The Carbon Nanotubes Global Opportunity Report

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coverDESCRIPTION

Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been attracted huge attention over the past two decades, based on their extraordinary physical and chemical properties that are a result of their intrinsic nano-sized one-dimensional nature. Once the most promising of all nanomaterials, CNTs face stiff competition in conductive applications from graphene and other 2D materials and in mechanically enhanced composites from nanocellulose. However, after considerable research efforts, numerous multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs)-enhanced products are commercially available. Super-aligned CNT arrays, films and yarns have found applications in consumer electronics, batteries, polymer composites, aerospace, sensors, heaters, filters and biomedicine. Large-scale industrial production of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) has been initiated, promising new market opportunities in transparent conductive films, transistors, sensors and memory devices. SWNTs are regarded as one of the most promising candidates to utilized as building blocks in next generation electronics.

WHAT DOES THE REPORT INCLUDE?

  • Assessment of the carbon nanotubes market including production volumes, competitive landscape, commercial prospects, applications,  commercialization timelines, prices and producer profiles.
  • Assessment of end user markets for carbon nanotubes including market drivers and trends, applications, market opportunity, market challenges and application and product developer profiles.
  • Unique assessment tools for the carbon nanotubes, end user applications, economic impact, addressable markets and market challenges to provide the complete picture of where the real opportunities in carbon nanotubes are.
  • Full company profiles of carbon nanotubes producers and application developers including technology descriptions and end user markets targeted.

Publication date: August 2 2017 | 670 Pages | Table of contents

The Carbon Nanotubes Global Opportunity Report
The Carbon Nanotubes Global Opportunity Report
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The Carbon Nanotubes Global Opportunity Report
The Carbon Nanotubes Global Opportunity Report
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The Carbon Nanotubes Global Opportunity Report
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TABLE OF CONTENTS

1       RESEARCH METHODOLOGY……………………………………………………………………. 38

  • 1.1       NANOMATERIALS MARKET RATING SYSTEM……………………………………… 39
  • 1.2       COMMERCIAL IMPACT RATING SYSTEM………………………………………….. 41
  • 1.3       MARKET CHALLENGES RATING SYSTEM……………………………………………. 42

2       EXECUTIVE SUMMARY……………………………………………………………………………. 45

2.1       Exceptional properties……………………………………………………………………. 48

2.2       Products and applications……………………………………………………………… 50

2.3       Threat from the graphene market………………………………………………….. 51

2.4       Production……………………………………………………………………………………… 51

2.4.1   Multi-walled nanotube (MWNT) production……………………………….. 52

2.4.2   Single-walled nanotube (SWNT) production……………………………….. 54

2.5       Global demand for carbon nanotubes…………………………………………. 57

2.5.1   Current products…………………………………………………………………………. 59

2.5.2   Future products…………………………………………………………………………… 60

2.6       Market drivers and trends………………………………………………………………. 61

2.6.1   Electronics…………………………………………………………………………………… 61

2.6.1.1    EMI/RFI shielding…………………………………………………………………… 61

2.6.1.2    Transparent conductive film………………………………………………… 61

2.6.1.3    Silicon replacement……………………………………………………………… 62

2.6.2   Electric vehicles and lithium-ion batteries…………………………………… 62

2.7       Market and production challenges……………………………………………….. 63

2.7.1   Safety issues………………………………………………………………………………… 64

2.7.2   Dispersion……………………………………………………………………………………. 65

2.7.3   Synthesis and supply quality……………………………………………………….. 66

2.7.4   Cost…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 66

2.7.5   Competition from other materials………………………………………………. 67

2.8       Competitive analysis of carbon nanotubes and graphene…………… 68

 

3       INTRODUCTION………………………………………………………………………………………. 70

3.1       Properties of nanomaterials……………………………………………………………. 70

3.2       Categorization……………………………………………………………………………….. 71

3.3       CARBON NANOTUBES…………………………………………………………………….. 73

3.3.1   Multi-walled nanotubes (MWNT)…………………………………………………. 74

3.3.2   Single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNT)………………………………………… 75

3.3.2.1    Single-chirality………………………………………………………………………. 78

3.3.3   Double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWNTs)……………………………….. 80

3.3.4   Few-walled carbon nanotubes (FWNTs)……………………………………… 81

3.3.5   Carbon Nanohorns (CNHs)…………………………………………………………. 81

3.3.6   Carbon Onions……………………………………………………………………………. 82

3.3.7   Fullerenes…………………………………………………………………………………….. 85

3.3.8   Boron Nitride nanotubes (BNNTs)………………………………………………… 87

3.4       Properties……………………………………………………………………………………….. 88

3.5       Applications of carbon nanotubes………………………………………………… 89

3.5.1   High volume applications……………………………………………………………. 90

3.5.2   Low volume applications……………………………………………………………. 90

3.5.3   Novel applications………………………………………………………………………. 91

 

4       COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS WITH GRAPHENE……………………………………………. 92

4.1       Comparative properties…………………………………………………………………. 93

4.2       Cost and production……………………………………………………………………… 95

4.3       Carbon nanotube-graphene hybrids…………………………………………….. 97

4.4       Competitive market analysis of carbon nanotubes and graphene. 98

 

5       CARBON NANOTUBE SYNTHESIS…………………………………………………………… 101

5.1       Arc discharge synthesis………………………………………………………………… 103

5.2       Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD)……………………………………………… 105

5.3       Plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD)…………….. 106

5.4       High-pressure carbon monoxide synthesis……………………………………. 107

5.4.1   High Pressure CO (HiPco)………………………………………………………….. 107

5.4.2   CoMoCAT…………………………………………………………………………………. 108

5.5       Flame synthesis…………………………………………………………………………….. 109

5.6       Laser ablation synthesis………………………………………………………………… 110

5.7       Silane solution method…………………………………………………………………. 111

 

