The Global Market for Nanocellulose

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The use of nanocellulose offers environmentally friendly solutions and a petroleum-based alternative for a range of industries including automotive and packaging. Wood products have also grown in prominence recently in construction allowing for buildings that can be constructed faster, are strong, lightweight and offer improved insulation and noise reduction. The use of nanocellulose in buildings offer enhanced thermal insulation capability and mechanical properties that contribute to energy savings, less usage of environmentally harmful materials, and reduction of adverse environmental impacts.

Nanocellulose is a generic term referring to a range of cellulose nanoparticles including:

  • bacterial cellulose (BC)
  • microbial cellulose (MFC)
  • cellulose nanocrystals (CNC)
  • cellulose nanofibrils/nanofibers (CNF/NFC)

The Global Market for Nanocellulose provides an in-depth analysis of the current and future markets for nanocellulose. These advanced bio-based materials are attractive due to their:

  • renewability and biodegradability
  • high strength
  • low density
  • high crystallinity
  • high aspect ratio
  • unique optical properties.

Nanocellulose will greatly impact environmentally friendly and biodegradable solutions in market such as packaging films, paper & board, composites, paints, coatings & films, biomedical applications (e.g., pharmaceuticals, diagnostic imaging, drug delivery, tissue engineering materials), textiles, oil & gas, filtration, cement, sensors, rheology modifiers, aerogels, 3D printing and printed & flexible electronics.

Most major paper and pulp producers are actively involved in commercialization of CNF, seeking commercial application in high volume industries such as paper & board and packaging. However, several are also seeking to move into applications in areas such as electronics and adding production of Cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) for more advanced applications. Celluforce is investing in upgrading their CNC capability and Melodea is establishing a 35 ton per annum CNC plant.

The nanocellulose market is growing fast in Japan, with products already on the market in textiles, sanitary products and consumer goods. The market is heavily concentrated in countries with significant forestry industries.

The latest edition of The Global Market for Nanocelluose features a wide range of new information including:

  • Expanded analysis for the market for cellulose nanocrystals.
  • New figures on market size in revenues (Millions USD), by cellulose type. Current, historic and estimated to 2030.
  • New figures on regional market size in tons and revenues. Current, historic and estimated to 2030.
  • Roadmap for commercial nanocellulose commerical applications
  • In-depth analysis of market by applications including estimated market size, penetration and growth. Applications covered include: Polymer composite parts; Biodegradable and renewable nanocomposites;  Automotive composites; Packaging films; Aerogels; Construction materials; Packaging fillers/additives; Paint and coatings additives; Deoderant sheets; Pharmaceutical additives; Renewable plastic parts/casings; Transparent films for electronics; Flexible and printed electronics; Batteries;  Flexible and paper batteries; Filtration membranes.
  • Expanded profiles on nanocellulose producers including recent activities to November 2019.

Report contents include: 

  • In-depth analysis of the global market for nanocellulose products, applications, producers, product developers and products
  • Nanocellulose applications by industry, matrix material and product. Applications are assessed for technology and market readiness, and potential market volume in terms of nanocellulose consumption by application.
  • Readiness of nanocellulose-based solution for each industry and nanomaterials working concentration in material application. Contribution of nanocelluose to improved performance in each application.
  • Assessment of nanocelluloese market including production volumes, competitive landscape, commercial prospects, applications, demand by market and region, commercialization timelines, prices and producer profiles.
  • Examples of successful markets and products.
    Competitive landscape for nanocellulose among other similar additives.
  • Global nanocellulose production capacities, by producer and type of nanocellulose.
  • Market segmentation by type of nanocellulose.
  • Current nanocellulose products (cellulose nanofibers, cellulose nanocrystals and bacterial cellulose).
  • Stage of commercialization for nanocellulose applications by company.
  • Market drivers, trends and challenges, by target markets.
  • In-depth market assessment of opportunities for nanocellulose including revenues, growth rates, pricing, and market challenges.
  • Revenues and tonnage demand for end user markets for nanocellulose.
  • Regional analysis of the market for nanocellulose.
  • 87 In-depth company profiles, including products, capacities, production processes, target markets and commmercial activities.

Companies featured in this report include Ashai Kasei Chemicals Corporation, Celluforce, Chuetsu Pulp & Paper Co., Ltd., Daicel Corporation, Daio Paper Corporation, Fiberlean Technologies, Innventia AB, Stora Enso Ltd. and many more.

Published: November 2019 | 355 pages, 148 tables, 133 figures | Table of contents

Payment methods: Credit card, Paypal and Invoice (Bank transfer)

The Global Market for Nanocellulose to 2030
The Global Market for Nanocellulose to 2030
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The Global Market for Nanocellulose to 2030
The Global Market for Nanocellulose to 2030
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The Global Market for Nanocellulose to 2030
The Global Market for Nanocellulose to 2030
PDF and print edition. Instant PDF download plus print copy in glossy print format. 5-7 working days delivery. Price includes postage and packing.

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY…………………………………………………………. 27

  • 1.1     Market snapshot………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 27
  • 1.2     Markets and applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 29
  • 1.3     Nanocellulose production capacities, in tons………………………………………………………………………………. 32
    • 1.3.1       Cellulose nanofibers (CNF) production capacities 2019………………………………………………………… 33
    • 1.3.2       Microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) production capacities 2019…………………………………………………… 33
    • 1.3.3       Cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) production capacities 2019…………………………………………………….. 34
  • 1.4     Main market opportunities in nanocellulose………………………………………………………………………………… 35
  • 1.5     Global production of nanocellulose…………………………………………………………………………………………… 37
  • 1.5.1       Production plants and production status……………………………………………………………………………. 38
  • 1.6     Market trends in nanocellulose………………………………………………………………………………………………… 39
  • 1.7     Market and technical challenges in nanocellulose………………………………………………………………………… 40
  • 1.8     Global nanocellulose market size…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 41
    • 1.8.1       The market for nanocellulose in 2017……………………………………………………………………………….. 41
    • 1.8.2       The market for nanocellulose in 2018……………………………………………………………………………….. 42
    • 1.8.3       Current nanocellulose commercial products……………………………………………………………………….. 43
    • 1.8.4       Global nanocellulose market, 2018–2030, tons…………………………………………………………………… 46
    • 1.8.5       Nanocellulose market by region………………………………………………………………………………………. 51

