The Global Biobased Chemicals and Materials Market Report 2022

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Biobased materials, biopolymers and bioplastics, biobased chemicals and biobased fuels

Published February 2022 | 865 pages, 252 figures, 163 tables | Table of contents

The Global Biobased Chemicals and Materials Market Report 2022 provides a 865 page in-depth analysis of biobased and biomass solutions and their utilization in the manufacture of bulk, fine and specialty chemicals, plastics, solvents, polymers, biocomposites and fuels. 

Building new value chains through the utilisation of biobased and biomass components for the development of innovative products will accelerate the transition from traditional production technologies to the concept of biorefineries. Developing biobased chemicals, polymers and products in a sustainable manner allows for substantial new business opportunities to use them in existing and novel products 

The report covers production methods, production capacities, biorefineries, bio-based chemicals, bioplastics, biopolymers and biobased fuels with profiles of over 600 producers and product developers. The global opportunities offered by the transition to a more sustainable, low waste economy are vast, and the last decade has seen a substantial increase in interest in bio-based chemicals with many drop-in or novel bio-based chemicals being developed and introduced to the market.

Report contents include:

  • Market trends and drivers.
  • Market challenges
  • Market analysis including key players, end use markets, production processes, costs, production capacities, market demand.  
  • Industry developments 2020-2022.
  • Analysis of bio-based chemical including 11-Aminoundecanoic acid (11-AA), 1,4-Butanediol (1,4-BDO), Dodecanedioic acid (DDDA), Epichlorohydrin (ECH), Ethylene, Furan derivatives, 5-Chloromethylfurfural (5-CMF), 2,5-Furandicarboxylic acid (2,5-FDCA), Furandicarboxylic methyl ester (FDME), Isosorbide,  Itaconic acid, 5 Hydroxymethyl furfural (HMF), Lactic acid (D-LA), Lactic acid – L-lactic acid (L-LA), Lactide, Levoglucosenone, Levulinic acid, Monoethylene glycol (MEG), Monopropylene glycol (MPG), Muconic acid, Naphtha, 1,5-Pentametylenediamine (DN5), 1,3-Propanediol (1,3-PDO), Sebacic acid and Succinic acid.
  • Analysis of synthetic biopolymers market including Polylactic acid (Bio-PLA), Polyethylene terephthalate (Bio-PET), Polytrimethylene terephthalate (Bio-PTT), Polyethylene furanoate (Bio-PEF), Polyamides (Bio-PA), Poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (Bio-PBAT), Polybutylene succinate (PBS) and copolymers, Polyethylene (Bio-PE), Polypropylene (Bio-PP)
  • Analysis of naturally produced bio-based polymers including Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA), Polysaccharides, Microfibrillated cellulose (MFC), Cellulose nanocrystals, Cellulose nanofibers,  Protein-based bioplastics, Algal and fungal. 
  • Analysis of the markets for natural fibers and lignin. 
  • Market analysis of biofuels, bio-jet fuels, biodiesel, renewable diesel, biogas, electrofuels, green ammonia and other relevant technologies. 
  • Over 600 company profiles including NatureWorks, Total Corbion, Danimer Scientific, Novamont, Mitsubishi Chemicals, Indorama, Braskem, Avantium, Borealis, Cathay, Dupont, BASF, Arkema, DuPont, BASF ,  AMSilk GmbH, Notpla, Loliware, Bolt Threads, Ecovative, Kraig Biocraft Laboratories, Spiber, Bast Fiber Technologies Inc., Kelheim Fibres GmbH, BComp, Circular Systems, Evrnu, Natural Fiber Welding, Icytos, Versalis SpA, Clariant, MetGen Oy, Praj Industries Ltd., Bloom Biorenewables SA, FP Innovations, UPM, Klabin SA, RenCom AB, BTG Bioliquids, Byogy Renewables, Caphenia, Enerkem, Infinium. Eni S.p.A., Ensyn, FORGE Hydrocarbons Corporation, Genecis Bioindustries, Gevo, Haldor Topsoe, Steeper Energy,  SunFire GmbH, Vertus Energy and many more. 

