure 127: First generation point of care diagnostics……………………………………………………………………………… 226
  • Figure 128: Graphene Field Effect Transistor Schematic………………………………………………………………………….. 227
  • Figure 129: Potential addressable market for graphene in the sensors market………………………………………………. 230
  • Figure 130: Demand for graphene in sensors (tons), 2018-2030………………………………………………………………… 231
  • Figure 131: Colmar graphene ski jacket……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 237
  • Figure 132: Conductive yarns…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 237
  • Figure 133: Global smart clothing, interactive fabrics and apparel market 2013-2030 revenue forecast (million $)…. 238
  • Figure 134 Global smart clothing, interactive fabrics and apparel sales by market segment, 2016…………………….. 239
  • Figure 135: Global market revenues for nanotech-enabled smart clothing and apparel 2014-2021, in US$, conservative estimate………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 240
  • Figure 136: Global market revenues for nanotech-enabled smart clothing and apparel 2014-2021, in US$, optimistic estimate………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 240
  • Figure 137: Demand for graphene in textiles (tons), 2018-2030…………………………………………………………………. 242
  • Figure 138: Demand for graphene in cement (tons), 2018-2030………………………………………………………………… 245