2    RESEARCH SCOPE AND METHODOLOGY…………………………….. 53

3    INTRODUCTION……………………………………………………………………. 59

  • 3.1     Cellulose……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 59
  • 3.2     Nanocellulose……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 59
  • 3.3     Properties of nanocellulose…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 60
  • 3.4     Advantages of nanocellulose………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 61
  • 3.5     Manufacture of nanocellulose…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 61
  • 3.6     Production methods……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 62
  • 3.7     Types of nanocellulose………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 63
    • 3.7.1       Microfibrillated cellulose (MFC)……………………………………………………………………………………….. 65
    • 3.7.2       Cellulose nanofibers (CNF)……………………………………………………………………………………………. 66
      • 3.7.2.1    Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 66
    • 3.7.3       Cellulose nanocrystals (CNC)…………………………………………………………………………………………. 67
      • 3.7.3.1    Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 69
      • 3.7.3.2    Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 69
    • 3.7.4       Bacterial Cellulose (BC)………………………………………………………………………………………………… 71
      • 3.7.4.1    Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 71
  • 3.8     Synthesis…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 72
    • 3.8.1       Microcrystalline cellulose (MC)……………………………………………………………………………………….. 72
    • 3.8.2       Microfibrillated cellulose (MFC)……………………………………………………………………………………….. 73
    • 3.8.3       Nanofibrillated cellulose (CNF)……………………………………………………………………………………….. 73
    • 3.8.4       Cellulose nanocrystals (CNC)…………………………………………………………………………………………. 74
    • 3.8.5       Bacterial cellulose particles (BC)……………………………………………………………………………………… 74

4    MARKET STRUCTURE FOR NANOCELLULOSE……………………… 76

  • 4.1     Volume of industry demand for nanocellulose…………………………………………………………………………….. 76
  • 4.2     Current end users for nanocellulose, by market and company………………………………………………………… 77