6       CARBON NANOTUBES MARKET STRUCTURE…………………………………………… 112

7       REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS…………………………………………………………… 115

7.1       Europe………………………………………………………………………………………….. 116

7.1.1   REACH……………………………………………………………………………………….. 116

7.1.2   Biocidal Products Regulation…………………………………………………….. 116

7.1.3   National nanomaterials registers………………………………………………. 117

7.1.4   Cosmetics regulation………………………………………………………………… 118

7.1.5   Food safety……………………………………………………………………………….. 120

7.2       United States………………………………………………………………………………… 121

7.2.1   Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA)………………………………………… 121

7.3       Asia………………………………………………………………………………………………. 123

7.3.1   Japan……………………………………………………………………………………….. 123

7.3.2   South Korea………………………………………………………………………………. 123

7.3.3   Taiwan………………………………………………………………………………………. 124

7.3.4   Australia…………………………………………………………………………………….. 124

 

8       CARBON NANOTUBES PATENTS……………………………………………………………. 126

9       CARBON NANOTUBES TECHNOLOGY READINESS LEVEL……………………….. 131

10    CARBON NANOTUBES END USER MARKET SEGMENT ANALYSIS…………….. 134

10.1     Production volumes in metric tons, 2010-2025……………………………… 134

10.2     Carbon nanotube producer production capacities……………………. 139

10.3     Regional demand for carbon nanotubes……………………………………. 142

10.3.1     Japan…………………………………………………………………………………….. 145

10.3.2     China……………………………………………………………………………………… 146

10.4     Main carbon nanotubes producers…………………………………………….. 147

10.4.1     SWNT production…………………………………………………………………… 148

10.4.1.1      OCSiAl……………………………………………………………………………… 148

10.4.1.2      FGV Cambridge Nanosystems………………………………………… 148

10.4.1.3      Zeon Corporation……………………………………………………………. 149

10.5     Price of carbon nanotubes-MWNTs, SWNTs and FWNTs……………….. 149

10.5.1     MWNTs……………………………………………………………………………………. 151

10.5.2     SWNTs…………………………………………………………………………………….. 151

10.6     APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………………………. 153

 

11    CARBON NANOTUBES INDUSTRY NEWS 2013-2017……………………………….. 158

11.1     JANUARY 2013……………………………………………………………………………… 158

11.2     AUGUST 2013………………………………………………………………………………… 158

11.3     NOVEMBER 2013…………………………………………………………………………… 158

11.4     DECEMBER 2013……………………………………………………………………………. 159

11.5     JANUARY 2014……………………………………………………………………………… 159

11.6     FEBRUARY 2014……………………………………………………………………………… 160

11.7     MARCH 2014………………………………………………………………………………… 161

11.8     APRIL 2014…………………………………………………………………………………….. 162

11.9     MAY 2014……………………………………………………………………………………… 163

11.10      JULY 2014…………………………………………………………………………………… 164

11.11      SEPTEMBER 2014………………………………………………………………………… 164

11.12      JANUARY 2015…………………………………………………………………………… 166

11.13      FEBRUARY 2015………………………………………………………………………….. 167

11.14      MARCH 2015……………………………………………………………………………… 168

11.15      APRIL 2015…………………………………………………………………………………. 168

11.16      MAY 2015………………………………………………………………………………….. 169

11.17      JUNE 2015………………………………………………………………………………….. 169

11.18      JULY 2015…………………………………………………………………………………… 170

11.19      SEPTEMBER 2015………………………………………………………………………… 170

11.20      DECEMBER 2015………………………………………………………………………… 171

11.21      APRIL 216…………………………………………………………………………………… 171

11.22      MAY 2016………………………………………………………………………………….. 171

11.23      JUNE 2016………………………………………………………………………………….. 172

11.24      AUGUST 2016……………………………………………………………………………… 173

11.25      SEPTEMBER 2016………………………………………………………………………… 173

11.26      OCTOBER 2016………………………………………………………………………….. 173

11.27      NOVEMBER 2016……………………………………………………………………….. 174

11.28      DECEMBER 2016………………………………………………………………………… 175

11.29      JANUARY 2017…………………………………………………………………………… 176

11.30      FEBRUARY 2017………………………………………………………………………….. 177

11.31      MARCH 2017……………………………………………………………………………… 178

11.32      APRIL 2017…………………………………………………………………………………. 179

11.33      MAY 2017………………………………………………………………………………….. 180

11.34      JUNE 2017………………………………………………………………………………….. 181

 