 

 

1              EXECUTIVE SUMMARY   41

  • 1.1          Market trends   42
  • 1.2          Global production to 2030            43
  • 1.3          Main producers and global production capacities               45
    • 1.3.1      Producers           45
    • 1.3.2      By biobased and sustainable plastic type               46
    • 1.3.3      By region             50
  • 1.4          Global demand for biobased and sustainable plastics 2020-21, by market     52
  • 1.5          Impact of COVID-19 crisis on the bioplastics market and future demand        55
  • 1.6          Challenges for the biobased and sustainable plastics market         55

 

2              RESEARCH METHODOLOGY         57

 

3              THE GLOBAL PLASTICS MARKET 59

  • 3.1          Global production            59
  • 3.2          The importance of plastic              59
  • 3.3          Issues with plastics use  60

 

4              BIO-BASED CHEMICALS 61

  • 4.1          Types    61
  • 4.2          Production capacities     62
  • 4.3          Bio-based adipic acid      63
  • 4.4          11-Aminoundecanoic acid (11-AA)            63
  • 4.5          1,4-Butanediol (1,4-BDO)              63
  • 4.6          Dodecanedioic acid (DDDA)         64
  • 4.7          Epichlorohydrin (ECH)    65
  • 4.8          Ethylene              66
  • 4.9          Furfural 67
  • 4.10        5-Chloromethylfurfural (5-CMF) 68
  • 4.11        2,5-Furandicarboxylic acid (2,5-FDCA)     68
  • 4.12        Furandicarboxylic methyl ester (FDME)  68
  • 4.13        Isosorbide           69
  • 4.14        Itaconic acid       69
  • 4.15        3-Hydroxypropionic acid (3-HP) 69
  • 4.16        5 Hydroxymethyl furfural (HMF) 70
  • 4.17        Lactic acid (D-LA)             70
  • 4.18        Lactic acid – L-lactic acid (L-LA)   70
  • 4.19        Lactide  71
  • 4.20        Levoglucosenone             72
  • 4.21        Levulinic acid      72
  • 4.22        Monoethylene glycol (MEG)       73
  • 4.23        Monopropylene glycol (MPG)    74
  • 4.24        Muconic acid      75
  • 4.25        Naphtha              76
  • 4.26        Pentamethylene diisocyanate    76
  • 4.27        1,3-Propanediol (1,3-PDO)           77
  • 4.28        Sebacic acid        78
  • 4.29        Succinic acid (SA)             78

 

