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The Nanocellulose Global Opportunity Report

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coverThe Nanocellulose Global Opportunity Report provides a clear pathway to commercial opportunities in nanocellulose. The 374 page report covers current and future opportunities for nanocellulose across a wide range of markets, including paper & board, composites, biopackaging, coatings & films, medical & healthcare, textiles, oil & gas, filtration, rheology modifiers, aerogels, 3D printing and printed & flexible electronics.

Report contents

  • Global production capacities
  • Current products.
  • Stage of commercialization for nanocellulose applications by company.
  • Market drivers, trends and challenges, by target markets.
  • In-depth market assessment of opportunities for nanocellulose including potential revenues, growth rates, pricing, most likely applications and market challenges.
  • In-depth company profiles, include products, capacities, production processes and commmercial activities.

Companies featured in this report include American Process, Inc., Ashai Kasei Chemicals Corporation, Borregaard Chemcell, Chuetsu Pulp & Paper Co., Ltd., Daicel Corporation, Daio Paper Corporation, Imerys, Innventia AB, Kruger Bioproducts, Inc, Stora Enso Ltd. and many more.

Published: December 2016 | No. of pages: 369 |  Download table of contents

 

The Nanocellulose Global Opportunity Report
The Nanocellulose Global Opportunity Report
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TABLE OF CONTENTS

1    RESEARCH METHODOLOGY………………………………………………………. 29

1.1        MARKET OPPORTUNITY ANALYSIS……………………………………………………………………….. 31

1.2        COMMERCIAL IMPACT RATING SYSTEM………………………………………………………………. 33

1.3        MARKET CHALLENGES RATING SYSTEM……………………………………………………………… 34

2    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY………………………………………………………………… 36

2.1        Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 37

2.2        Production…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 41

2.3        Market drivers……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 42

2.3.1     Sustainable materials……………………………………………………………………………………………. 42

2.3.2     Improved products…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 43

2.3.3     Unique properties………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 44

2.3.4     Recent improvements in production and product integration……………………………….. 44

2.4        Market and technical challenges………………………………………………………………………………. 45

2.4.1     Characterization……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 45

2.4.2     Production……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 45

2.4.3     Functionalization…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 45

2.4.4     Moisture absorption and aggregation…………………………………………………………………… 45

2.4.5     Scalability………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 46

2.4.6     Lack of current products………………………………………………………………………………………… 46

2.5        Market size………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 50

3    INTRODUCTION…………………………………………………………………………….. 53

3.1        Properties of nanomaterials………………………………………………………………………………………. 53

3.2        Categorization…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 54

4    NANOMATERIALS REGULATIONS……………………………………………… 56

4.1        Europe……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 56

4.1.1     REACH………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 56

4.1.2     Biocidal Products Regulation………………………………………………………………………………… 57

4.1.3     National nanomaterials registers………………………………………………………………………….. 57

4.1.4     Cosmetics regulation…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 58

4.1.5     Food safety……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 59

4.2        United States……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 60

4.2.1     Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA)…………………………………………………………………… 60

