The Nanocellulose Investment and Pricing Guide 2019

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Nanocellulose (NC) is a novel biomaterial with multiple industrial uses for replacing fossil derived raw materials. It is renewable, eco-friendly, has excellent mechanical properties, good biocompatibility, and tailorable surface chemistry. The addition of NC into polymers can enhance mechanical strength and reduce weight compared to fiber-reinforced plastics (FRP).

The market mainly consists of cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) production at present as alternatives to resins, synthetic thickeners, strengtheners, and plastics. Cellulose nanofiber products have already hit the market, mainly in Japan, and are viewed as important advanced materials solutions in the packaging and composites markets.

Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) are a promising future investment opportunity. Most companies are focusing on high volume production for composites, packaging and paper industries. However, many opportunities exist in electronics, 3D printing, textiles and medicine.

Current production capacity far exceeds the market demand at present, but this is likely to change as prices drop in the next few years, and there is less distance to fall than with other nanomaterials as cellulose nanofibers are broadly cost competitive. Producers have already begun to produce additives that are competitive with conventional polymer composites (e.g. carbon fibers).

This 250 page report includes:

  • Advantages and shortcomings of nanocellulose as a technology component.
  • Pricing landscape for nanocellulose, by types and producers.
  • Production volumes by nanocellulose producer.
  • Provides a map of the current competitive landscape by market.
  • Market impediments for nanocellulose by target market.
  • Over 90 company profiles.
  • Profiles all the major players in nanocellulose production.
  • Profiles all the major application developers including current and intended products.

Published January 2019| 250 pages, 97 tables, 97 figures | Table of contents

The Nanocellulose Investment and Pricing Guide 2019-PDF
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TABLE OF CONTENTS

1    RESEARCH METHODOLOGY………………………………………………… 24

  • 1.1     Investment analysis………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 24
  • 1.2     Market impediment analysis……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 26

2    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY…………………………………………………………. 28

  • 2.1     Applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 28
  • 2.2     Market segmentation by type of nanocellulose……………………………………………………………………………. 32
    • 2.2.1       CNF………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 33
    • 2.2.2       MFC…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 34
    • 2.2.3       Cellulose nanocrystals(CNC)………………………………………………………………………………………….. 34
  • 2.3     Main opportunities in nanocellulose………………………………………………………………………………………….. 35
  • 2.4     Global production…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 37
  • 2.5     Market trends……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 38
  • 2.6     Market and technical challenges……………………………………………………………………………………………… 39
  • 2.7     Global nanocellulose market size…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 40
    • 2.7.1       The market for nanocellulose in 2017……………………………………………………………………………….. 40
    • 2.7.2       The market for nanocellulose in 2018……………………………………………………………………………….. 42
    • 2.7.3       Nanocellulose demand in tons, 2015–2030………………………………………………………………………… 43
    • 2.7.4       Nanocellulose market by region………………………………………………………………………………………. 44
      • 2.7.4.1    Asia-Pacific……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 44

3    TYPES OF COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE NANOCELLULOSE….. 45

  • 3.1     Cellulose……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 45
  • 3.2     Nanocellulose……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 46
  • 3.3     Properties of nanocellulose…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 46
  • 3.4     Advantages of nanocellulose………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 47
  • 3.5     Manufacture of nanocellulose…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 48
  • 3.6     Production methods……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 48
  • 3.7     Types of nanocellulose………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 49
    • 3.7.1       Microfibrillated cellulose (MFC)……………………………………………………………………………………….. 51
    • 3.7.2       Cellulose nanofibers (CNF)……………………………………………………………………………………………. 51
      • 3.7.2.1    Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 52
      • 3.7.2.2    Production methods of CNF producers…………………………………………………………………………. 53
    • 3.7.3       Cellulose nanocrystals (CNC)…………………………………………………………………………………………. 54
      • 3.7.3.1    Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 56
      • 3.7.3.2    Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 56
    • 3.7.4       Bacterial Cellulose (BC)………………………………………………………………………………………………… 58
      • 3.7.4.1    Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 58

4    NANOCELLULOSE MARKET STRUCTURE…………………………….. 59

  • 4.1     Volume of industry demand for nanocellulose…………………………………………………………………………….. 61
  • 4.2     High volume, medium volume and low volume nanocellulose applications………………………………………… 62