12    ELECTRONICS………………………………………………………………………………………. 182

12.1     FLEXIBLE ELECTRONICS, CONDUCTIVE FILMS AND DISPLAYS…………. 183

12.1.1     MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS……………………………………………….. 183

12.1.1.1      Growth in wearable electronics……………………………………… 186

12.1.1.2      Touch technology requirements……………………………………… 188

12.1.2     APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………………… 190

12.1.2.1      Transparent electrodes in flexible electronics…………………. 190

12.1.2.2      SWNTs………………………………………………………………………………. 191

12.1.2.3      Double-walled carbon nanotubes…………………………………. 193

12.1.3     MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY…………………………………………….. 194

12.1.3.1      Touch panel and ITO replacement…………………………………. 194

12.1.3.2      Wearable electronics……………………………………………………… 209

12.1.4     MARKET CHALLENGES……………………………………………………………. 212

12.1.4.1      Fabricating SWNT devices……………………………………………….. 212

12.1.4.2      Competing materials………………………………………………………. 213

12.1.5     PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………….. 214

12.2     CONDUCTIVE INKS………………………………………………………………………… 218

12.2.1     MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS……………………………………………….. 218

12.2.1.1      Increased demand for printed electronics…………………….. 218

12.2.1.2      Limitations of existing conductive inks…………………………….. 219

12.2.1.3      Growth in the 3D printing market……………………………………. 220

12.2.1.4      Growth in the printed sensors market……………………………… 221

12.2.2     APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………………… 222

12.2.3     MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY…………………………………………….. 223

12.2.4     MARKET CHALLENGES……………………………………………………………. 227

12.2.5     PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………….. 228

12.3     TRANSISTORS, INTEGRATED CIRCUITS AND otheR COMPONENTS….. 229

12.3.1     MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS……………………………………………….. 229

12.3.1.1      Scaling…………………………………………………………………………….. 229

12.3.1.2      Limitations of current materials……………………………………….. 232

12.3.1.3      Limitations of copper as interconnect materials…………….. 233

12.3.1.4      Need to improve bonding technology…………………………… 234

12.3.1.5      Need to improve thermal properties………………………………. 234

12.3.2     APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………………… 234

12.3.2.1      Thin film transistors (TFT)……………………………………………………. 235

12.3.2.2      Electronics packaging…………………………………………………….. 236

12.3.2.3      Thermal management……………………………………………………. 237

12.3.2.4      Insulation…………………………………………………………………………. 238

12.3.3     MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY…………………………………………….. 238

12.3.4     MARKET CHALLENGES……………………………………………………………. 240

12.3.5     PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………….. 241

12.4     MEMORY DEVICES………………………………………………………………………… 242

12.4.1     MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS……………………………………………….. 242

12.4.1.1      Density and voltage scaling……………………………………………. 242

12.4.1.2      Growth in the smartphone and tablet markets………………. 243

12.4.1.3      Growth in the flexible electronics market……………………….. 243

12.4.2     APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………………… 245

12.4.3     MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY…………………………………………….. 249

12.4.4     MARKET CHALLENGES……………………………………………………………. 251

12.4.5     PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………….. 252

 

13    COMPOSITES……………………………………………………………………………………….. 257

13.1     MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS……………………………………………………… 257

13.1.1     Growing use of polymer composites……………………………………… 257

13.1.2     Increased need for advanced, protective materials……………. 257

13.1.3     Improved performance over traditional composites…………….. 258

13.1.4     Multi-functionality…………………………………………………………………… 259

13.1.5     Growth in use in the wind energy market……………………………… 260

13.1.6     Need for new flame retardant materials……………………………….. 260

13.1.7     Environmental impact of carbon fibers…………………………………. 261

13.1.8     Shortcomings of natural fiber composites and glass fiber reinforced composites………………………………………………………………………… 261

13.2     APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………………………. 262

13.2.1     Electrostatic discharge (ESD) and electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding……………………………………………………………………………………… 263

13.2.2     Wind turbines…………………………………………………………………………. 263

13.2.3     Construction………………………………………………………………………….. 264

13.2.4     Sporting goods………………………………………………………………………. 266

13.2.5     Ballistic protection………………………………………………………………….. 266

13.2.6     Wire and cable……………………………………………………………………… 267

13.2.7     Thermal management…………………………………………………………… 267

13.2.8     Elastomers and rubber…………………………………………………………… 268

13.3     MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY…………………………………………………… 269

13.4     MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………… 271

13.5     PRODUCT DEVELOPERS…………………………………………………………………. 273

 

14    AEROSPACE AND AVIATION………………………………………………………………… 279

14.1     MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS……………………………………………………… 279

14.1.1     Safety…………………………………………………………………………………….. 279

14.1.2     Reduced fuel consumption and costs…………………………………… 280

14.1.3     Increased durability……………………………………………………………….. 280

14.1.4     Multi-functionality…………………………………………………………………… 281

14.1.5     Need for new de-icing solutions…………………………………………….. 282

14.1.6     Weight reduction…………………………………………………………………… 282

14.1.7     Need for improved lightning protection materials………………… 282

14.2     APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………………………. 283

14.2.1     Composites……………………………………………………………………………. 284

14.2.1.1      ESD protection………………………………………………………………… 284

14.2.1.2      Conductive cables…………………………………………………………. 284

14.2.1.3      Anti-friction braking systems……………………………………………. 284

14.2.2     Coatings………………………………………………………………………………… 285

14.2.2.1      Anti-icing…………………………………………………………………………. 287

14.2.3     Sensors…………………………………………………………………………………… 289

14.3     MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY…………………………………………………… 289

14.3.1     MARKET CHALLENGES……………………………………………………………. 291

14.4     PRODUCT DEVELOPERS…………………………………………………………………. 292

 

15    AUTOMOTIVE……………………………………………………………………………………….. 297

15.1     MARKET DRIVER AND TRENDS……………………………………………………….. 297

15.1.1     Environmental regulations……………………………………………………… 297

15.1.2     Lightweighting……………………………………………………………………….. 298

15.1.3     Increasing use of natural fiber composites……………………………. 300

15.1.4     Safety…………………………………………………………………………………….. 302

15.1.5     Cost……………………………………………………………………………………….. 302

15.1.6     Need for enhanced conductivity in fuel components………….. 303

15.1.7     Increase in the use of touch-based automotive applications. 303

15.2     APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………………………. 305

15.2.1     Composites……………………………………………………………………………. 306

15.2.2     Lithium-ion batteries in electric and hybrid vehicles……………… 307

15.2.3     Coatings………………………………………………………………………………… 308

15.2.3.1      Thermally conductive……………………………………………………… 312

15.2.3.2      Flame retardant………………………………………………………………. 312

15.2.4     Tires………………………………………………………………………………………… 312

15.3     MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY…………………………………………………… 313

15.3.1     Composites……………………………………………………………………………. 313

15.3.2     Coatings………………………………………………………………………………… 315

15.4     MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………… 317

15.5     PRODUCT DEVELOPERS…………………………………………………………………. 318

 