4.3        Asia……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 61

4.3.1     Japan…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 61

4.3.2     South Korea…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 61

4.3.3     Taiwan…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 61

4.3.4     Australia………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 61

5    NANOCELLULOSE……………………………………………………………………….. 63

5.1        What is nanocellulose?……………………………………………………………………………………………… 63

5.2        Types of nanocellulose……………………………………………………………………………………………… 64

5.2.1     NanoFibrillar Cellulose (NFC)………………………………………………………………………………. 68

5.2.1.1      Applications…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 68

5.2.1.2      Production methods………………………………………………………………………………………. 69

5.2.2     NanoCrystalline Cellulose (NCC)…………………………………………………………………………. 71

5.2.2.1      Applications…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 72

5.2.3     Bacterial Cellulose (BCC)……………………………………………………………………………………… 73

5.2.3.1      Applications…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 73

5.3        Synthesis of cellulose materials………………………………………………………………………………… 74

5.3.1     Microcrystalline cellulose (MCC)…………………………………………………………………………… 74

5.3.2     Microfibrillated cellulose (MFC)…………………………………………………………………………….. 74

5.3.3     Nanofibrillated cellulose (MFC)…………………………………………………………………………….. 75

5.3.4     Cellulose nanocrystals (CNC)………………………………………………………………………………. 76

5.3.5     Bacterial cellulose particles (CNC)……………………………………………………………………….. 77

5.4        Properties of nanocellulose………………………………………………………………………………………. 77

5.5        Advantages of nanocellulose……………………………………………………………………………………. 78

5.6        Manufacture of nanocellulose…………………………………………………………………………………… 79

5.7        Production methods…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 80

5.7.1     Nanofibrillated cellulose production methods………………………………………………………. 82

5.7.2     Nanocrystalline celluose production methods………………………………………………………. 82

6    NANOCELLULOSE MARKET STRUCTURE……………………………….. 84

7    SWOT ANALYSIS FOR NANOCELLULOSE………………………………… 91

8    REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS……………………………………………… 93

8.1        Standards………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 93

8.1.1     International Standards Organization (ISO)………………………………………………………….. 93

8.1.2     American National Standards……………………………………………………………………………….. 93

8.1.3     CSA Group…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 93

8.2        Toxicity………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 94

8.3        Regulation…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 96

9    REGIONAL INITIATIVES AND GOVERNMENT FUNDING…………… 98

10 NANOCELLULOSE APPLICATIONS……………………………………………. 99

11 NANOCELLULOSE TECHNOLOGY READINESS LEVEL (TRL). 100

12 NANOCELLULOSE END USER MARKET SEGMENT ANALYSIS 102

12.1      Production of nanocellulose……………………………………………………………………………………. 102

12.1.1       Microfibrillated cellulose…………………………………………………………………………………. 102

12.1.2       Cellulose nanofiber production………………………………………………………………………. 103

12.1.3       Cellulose nanocrystal production……………………………………………………………………. 104

12.1.4       Production volumes, by region……………………………………………………………………….. 104

12.1.5       Applications…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 105

12.1.6       Prices………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 108

12.2      Nanocellulose patents & publications…………………………………………………………………….. 110

13 COMPOSITES………………………………………………………………………………. 116

13.1      MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………………………………………. 116

13.1.1       Growing use of polymer composites……………………………………………………………….. 117

13.1.2       Increased need for advanced, protective materials………………………………………… 117

13.1.3       Improved multi-functional performance over traditional composites-green AND strong           117

13.1.4       Multi-functionality…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 118

13.1.5       Growth in the wind energy market…………………………………………………………………… 119

13.1.6       Environmental impact of carbon fibers……………………………………………………………. 119

13.1.7       Shortcomings of natural fiber composites and glass fiber reinforced composites 119

13.2      APPLICATIONS……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 120

13.2.1       Applications by cellulose type…………………………………………………………………………. 121

13.2.2       Applications timeline……………………………………………………………………………………….. 122

13.2.3       Market opportunity…………………………………………………………………………………………… 122

13.2.4       Applications and market size………………………………………………………………………….. 125

13.2.5       Biopackaging………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 125

13.2.5.1    Market drivers and trends……………………………………………………………………………. 126

13.2.5.2    Applications………………………………………………………………………………………………… 130

13.2.5.3    Market size………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 132

13.2.5.4    Nanocellulose opportunity………………………………………………………………………….. 132