5    NANOCELLULOSE PRICING………………………………………………….. 63

  • 5.1     Cellulose nanofiber Gel/ Cellulose nanofiber Slurry/MFC pricing…………………………………………………….. 63
  • 5.2     NCC pricing………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 65
  • 5.3     Bulk supply…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 65
  • 5.4     Commoditisation………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 65

6    COMMERCIAL OPPORTUNITIES IN NANOCELLULOSE…………… 66

  • 6.1     Short-term growth………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 66
  • 6.2     Medium-term growth…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 66
  • 6.3     Opportunities in printed and flexible electronics…………………………………………………………………………… 67
  • 6.4     PACKAGING………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 69
    • 6.4.1       Applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 69
    • 6.4.2       Current and planned commercial activity…………………………………………………………………………… 70
    • 6.4.3       Nanocellulose market opportunity……………………………………………………………………………………. 70
    • 6.4.4       Market impediments……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 73
  • 6.5     PAPER & BOARD………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 74
    • 6.5.1       Applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 74
    • 6.5.2       Current and planned commercial activity…………………………………………………………………………… 76
    • 6.5.3       Nanocellulose market opportunity……………………………………………………………………………………. 77
    • 6.5.4       Market impediments……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 78
  • 6.6     AIRCRAFT AND AEROSPACE……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 79
    • 6.6.1       Applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 79
    • 6.6.2       Current and planned commercial activity…………………………………………………………………………… 80
    • 6.6.3       Nanocellulose market opportunity……………………………………………………………………………………. 81
    • 6.6.4       Market impediments……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 83
  • 6.7     AUTOMOTIVE…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 83
    • 6.7.1       Applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 83
    • 6.7.2       Current and planned commercial activity…………………………………………………………………………… 84
    • 6.7.3       Nanocellulose market opportunity……………………………………………………………………………………. 86
    • 6.7.4       Market impediments……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 89
  • 6.8     CONSTRUCTION AND BUILDING………………………………………………………………………………………….. 89
    • 6.8.1       Applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 89
    • 6.8.2       Current and planned commercial activity…………………………………………………………………………… 90
    • 6.8.3       Nanocellulose market opportunity……………………………………………………………………………………. 90
    • 6.8.4       Market impediments……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 92
  • 6.9     TEXTILES AND CLOTHING…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 92
    • 6.9.1       Applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 92
    • 6.9.2       Current and planned commercial activity…………………………………………………………………………… 93
    • 6.9.3       Nanocellulose market opportunity……………………………………………………………………………………. 93
    • 6.9.4       Market impediments……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 95
  • 6.10        MEDICAL & HEALTHCARE……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 96
    • 6.10.1     Applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 96
    • 6.10.2     Current and planned commercial activity…………………………………………………………………………… 98
    • 6.10.3     Nanocellulose market opportunity……………………………………………………………………………………. 98
    • 6.10.4     Market impediments……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 100
  • 6.11        COATINGS AND PAINTS………………………………………………………………………………………………… 100
    • 6.11.1     Applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 101
    • 6.11.2     Current and planned commercial activity…………………………………………………………………………. 102
    • 6.11.3     Nanocellulose market opportunity………………………………………………………………………………….. 102
    • 6.11.4     Market impediments……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 106
  • 6.12        AEROGELS………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 107
    • 6.12.1     Applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 107
    • 6.12.2     Current and planned commercial activity…………………………………………………………………………. 108
    • 6.12.3     Nanocellulose market opportunity………………………………………………………………………………….. 108
    • 6.12.4     Market impediments……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 110
  • 6.13        OIL AND GAS EXPLORATION…………………………………………………………………………………………. 110
    • 6.13.1     Applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 110
    • 6.13.2     Current and planned commercial activity…………………………………………………………………………. 111
    • 6.13.3     Nanocellulose market opportunity………………………………………………………………………………….. 112
    • 6.13.4     Market impediments……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 113
  • 6.14        FILTRATION AND SEPARATION………………………………………………………………………………………. 114
    • 6.14.1     Applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 114
    • 6.14.2     Current and planned commercial activity…………………………………………………………………………. 117
    • 6.14.3     Nanocellulose market opportunity………………………………………………………………………………….. 118
    • 6.14.4     Market impediments……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 120
  • 6.15        RHEOLOGY MODIFIERS………………………………………………………………………………………………… 120
    • 6.15.1     Applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 120
    • 6.15.2     Current and planned commercial activity…………………………………………………………………………. 122
    • 6.15.3     Nanocellulose market opportunity………………………………………………………………………………….. 122
    • 6.15.4     Market impediments……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 122
  • 6.16        PRINTABLE, STRETCHABLE AND FLEXIBLE ELECTRONICS……………………………………………….. 122
    • 6.16.1     Applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 122
    • 6.16.2     Current and planned commercial activity…………………………………………………………………………. 125
    • 6.16.3     Nanocellulose market opportunity………………………………………………………………………………….. 126
    • 6.16.4     Market impediments……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 129
  • 6.17        3D PRINTING……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 130
    • 6.17.1     Applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 130
    • 6.17.2     Current and planned commercial activity…………………………………………………………………………. 130
    • 6.17.3     Nanocellulose market opportunity………………………………………………………………………………….. 130
    • 6.17.4     Market impediments……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 131
  • 6.18        OTHER MARKETS…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 132
    • 6.18.1     Rubber and tire additives……………………………………………………………………………………………… 132
    • 6.18.2     Colourants………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 132