5    SWOT ANALYSIS………………………………………………………………….. 79

6    REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS…………………………………………. 81

7    GOVERNMENT FUNDING FOR NANOCELLULOSE…………………. 85

8    TECHNOLOGY READINESS LEVEL (TRL)………………………………. 86

9    NANOCELLULOSE SUPPLY CHAIN……………………………………….. 87

10 NANOCELLULOSE PRICING………………………………………………….. 89

11 NANOCELLULOSE PATENTS AND PUBLICATIONS………………… 91

12 COMPETING MATERIALS……………………………………………………… 95

13 MARKETS FOR NANOCELLULOSE………………………………………… 99

  • 13.1        NANOCELLULOSE IN PLASTICS AND COMPOSITES……………………………………………………………. 99
    • 13.1.1     Trends in the plastics and composites market and nanocellulose solutions……………………………… 100
    • 13.1.2     Comparison of nanocellulose to other composite materials………………………………………………….. 101
    • 13.1.3     Applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 101
      • 13.1.3.1       By cellulose type……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 102
      • 13.1.3.2       Applications roadmap…………………………………………………………………………………………. 103
    • 13.1.4     Global market for nanocellulose in composites………………………………………………………………….. 103
  • 13.2        NANOCELLULOSE IN AIRCRAFT AND AEROSPACE…………………………………………………………… 105
    • 13.2.1     Market trends and nanocellulose solution………………………………………………………………………… 105
    • 13.2.2     Applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 106
      • 13.2.2.1       Composites………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 106
    • 13.2.3     Global market for nanocellulose in the aircraft and aerospace market…………………………………….. 106
      • 13.2.3.1       Applications market readiness and market acceptability analysis………………………………….. 106
      • 13.2.3.2       Global demand in tons in aircraft and aerospace………………………………………………………. 106
    • 13.2.4     Market challenges………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 107
    • 13.2.5     Product developer profiles……………………………………………………………………………………………. 108
  • 13.3        NANOCELLULOSE IN AUTOMOTIVE………………………………………………………………………………… 109
    • 13.3.1     Market trends and nanocellulose solution………………………………………………………………………… 109
    • 13.3.2     Applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 111
      • 13.3.2.1       Composites………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 112
    • 13.3.3     Global market for nanocellulose in the automotive industry………………………………………………….. 113
    • 13.3.4     Market challenges………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 115
    • 13.3.5     Product developer profiles……………………………………………………………………………………………. 116
  • 13.4        NANOCELLULOSE IN CONSTRUCTION AND BUILDINGS……………………………………………………. 118
    • 13.4.1     Market drivers and trends…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 118
    • 13.4.2     Applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 119
      • 13.4.2.1       Cellulose nanocrystals………………………………………………………………………………………… 119
      • 13.4.2.2       Cellulose nanocrystals………………………………………………………………………………………… 120
    • 13.4.3     Global market for nanocellulose in construction…………………………………………………………………. 120
      • 13.4.3.1       Applications market readiness and market acceptability analysis………………………………….. 120
      • 13.4.3.2       Global demand in tons in construction…………………………………………………………………….. 121
    • 13.4.4     Market challenges………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 122
    • 13.4.5     Product developer profiles……………………………………………………………………………………………. 122
  • 13.5        NANOCELLULOSE IN PAPER AND BOARD/PACKAGING…………………………………………………….. 123
    • 13.5.1     Market drivers and trends…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 123
    • 13.5.2     Applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 127
    • 13.5.3     Properties…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 128
      • 13.5.3.1       Reinforcing agents……………………………………………………………………………………………… 128
      • 13.5.3.2       Transparency and flexibility………………………………………………………………………………….. 129
      • 13.5.3.3       Paper packaging……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 129
      • 13.5.3.4       Paper coatings………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 129
        • 13.5.3.4.1    Improved surface properties and print quality……………………………………………………….. 129
      • 13.5.3.5       Anti-microbials…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 129
      • 13.5.3.6       Packaging………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 129
      • 13.5.3.7       Anti-bacterial…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 130
      • 13.5.3.8       Gas barrier……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 130
    • 13.5.4     Global market for nanocellulose in paper & board/packaging……………………………………………….. 133
      • 13.5.4.1       Applications market readiness and market acceptability analysis………………………………….. 133
      • 13.5.4.2       Global demand in tons in paper & board…………………………………………………………………. 133
    • 13.5.5     Market challenges………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 134
    • 13.5.6     Product developer profiles……………………………………………………………………………………………. 135
  • 13.6        NANOCELLULOSE IN TEXTILES AND APPAREL………………………………………………………………… 137
    • 13.6.1     Market drivers and trends…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 137
    • 13.6.2     Applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 138
      • 13.6.2.1       Sanitary products………………………………………………………………………………………………. 138
      • 13.6.2.2       Hygiene and absorbent products…………………………………………………………………………… 138
    • 13.6.3     Global market for nanocellulose in textiles……………………………………………………………………….. 140
      • 13.6.3.1       Applications market readiness and market acceptability analysis………………………………….. 140
    • 13.6.4     Market challenges………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 141
    • 13.6.5     Product developer profiles……………………………………………………………………………………………. 142
  • 13.7        NANOCELLULOSE IN BIOMEDICINE AND HEALTHCARE…………………………………………………….. 143
  • 13.7.1     Market drivers and trends…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 143
  • 13.7.2     Applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 144
  • 13.7.2.1       Cellulose nanofibers…………………………………………………………………………………………… 144
  • 13.7.2.2       Cellulose nanocrystals………………………………………………………………………………………… 145
  • 13.7.2.3       Drug delivery…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 145
  • 13.7.2.4       Medical implants………………………………………………………………………………………………… 145
  • 13.7.2.5       Tissue engineering…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 146
  • 13.7.2.6       Wound dressings……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 146
  • 13.7.2.7       Lateral flow immunoassay labels…………………………………………………………………………… 146