16    BIOMEDICAL & HEALTHCARE……………………………………………………………….. 321

16.1     MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS……………………………………………………… 322

16.1.1     Improved drug delivery for cancer therapy………………………….. 322

16.1.2     Shortcomings of chemotherapies………………………………………….. 326

16.1.3     Biocompatibility of medical implants…………………………………….. 326

16.1.4     Modern healthcare demands for novel diagnostic tools………. 327

16.1.5     Growth in the handheld point-of-care market……………………… 328

16.1.6     Growth in the wearable monitoring market………………………….. 329

16.1.7     Need for improved medical imaging……………………………………. 330

16.1.8     Biocompatibility of medical implants…………………………………….. 331

16.1.9     Implant infections………………………………………………………………….. 332

16.1.10   Failure of metal implants……………………………………………………….. 332

16.1.11   Aging population driving growth…………………………………………… 333

16.2     APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………………………. 333

16.2.1     Cancer therapy…………………………………………………………………….. 334

16.2.1.1      Drug delivery…………………………………………………………………… 334

16.2.1.2      Immunotherapy………………………………………………………………. 338

16.2.1.3      Thermal ablation……………………………………………………………… 339

16.2.1.4      Stem cell therapy……………………………………………………………. 339

16.2.2     Medical implants…………………………………………………………………… 340

16.2.3     Biosensors………………………………………………………………………………. 341

16.2.4     Medical imaging and diagnositcs…………………………………………. 342

16.2.5     Tissue engineering………………………………………………………………….. 344

16.3     MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY…………………………………………………… 344

16.3.1     Biosensors………………………………………………………………………………. 345

16.3.2     Drug formulation and delivery……………………………………………….. 346

16.3.3     Diagnostics…………………………………………………………………………….. 348

16.3.4     Medical implants…………………………………………………………………… 350

16.4     MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………… 352

16.4.1     Potential toxicity…………………………………………………………………….. 352

16.4.2     Safety…………………………………………………………………………………….. 352

16.4.3     Dispersion………………………………………………………………………………. 353

16.4.4     Cost……………………………………………………………………………………….. 353

16.5     PRODUCT DEVELOPERS…………………………………………………………………. 354

 

17    COATINGS…………………………………………………………………………………………… 357

17.1     MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS……………………………………………………… 357

17.1.1     Sustainability and regulation………………………………………………….. 357

17.1.2     Cost of corrosion……………………………………………………………………. 358

17.1.3     Improved hygiene…………………………………………………………………. 359

17.1.4     Cost of weather-related damage…………………………………………. 361

17.2     APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………………………. 363

17.2.1     Anti-static coatings………………………………………………………………… 363

17.2.2     Anti-corrosion coatings………………………………………………………….. 364

17.2.2.1      Oil and gas……………………………………………………………………… 366

17.2.2.2      Marine…………………………………………………………………………….. 366

17.2.3     Anti-microbial………………………………………………………………………… 367

17.2.4     Anti-icing……………………………………………………………………………….. 368

17.2.5     Heat protection……………………………………………………………………… 370

17.2.6     Anti-fouling…………………………………………………………………………….. 371

17.2.7     Wear and abrasion resistance………………………………………………. 373

17.3     MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY…………………………………………………… 374

17.4     PRODUCT DEVELOPERS…………………………………………………………………. 376

 

18    FILTRATION AND SEPARATION………………………………………………………………. 378

18.1     MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS……………………………………………………… 378

18.1.1     Water shortage and population growth……………………………….. 378

18.1.2     Need for improved and low cost membrane technology……. 379

18.1.3     Need for improved groundwater treatment technologies……. 379

18.1.4     Cost and efficiency……………………………………………………………….. 380

18.1.5     Growth in the air filter market………………………………………………… 380

18.1.6     Need for environmentally, safe filters…………………………………….. 381

18.2     APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………………………. 382

18.2.1     Desalination and water filtration……………………………………………. 384

18.2.2     Airborne filters………………………………………………………………………… 385

18.2.3     Gas separation………………………………………………………………………. 387

18.3     MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY…………………………………………………… 387

18.4     APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………………………. 389

18.5     MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………… 392

18.5.1     Uniform pore size and distribution………………………………………….. 392

18.5.2     Reducing pore size for improved desalination………………………. 393

18.5.3     Difficulties of CNT growth……………………………………………………….. 393

18.5.4     Cost……………………………………………………………………………………….. 394

18.6     PRODUCT DEVELOPERS…………………………………………………………………. 395

 

19    ENERGY STORAGE, CONVERSION AND EXPLORATION MARKETS………….. 397

19.1     BATTERIES………………………………………………………………………………………. 398

19.1.1     MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS……………………………………………….. 398

19.1.1.1      Growth in personal electronics, electric vehicles and smart grids markets……………………………………………………………………………………. 399