7    NANOCELLULOSE COMPANY PROFILES…………………………….. 133

  • 7.1     Producers and types of nanocellulose produced (NCF, NCC, BCC)……………………………………………….. 133
  • 7.2     Target markets for producers………………………………………………………………………………………………… 135
  • 7.3     CELLULOSE NANOFIBER PRODUCERS……………………………………………………………………………….. 138-228 (77 COMPANY PROFILES)
  • 7.4     CELLULOSE NANOCRYSTAL (CNC) PRODUCERS…………………………………………………………………. 229-240 (7 COMPANY PROFILES)
  • 7.5     BACTERIAL CELLULOSE (BC) PRODUCERS…………………………………………………………………………. 241-244 (7 COMPANY PROFILES)

8    REFERENCES…………………………………………………………………….. 245

TABLES

  • Table 1: Market summary for nanocellulose-Selling grade particle diameter, usage, advantages, average price/ton, market estimates, global consumption, main current applications, future applications………………………………… 28
  • Table 2: Markets and applications for nanocellulose…………………………………………………………………………………. 30
  • Table 3: CNF producer capacities 2018…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 33
  • Table 4: MFC producer capacities 2018…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 34
  • Table 5: Cellulose nanocrystal producer capacities 2018…………………………………………………………………………… 34
  • Table 3: Market opportunity assessment for nanocellulose, by application…………………………………………………….. 35
  • Table 4: Market trends in nanocellulose…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 38
  • Table 5: Market and technical challenges in nanocellulose…………………………………………………………………………. 39
  • Table 6: Properties and applications of nanocellulose……………………………………………………………………………….. 47
  • Table 7: Properties of cellulose nanofibrils relative to metallic and polymeric materials…………………………………….. 48
  • Table 8: Types of nanocellulose…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 51
  • Table 9: Applications of cellulose nanofibers (CNF)………………………………………………………………………………….. 52
  • Table 10: Production methods of main CNF producers……………………………………………………………………………… 53
  • Table 11: CNC sources and scale………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 56
  • Table 12: CNC properties…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 56
  • Table 13: Applications of nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC)………………………………………………………………………….. 57
  • Table 14: Applications of bacterial cellulose (BC)…………………………………………………………………………………….. 58
  • Table 15: Global nanocellulose market supply chain analysis……………………………………………………………………… 59
  • Table 16: Identified applications of nanocellulose and their categorization……………………………………………………… 62
  • Table 20: Product/price/application matrix of nanocellulose producers………………………………………………………….. 63
  • Table 21: NCC producers, prices/kg and main target markets…………………………………………………………………….. 65
  • Table 22: Properties of flexible electronics cellulose nanofiber films……………………………………………………………… 67
  • Table 23: Companies developing nanocellulose products in packaging, applications targeted and stage of commercialization……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 70
  • Table 24: Application markets, competing materials, nanocellulose advantages and current market size in packaging. 71
  • Table 25: Market opportunity assessment for nanocellulose in packaging……………………………………………………… 72
  • Table 26: Demand for Nanocellulose in the packaging market, 2015-2030 (tons)……………………………………………. 73
  • Table 27: Market impediments for nanocellulose in the packaging market……………………………………………………… 73
  • Table 28: Nanocellulose applications timeline in the paper and board markets……………………………………………….. 74
  • Table 29: Nanocellulose in paper and board-Companies and products…………………………………………………………. 76
  • Table 30: Market opportunity assessment for nanocellulose in paper and board……………………………………………… 77
  • Table 31: Demand for Nanocellulose in the paper and board market, 2015-2030 (tons)……………………………………. 78