13.2.5.5    Market challenges………………………………………………………………………………………. 135

13.2.5.6    Commercial activity…………………………………………………………………………………….. 136

13.2.6       Aerospace……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 137

13.2.6.1    Market drivers and trends……………………………………………………………………………. 137

13.2.6.2    Applications………………………………………………………………………………………………… 139

13.2.6.3    Market size………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 139

13.2.6.4    Market challenges………………………………………………………………………………………. 141

13.2.7       Automotive………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 141

13.2.7.1    Market drivers and trends……………………………………………………………………………. 142

13.2.7.2    Safety………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 144

13.2.7.3    Cost…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 144

13.2.7.4    Applications………………………………………………………………………………………………… 145

13.2.7.5    Market size………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 146

13.2.7.6    Nanocellulose opportunity………………………………………………………………………….. 146

13.2.7.7    Market challenges………………………………………………………………………………………. 148

13.2.7.8    Commercial activity…………………………………………………………………………………….. 149

13.2.8       Construction & building…………………………………………………………………………………… 150

13.2.8.1    Market drivers and trends……………………………………………………………………………. 150

13.2.8.2    Applications………………………………………………………………………………………………… 151

13.2.8.3    Market size………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 151

13.2.8.4    Market challenges………………………………………………………………………………………. 152

13.2.9       Commercial activity…………………………………………………………………………………………. 153

14 PAPER & BOARD………………………………………………………………………… 158

14.1      Market drivers and trends………………………………………………………………………………………… 158

14.1.1       Environmental…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 158

14.1.2       Need to develop innovative new products in the paper and board industry…… 158

14.2      Applications…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 158

14.2.1.1    Paper packaging…………………………………………………………………………………………. 160

14.2.1.2    Paper coatings……………………………………………………………………………………………. 160

14.2.1.3    Anti-microbials…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 160

14.3      Market size………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 161

14.4      Nanocellulose opportunity………………………………………………………………………………………. 162

14.5      Market challenges…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 163

14.6      Commercial activity…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 164

15 TEXTILES…………………………………………………………………………………….. 166

15.1      Market drivers for nanocellulose……………………………………………………………………………… 166

15.1.1.1    Growth in the wearable electronics market…………………………………………………. 166

15.1.1.2    Growth in the market for anti-microbial textiles…………………………………………… 166

15.1.1.3    Need to improve the properties of cloth or fabric materials………………………… 167

15.1.1.4    Environmental and regulatory…………………………………………………………………….. 168

15.2      Applications…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 168

15.3      Nanocellulose opportunity………………………………………………………………………………………. 170

15.4      Market challenges…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 172

15.5      Commercial activity…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 172

16 MEDICAL & HEALTHCARE………………………………………………………… 173

16.1      Market drivers and trends………………………………………………………………………………………… 174

16.1.1       Improved drug delivery for cancer therapy……………………………………………………… 174

16.1.2       Shortcomings of chemotherapies……………………………………………………………………. 175

16.1.3       Biocompatibility of medical implants……………………………………………………………….. 175

16.1.4       Anti-biotic resistance……………………………………………………………………………………….. 175

16.1.5       Growth in advanced woundcare market…………………………………………………………. 176

16.2      Applications…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 176

16.2.1.1    Drug delivery………………………………………………………………………………………………. 177

16.2.1.2    Medical implants…………………………………………………………………………………………. 177

16.2.1.3    Tissue engineering……………………………………………………………………………………… 178

16.2.1.4    Wound dressings………………………………………………………………………………………… 178

16.2.1.5    Laterial flow immunosay labels…………………………………………………………………… 178

16.3      Market size………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 178

16.4      Nanocellulose opportunity………………………………………………………………………………………. 181

16.5      Commercial activity…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 181

17 COATINGS, FILMS & PAINTS……………………………………………………… 183

17.1      Market drivers and trends………………………………………………………………………………………… 183

17.1.1       Sustainable coating systems and materials……………………………………………………. 183

17.1.2       Chemical to bio-based……………………………………………………………………………………. 183

17.1.3       Increased demand for abrasion and scratch resistant coatings……………………… 184

17.1.4       Increased demand for UV-resistant coatings………………………………………………….. 184

17.1.5       Growth in superhydrophobic coatings market………………………………………………… 185

17.2      Applications…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 186