5              BIOPOLYMERS AND BIOPLASTICS              80

  • 5.1          Bio-based or renewable plastics 80
    • 5.1.1      Drop-in bio-based plastics            80
    • 5.1.2      Novel bio-based plastics                81
  • 5.2          Biodegradable and compostable plastics                82
    • 5.2.1      Biodegradability               82
    • 5.2.2      Compostability  83
  • 5.3          Advantages and disadvantages  83
  • 5.4          Types of Bio-based and/or Biodegradable Plastics              84
  • 5.5          Market leaders by biobased and/or biodegradable plastic types  86
  • 5.6          SYNTHETIC BIO-BASED POLYMERS            87
    • 5.6.1      Polylactic acid (Bio-PLA) 87
      • 5.6.1.1   Market analysis 87
      • 5.6.1.2   Producers           89
    • 5.6.2      Polyethylene terephthalate (Bio-PET)     91
      • 5.6.2.1   Market analysis 91
      • 5.6.2.2   Producers           92
    • 5.6.3      Polytrimethylene terephthalate (Bio-PTT)             92
      • 5.6.3.1   Market analysis 92
      • 5.6.3.2   Producers           93
    • 5.6.4      Polyethylene furanoate (Bio-PEF)             93
      • 5.6.4.1   Market analysis 94
      • 5.6.4.2   Comparative properties to PET   95
      • 5.6.4.3   Producers           95
    • 5.6.5      Polyamides (Bio-PA)       96
      • 5.6.5.1   Market analysis 96
      • 5.6.5.2   Producers           97
    • 5.6.6      Poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (Bio-PBAT)        98
      • 5.6.6.1   Market analysis 98
      • 5.6.6.2   Producers           99
    • 5.6.7      Polybutylene succinate (PBS) and copolymers     99
      • 5.6.7.1   Market analysis 100
      • 5.6.7.2   Producers           100
    • 5.6.8      Polyethylene (Bio-PE)    101
      • 5.6.8.1   Market analysis 101
      • 5.6.8.2   Producers           102
    • 5.6.9      Polypropylene (Bio-PP) 102
      • 5.6.9.1   Market analysis 102
      • 5.6.9.2   Producers           102
  • 5.7          NATURAL BIO-BASED POLYMERS               104
    • 5.7.1      Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA)     104
      • 5.7.1.1   Types    106
      • 5.7.1.2   Synthesis and production processes        110
      • 5.7.1.3   Market analysis 113
      • 5.7.1.4   Commercially available PHAs      114
      • 5.7.1.5   Markets for PHAs             115
      • 5.7.1.6   Producers           120
    • 5.7.2      Polysaccharides 121
      • 5.7.2.1   Microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) 121
      • 5.7.2.2   Cellulose nanocrystals    122
      • 5.7.2.3   Cellulose nanofibers       124
    • 5.7.3      Protein-based bioplastics             127
      • 5.7.3.1   Types, applications and producers            127
    • 5.7.4      Algal and fungal 129
      • 5.7.4.1   Algal      129
      • 5.7.4.2   Mycelium            132
    • 5.7.5      Chitosan              135
  • 5.8          PRODUCTION OF BIOBASED AND SUSTAINABLE PLASTICS, BY REGION      135
    • 5.8.1      North America   137
    • 5.8.2      Europe 137
    • 5.8.3      Asia-Pacific         138
    • 5.8.3.1   China     138
    • 5.8.3.2   Japan    138
    • 5.8.3.3   Thailand               138
    • 5.8.3.4   Indonesia            138
    • 5.8.4      Latin America    139
  • 5.9          MARKET SEGMENTATION OF BIOPLASTICS           140
    • 5.9.1      Packaging            142
    • 5.9.2      Consumer products        143
    • 5.9.3      Automotive        144
    • 5.9.4      Building & construction 145
    • 5.9.5      Textiles 146
    • 5.9.6      Electronics          147
    • 5.9.7      Agriculture and horticulture        148
  • 5.10        BIO-BASED CHEMICALS, BIOPOLYMERS AND BIOPLASTICS COMPANY PROFILES     150 (311 company profiles)

 