  • Table 32: Market impediments for nanocellulose in the paper and board market…………………………………………….. 79
  • Table 33: Applications in aerospace composites……………………………………………………………………………………… 79
  • Table 34: Companies developing Nanocellulose products aircraft and aerospace, applications targeted and stage of commercialization……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 80
  • Table 35: Market size for nanocellulose in aerospace and aviation………………………………………………………………. 81
  • Table 36: Demand for Nanocellulose in the aerospace and aviaton market, 2015-2030 (tons)……………………………. 82
  • Table 37: Market impediments for nanocellulose in the aerospace market…………………………………………………….. 83
  • Table 38: Companies developing Nanocellulose products in the automotive industry, applications targeted and stage of commercialization……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 84
  • Table 39: Application markets, competing materials, Nanocellulose advantages and current market size in the automotive sector……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 86
  • Table 40: Market opportunity assessment for nanocellulose in the automotive industry…………………………………….. 87
  • Table 41: Market size for nanocellulose in the automotive industry………………………………………………………………. 87
  • Table 42: Demand for Nanocellulose in the automotive market, 2015-2030 (tons)…………………………………………… 88
  • Table 43: Applications and commercialization challenges in the automotive market…………………………………………. 89
  • Table 44: Market impediments for nanocellulose in the automotive market…………………………………………………….. 89
  • Table 45: Comparison of nanocellulose with steel and other materials………………………………………………………….. 89
  • Table 46: Nanocellulose in construction-Companies and products……………………………………………………………….. 90
  • Table 47: Market size for nanocellulose in construction and civil engineering…………………………………………………. 90
  • Table 48: Demand for Nanocellulose in the construction and building market, 2015-2030 (tons)…………………………. 91
  • Table 49: Market impediments in the construction, building protection and architectural exterior coatings market…… 92
  • Table 50: Companies developing nanocellulose products in textiles, applications targeted and stage of commercialization……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 93
  • Table 51: Market opportunity assessment for nanocellulose in textiles and clothing…………………………………………. 93
  • Table 52: Potential volume estimates (tons) and penetration of nanocellulose into textiles and clothing……………….. 93
  • Table 53: Demand for Nanocellulose in the paper and board market, 2015-2030 (tons)……………………………………. 94
  • Table 54: Market impediments for nanocellulose in the textiles and clothing market…………………………………………. 95
  • Table 55: Nanocellulose applications timeline in the medical and healthcare markets………………………………………. 96
  • Table 56: Nanocellulose product developers in medical and healthcare applications………………………………………… 98
  • Table 57: Demand for Nanocellulose in the medical and healthcare market, 2015-2030 (tons)…………………………. 100
  • Table 58: Market impediments for nanocellulose in the medical and healthcare market…………………………………… 100
  • Table 59: Nanocellulose applications timeline in the coatings and paints markets………………………………………….. 101
  • Table 60: Companies developing nanocellulose products in coatings and paints, applications targeted and stage of commercialization……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 102
  • Table 61: Application markets, competing materials, nanocellulose advantages and current market size in coatings and films……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 104
  • Table 62: Market opportunity assessment for nanocellulose in coatings and films………………………………………….. 104
  • Table 63: Demand for Nanocellulose in the paint and coatings market, 2015-2030 (tons)………………………………… 105