17.2.1       Abrasion and scratch resistance…………………………………………………………………….. 186

17.2.2       Wood coatings………………………………………………………………………………………………… 187

17.2.3       Anti-counterfeiting films…………………………………………………………………………………… 187

17.2.4       Gas barriers…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 187

17.3      Market size………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 187

17.4      Nanocellulose opportunity………………………………………………………………………………………. 188

17.4.1       Market challenges…………………………………………………………………………………………… 191

17.4.1.1    High viscosity………………………………………………………………………………………………. 191

17.4.1.2    Moisture sorption………………………………………………………………………………………… 191

17.4.1.3    Durability…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 192

17.4.1.4    Dispersion…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 192

17.4.1.5    Transparency………………………………………………………………………………………………. 192

17.4.1.6    Production, scalability and cost…………………………………………………………………… 192

17.5      Commercial activity…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 193

18 AEROGELS………………………………………………………………………………….. 194

18.1      Market drivers and trends………………………………………………………………………………………… 195

18.1.1       Energy efficiency…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 195

18.1.2       Demand for environmentally-friendly, lightweight materials…………………………… 195

18.2      Market size………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 195

18.3      Applications…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 195

18.3.1       Thermal insulation…………………………………………………………………………………………… 196

18.3.2       Medical……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 196

18.3.3       Shape memory………………………………………………………………………………………………… 197

18.4      Nanocellulose product developers in aerogels………………………………………………………. 197

19 OIL AND GAS EXPLORATION……………………………………………………. 198

19.1      MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………………………………………. 198

19.1.1       Need to reduce operating costs and improve operation efficiency…………………. 198

19.1.2       Increased demands of drilling environments………………………………………………….. 199

19.1.3       Increased exploration in extreme environments…………………………………………….. 200

19.1.4       Environmental and regulatory…………………………………………………………………………. 200

19.2      Applications…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 200

19.2.1       Oil and fracking drilling fluids………………………………………………………………………….. 202

19.2.2       Extraction………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 203

19.3      Market size………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 203

19.4      Nanocellulose opportunity………………………………………………………………………………………. 203

19.5      Market challenges…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 205

19.6      Commercial activity…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 206

20 FILTRATION AND SEPARATION……………………………………………….. 207

20.1      Market drivers and trends………………………………………………………………………………………… 207

20.1.1       Need for improved membrane technology……………………………………………………… 207

20.1.2       Water shortage and population growth…………………………………………………………… 208

20.1.3       Need for improved and low cost membrane technology………………………………… 209

20.1.4       Need for improved groundwater treatment technologies……………………………….. 210

20.1.5       Cost and efficiency………………………………………………………………………………………….. 210

20.1.6       Growth in the air filter market…………………………………………………………………………… 211

20.1.7       Need for environmentally, safe filters……………………………………………………………… 211

20.1.8       Recyclability of polymer membranes………………………………………………………………. 211

20.2      Applications…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 211

20.2.1       Water filtration…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 213

20.2.2       Air filtration………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 214

20.2.3       Virus filtration…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 215

20.3      Market size………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 215

20.4      Nanocellulose opportunity………………………………………………………………………………………. 216

20.5      Market challenges…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 217

20.6      Commercial activity…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 218

21 RHEOLOGY MODIFIERS……………………………………………………………… 219

21.1      Applications…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 219

21.1.1       Food………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 221

21.1.2       Pharmaceuticals……………………………………………………………………………………………… 221

21.1.3       Cosmetics……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 221

21.2      Commercial activity…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 221

22 PRINTED AND FLEXIBLE ELECTRONICS………………………………… 222

22.1      Market drivers and trends………………………………………………………………………………………… 222

22.1.1       Environmental…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 223

22.1.2       Flexible, wearable and paper electronics markets growing……………………………. 223