6              NATURAL FIBERS              387

  • 6.1          Manufacturing method, matrix materials and applications of natural fibers            387
  • 6.2          Advantages of natural fibers       389
  • 6.3          Plants (cellulose, lignocellulose) 390
    • 6.3.1      Seed fibers         390
      • 6.3.1.1   Cotton  390
      • 6.3.1.2   Kapok   391
      • 6.3.1.3   Luffa      392
    • 6.3.2      Bast fibers           393
      • 6.3.2.1   Jute       394
      • 6.3.2.2   Hemp    395
      • 6.3.2.3   Flax        397
      • 6.3.2.4   Ramie   399
      • 6.3.2.5   Kenaf    400
    • 6.3.3      Leaf fibers           402
      • 6.3.3.1   Sisal       402
      • 6.3.3.2   Abaca    403
    • 6.3.4      Fruit fibers          405
      • 6.3.4.1   Coir        405
      • 6.3.4.2   Banana 406
      • 6.3.4.3   Pineapple            408
    • 6.3.5      Stalk fibers from agricultural residues     409
      • 6.3.5.1   Rice fiber             409
      • 6.3.5.2   Corn      409
    • 6.3.6      Cane, grasses and reed  410
      • 6.3.6.1   Switch grass       410
      • 6.3.6.2   Sugarcane (agricultural residues)              411
      • 6.3.6.3   Bamboo               411
      • 6.3.6.4   Fresh grass (green biorefinery)  413
    • 6.3.7      Modified natural polymers          413
      • 6.3.7.1   Mycelium            413
      • 6.3.7.2   Chitosan              415
      • 6.3.7.3   Alginate               416
  • 6.4          Animal (fibrous protein) 417
    • 6.4.1      Wool     417
      • 6.4.1.1   Alternative wool materials           418
      • 6.4.1.2   Producers           418
    • 6.4.2      Silk fiber              418
      • 6.4.2.1   Alternative silk materials               419
    • 6.4.3      Leather 420
      • 6.4.3.1   Alternative leather materials       420
    • 6.4.4      Down    421
      • 6.4.4.1   Alternative down materials          421
  • 6.5          MARKETS FOR NATURAL FIBERS 422
    • 6.5.1      Composites        422
    • 6.5.2      Applications       422
    • 6.5.3      Natural fiber injection moulding compounds       423
      • 6.5.3.1   Properties           424
      • 6.5.3.2   Applications       424
    • 6.5.4      Non-woven natural fiber mat composites              424
      • 6.5.4.1   Automotive        424
      • 6.5.4.2   Applications       425
    • 6.5.5      Aligned natural fiber-reinforced composites        425
    • 6.5.6      Natural fiber biobased polymer compounds         426
    • 6.5.7      Natural fiber biobased polymer non-woven mats              427
      • 6.5.7.1   Flax        427
      • 6.5.7.2   Kenaf    427
    • 6.5.8      Natural fiber thermoset bioresin composites       427
    • 6.5.9      Aerospace          428
      • 6.5.9.1   Market overview             428
    • 6.5.10    Automotive        428
      • 6.5.10.1                Market overview             428
      • 6.5.10.2                Applications of natural fibers      432
    • 6.5.11    Building/construction     433
      • 6.5.11.1                Market overview             433
      • 6.5.11.2                Applications of natural fibers      434
    • 6.5.12    Sports and leisure            435
      • 6.5.12.1                Market overview             435
    • 6.5.13    Textiles 435
      • 6.5.13.1                Market overview             435
      • 6.5.13.2                Consumer apparel           436
      • 6.5.13.3                Geotextiles        437
    • 6.5.14    Packaging            438
      • 6.5.14.1                Market overview             438
  • 6.6          NATURAL FIBERS GLOBAL PRODUCTION 440
    • 6.6.1      Overall global fibers market        440
    • 6.6.2      Plant-based fiber production      442
    • 6.6.3      Animal-based natural fiber production   443
  • 6.7          NATURAL FIBER COMPANY PROFILES      444 (136 company profiles)

 

7              LIGNIN 586

  • 7.1          INTRODUCTION 586
    • 7.1.1      What is lignin?   586
      • 7.1.1.1   Lignin structure 587
    • 7.1.2      Types of lignin    588
      • 7.1.2.1   Sulfur containing lignin  590
      • 7.1.2.2   Sulfur-free lignin from biorefinery process            590
    • 7.1.3      Properties           591
    • 7.1.4      The lignocellulose biorefinery     593
    • 7.1.5      Markets and applications              594
    • 7.1.6      Challenges for using lignin            595
  • 7.2          LIGNIN PRODUCTON PROCESSES              595
    • 7.2.1      Lignosulphonates            597
    • 7.2.2      Kraft Lignin          598
      • 7.2.2.1   LignoBoost process         598
      • 7.2.2.2   LignoForce method         599
      • 7.2.2.3   Sequential Liquid Lignin Recovery and Purification             600
      • 7.2.2.4   A-Recovery+      600
    • 7.2.3      Soda lignin          601
    • 7.2.4      Biorefinery lignin              602
      • 7.2.4.1   Commercial and pre-commercial biorefinery lignin production facilities and  processes    603
    • 7.2.5      Organosolv lignins            605
    • 7.2.6      Hydrolytic lignin                605
  • 7.3          MARKETS FOR LIGNIN    606
    • 7.3.1      Market drivers and trends for lignin         607
    • 7.3.2      Lignin industry developments 2020-2021               608
    • 7.3.3      Production capacities     609
      • 7.3.3.1   Technical lignin availability (dry ton/y)    609
      • 7.3.3.2   Biomass conversion (Biorefinery)             609
    • 7.3.4      Estimated consumption of lignin                610
    • 7.3.5      Prices    611
    • 7.3.6      Heat and power energy 612
    • 7.3.7      Pyrolysis and syngas       612
    • 7.3.8      Aromatic compounds     612
      • 7.3.8.1   Benzene, toluene and xylene      612
      • 7.3.8.2   Phenol and phenolic resins          613
      • 7.3.8.3   Vanillin 614
    • 7.3.9      Plastics and polymers     614
    • 7.3.10    Hydrogels            615
    • 7.3.11    Carbon materials              616
      • 7.3.11.1                Carbon black      616
      • 7.3.11.2                Activated carbons            616
      • 7.3.11.3                Carbon fiber       617
    • 7.3.12    Concrete             618
    • 7.3.13    Rubber 619
    • 7.3.14    Biofuels 619
    • 7.3.15    Bitumen and Asphalt      619
    • 7.3.16    Oil and gas          620
    • 7.3.17    Energy storage  621
      • 7.3.17.1                Supercapacitors 621
      • 7.3.17.2                Anodes for lithium-ion batteries 621
      • 7.3.17.3                Gel electrolytes for lithium-ion batteries                622
      • 7.3.17.4                Binders for lithium-ion batteries 622
      • 7.3.17.5                Cathodes for lithium-ion batteries            622
      • 7.3.17.6                Sodium-ion batteries      623
    • 7.3.18    Binders, emulsifiers and dispersants        623
    • 7.3.19    Chelating agents              625
    • 7.3.20    Ceramics              626
    • 7.3.21    Automotive interiors      626
    • 7.3.22    Fire retardants  626
    • 7.3.23    Antioxidants      627
    • 7.3.24    Lubricants           627
    • 7.3.25    Dust control       628
  • 7.4          COMPANY PROFILES       629 (71 company profiles)