  • Table 64: Market impediments for nanocellulose in the coatings and films market…………………………………………. 107
  • Table 65: Nanocellulose applications timeline in the aerogels market………………………………………………………….. 107
  • Table 66: Nanocellulose product developers in aerogels………………………………………………………………………….. 108
  • Table 67: Demand for Nanocellulose in the aerogels market, 2015-2030 (tons)…………………………………………….. 109
  • Table 68: Market impediments for nanocellulose in the aerogels market……………………………………………………… 110
  • Table 69: Nanocellulose applications timeline in the oil market………………………………………………………………….. 110
  • Table 70: Nanocellulose product developers in oil and gas exploration……………………………………………………….. 111
  • Table 71: Application markets, competing materials, nanocellulose advantages and current market size in oil and gas……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 112
  • Table 72: Nanocellulose in the oil and gas market-applications, stage of commercialization and estimated economic impact…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 112
  • Table 73: Demand for Nanocellulose in the oil and gas exploration market, 2015-2030 (tons)………………………….. 113
  • Table 74: Market impediments for nanocellulose in the oil and gas exploration market……………………………………. 114
  • Table 75: Nanocellulose applications timeline in the filtration market…………………………………………………………… 114
  • Table 76: Companies developing NFC products in filtration, applications targeted and stage of commercialization.. 117
  • Table 77: Application markets, competing materials, nanocellulose advantages and current market size in filtration. 118
  • Table 78: Market opportunity assessment for nanocellulose in the filtration industry……………………………………….. 118
  • Table 79: Demand for Nanocellulose in the filtration market, 2015-2030 (tons)……………………………………………… 119
  • Table 80: Market impediments for nanocellulose in the filtration market………………………………………………………. 120
  • Table 81: Nanocellulose applications timeline in the rheology modifiers market…………………………………………….. 120
  • Table 82: Commercial activity in nanocellulose rheology modifiers……………………………………………………………… 122
  • Table 83: Market impediments for nanocellulose in the rheology modifiers market…………………………………………. 122
  • Table 84: Nanocellulose applications timeline in flexible electronics……………………………………………………………. 123
  • Table 85: Properties of flexible electronics cellulose nanofiber films……………………………………………………………. 124
  • Table 86: Companies developing Nanocellulose products in flexible and stretchable electronics, applications targeted and stage of commercialization…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 125
  • Table 87: Global market for wearables, 2014-2021, units and US$…………………………………………………………….. 126
  • Table 88: Application markets, competing materials, Nanocellulose advantages and current market size in electronics……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 127
  • Table 89: Market opportunity assessment for Nanocellulose in printable, flexible and stretchable electronics………. 128
  • Table 90: Market impediments for nanocellulose in the printed and flexible electronics market…………………………. 129
  • Table 91: Companies developing nanocellulose 3D printing products,…………………………………………………………. 130
  • Table 92: Application markets, competing materials, nanocellulose advantages and current market size in 3D printing……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 131
  • Table 93: Market opportunity assessment for nanocellulose in 3D printing…………………………………………………… 131
  • Table 94: Market impediments for nanocellulose in the 3D printing market…………………………………………………… 131
  • Table 95: Nanocellulose producers and types of nanocellulose produced…………………………………………………….. 133
  • Table 96: Target market, by nanocellulose producer……………………………………………………………………………….. 135
  • Table 97: Oji Holdings CNF products…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 192