22.1.3       Need for improved barrier function…………………………………………………………………. 224

22.2      Applications…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 225

22.2.1       Wearable electronics………………………………………………………………………………………. 225

22.2.2       Flexible energy storage…………………………………………………………………………………… 228

22.2.3       Conductive inks………………………………………………………………………………………………. 230

22.3      Market size………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 230

22.4      Nanocellulose opportunity………………………………………………………………………………………. 233

22.5      Market challenges…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 235

22.5.1.1    Manufacturing……………………………………………………………………………………………… 235

22.5.1.2    Integration…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 235

22.5.1.3    Competing materials…………………………………………………………………………………… 235

22.6      Commercial activity…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 236

23 3D PRINTING……………………………………………………………………………….. 237

23.1      Market drivers………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 237

23.1.1       Improved materials at lower cost…………………………………………………………………….. 237

23.1.2       Limitations of current thermoplastics………………………………………………………………. 237

23.2      Market size………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 238

23.3      Nanocellulose opportunity………………………………………………………………………………………. 238

23.4      Market challenges…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 239

23.5      Commercial activity…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 240

24 NANOCELLULOSE COMPANY PROFILES……………………………….. 241

24.1      Producers and types of nanocellulose produced (NCF, NCC, BCC)……………………… 241

24.2      Target markets for producers…………………………………………………………………………………… 242

24.3      NANOFIBRILLAR CELLULOSE (NFC) PRODUCERS……………………………………………. 244

24.4      CELLULOSE NANOCRYSTAL (CNC) PRODUCERS…………………………………………….. 323

24.5      BACTERIAL CELLULOSE (BC) PRODUCERS………………………………………………………. 338

24.6      OTHER PRODUCERS AND APPLICATION DEVELOPERS………………………………….. 341

 

25 MAIN NANOCELLULOSE RESEARCH CENTRES……………………. 352

 

 

26 REFERENCES……………………………………………………………………………… 365

 

TABLES

Table 1: Markets and applications for nanocellulose………………………………………………………………… 38

Table 2: Nanocellulose production plants worldwide and production status…………………………….. 41

Table 3: Potential volume estimates (tons) and penetration of nanocellulose into key markets.. 50

Table 4: Market summary for nanocellulose-Selling grade particle diameter, usage, advantages, average price/ton, market estimates, global consumption, main current applications, future applications…………………… 51

Table 5: Categorization of nanomaterials………………………………………………………………………………….. 54

Table 6: National nanomaterials registries in Europe……………………………………………………………….. 57

Table 7: Nanomaterials regulatory bodies in Australia……………………………………………………………… 61

Table 8: Nanocellulose properties…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 67

Table 9: Applications of nanofibrillar cellulose (NFC)……………………………………………………………….. 68

Table 10: Production methods of NFC producers……………………………………………………………………… 69

Table 11: Applications of nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC)……………………………………………………….. 72

Table 12: Applications of bacterial cellulose (BC)……………………………………………………………………… 73

Table 13: Microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) preparation methods, resulting materials and applications.         74

Table 14: Microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) preparation methods, resulting materials and applications.            74

Table 15: Nanofibrillated cellulose (MFC) preparation methods, resulting materials and applications.            75

Table 16: Cellulose nanocrystals (MFC) preparation methods, resulting materials and applications.  76

Table 17: Cellulose nanocrystals (MFC) preparation methods, resulting materials and applications.  77

Table 18: Properties and applications of nanocellulose……………………………………………………………. 77

Table 19: Properties of cellulose nanofibrils relative to metallic and polymeric materials………… 79

Table 20: Nanocellulose nanocrystal sources and scale………………………………………………………….. 80

Table 21: Nanofibrillated cellulose production methods……………………………………………………………. 82

Table 22: Cellulose nanocrystals (NCC) production methods…………………………………………………… 82

Table 23: Nanocellulose market structure…………………………………………………………………………………. 84

Table 24: Current and potential end users for nanocellulose, by market and company……………. 88

Table 25: Current and potential nanocellulose end users…………………………………………………………. 90

Table 26: SWOT analysis of nanocellulose……………………………………………………………………………….. 91

Table 27: Safety of Micro/Nanofibrillated cellulose……………………………………………………………………. 94

Table 28: Potential high volume impact of nanocellulose and likelihood of market impact………. 99

Table 29: Production capacities of CNF producers per annum in tons, current and planned…. 103

Table 30: Production capacities of CNC producers per annum in tons, current and planned… 104

Table 31: Markets and applications for nanocellulose…………………………………………………………….. 105