 

8              BIOBASED AND RENEWABLE FUELS          698

  • 8.1          BIOFUELS            698
    • 8.1.1      The biofuels market        698
    • 8.1.2      Types    699
      • 8.1.2.1   Solid Biofuels     699
      • 8.1.2.2   Liquid Biofuels  699
      • 8.1.2.3   Gaseous Biofuels             700
      • 8.1.2.4   Conventional Biofuels    700
      • 8.1.2.5   Advanced Biofuels           700
    • 8.1.3      Feedstocks         701
      • 8.1.3.1   First-Generation Feedstocks       702
      • 8.1.3.2   Second-Generation Feedstocks 703
      • 8.1.3.3   Third-Generation Feedstocks     708
      • 8.1.3.4   Fourth-Generation Feedstocks  710
      • 8.1.3.5   Market demand               712
    • 8.1.4      Bioethanol          713
      • 8.1.5      Bio-jet (bio-aviation) fuels            715
      • 8.1.5.1   Description         715
      • 8.1.5.2   Global market   715
      • 8.1.5.3   Production pathways     716
      • 8.1.5.4   Costs     718
      • 8.1.5.5   Biojet fuel production capacities                719
      • 8.1.5.6   Challenges          719
    • 8.1.6      Biomass-based diesel     720
      • 8.1.6.1   Biodiesel              720
      • 8.1.6.2   Renewable diesel            723
    • 8.1.7      Syngas  725
    • 8.1.8      Biogas and biomethane 726
      • 8.1.8.1   Feedstocks         728
    • 8.1.9      Biobutanol          729
      • 8.1.9.1   Production          730
  • 8.2          ELECTROFUELS (E-FUELS)             731
    • 8.2.1      Introduction       731
      • 8.2.1.1   Benefits of e-fuels           733
    • 8.2.2      Feedstocks         734
      • 8.2.2.1   Hydrogen electrolysis     734
      • 8.2.2.2   CO2 capture       735
    • 8.2.3      Production          735
    • 8.2.4      Electrolysers      737
      • 8.2.4.1   Commercial alkaline electrolyser cells (AECs)       739
      • 8.2.4.2   PEM electrolysers (PEMEC)         739
      • 8.2.4.3   High-temperature solid oxide electrolyser cells (SOECs)  739
    • 8.2.5      Direct Air Capture (DAC)               739
      • 8.2.5.1   Technologies     740
      • 8.2.5.2   Markets for DAC               742
      • 8.2.5.3   Costs     742
      • 8.2.5.4   Challenges          743
      • 8.2.5.5   Companies and production          744
      • 8.2.5.6   CO2 capture from point sources 745
    • 8.2.6      Costs     746
    • 8.2.7      Market challenges           749
    • 8.2.8      Companies         749
  • 8.3          GREEN AMMONIA           751
    • 8.3.1      Production          751
      • 8.3.1.1   Decarbonisation of ammonia production               753
      • 8.3.1.2   Green ammonia projects              754
    • 8.3.2      Green ammonia synthesis methods         754
      • 8.3.2.1   Haber-Bosch process      754
      • 8.3.2.2   Biological nitrogen fixation          755
      • 8.3.2.3   Electrochemical production         756
      • 8.3.2.4   Chemical looping processes        756
    • 8.3.3      Blue ammonia   756
      • 8.3.3.1   Blue ammonia projects  756
    • 8.3.4      Markets and applications              757
      • 8.3.4.1   Chemical energy storage              757
      • 8.3.4.2   Marine fuel         758
    • 8.3.5      Costs     760
    • 8.3.6      Estimated market demand           761
    • 8.3.7      Companies and projects 762
  • 8.4          COMPANY PROFILES       764 (114 company profiles)