  • 13.7.3     Global market for nanocellulose in medical & healthcare…………………………………………………….. 147
  • 13.7.3.1       Applications market readiness and market acceptability analysis………………………………….. 147
  • 13.7.4     Product developer profiles……………………………………………………………………………………………. 148
  • 13.8        NANOCELLULOSE IN PAINTS AND COATINGS………………………………………………………………….. 150
    • 13.8.1     Market drivers and trends…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 150
    • 13.8.2     Applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 152
      • 13.8.2.1       Abrasion and scratch resistance……………………………………………………………………………. 152
      • 13.8.2.2       Wood coatings………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 153
      • 13.8.2.3       Anti-counterfeiting films……………………………………………………………………………………….. 153
      • 13.8.2.4       Gas barriers……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 153
    • 13.8.3     Global market for nanocellulose in paints and coatings……………………………………………………….. 153
      • 13.8.3.1       Applications market readiness and market acceptability analysis………………………………….. 155
    • 13.8.4     Market challenges………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 157
    • 13.8.5     Product developer profiles……………………………………………………………………………………………. 158
  • 13.9        NANOCELLULOSE IN AEROGELS……………………………………………………………………………………. 160
    • 13.9.1     Market drivers and trends…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 160
    • 13.9.2     Applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 160
      • 13.9.2.1       Thermal insulation……………………………………………………………………………………………… 161
      • 13.9.2.2       Shape memory………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 161
    • 13.9.3     Global market for nanocellulose in aerogels……………………………………………………………………… 161
      • 13.9.3.1       Global demand for nanocellulose in aerogels, tons……………………………………………………. 161
    • 13.9.4     Product developer profiles……………………………………………………………………………………………. 162
  • 13.10      NANOCELLULOSE IN OIL AND GAS…………………………………………………………………………………. 164
    • 13.10.1        Market drivers and trends………………………………………………………………………………………… 164
    • 13.10.2        Applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 165
      • 13.10.2.1     Cellulose nanofibers…………………………………………………………………………………………… 165
      • 13.10.2.2     Oil and fracking drilling fluids………………………………………………………………………………… 166
      • 13.10.2.3     Water-based drilling fluids……………………………………………………………………………………. 166
        • 13.10.2.3.1    Cellulose nanofibers……………………………………………………………………………………… 166
        • 13.10.2.3.2    Cellulose nanocrystals…………………………………………………………………………………… 167
      • 13.10.2.4     Extraction…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 167
    • 13.10.3        Global nanocellulose market in oil and gas…………………………………………………………………… 167
      • 13.10.3.1     Market assessment for nanocellulose in oil and gas…………………………………………………… 168
      • 13.10.3.2     Global demand in tons in oil and gas……………………………………………………………………… 169
    • 13.10.4        Market challenges………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 170
    • 13.10.5        Product developer profiles……………………………………………………………………………………….. 171
  • 13.11      NANOCELLULOSE IN FILTRATION…………………………………………………………………………………… 172
    • 13.11.1        Market drivers and trends………………………………………………………………………………………… 172
    • 13.11.2        Applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 173
      • 13.11.2.1     CNF membranes and filters………………………………………………………………………………….. 174
      • 13.11.2.2     Water filtration…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 175
      • 13.11.2.3     Air filtration……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 176
      • 13.11.2.4     Virus filtration……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 177
    • 13.11.3        Global market for nanocellulose in filtration and separation……………………………………………… 177
      • 13.11.3.1     Market assessment for nanocellulose in filtration and separation………………………………….. 178
      • 13.11.3.2     Global demand for nanocellulose in filtration, tons…………………………………………………….. 179
    • 13.11.4        Market challenges………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 180
    • 13.11.5        Product developer profiles……………………………………………………………………………………….. 180
  • 13.12      NANOCELLULOSE IN RHEOLOGY MODIFIERS………………………………………………………………….. 182
    • 13.12.1        Applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 182
      • 13.12.1.1     Cellulose nanofibers…………………………………………………………………………………………… 182
      • 13.12.1.2     Cellulose nanocrystals………………………………………………………………………………………… 183
      • 13.12.1.3     Food……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 183
      • 13.12.1.4     Pharmaceuticals………………………………………………………………………………………………… 184
      • 13.12.1.5     Cosmetics………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 184
    • 13.12.2        Global market for nanocellulose in rheology modifiers…………………………………………………….. 184
    • 13.12.3        Product developer profiles……………………………………………………………………………………….. 185
  • 13.13      NANOCELLULOSE IN PRINTED, STRETCHABLE AND FLEXIBLE ELECTRONICS……………………. 186
    • 13.13.1        Market drivers and trends………………………………………………………………………………………… 186
    • 13.13.2        Applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 187
      • 13.13.2.1     Wearable electronics………………………………………………………………………………………….. 188
      • 13.13.2.2     Nanopaper……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 190
      • 13.13.2.3     Paper memory…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 192
      • 13.13.2.4     Conductive inks…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 192
    • 13.13.3        Global market size and opportunity…………………………………………………………………………….. 192
      • 13.13.3.1     Market assessment for nanocellulose in printed and flexible electronics…………………………. 192
    • 13.13.4        Market challenges………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 194
    • 13.13.5        Product developer profiles……………………………………………………………………………………….. 195
  • 13.14      NANOCELLULOSE IN 3D PRINTING…………………………………………………………………………………. 197
    • 13.14.1        Market drivers and trends………………………………………………………………………………………… 197
    • 13.14.2        Applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 198
    • 13.14.3        Global market size and opportunity…………………………………………………………………………….. 198
      • 13.14.3.1     Market assessment for nanocellulose in 3D printing…………………………………………………… 198
    • 13.14.4        Market challenges………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 199
    • 13.14.5        Product developer profiles……………………………………………………………………………………….. 199