Table 32: Product/price/application matrix of nanocellulose producers………………………………….. 108

Table 33: Published patent publications for nanocellulose, 1997-2013…………………………………. 111

Table 34: Nanocellulose patents as of May 2015……………………………………………………………………. 111

Table 35: Research publications on nanocellulose materials and composites, 1996-2013…… 112

Table 36: Nanocellulose patents by organisation……………………………………………………………………. 113

Table 37: Nanocellulose patents by organisation, 2014…………………………………………………………. 114

Table 38: Main patent assignees for NCC, as of May 2015…………………………………………………….. 115

Table 39: Main patent assignees for NFC, as of May 2015……………………………………………………… 115

Table 40: Main patent assignees for BCC, as of May 2015…………………………………………………….. 115

Table 41: Comparative properties of polymer composites reinforcing materials…………………….. 120

Table 42: Equivalent cost of nanocellulose and competitive materials in polymer composites. 121

Table 43: Applications of nanocellulose in polymer composites by cellulose type…………………. 121

Table 44: Nanocellulose applications timeline in the polymer composites market…………………. 122

Table 45: Application markets, competing materials, NFC advantages and current market size in polymer composites.     122

Table 46: Market assessment for nanocellulose in polymer composites………………………………… 123

Table 47: Market opportunity assessment for nanocellulose in polymer composites……………… 123

Table 48: Limitations of nanocellulose in the development of polymer nanocomposites……….. 124

Table 49: Application markets, competing materials, nanocellulose advantages and current market size in polymer composites…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 125

Table 50: Examples of antimicrobial immobilization into cellulose nanofibers……………………….. 130

Table 51: Oxygen permeability of nanocellulose films compared to those made form commercially available petroleum based materials and other polymers…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 132

Table 52: Market assessment for nanocellulose in biopackaing…………………………………………….. 132

Table 53: Application markets, competing materials, NFC advantages and current market size in packaging.          133

Table 54: Market opportunity assessment for nanocellulose in bio packaging……………………….. 134

Table 55: Market challenges rating for nanocellulose in the biopackaging market………………… 136

Table 56: Companies developing nanocellulose products in bio packaging, applications targeted and stage of commercialization…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 136

Table 57: Nanomaterials in the aerospace market-applications, stage of commercialization and estimated economic impact.      140

Table 58: Market challenges rating for nanotechnology and nanomaterials in the aerospace market. 141

Table 59: Applications of natural fiber composites in vehicles by manufacturers……………………. 143

Table 60: Application markets, competing materials, Nanocellulose advantages and current market size in the automotive sector…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 146

Table 61: Market assessment for nanocellulose in the automotive sector………………………………. 147

Table 62: Market opportunity assessment for nanocellulose in the automotive industry………… 148

Table 63: Applications and commercilization challenges in the automotive market……………….. 148

Table 64: Market challenges rating for nanocellulose in the automotive market…………………….. 149

Table 65: Companies developing Nanocellulose products in the automotive industry, applications targeted and stage of commercialization………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 149

Table 66: Nanotechnology and nanomaterials in the construction, building protection and exterior coatings market-applications, stage of commercialization and estimated economic impact…………………………………………….. 152

Table 67: Market challenges rating for nanotechnology and nanomaterials in the construction, building protection and architectural exterior coatings  market……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 153

Table 68: Nanocellulose in polymer composites-Companies and products…………………………… 153

Table 69: Nanocellulose applications timeline in the paper and board markets…………………….. 158

Table 70: Global packaging market, billions US$……………………………………………………………………. 161

Table 71: Market opportunity assessment for nanocellulose in paper and board…………………… 162

Table 72: Market challenges rating for nanocellulose in the paper and board market……………. 164

Table 73: Companies developing nanocellulose products in paper and board, applications targeted and stage of commercialization………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 164

Table 74: Desirable functional properties for the textiles industry afforded by the use of nanomaterials.         169

Table 75: Market opportunity assessment for nanocellulose in paper and board…………………… 170

Table 76: Potential volume estimates (tons) and penetration of nanocellulose into textiles…… 170