19.1.1.2      Reduce dependence on lithium…………………………………….. 399

19.1.1.3      Shortcomings of existing battery and supercapacitor technology………………………………………………………………………………………. 400

19.1.1.4      Reduced costs for widespread application……………………. 402

19.1.1.5      Power sources for flexible electronics……………………………… 402

19.2     APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………………………. 402

19.2.1     Lithium-ion batteries (LIB)……………………………………………………….. 402

19.2.1.1      CNT Anodes…………………………………………………………………….. 406

19.2.1.2      CNT Cathodes…………………………………………………………………. 408

19.3     MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY…………………………………………………… 409

19.4     MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………… 411

19.5     SUPERCAPACITORS………………………………………………………………………. 413

19.5.1     MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS……………………………………………….. 413

19.5.1.1      Reducing costs……………………………………………………………….. 413

19.5.1.2      Demand from portable electronics………………………………… 413

19.5.1.3      Inefficiencies of standard battery technology……………….. 414

19.5.1.4      Problems with activated carbon…………………………………….. 414

19.6     APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………………………. 414

19.6.1     Graphene/CNT hybrids………………………………………………………….. 415

19.7     MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY…………………………………………………… 416

19.8     PHOTOVOLTAICS………………………………………………………………………….. 417

19.8.1     MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS……………………………………………….. 417

19.8.1.1      Need to improve solar cell efficiency……………………………… 417

19.8.1.2      Reduce costs…………………………………………………………………… 418

19.8.1.3      Varying environmental conditions………………………………….. 418

19.9     APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………………………. 418

19.9.1     Organic-inorganic perovskite solar cells………………………………… 420

19.10      MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY……………………………………………….. 421

19.11      FUEL CELLS…………………………………………………………………………………. 421

19.11.1   MARKET DRIVERS……………………………………………………………………. 421

19.11.1.1   Limitations of platinum…………………………………………………….. 421

19.11.1.2   Cost…………………………………………………………………………………. 422

19.12      APPLICATIONS…………………………………………………………………………… 422

19.12.1   Electrocatalyst supports…………………………………………………………. 423

19.13      MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY……………………………………………….. 424

19.14      OIL AND GAS…………………………………………………………………………….. 424

19.14.1   MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS……………………………………………….. 424

19.14.1.1   Need to reduce operating costs and improve operation efficiency 426

19.14.1.2   Increased demands of drilling environments………………….. 427

19.14.1.3   Increased exploration in extreme environments…………….. 428

19.14.1.4   Environmental and regulatory………………………………………… 428

19.14.2   APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………………… 429

19.14.2.1   Sensing and reservoir management……………………………….. 429

19.14.2.2   Coatings………………………………………………………………………….. 430

19.14.2.3   Drilling fluids…………………………………………………………………….. 430

19.14.2.4   Sorbent materials…………………………………………………………….. 431

19.15      MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY……………………………………………….. 431

19.16      MARKET CHALLENGES……………………………………………………………….. 434

19.17      PRODUCT DEVELOPERS……………………………………………………………… 435

 

20    SENSORS………………………………………………………………………………………………. 440

20.1     MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS……………………………………………………… 440

20.1.1     Increased power and performance with reduced cost……….. 440

20.1.2     Enhanced sensitivity………………………………………………………………. 440

20.1.3     Replacing silver electrodes……………………………………………………. 441

20.1.4     Growth in the home diagnostics and point of care market….. 442

20.1.5     Improved thermal stability……………………………………………………… 442

20.2     APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………………………. 443

20.2.1     Gas sensors……………………………………………………………………………. 444

20.2.2     Pressure sensors……………………………………………………………………… 445

20.2.3     Biosensors………………………………………………………………………………. 446

20.2.4     Infrared (IR) sensors………………………………………………………………… 447

20.3     MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY…………………………………………………… 448

20.4     MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………… 449

20.5     PRODUCT DEVELOPERS…………………………………………………………………. 451

 

21    3D PRINTING………………………………………………………………………………………… 454

21.1.1     MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS……………………………………………….. 454

21.1.1.1      Improved materials at lower cost……………………………………. 454

21.1.1.2      Limitations of current thermoplastics………………………………. 455

21.2     APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………………………. 455

21.3     MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY…………………………………………………… 458

21.4     MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………… 459

21.5     PRODUCT DEVELOPERS…………………………………………………………………. 460

 

22    ADHESIVES…………………………………………………………………………………………… 461

22.1     MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS……………………………………………………… 461

22.1.1     Thermal management in high temperature electronics……….. 461

22.1.1.1      Environmental sustainability…………………………………………….. 461

22.2     APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………………………. 462

22.3     MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY…………………………………………………… 466

22.4     MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………… 468

22.5     PRODUCT DEVELOPERS…………………………………………………………………. 469

 

23    LUBRICANTS…………………………………………………………………………………………. 470

23.1     MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS……………………………………………………… 470

23.1.1     Need for new additives that provide “more for less”…………….. 470

23.1.2     Need for higher-performing lubricants for fuel efficiency……… 471

23.1.3     Environmental concerns………………………………………………………… 471

23.2     APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………………………. 471

23.3     MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY…………………………………………………… 474

23.4     MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………… 475

23.5     PRODUCT DEVELOPERS…………………………………………………………………. 476

 

24    TEXTILES……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 477

24.1     MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS……………………………………………………… 477

24.1.1     Growth in the wearable electronics market………………………….. 477

24.1.2     Growth in remote health monitoring and diagnostics…………… 479

24.2     APPLICATONS……………………………………………………………………………….. 480

24.2.1     Protective textiles…………………………………………………………………… 482

24.2.2     Electronic textiles…………………………………………………………………… 483

24.2.3     Superhydrophobic coatings………………………………………………….. 494

24.2.4     Conductive coatings…………………………………………………………….. 495

24.2.5     Flame retardant textiles…………………………………………………………. 496

24.3     MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY…………………………………………………… 496

24.3.1     Protective textiles…………………………………………………………………… 496

24.3.2     Electronic textiles…………………………………………………………………… 497

24.4     MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………… 498

24.5     PRODUCT DEVELOPERS…………………………………………………………………. 500

 