14 NANOCELLULOSE CURRENT AND POTENTIAL APPLICATIONS ANALYSIS…………………………………………………………………………….... 200

  • 14.1        Potential for high-volume consuming nanocellulose applications……………………………………………….. 200
    • 14.1.1     Polymer composite parts……………………………………………………………………………………………… 200
    • 14.1.2     Bioplastics………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 202
    • 14.1.3     Packaging films………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 203
    • 14.1.4     Aerogels…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 203
    • 14.1.5     Construction materials…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 204
      • 14.1.5.1       Cement……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 204
      • 14.1.5.2       Ultra-high-performance concrete…………………………………………………………………………… 204
    • 14.1.6     Paint and coatings additives…………………………………………………………………………………………. 205
    • 14.1.7     Hygiene and absorbent products……………………………………………………………………………………. 206
    • 14.1.8     Tyres……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 206
  • 14.2        Potential global nanocellulose demand by application…………………………………………………………….. 207

15 CELLULOSE NANOFIBER COMPANY PROFILES………………….. 208

16 CELLULOSE NANOCRYSTAL (CNC) PRODUCERS……………….. 306

17 BACTERIAL CELLULOSE (BC) PRODUCERS……………………….. 331

18 NANOCELLULOSE RESEARCH GROUPS AND CENTRES……… 335

19 REFERENCES…………………………………………………………………….. 348

Tables

  • Table 1: Market summary for nanocellulose-Selling grade particle diameter, usage, advantages, average price/ton, market estimates, global consumption, main current applications, future applications………………………………… 27
  • Table 2: Markets and applications for nanocellulose…………………………………………………………………………………. 29
  • Table 3: Market segmentation by type of nanocellulose, capacities and demand 2018……………………………………… 32
  • Table 4: CNF producer capacities………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 33
  • Table 5: MFC producer capacities 2019…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 33
  • Table 6: Cellulose nanocrystal producer capacities 2019…………………………………………………………………………… 34
  • Table 7: Market opportunity assessment for nanocellulose, by application…………………………………………………….. 35
  • Table 8: Nanocellulose (CNF, MFC, NCC) production plants worldwide and production status…………………………… 38
  • Table 9: Market trends in nanocellulose…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 39
  • Table 10: Market and technical challenges in nanocellulose……………………………………………………………………….. 40
  • Table 12: Nanocellulose market value, by end user market demand, 2018–2030 (Tons). total……………………………. 46
  • Table 13: Global demand for cellulose nanofibers/MFC by market, 2018-2030……………………………………………….. 48
  • Table 14: Global demand for cellulose nanocrystals by market, 2018-2030……………………………………………………. 49
  • Table 15: Regional demand for cellulose nanofibers, 2018, tons (total excludes MFC)……………………………………… 51
  • Table 16: Properties and applications of nanocellulose……………………………………………………………………………… 60
  • Table 17: Properties of cellulose nanofibrils relative to metallic and polymeric materials……………………………………. 62
  • Table 18: Types of nanocellulose…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 64
  • Table 19: Applications of cellulose nanofibers (CNF)………………………………………………………………………………… 66
  • Table 20: CNC sources and scale………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 69
  • Table 21: CNC properties…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 69
  • Table 22: Applications of nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC)………………………………………………………………………….. 70
  • Table 23: Applications of bacterial cellulose (BC)…………………………………………………………………………………….. 71
  • Table 24: Microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) preparation methods, resulting materials and applications…………………. 72
  • Table 25: Microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) preparation methods, resulting materials and applications…………………… 73
  • Table 26: Nanofibrillated cellulose (CNF) preparation methods, resulting materials and applications……………………. 73
  • Table 27: Cellulose nanocrystals (MFC) preparation methods, resulting materials and applications…………………….. 74
  • Table 28: Cellulose nanocrystals (MFC) preparation methods, resulting materials and applications…………………….. 74
  • Table 29: Current and potential end users for nanocellulose, by market and company……………………………………… 77
  • Table 30: SWOT analysis of nanocellulose…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 79
  • Table 31: Safety of Micro/Nanofibrillated cellulose……………………………………………………………………………………. 82
  • Table 32: Global nanocellulose market supply chain analysis……………………………………………………………………… 87
  • Table 33: Product/price/application matrix of nanocellulose producers………………………………………………………….. 89
  • Table 34: Published patent publications for nanocellulose, 1997-2017………………………………………………………….. 92
  • Table 35: Nanocellulose patents and scientific articles by organisation…………………………………………………………. 93
  • Table 36: Main patent assignees for CNC………………………………………………………………………………………………. 94
  • Table 37: Main patent assignees for CNF………………………………………………………………………………………………. 94
  • Table 38: Main patent assignees for BCC………………………………………………………………………………………………. 94
  • Table 39: Price comparison of nanocellulose applications versus entry price of other materials in composites……….. 95
  • Table 40. Main applications for carbon fibers, volumes, potential for nanocellulose to gain market share……………… 98
  • Table 41: Global demand for nanocellulose in 2018, tons………………………………………………………………………….. 99
  • Table 42: Market drivers, trends and nanocellulose solutions in the plastics and composites market………………….. 100
  • Table 43: Comparative properties of polymer composites reinforcing materials……………………………………………… 101
  • Table 44: Applications of nanocellulose in polymer composites by cellulose type…………………………………………… 102
  • Table 45: Nanocellulose applications timeline in the polymer composites market…………………………………………… 103
  • Table 46: Global market demand for nanocellulose in plastics and composites, 2018-2030 (tons)…………………….. 103
  • Table 47: Market drivers, trends and nanocellulose solutions in aircraft and aerospace market…………………………. 105
  • Table 48: Market opportunity assessment for nanocellulose in aircraft and aerospace……………………………………. 106
  • Table 49: Demand for nanocellulose in the aerospace and aviation market, 2018-2030 (tons)………………………….. 106
  • Table 50: Market challenges rating for nanocellulose in the aircraft and aerospace market………………………………. 107
  • Table 51: Companies developing nanocellulose products aircraft and aerospace, applications targeted and stage of commercialization……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 108
  • Table 52: Applications of natural fiber composites in vehicles by manufacturers……………………………………………. 110
  • Table 53: Market opportunity assessment for nanocellulose in the automotive sector……………………………………… 113
  • Table 54: Global market demand for nanocellulose in the automotive sector 2018-2030 (tons)…………………………. 114
  • Table 55: Applications and commercialization challenges for nanocellulose in the automotive market………………… 115
  • Table 56: Market challenges rating for nanocellulose in the automotive market……………………………………………… 116
  • Table 57: Companies developing nanocellulose products in the automotive industry, applications targeted and stage of commercialization……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 116
  • Table 58: Market drivers, trends and nanocellulose solutions in construction market………………………………………. 118
  • Table 59: Comparison of CNC with steel and other materials……………………………………………………………………. 120
  • Table 60: Market opportunity assessment for nanocellulose in the construction industry…………………………………. 120
  • Table 61: Market demand for nanocellulose in construction, 2018-2030 (tons)……………………………………………… 121
  • Table 62: Market challenges rating for nanocellulose in the construction, building protection and architectural exterior coatings market………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 122
  • Table 63: Nanocellulose in construction-Companies and products……………………………………………………………… 122
  • Table 64: Market drivers, trends and nanocellulose solutions in the paper and board market……………………………. 123
  • Table 65: Examples of antimicrobial immobilization into cellulose nanofibers………………………………………………… 127
  • Table 66: Nanocellulose applications timeline in the paper and board markets……………………………………………… 128
  • Table 67: Oxygen permeability of nanocellulose films compared to those made form commercially available petroleum-based materials and other polymers……………………………………………………………………………………………… 131
  • Table 68: Application markets, competing materials, nanocellulose advantages and current market size in packaging……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 131
  • Table 69: Market opportunity assessment for nanocellulose in paper and board……………………………………………. 133
  • Table 70: Global demand for nanocellulose in paper & board/packaging, 2018-2030 (tons)……………………………… 133
  • Table 71: Market challenges rating for nanocellulose in the paper and board market……………………………………… 135
  • Table 72: Companies developing nanocellulose products in paper and board, applications targeted and stage of commercialization……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 135
  • Table 73: Market drivers, trends and nanocellulose solutions in the textiles market………………………………………… 137