Table 77: Market assessment for nanocellulose in textiles……………………………………………………… 171

Table 78: Market challenges rating for nanocellulose in the textiles and apparel market………. 172

Table 79: Companies developing nanocellulose products in textiles, applications targeted and stage of commercialization.        172

Table 80: Nanocellulose applications timeline in the medical and healthcare markets………….. 176

Table 81: Nanotechnology and nanomaterials opportunity in the drug formulation and delivery market-applications, stage of commercialization and estimated economic impact………………………………………………………….. 179

Table 82: Nanotechnology and nanomaterials opportunity in medical implants and devices market-applications, stage of commercialization and estimated economic impact………………………………………………………….. 180

Table 83: Nanotechnology and nanomaterials opportunity in the wound care market-applications, stage of commercialization and estimated economic impact……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 181

Table 84: Nanocellulose product developers in medical and healthcare applications…………… 181

Table 85: Nanocellulose applications timeline in the coatings and paints markets………………… 186

Table 86: Market assessment for nanocellulose in coatings and films……………………………………. 189

Table 87: Application markets, competing materials, nanocellulose advantages and current market size in coatings and films.   189

Table 88: Market opportunity assessment for nanocellulose in coatings and films…………………. 190

Table 89: Market challenges rating for nanocellulose in the coatings and films market…………. 193

Table 90: Companies developing NFC products in paper coatings and non-packaging coating products, applications targeted and stage of commercialization………………………………………………………………………………………………… 193

Table 91: Nanocellulose applications timeline in the aerogels market…………………………………… 196

Table 92: Nanocellulose product developers in aerogels……………………………………………………….. 197

Table 93: Nanocellulose applications timeline in the oil market……………………………………………… 201

Table 94: Application markets, competing materials, NFC advantages and current market size in oil and gas.         204

Table 95: Market assessment for nanocellulose in oil and gas……………………………………………….. 204

Table 96: Nanocellulose in the oil and gas market-applications, stage of commercialization and estimated economic impact.     205

Table 97: Market challenges rating for nanocellulose in the oil and gas exploration market….. 205

Table 98: Nanocellulose product developers in oil and gas exploration………………………………… 206

Table 99: Types of filtration………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 207

Table 100: CNF membranes……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 209

Table 101: Nanocellulose applications timeline in the filtration market…………………………………… 212

Table 102: Application markets, competing materials, nanocellulose advantages and current market size in filtration.       216

Table 103: Market assessment for nanocellulose in filtration………………………………………………….. 216

Table 104: Market opportunity assessment for nanocellulose in the filtration industry……………. 217

Table 105: Market challenges rating for nanocellulose in the filtration market……………………….. 218

Table 106: Companies developing NFC products in filtration, applications targeted and stage of commercialization.         218

Table 107: Nanocellulose applications timeline in the rheology modifiers market…………………. 219

Table 108: Commercial activity in nanocellulose rheology modifiers……………………………………… 221

Table 109: Properties of flexible electronics‐cellulose nanofiber film (nanopaper)………………… 224

Table 110: Nanocellulose applications timeline in flexible electronics…………………………………… 225

Table 111: Global market for wearables, 2014-2021, units and US$……………………………………… 230

Table 112: Application markets, competing materials, Nanocellulose advantages and current market size in electronics. 233

Table 113: Market assessment for nanocellulose in the flexible and printed electronics sector. 233

Table 114: Market opportunity assessment for Nanocellulose in flexible electronics……………… 234

Table 115: Market challenges rating for nanocellulose in the printed and flexible electronics market. 236

Table 116: Companies developing Nanocellulose products in paper electronics, applications targeted and stage of commercialization………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 236

Table 117: Application markets, competing materials, nanocellulose advantages and current market size in 3D printing.  238

Table 118: Market assessment for nanocellulose in 3D printing…………………………………………….. 238

Table 119: Market opportunity assessment for nanocellulose in 3D printing………………………….. 239

Table 120: Market challenges rating for nanotechnology and nanomaterials in the 3D printing market.          240