 

9              REFERENCES       854

 

List of Tables

  • Table 1. Market drivers and trends in biobased and sustainable plastics.  42
  • Table 2. Global production capacities of biobased and sustainable plastics 2018-2030, in 1,000 tons.          43
  • Table 3. Global production capacities, by producers.        45
  • Table 4. Global production capacities of biobased and sustainable plastics 2019-2030, by type, in 1,000 tons.        46
  • Table 5. Global production capacities of biobased and sustainable plastics 2019-2025, by region, tons.      50
  • Table 6. Issues related to the use of plastics.        60
  • Table 7. List of Bio-based chemicals.        61
  • Table 8. Biobased MEG producers capacities.       73
  • Table 9. Type of biodegradation.               83
  • Table 10. Advantages and disadvantages of biobased plastics compared to conventional plastics. 83
  • Table 11. Types of Bio-based and/or Biodegradable Plastics, applications.               84
  • Table 12. Market leader by Bio-based and/or Biodegradable Plastic types.             86
  • Table 13. Polylactic acid (PLA) market analysis.    87
  • Table 14. Lactic acid producers and production capacities.             89
  • Table 15. PLA producers and production capacities.          89
  • Table 16. Planned PLA capacity expansions in China.         90
  • Table 17. Bio-based Polyethylene terephthalate (Bio-PET) market analysis.            91
  • Table 18. Bio-based Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) producers.              92
  • Table 19. Polytrimethylene terephthalate (PTT) market analysis. 92
  • Table 20. Production capacities of Polytrimethylene terephthalate (PTT), by leading producers.   93
  • Table 21. Polyethylene furanoate (PEF) market analysis. 94
  • Table 22. PEF vs. PET.     95
  • Table 23. FDCA and PEF producers.          95
  • Table 24. Bio-based polyamides (Bio-PA) market analysis.              96
  • Table 25. Leading Bio-PA producers production capacities.            97
  • Table 26. Poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (PBAT) market analysis.            98
  • Table 27. Leading PBAT producers, production capacities and brands.      99
  • Table 28. Bio-PBS market analysis.            100
  • Table 29. Leading PBS producers and production capacities.          100
  • Table 30. Bio-based Polyethylene (Bio-PE) market analysis.           101
  • Table 31. Leading Bio-PE producers.        102
  • Table 32. Bio-PP market analysis.              102
  • Table 33. Leading Bio-PP producers and capacities.           102
  • Table 34.Types of PHAs and properties. 107
  • Table 35. Comparison of the physical properties of different PHAs with conventional petroleum-based polymers. 109
  • Table 36. Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) extraction methods.          111
  • Table 37. Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) market analysis. 113
  • Table 38. Commercially available PHAs.  114
  • Table 39. Markets and applications for PHAs.       115
  • Table 40. Applications, advantages and disadvantages of PHAs in packaging.         117
  • Table 41. Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) producers.           120
  • Table 42. Microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) market analysis.            121
  • Table 43. Leading MFC producers and capacities.               122
  • Table 44. Cellulose nanocrystals analysis.               122
  • Table 45: Cellulose nanocrystal production capacities and production process, by producer.          124
  • Table 46. Cellulose nanofibers market analysis.   124
  • Table 47. CNF production capacities (by type, wet or dry) and production process, by producer, metric tonnes.    126
  • Table 48. Types of protein based-bioplastics, applications and companies.             127
  • Table 49. Types of algal and fungal based-bioplastics, applications and companies.             129
  • Table 50. Overview of alginate-description, properties, application and market size.          129
  • Table 51. Companies developing algal-based bioplastics. 131
  • Table 52. Overview of mycelium fibers-description, properties, drawbacks and applications.          132
  • Table 53. Companies developing mycelium-based bioplastics.      134
  • Table 54. Overview of chitosan-description, properties, drawbacks and applications.         135