  • Table 74: Global demand for nanocellulose in hygiene and absorbents, 2018-2030 (tons)………………………………. 139
  • Table 75: Market opportunity assessment for nanocellulose in textiles………………………………………………………… 140
  • Table 76: Demand for nanocellulose in textiles, 2018-2030 (tons)………………………………………………………………. 140
  • Table 77: Market challenges rating for nanocellulose in the textiles market………………………………………………….. 141
  • Table 78: Companies developing nanocellulose products in textiles, applications targeted and stage of commercialization……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 142
  • Table 79: Market drivers, trends and Nanocellulose solutions in the medicine and healthcare market………………… 143
  • Table 80: Cellulose nanofiber applications timeline in the medicine and healthcare markets…………………………….. 144
  • Table 81: Market opportunity assessment for nanocellulose in medical and healthcare…………………………………… 147
  • Table 82: Global demand for nanocellulose in medical and healthcare, 2018-2030 (tons)………………………………… 147
  • Table 83: Nanocellulose product developers in medical and healthcare applications………………………………………. 148
  • Table 84: Market drivers, trends and Nanocellulose solutions in the paints and coatings market……………………….. 150
  • Table 85: Nanocellulose applications timeline in the paints and coatings markets………………………………………….. 152
  • Table 86: Market assessment for nanocellulose in paints and coatings……………………………………………………….. 154
  • Table 87: Application markets, competing materials, nanocellulose advantages and current market size in coatings and films……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 154
  • Table 88: Market opportunity assessment for nanocellulose in paints and coatings………………………………………… 155
  • Table 89: Global demand for nanocellulose in paint and coatings, 2018-2030 (tons)………………………………………. 155
  • Table 90: Market challenges for Nanocellulose in coatings……………………………………………………………………….. 157
  • Table 91: Market challenges rating for nanocellulose in the coatings and films market……………………………………. 158
  • Table 92: Companies developing nanocellulose products in paints and coatings, applications targeted and stage of commercialization……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 158
  • Table 93: Market drivers, trends and nanocellulose solutions in the aerogels market……………………………………… 160
  • Table 94: Nanocellulose applications timeline in the aerogels market………………………………………………………….. 160
  • Table 95: Global demand for nanocellulose in aerogels, 2018-2030 (tons)…………………………………………………… 161
  • Table 96: Nanocellulose product developers in aerogels………………………………………………………………………….. 162
  • Table 97: Market drivers, trends and nanocellulose solutions in the filtration market………………………………………. 164
  • Table 98: Nanocellulose applications timeline in the oil market………………………………………………………………….. 165
  • Table 99: Application markets, competing materials, nanocellulose advantages and current market size in oil and gas……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 168
  • Table 100: Market assessment for nanocellulose in oil and gas…………………………………………………………………. 168
  • Table 101: Nanocellulose in the oil and gas market-applications, stage of commercialization and estimated economic impact…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 169
  • Table 102: Global demand for nanocellulose in the oil and gas market, 2018-2030 (tons)……………………………….. 169
  • Table 103: Market challenges rating for nanocellulose in the oil and gas exploration market…………………………….. 170
  • Table 104: Nanocellulose product developers in oil and gas exploration………………………………………………………. 171
  • Table 105: Market drivers, trends and nanocellulose solutions in the filtration market……………………………………… 172
  • Table 106: Nanocellulose applications timeline in the filtration market…………………………………………………………. 173
  • Table 107: Types of filtration……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 174
  • Table 108: CNF membranes……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 175
  • Table 109: Application markets, competing materials, Nanocellulose advantages and current market size in filtration. 177
  • Table 110: Market assessment for nanocellulose in filtration…………………………………………………………………….. 178
  • Table 111: Market opportunity assessment for nanocellulose in the filtration industry……………………………………… 178
  • Table 112: Global demand for nanocellulose in the filtration market, 2018-2030 (tons)……………………………………. 179
  • Table 113: Market challenges rating for nanocellulose in the filtration market……………………………………………….. 180
  • Table 114: Companies developing nanocellulose products in filtration, applications targeted and stage of commercialization……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 180
  • Table 115: Nanocellulose applications timeline in the rheology modifiers market…………………………………………… 182
  • Table 116: Global demand for nanocellulose in the rheology modifiers market, 2018-2030 (tons)……………………… 184
  • Table 117: Commercial activity in nanocellulose rheology modifiers……………………………………………………………. 185
  • Table 118: Market drivers, trends and Nanocellulose solutions in the printed and flexible electronics market……….. 186
  • Table 119: Cellulose nanofiber applications timeline in flexible electronics…………………………………………………… 187
  • Table 120: Properties of flexible electronics‐cellulose nanofiber film (nanopaper)…………………………………………… 188
  • Table 121: Properties of flexible electronics cellulose nanofiber films………………………………………………………….. 191
  • Table 122: Application markets, competing materials, Nanocellulose advantages and current market size in electronics……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 192
  • Table 123: Market assessment for nanocellulose in the flexible and printed electronics sector………………………….. 193
  • Table 124: Market opportunity assessment for nanocellulose in flexible electronics……………………………………….. 194
  • Table 125: Market challenges for use of Nanocellulose in printed and flexible electronics………………………………… 194
  • Table 126: Market challenges rating for nanocellulose in the printed and flexible electronics market………………….. 195
  • Table 127: Companies developing cellulose nanofiber products in paper electronics, applications targeted and stage of commercialization……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 195
  • Table 128: Market drivers, trends and Nanocellulose solutions in the 3D printing market…………………………………. 197
  • Table 129: Applications of Nanocellulose in 3D printing……………………………………………………………………………. 198
  • Table 130: Market opportunity assessment for nanocellulose in 3D printing………………………………………………….. 198
  • Table 131: Market challenges rating for nanocellulose in the 3D printing market……………………………………………. 199
  • Table 132: Companies developing nanocellulose 3D printing products………………………………………………………… 199
  • Table 133: Classification of nanocellulose applications by type of industrial product ranged in terms of their potential of consumption…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 200
  • Table 134: Nanocellulose for composite parts. Application, key benefits, competing materials, Nanocellulose working concentration, global market demand and growth, potential for Nanocellulose penetration………………………… 200
  • Table 135: Nanocellulose for bioplastics. Application, key benefits, competing materials, Nanocellulose working concentration, global market demand and growth, potential for Nanocellulose penetration………………………… 202
  • Table 136. Nanocellulose for packaging films. Application, key benefits, competing materials, Nanocellulose working concentration, global market demand and growth, potential for Nanocellulose penetration………………………… 203
  • Table 137. Nanocellulose for aerogels. Application, key benefits, competing materials, Nanocellulose working concentration, global market demand and growth, potential for Nanocellulose penetration………………………… 203
  • Table 138. Nanocellulose for cement. Application, key benefits, competing materials, Nanocellulose working concentration, global market demand and growth, potential for Nanocellulose penetration………………………… 204
  • Table 139. Nanocellulose for ultra-high-performance concrete. Application, key benefits, competing materials, Nanocellulose working concentration, global market demand and growth, potential for Nanocellulose penetration……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 204
  • Table 140. Nanocellulose for paint and coating additives. Application, key benefits, competing materials, Nanocellulose working concentration, global market demand and growth, potential for Nanocellulose penetration……………… 205
  • Table 141. Nanocellulose for Hygiene and absorbent products. Application, key benefits, competing materials, Nanocellulose working concentration, global market demand and growth, potential for Nanocellulose penetration……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 206
  • Table 142. Application of nanocellulose in tires in automotive tyres…………………………………………………………….. 206
  • Table 143. Potential global nanocellulose demand by application………………………………………………………………. 207
  • Table 144: Nanocellulose producers and types of nanocellulose produced…………………………………………………… 208
  • Table 145: Target market, by nanocellulose producer……………………………………………………………………………… 210
  • Table 146: Oji Holdings CNF products…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 269
  • Table 147: CNC producers and production capacities……………………………………………………………………………… 306
  • Table 148: Target market, by cellulose nanocrystal producer……………………………………………………………………. 307