25    CARBON NANOTUBES PRODUCERS AND PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………….. 500-670 (200 company profiles)

 

TABLES

Table 1: Nanomaterials scorecard for carbon nanotubes………………………….. 45

Table 2: Market summary for carbon nanotubes-Selling grade particle diameter, usage, advantages, average price/ton, high volume applications, low volume applications and novel applications…………….. 46

Table 3: Properties of CNTs and comparable materials………………………………. 49

Table 4: Annual production capacity of MWNT and SWNT producers………… 53

Table 5: SWNT producers production capacities 2015………………………………… 56

Table 6: Global production of carbon nanotubes, 2010-2025 in tons/year. Base year for projections is 2014……………………………………………………………………… 58

Table 7: Competitive analysis of Carbon nanotubes and graphene by application area and potential impact by 2025……………………………………. 68

Table 8: Categorization of nanomaterials…………………………………………………… 72

Table 9: Comparison between single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes……………………………………………………………… 79

Table 10: Properties of carbon nanotubes…………………………………………………… 88

Table 11: Comparative properties of carbon materials………………………………. 94

Table 12: Comparative properties of graphene with nanoclays and carbon nanotubes………………………………………………………………………………………………. 97

Table 13: Competitive analysis of Carbon nanotubes and graphene by application area and potential impact by 2025……………………………………. 99

Table 14: SWNT synthesis methods…………………………………………………………….. 102

Table 15: Carbon nanotubes market structure………………………………………….. 112

Table 16: National nanomaterials registries in Europe……………………………….. 117

Table 17: Nanomaterials regulatory bodies in Australia…………………………….. 125

Table 18: Top ten countries based on number of nanotechnology patents in USPTO 2014-2015…………………………………………………………………………………… 127

Table 19: Production volumes of carbon nanotubes (tons), 2010-2025…….. 135

Table 20: Annual production capacity of MWNT producers……………………… 140

Table 21: SWNT producers production capacities 2015…………………………….. 141

Table 22: Example carbon nanotubes prices……………………………………………. 152

Table 23: Markets, benefits and applications of Carbon Nanotubes………… 153

Table 24: Comparison of ITO replacements………………………………………………. 185

Table 25: Overview of Metal-based TCFs…………………………………………………… 200

Table 26: Application markets, competing materials, nanomaterials  advantages and current market size in flexible substrates…………………… 208

Table 27: Carbon nanotubes in the flexible electronics, conductive films and displays market-applications, stage of commercialization and estimated economic impact…………………………………………………………………………………. 212

Table 28: Market challenges rating for carbon nanotubes in the flexible electronics, conductive films and displays market……………………………….. 214

Table 29: Carbon nanotubes product and application developers in transparent conductive films and displays…………………………………………… 214

Table 30: Comparative properties of conductive inks………………………………. 220

Table 31: Opportunities for nanomaterials in printed electronics………………. 225

Table 32: Carbon nanotubes in the conductive inks market-applications, stage of commercialization and estimated economic impact……………. 226

Table 33: Market challenges rating for carbon nanotubes in the conductive inks market……………………………………………………………………………………………. 227

Table 34: Carbon nanotubes product and application developers in conductive inks…………………………………………………………………………………….. 228

Table 35: Comparison of Cu, CNTs and graphene as interconnect materials………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 233

Table 36: Carbon nanotubes in the transistors, integrated circuits and other components market-applications, stage of commercialization and estimated economic impact……………………………………………………………….. 239

Table 37: Market challenges rating for carbon nanotubes in the transistors, integrated circuits and other components market………………………………. 241

Table 38: Carbon nanotubes product and application developers in transistors, integrated circuits and other components…………………………. 241

Table 39: Applications in memory devices, by nanomaterials type and benefits thereof………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 246

Table 40: Carbon nanotubes in the memory devices market-applications, stage of commercialization and estimated economic impact……………. 250

Table 41: Market challenges rating for carbon nanotubes in the memory devices market…………………………………………………………………………………….. 251

Table 42: Carbon nanotubes product and application developers in memory devices…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 256

Table 43: Comparative properties of polymer composites reinforcing materials………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 262

Table 44: Carbon nanotubes in thermal management composites, by nanomaterials type and benefits thereof…………………………………………….. 268

Table 45: Carbon nanotubes in the composites market-applications, stage of commercialization and estimated economic impact…………………………. 270

Table 46: Market challenges rating for carbon nanotubes in the composites market…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 273

Table 47: Carbon nanotubes product and application developers in the composites industry………………………………………………………………………………. 273

Table 48: Types of nanocoatings utilized in aerospace and application….. 286

Table 49: Carbon nanotubes in the aerospace and aviation market-applications, stage of commercialization and estimated economic impact………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 290

Table 50: Market challenges rating for carbon nanotubes in the aerospace market…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 292

Table 51: Carbon nanotubes product and application developers in the aerospace industry……………………………………………………………………………….. 292

Table 52: Applications of natural fiber composites in vehicles by manufacturers………………………………………………………………………………………. 301

Table 53: Applications in automotive composites, by nanomaterials type and benefits thereof…………………………………………………………………………………….. 306

Table 54: Nanocoatings applied in the automotive industry…………………….. 308

Table 55: Application markets, competing materials, nanomaterials advantages and current market size in the automotive sector……………. 313