Table 121: Companies developing nanocellulose 3D printing products,……………………………….. 240

Table 122: Nanocellulose producers and types of nanocellulose produced………………………….. 241

Table 123: Target market, by nanocellulose producer…………………………………………………………….. 242

 

FIGURES

Figure 1: Scale of cellulose materials………………………………………………………………………………………… 37

Figure 2: Cellulose nanofiber transparent sheet……………………………………………………………………….. 44

Figure 3: CNF transparent sheet………………………………………………………………………………………………… 47

Figure 4: Running shoes incorporating cellulose nanofibers……………………………………………………. 48

Figure 5: Ballpoint pen incorporating cellulose nanofibers……………………………………………………….. 49

Figure 6: CNF wet powder…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 50

Figure 7: Schematic diagram of partial molecular structure of cellulose chain with numbering for carbon atoms and n= number of cellobiose repeating unit……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 63

Figure 8: Scale of cellulose materials………………………………………………………………………………………… 64

Figure 9: Types of nanocellulose……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 66

Figure 10: Relationship between different kinds of nanocelluloses………………………………………….. 67

Figure 11: TEM image of cellulose nanocrystals……………………………………………………………………….. 72

Figure 12: Main steps involved in the preparation of NCC………………………………………………………… 81

Figure 13: Schematic of typical commercialization route for nanocellulose producer………………. 84

Figure 14: Volume of industry demand for nanocellulose from nanocellulose producers………… 88

Figure 15: Technology Readiness Level (TRL) for nanocellulose………………………………………….. 101

Figure 16: Production volumes of nanocellulose 2015, by region…………………………………………… 105

Figure 17:  Nanocellulose patents by field of application, 2013………………………………………………. 113

Figure 18: Example process for producing NFC packaging film……………………………………………… 129

Figure 19: Nanomaterials-based automotive components……………………………………………………… 145

Figure 20: Paper and board global demand……………………………………………………………………………. 162

Figure 21: Global Paints and Coatings Market, share by end user market……………………………… 188

Figure 22: Nanocellulose sponge developed by EMPA for potential applications in oil recovery. 202

Figure 23: Nanocellulose virus filter paper………………………………………………………………………………. 215

Figure 24: LEDs shining on circuitry imprinted on a 5x5cm sheet of CNF………………………………. 226

Figure 25: NFC computer chip…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 227

Figure 26: NFC translucent diffuser schematic………………………………………………………………………… 228

Figure 27: Nanocellulose photoluminescent paper…………………………………………………………………. 229

Figure 28: LEDs shining on circuitry imprinted on a 5x5cm sheet of CNF………………………………. 230

Figure 29: Global market revenues for smart wearable devices 2014-2021, in US$………………. 231

Figure 30: Global market revenues for nanotech-enabled smart wearable devices 2014-2021 in US$, conservative estimate.     232

Figure 31: Global market revenues for nanotech-enabled smart wearable devices 2014-2021 in US$, optimistic estimate.           232

Figure 32: Asahi Kasei CNF fabric sheet…………………………………………………………………………………. 249

Figure 33: Properties of Asahi Kasei cellulose nanofiber nonwoven fabric…………………………….. 249

Figure 34: CNF transparent film……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 288

Figure 35: CNF wet powder……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 289

Figure 36: Schematic of commercialization route for Paper Logic…………………………………………… 293

Figure 37: Schematic of commercialization route for Sugino Machine……………………………………. 303

Figure 38: Flexible electronic substrate made from CNF…………………………………………………………. 314

Figure 39: Schematic of commercialization route for VTT……………………………………………………….. 317

Figure 40: Bio-based barrier bags prepared from Tempo-CNF coated bio-HDPE film…………… 318

Figure 41: CNC produced at Tech Futures’ pilot plant; cloudy suspension (1 wt.%), gel-like (10 wt.%), flake-like crystals, and very fine powder. Product advantages include:…………………………………………………………………………. 327

Figure 42: NCCTM Process……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 328

Figure 43: Plantrose process…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 336