 

Figures

  • Figure 1: Market segmentation by type of nanocellulose, capacities and demand 2018…………………………………….. 32
  • Figure 2: CNF wet powder………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 37
  • Figure 3: Cellulose nanofiber transparent sheet………………………………………………………………………………………. 41
  • Figure 4: Cellulose Nanofiber (CNF) composite with polyethylene (PE)…………………………………………………………. 42
  • Figure 5: XCNF………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 43
  • Figure 6: Nanocellulose-based commercial products………………………………………………………………………………… 43
  • Figure 7: Nanocellulose market value, by end user market demand, 2018–2030 (Tons). total……………………………. 47
  • Figure 8: Global demand for cellulose nanofibers/MFC by market, 2018-2030………………………………………………… 49
  • Figure 9: Global demand for cellulose nanocrystals by market, 2018-2030…………………………………………………….. 50
  • Figure 10: Regional demand for cellulose nanofibers, 2018……………………………………………………………………….. 51
  • Figure 11: Schematic diagram of partial molecular structure of cellulose chain with numbering for carbon atoms and n= number of cellobiose repeating unit………………………………………………………………………………………………… 59
  • Figure 12: Scale of cellulose materials…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 60
  • Figure 13: Types of nanocellulose………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 63
  • Figure 14: Relationship between different kinds of nanocelluloses……………………………………………………………….. 64
  • Figure 15: CNF gel……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 66
  • Figure 16. TEM image of cellulose nanocrystals………………………………………………………………………………………. 68
  • Figure 17. CNC preparation………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 68
  • Figure 18: Extracting CNC from trees……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 69
  • Figure 19: CNC slurry………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 71
  • Figure 20: Schematic of typical commercialization route for nanocellulose producer………………………………………… 77
  • Figure 21: Technology Readiness Level (TRL) for nanocellulose…………………………………………………………………. 87
  • Figure 22: (a) Number of research publications on the different nomenclatures of nanocellulosic materials per year during the last decade. (b) Cumulative number of research article number published per nomenclature…………. 92
  • Figure 23:  Nanocellulose patents by field of application……………………………………………………………………………. 93
  • Figure 24: Global market demand for nanocellulose in composites, 2018-2030 (tons)…………………………………….. 105
  • Figure 25: Demand for nanocellulose in the aerospace and aviation market, 2018-2030 (tons)…………………………. 108
  • Figure 26: Nanomaterials-based automotive components………………………………………………………………………… 112
  • Figure 27: CNF car engine cover developed in Japan Ministry of the Environment’s (MOE) Nano Cellulose Vehicle (NCV) Project…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 113
  • Figure 28: The structure of the CNF-based front hood…………………………………………………………………………….. 113
  • Figure 29: CNF composite………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 114
  • Figure 30: Global demand for nanocellulose in the automotive sector, 2018-2030 (tons)…………………………………. 116
  • Figure 31: Nanowood with hierarchically aligned cellulose nanofibrils for insulation………………………………………… 120
  • Figure 32: Demand for nanocellulose in construction, 2018-2030 (tons)………………………………………………………. 122
  • Figure 33: Example process for producing NFC packaging film…………………………………………………………………. 128
  • Figure 34: Global demand for nanocellulose in the paper & board/packaging, 2018-2030 (tons)……………………….. 135
  • Figure 35: CNF deodorant products…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 139
  • Figure 36: Global demand for nanocellulose in hygiene and absorbents 2018-2030 (tons)………………………………. 140
  • Figure 37: Demand for nanocellulose in the textiles, 2018-2030 (tons)………………………………………………………… 142
  • Figure 38: Global demand for nanocellulose in medical and healthcare, 2018-2030 (tons)………………………………. 149
  • Figure 39: Global demand for nanocellulose in paint and coatings, 2018-2030 (tons)……………………………………… 157
  • Figure 40: Global demand for nanocellulose in aerogels, 2018-2030 (tons)………………………………………………….. 163
  • Figure 41: Nanocellulose sponge developed by EMPA for potential applications in oil recovery………………………… 167
  • Figure 42: Global demand for nanocellulose in the oil and gas market, 2018-2030 (tons)………………………………… 171
  • Figure 43: Nanocellulose virus filter paper…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 178
  • Figure 44: Global demand for nanocellulose in the filtration market, 2018-2030 (tons)…………………………………….. 180
  • Figure 45. Viscosity vs. shear rate of hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC) alone, HEC Viscosity of HEC with various concentrations of CNC……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 184
  • Figure 46: Global demand for nanocellulose in the rheology modifiers market, 2018-2030 (tons)………………………. 186
  • Figure 47: Electronic components using NFC as insulating materials………………………………………………………….. 189
  • Figure 48:  Cellulose nanofiber films……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 190
  • Figure 49: Nanocellulose photoluminescent paper………………………………………………………………………………….. 191
  • Figure 50: LEDs shining on circuitry imprinted on a 5x5cm sheet of CNF…………………………………………………….. 191
  • Figure 51: Foldable nanopaper…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 192
  • Figure 52: Foldable nanopaper antenna……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 192
  • Figure 53: Paper memory (ReRAM)…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 193
  • Figure 54: 3D printed CNF in Paper Microfluidics devices………………………………………………………………………… 198
  • Figure 55. American Process, Inc. CNF production process……………………………………………………………………… 215
  • Figure 56: Ashai Kasei CNF production process…………………………………………………………………………………….. 218
  • Figure 57: Asahi Kasei CNF fabric sheet………………………………………………………………………………………………. 219
  • Figure 58: Properties of Asahi Kasei cellulose nanofiber nonwoven fabric……………………………………………………. 219
  • Figure 59: CNF nonwoven fabric………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 220
  • Figure 60. Borregaard Chemcell CNF production process………………………………………………………………………… 223
  • Figure 61. Chuetsu Pulp & Paper CNF production process………………………………………………………………………. 230
  • Figure 62. Daicel Corporation CNF production process……………………………………………………………………………. 232
  • Figure 63: Trunk lid incorporating CNF…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 233
  • Figure 64. Daio Paper CNF production process……………………………………………………………………………………… 235
  • Figure 65. CNF-reinforced PP compounds……………………………………………………………………………………………. 235
  • Figure 66. Kirekira! toilet wipes…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 236