Table 56: Carbon nanotubes in the automotive market-applications, stage of commercialization and estimated economic impact…………………………. 315

Table 57: Applications and commercailization challenges in the automotive market…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 317

Table 58: Market challenges rating for carbon nanotubes in the automotive market…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 317

Table 59: Carbon nanotubes product and application developers in the automotive industry………………………………………………………………………………. 318

Table 60: Applications of carbon nanotubes in drug formulation and delivery………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 324

Table 61: CNTs in life sciences and biomedicine……………………………………….. 334

Table 62: Applications in medical imaging and diagnostics, by nanomaterials type and benefits thereof…………………………………………………………………….. 343

Table 63: Nanotechnology and nanomaterials opportunity in the medical biosensors market-applications, stage of commercialization and estimated economic impact…………………………………………………………………………………. 346

Table 64: Nanotechnology and nanomaterials opportunity in the drug formulation and delivery market-applications, stage of commercialization and estimated economic impact………………………………………………………… 347

Table 65: Nanotechnology and nanomaterials opportunity in the imaging and diagnostics market-applications, stage of commercialization and estimated economic impact……………………………………………………………….. 349

Table 66: Nanotechnology and nanomaterials opportunity in medical implants and devices market-applications, stage of commercialization and estimated economic impact……………………………………………………………….. 351

Table 67: Carbon nanotubes product and application developers in the medical and healthcare industry…………………………………………………………. 354

Table 68: Carbon nanotubes in the coatings market-applications, stage of commercialization and addressable market size…………………………………. 375

Table 69: Carbon nanotubes product and application developers in the coatings industry…………………………………………………………………………………… 376

Table 70: Types of filtration…………………………………………………………………………. 383

Table 71: Applications in desalination and water filtration, by nanomaterials type and benefits thereof…………………………………………………………………….. 385

Table 72: Applications in gas separation, by nanomaterials type and benefits thereof………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 387

Table 73: Carbon nanotubes in the filtration and environmental remediation market-applications, stage of commercialization and estimated economic impact………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 388

Table 74: Comparison of CNT membranes with other membrane technologies……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 390

Table 75: Market challenges rating for carbon nanotubes in the filtration and environmental remediation market……………………………………………………… 394

Table 76: Carbon nanotubes product and application developers in the filtration industry……………………………………………………………………………………. 395

Table 77: Applications in LIB, by nanomaterials type and benefits thereof.. 403

Table 78: Carbon nanotubes in the batteries market-applications, stage of commercialization and estimated economic impact…………………………. 411

Table 79: Market challenges in batteries…………………………………………………… 411

Table 80: Market challenges rating for carbon nanotubes in the batteries market…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 412

Table 81: Properties of carbon materials in high-performance supercapacitors………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 416

Table 82: Nanotechnology and nanomaterials in the oil and gas market-applications, stage of commercialization and estimated economic impact………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 433

Table 83: Market challenges rating for carbon nanotubes in the oil and gas exploration market……………………………………………………………………………….. 434

Table 84: Carbon nanotubes product and application developers in the energy industry……………………………………………………………………………………… 435

Table 85: Applications in strain sensors………………………………………………………. 445

Table 86: First generation point of care diagnostics………………………………….. 447

Table 87: Nanotechnology and nanomaterials in the sensors market-applications, stage of commercialization and estimated economic impact………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 449

Table 88: Market challenges rating carbon nanotubes in the sensors market………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 450

Table 89: Carbon nanotubes product and application developers in the sensors industry……………………………………………………………………………………… 451

Table 90: Applications in 3D printing, by nanomaterials type and benefits thereof………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 455

Table 91: Nanotechnology and nanomaterials in the 3D printing market-applications, stage of commercialization and estimated economic impact………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 458

Table 92: Market challenges rating for carbon nanotubes in the 3D printing market…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 459

Table 93: Carbon nanotubes product and application developers in the 3D printing industry…………………………………………………………………………………….. 460

Table 94: Nanomaterials properties relevant to application in adhesives…. 462

Table 95: Applications in adhesives, by nanomaterials type and benefits thereof………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 463

Table 96: Nanomaterials in the adhesives market-applications, stage of commercialization and estimated economic impact…………………………. 467

Table 97: Market challenges rating for nanotechnology and nanomaterials in the adhesives market……………………………………………………………………………. 468

Table 98: Carbon nanotubes product and application developers in the adhesives industry…………………………………………………………………………………. 469

Table 99: Applications of carbon nanotubes in lubricants………………………… 472

Table 100: Applications in lubricants, by nanomaterials type and benefits thereof………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 473

Table 101: Nanotechnology and nanomaterials in lubricants market-applications, stage of commercialization and estimated economic impact………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 474

Table 102: Market challenges rating for carbon nanotubes in the lubricants market…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 475

Table 103: Carbon nanotubes product and application developers in the lubricants industry…………………………………………………………………………………. 476

Table 104: Desirable functional properties for the textiles industry afforded by the use of nanomaterials………………………………………………………………………. 481

Table 105: Applications in textiles, by nanomaterials type and benefits thereof………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 484

Table 106: Nanocoatings applied in the textiles industry-type of coating, nanomaterials utilized, benefits and applications………………………………… 488

Table 107: Nanomaterials in the textiles market-applications, stage of commercialization and estimated economic impact…………………………. 498

Table 108: Market challenges rating for nanotechnology and nanomaterials in the textiles and apparel market…………………………………………………………… 499

Table 109: Carbon nanotubes product and application developers in the textiles industry………………………………………………………………………………………. 500