FIGURES

  • Figure 1: Market segmentation by type of nanocellulose, capacities 2018……………………………………………………… 32
  • Figure 2: Market segmentation by type of nanocellulose, percentage……………………………………………………………. 33
  • Figure 3: CNF wet powder………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 37
  • Figure 4: Cellulose nanofiber transparent sheet………………………………………………………………………………………. 40
  • Figure 5: Cellulose Nanofiber (CNF) composite with polyethylene (PE)…………………………………………………………. 41
  • Figure 6: CNF products……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 41
  • Figure 7: XCNF………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 42
  • Figure 8: CNF/MFC market value, by end user market demand, 2015–2030 (Tons)………………………………………… 43
  • Figure 9: Nanocellulose market by region, 2017………………………………………………………………………………………. 44
  • Figure 10: Nanocellulose market by region, 2030…………………………………………………………………………………….. 45
  • Figure 11: Schematic diagram of partial molecular structure of cellulose chain with numbering for carbon atoms and n= number of cellobiose repeating unit………………………………………………………………………………………………… 45
  • Figure 12: Scale of cellulose materials…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 46
  • Figure 13: Types of nanocellulose………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 50
  • Figure 14: Relationship between different kinds of nanocelluloses……………………………………………………………….. 50
  • Figure 15: CNF gel……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 52
  • Figure 16: TEM image of cellulose nanocrystals………………………………………………………………………………………. 54
  • Figure 17: An iridescent biomimetic cellulose multilayer film remains after water that contains cellulose nanocrystals evaporates………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 55
  • Figure 18: Extracting CNC from trees……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 55
  • Figure 19: CNC slurry………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 57
  • Figure 20: Schematic of typical commercialization route for nanocellulose producer………………………………………… 59
  • Figure 21: Volume of industry demand for nanocellulose (external producer usage and external sales), 2017……….. 62
  • Figure 22: Nanocellulose photoluminescent paper……………………………………………………………………………………. 67
  • Figure 23: Foldable nanopaper……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 68
  • Figure 24: Foldable nanopaper antenna………………………………………………………………………………………………… 68
  • Figure 25: Demand for Nanocellulose in the packaging market, 2015-2030 (tons)…………………………………………… 72
  • Figure 26: Demand for Nanocellulose in the paper and board market, 2015-2030 (tons)…………………………………… 78
  • Figure 27: Demand for Nanocellulose in the aerospace and aviaton market, 2015-2030 (tons)…………………………… 82
  • Figure 28: NFC composite………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 84
  • Figure 29: Demand for Nanocellulose in the automotive market, 2015-2030 (tons)………………………………………….. 88
  • Figure 30: Demand for Nanocellulose in the construction and building market, 2015-2030 (tons)………………………… 91
  • Figure 31: Demand for Nanocellulose in the textiles market, 2015-2030 (tons)……………………………………………….. 94
  • Figure 32: Demand for Nanocellulose in the medical and healthcare market, 2015-2030 (tons)………………………….. 99
  • Figure 33: Global Paints and Coatings Market, share by end user market……………………………………………………. 103
  • Figure 34: Demand for Nanocellulose in the paints and coatings market, 2015-2030 (tons)……………………………… 105
  • Figure 35: Demand for Nanocellulose in the aerogels market, 2015-2030 (tons)……………………………………………. 109
  • Figure 36: Nanocellulose sponge developed by EMPA for potential applications in oil recovery………………………… 111
  • Figure 37: Demand for Nanocellulose in the oil and gas exploration market, 2015-2030 (tons)…………………………. 113
  • Figure 38: Nanocellulose virus filter paper…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 117
  • Figure 39: Demand for Nanocellulose in the filtration market, 2015-2030 (tons)…………………………………………….. 119
  • Figure 40: Electronic components using NFC as insulating materials………………………………………………………….. 123
  • Figure 41:  Cellulose nanofiber films……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 124
  • Figure 42: LEDs shining on circuitry imprinted on a 5x5cm sheet of CNF…………………………………………………….. 124
  • Figure 43: Paper memory (ReRAM)…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 125
  • Figure 44: Global market revenues for smart wearable devices 2014-2021, in US$……………………………………….. 126
  • Figure 45: Global market revenues for nanotech-enabled smart wearable devices 2014-2021 in US$, conservative estimate………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 127
  • Figure 46: Global market revenues for nanotech-enabled smart wearable devices 2014-2021 in US$, optimistic estimate………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 127
  • Figure 47: Jawbone 3D printed with cellulose ink……………………………………………………………………………………. 130
  • Figure 48. American Process, Inc. CNF production process……………………………………………………………………… 140