  • Figure 67. DIC Products CNF production process…………………………………………………………………………………… 237
  • Figure 68. DKS Co. Ltd. CNF production process…………………………………………………………………………………… 239
  • Figure 69: Rheocrysta spray……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 239
  • Figure 70: CNF based on citrus peel……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 241
  • Figure 71. Imerys CNF production process…………………………………………………………………………………………… 242
  • Figure 72: Cellulose Nanofiber (CNF) composite with polyethylene (PE)……………………………………………………… 244
  • Figure 73: CNF products from Furukawa Electric……………………………………………………………………………………. 245
  • Figure 74: Cutlery samples (spoon, knife, fork) made of nano cellulose and biodegradable plastic composite materials……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 246
  • Figure 75: CNF gel………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 248
  • Figure 76: Block nanocellulose material……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 248
  • Figure 77: CNF products developed by Hokuetsu…………………………………………………………………………………… 249
  • Figure 78. Innventia CNF production process………………………………………………………………………………………… 250
  • Figure 79: Innventia AB movable nanocellulose demo plant……………………………………………………………………… 251
  • Figure 80: Engine cover utilizing Kao CNF composite resins…………………………………………………………………….. 253
  • Figure 81: 0.3% aqueous dispersion of sulfated esterified CNF and dried transparent film (front side)………………… 254
  • Figure 82. Kruger Biomaterials, Inc. CNF production process……………………………………………………………………. 256
  • Figure 83: CNF slurries…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 260
  • Figure 84: Nanocell serum product……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 261
  • Figure 85: Hydrophobization facilities for raw pulp………………………………………………………………………………….. 262
  • Figure 86: Mixing facilities for CNF-reinforced plastic………………………………………………………………………………. 262
  • Figure 87. Nippon Paper CNF production process………………………………………………………………………………….. 263
  • Figure 88: Nippon Paper Industries’ adult diapers…………………………………………………………………………………… 265
  • Figure 89: CNF wet powder………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 266
  • Figure 90: CNF transparent film………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 267
  • Figure 91: Transparent CNF sheets…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 267
  • Figure 92. Oji Paper CNF production process………………………………………………………………………………………… 269
  • Figure 93: CNF clear sheets………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 270
  • Figure 94: Fluorene cellulose ® powder……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 272
  • Figure 95. Performance Biofilaments CNF production process………………………………………………………………….. 273
  • Figure 96: XCNF…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 275
  • Figure 97: CNF insulation flat plates……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 277
  • Figure 98. Seiko PMC CNF production process……………………………………………………………………………………… 279
  • Figure 99: Rubber soles incorporating CNF…………………………………………………………………………………………… 281
  • Figure 100. Stora Enso CNF production process……………………………………………………………………………………. 282
  • Figure 101. Sugino Machine CNF production process……………………………………………………………………………… 284
  • Figure 102: High Pressure Water Jet Process……………………………………………………………………………………….. 284
  • Figure 103: 2 wt.% CNF suspension…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 285
  • Figure 104. BiNFi-s Dry Powder…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 285
  • Figure 105. BiNFi-s Dry Powder and Propylene (PP) Complex Pellet………………………………………………………….. 286
  • Figure 106: Silk nanofiber (right) and cocoon of raw material…………………………………………………………………….. 286
  • Figure 107: SVILOSA AD CNC products………………………………………………………………………………………………. 288
  • Figure 108: Silver / CNF composite dispersions……………………………………………………………………………………… 291
  • Figure 109: CNF/nanosilver powder…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 292
  • Figure 110: Comparison of weight reduction effect using CNF…………………………………………………………………… 293
  • Figure 111: CNF resin products………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 294
  • Figure 112. University of Maine CNF production process…………………………………………………………………………. 295
  • Figure 113. UPM-Kymmene CNF production process……………………………………………………………………………… 297
  • Figure 114. US Forest Service Products Laboratory CNF production process……………………………………………….. 298
  • Figure 115: Flexible electronic substrate made from CNF………………………………………………………………………… 299
  • Figure 116. VTT 100% bio-based stand-up pouches……………………………………………………………………………….. 300
  • Figure 117. VTT CNF production process…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 301
  • Figure 118: HefCel-coated wood (left) and untreated wood (right) after 30 seconds flame test………………………….. 302
  • Figure 119: Bio-based barrier bags prepared from Tempo-CNF coated bio-HDPE film……………………………………. 303
  • Figure 120. Zelfo Technology GmbH CNF production process………………………………………………………………….. 305
  • Figure 121. American Process, Inc. CNF production process……………………………………………………………………. 311
  • Figure 122: R3TM process technology…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 313
  • Figure 123: Blue Goose CNC Production Process………………………………………………………………………………….. 314
  • Figure 124: NCCTM Process…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 316
  • Figure 125: Celluforce production process……………………………………………………………………………………………. 317
  • Figure 126: CNC produced at Tech Futures’ pilot plant; cloudy suspension (1 wt.%), gel-like (10 wt.%), flake-like crystals, and very fine powder. Product advantages include:………………………………………………………………. 318
  • Figure 127: Plantrose process……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 323
  • Figure 128. University of Maine CNF production process…………………………………………………………………………. 327
  • Figure 129. US Forest Service Products Laboratory CNF production process……………………………………………….. 328
  • Figure 130: Flexible electronic substrate made from CNF………………………………………………………………………… 329
  • Figure 131. CNC solution………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 330
  • Figure 132: Bacterial cellulose face mask sheet…………………………………………………………………………………….. 334
  • Figure 133: Fibnano………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 335

 

The Global Market for Nanocellulose to 2030
The Global Market for Nanocellulose to 2030
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The Global Market for Nanocellulose to 2030
The Global Market for Nanocellulose to 2030
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The Global Market for Nanocellulose to 2030
The Global Market for Nanocellulose to 2030
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