Table 110: CNT producers and companies they supply/licence to…………… 501

 

 

FIGURES

Figure 1: Molecular structures of SWNT and MWNT……………………………………… 48

Figure 2: Production capacities for SWNTs in kilograms, 2005-2014……………… 57

Figure 3: Schematic of single-walled carbon nanotube……………………………… 77

Figure 4: Double-walled carbon nanotube bundle cross-section micrograph and model……………………………………………………………………………………………… 81

Figure 5: Schematic representation of carbon nanohorns………………………….. 82

Figure 6: TEM image of carbon onion………………………………………………………….. 84

Figure 7: Fullerene schematic………………………………………………………………………. 86

Figure 8: Schematic of Boron Nitride nanotubes (BNNTs). Alternating B and N atoms are shown in blue and red…………………………………………………………… 88

Figure 9: Graphene can be rolled up into a carbon nanotube, wrapped into a fullerene, and stacked into graphite………………………………………………………. 93

Figure 10: Schematic representation of methods used for carbon nanotube synthesis (a) Arc discharge (b) Chemical vapor deposition (c) Laser ablation (d) hydrocarbon flames…………………………………………………………. 102

Figure 11: Arc discharge process for CNTs…………………………………………………. 104

Figure 12: Schematic of thermal-CVD method…………………………………………. 106

Figure 13: Schematic of plasma-CVD method………………………………………….. 107

Figure 14: CoMoCAT® process………………………………………………………………….. 109

Figure 15: Schematic for flame synthesis of carbon nanotubes (a) premixed flame (b) counter-flow diffusion flame (c) co-flow diffusion flame (d) inverse diffusion flame………………………………………………………………………………………. 110

Figure 16: Schematic of laser ablation synthesis………………………………………… 111

Figure 17: Nanotechnology patent applications, 1991-2015…………………….. 127

Figure 18: Share of nanotechnology related patent applications since 1972, by country………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 128

Figure 19: CNT patents filed 2000-2014………………………………………………………. 129

Figure 20: Patent distribution of CNT application areas to 2014………………… 130

Figure 21: Technology Readiness Level (TRL) for Carbon Nanotubes………… 133

Figure 22: Production volumes of carbon nanotubes (tons), 2010-2025……. 136

Figure 23: Production capacities for SWNTs in kilograms, 2005-2014………….. 137

Figure 24: Demand for carbon nanotubes, by market……………………………… 138

Figure 25: Production volumes of Carbon Nanotubes 2015, by region……… 143

Figure 26: Regional demand for CNTs utilized in batteries…………………………. 143

Figure 27: Regional demand for CNTs utilized in Polymer reinforcement….. 144

Figure 28: Global touch panel market ($ million), 2011-2018…………………….. 194

Figure 29: Capacitive touch panel market forecast by layer structure  (Ksqm)………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 195

Figure 30: Global transparent conductive film market forecast (million $)… 196

Figure 31: Global transparent conductive film market forecast by materials type, 2015, %…………………………………………………………………………………………. 197

Figure 32: Global transparent conductive film market forecast by materials type, 2020, %…………………………………………………………………………………………. 198

Figure 33: Global market for smart wearables (Millions US$)……………………… 199

Figure 34: A large transparent conductive graphene film (about 20 × 20 cm2) manufactured by 2D Carbon Tech. Figure 24a (right): Prototype of a mobile phone produced by 2D Carbon Tech using a graphene touch panel…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 202

Figure 35: Global touch panel market ($ million), 2011-2018…………………….. 202

Figure 36: Capacitive touch panel market forecast by layer structure  (Ksqm)………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 203

Figure 37: Global transparent conductive film market forecast (million $)… 204

Figure 38: Global transparent conductive film market forecast by materials type, 2012-2020, millions $…………………………………………………………………….. 205

Figure 39: Global transparent conductive film market forecast by materials type, 2015, %…………………………………………………………………………………………. 206

Figure 40: Global transparent conductive film market forecast by materials type, 2020, %…………………………………………………………………………………………. 207

Figure 41: Global market for smart sports clothing (Millions US$)……………….. 210

Figure 42: Global market for smart wearables (Millions US$)……………………… 211

Figure 43: Nanotube inks……………………………………………………………………………. 223

Figure 44: Global market for conductive inks and pastes in printed electronics………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 224

Figure 45: Transistor architecture trend chart…………………………………………….. 231

Figure 46: Schematic cross-section of a graphene based transistor (GBT, left) and a graphene field-effect transistor (GFET, right)……………………………… 231

Figure 47: CMOS Technology Roadmap…………………………………………………… 232

Figure 48: Figure 38: Thin film transistor incorporating CNTs……………………….. 236

Figure 49: Emerging logic devices……………………………………………………………… 239

Figure 50: Stretchable CNT memory and logic devices for wearable electronics…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 244

Figure 51: Graphene oxide-based RRAm device on a flexible substrate….. 245

Figure 52: Emerging memory devices……………………………………………………….. 248

Figure 53: Carbon nanotubes NRAM chip…………………………………………………. 249

Figure 54: Schematic of NRAM cell……………………………………………………………. 254

Figure 55: Nanomaterials-based automotive components………………………. 303

Figure 56: The Tesla S’s touchscreen interface…………………………………………… 304

Figure 57: Global Paints and Coatings Market, share by end user market.. 375

Figure 58: Energy densities and specific energy of rechargeable batteries. 401

Figure 59: Nano Lithium X Battery………………………………………………………………. 409

Figure 60: Suntech/TCNT nanotube frame module…………………………………… 419

Figure 61: 3D Printed tweezers incorporating Carbon Nanotube Filament.. 457