  • Figure 49: Asahi Kasei CNF fabric sheet………………………………………………………………………………………………. 142
  • Figure 50: Properties of Asahi Kasei cellulose nanofiber nonwoven fabric……………………………………………………. 142
  • Figure 51: CNF nonwoven fabric………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 143
  • Figure 52: Ashai Kasei CNF production process…………………………………………………………………………………….. 144
  • Figure 53. Borregaard Chemcell CNF production process………………………………………………………………………… 147
  • Figure 54. Chuetsu Pulp & Paper CNF production process………………………………………………………………………. 154
  • Figure 55. Daicel Corporation CNF production process……………………………………………………………………………. 156
  • Figure 56. CNF-reinforced PP compounds……………………………………………………………………………………………. 158
  • Figure 57. Kirekira! toilet wipes…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 159
  • Figure 58. Daio Paper CNF production process……………………………………………………………………………………… 160
  • Figure 59. DIC Products CNF production process…………………………………………………………………………………… 162
  • Figure 60: Rheocrysta spray……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 164
  • Figure 61. DKS Co. Ltd. CNF production process…………………………………………………………………………………… 165
  • Figure 62. Imerys CNF production process…………………………………………………………………………………………… 168
  • Figure 91: CNF gel………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 171
  • Figure 92: Block nanocellulose material……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 171
  • Figure 93: CNF products developed by Hokuetsu…………………………………………………………………………………… 172
  • Figure 63: Innventia AB movable nanocellulose demo plant……………………………………………………………………… 173
  • Figure 64. Innventia CNF production process………………………………………………………………………………………… 174
  • Figure 38: Engine cover utilizing Kao CNF composite resins…………………………………………………………………….. 177
  • Figure 94: 0.3% aqueous dispersion of sulfated esterified CNF and dried transparent film (front side)………………… 178
  • Figure 65. Kruger Biomaterials, Inc. CNF production process……………………………………………………………………. 179
  • Figure 66: Hydrophobization facilities for raw pulp………………………………………………………………………………….. 185
  • Figure 67: Mixing facilities for CNF-reinforced plastic………………………………………………………………………………. 185
  • Figure 68. Nippon Paper CNF production process………………………………………………………………………………….. 187
  • Figure 69: Nippon Paper Industries’ adult diapers…………………………………………………………………………………… 188
  • Figure 70: CNF wet powder………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 189
  • Figure 71: CNF transparent film………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 190
  • Figure 46: Transparent CNF sheets…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 190
  • Figure 72. Oji Paper CNF production process………………………………………………………………………………………… 192
  • Figure 95: Fluorene cellulose ® powder……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 194
  • Figure 73. Performance Biofilaments CNF production process………………………………………………………………….. 195
  • Figure 74. Seiko PMC CNF production process……………………………………………………………………………………… 201
  • Figure 50: Rubber soles incorporating CNF…………………………………………………………………………………………… 202
  • Figure 75. Stora Enso CNF production process……………………………………………………………………………………… 204
  • Figure 76: Silk nanofiber (right) and cocoon of raw material……………………………………………………………………… 206
  • Figure 77. BiNFi-s Dry Powder…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 206
  • Figure 78. BiNFi-s Dry Powder and Propylene (PP) Complex Pellet……………………………………………………………. 206
  • Figure 79. Sugino Machine CNF production process……………………………………………………………………………….. 207
  • Figure 96: Silver / CNF composite dispersions………………………………………………………………………………………. 211
  • Figure 97: CNF/nanosilver powder……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 211
  • Figure 57: Comparison of weight reduction effect using CNF…………………………………………………………………….. 212
  • Figure 98: CNF resin products……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 214
  • Figure 80. University of Maine CNF production process…………………………………………………………………………… 216
  • Figure 81. UPM-Kymmene CNF production process……………………………………………………………………………….. 217
  • Figure 82. US Forest Service Products Laboratory CNF production process………………………………………………… 219
  • Figure 83: Flexible electronic substrate made from CNF………………………………………………………………………….. 220
  • Figure 84. VTT 100% bio-based stand-up pouches…………………………………………………………………………………. 222
  • Figure 85. VTT CNF production process………………………………………………………………………………………………. 224
  • Figure 86: Bio-based barrier bags prepared from Tempo-CNF coated bio-HDPE film……………………………………… 225
  • Figure 87. Zelfo Technology GmbH CNF production process……………………………………………………………………. 227
  • Figure 88: CNC produced at Tech Futures’ pilot plant; cloudy suspension (1 wt.%), gel-like (10 wt.%), flake-like crystals, and very fine powder. Product advantages include:…………………………………………………………………………… 232
  • Figure 89: NCCTM Process………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 232
  • Figure 90: Plantrose process……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 237