  • Table 55. Global production capacities of biobased and sustainable plastics in 2019-2025, by region, tons.              135
  • Table 56. Biobased and sustainable plastics producers in North America. 137
  • Table 57. Biobased and sustainable plastics producers in Europe.               137
  • Table 58. Biobased and sustainable plastics producers in Asia-Pacific.       138
  • Table 59. Biobased and sustainable plastics producers in Latin America.  139
  • Table 60. Granbio Nanocellulose Processes.         244
  • Table 61. Lactips plastic pellets. 273
  • Table 62. Oji Holdings CNF products.       319
  • Table 63. Application, manufacturing method, and matrix materials of natural fibers.        388
  • Table 64. Typical properties of natural fibers.      389
  • Table 65. Overview of cotton fibers-description, properties, drawbacks and applications. 390
  • Table 66. Overview of kapok fibers-description, properties, drawbacks and applications. 391
  • Table 67. Overview of luffa fibers-description, properties, drawbacks and applications.    392
  • Table 68. Overview of jute fibers-description, properties, drawbacks and applications.     394
  • Table 69. Overview of hemp fibers-description, properties, drawbacks and applications.  395
  • Table 70. Overview of flax fibers-description, properties, drawbacks and applications.      397
  • Table 71. Overview of ramie fibers- description, properties, drawbacks and applications. 399
  • Table 72. Overview of kenaf fibers-description, properties, drawbacks and applications.  400
  • Table 73. Overview of sisal leaf fibers-description, properties, drawbacks and applications.            402
  • Table 74. Overview of abaca fibers-description, properties, drawbacks and applications.  403
  • Table 75. Overview of coir fibers-description, properties, drawbacks and applications.      405
  • Table 76. Overview of banana fibers-description, properties, drawbacks and applications.               406
  • Table 77. Overview of pineapple fibers-description, properties, drawbacks and applications.         408
  • Table 78. Overview of rice fibers-description, properties, drawbacks and applications.      409
  • Table 79. Overview of corn fibers-description, properties, drawbacks and applications.    409
  • Table 80. Overview of switch grass fibers-description, properties and applications.             410
  • Table 81. Overview of sugarcane fibers-description, properties, drawbacks and application and market size.           411
  • Table 82. Overview of bamboo fibers-description, properties, drawbacks and applications.             411
  • Table 83. Overview of mycelium fibers-description, properties, drawbacks and applications.          414
  • Table 84. Overview of chitosan fibers-description, properties, drawbacks and applications.            415
  • Table 85. Overview of alginate-description, properties, application and market size.          416
  • Table 86. Overview of wool fibers-description, properties, drawbacks and applications.   417
  • Table 87. Alternative wool materials producers. 418
  • Table 88. Overview of silk fibers-description, properties, application and market size.       418
  • Table 89. Alternative silk materials producers.    419
  • Table 90. Alternative leather materials producers.            420
  • Table 91. Alternative down materials producers. 421
  • Table 92. Applications of natural fiber composites.           422
  • Table 93. Typical properties of short natural fiber-thermoplastic composites.       424
  • Table 94. Properties of non-woven natural fiber mat composites.               425
  • Table 95. Properties of aligned natural fiber composites. 425
  • Table 96. Properties of natural fiber-bio-based polymer compounds.       426
  • Table 97. Properties of natural fiber-bio-based polymer non-woven mats.             427
  • Table 98. Natural fibers in the aerospace sector-market drivers, applications and challenges for NF use.   428
  • Table 99. Natural fiber-reinforced polymer composite in the automotive market. 430
  • Table 100. Natural fibers in the aerospace sector- market drivers, applications and challenges for NF use. 431
  • Table 101. Applications of natural fibers in the automotive industry.         432
  • Table 102. Natural fibers in the building/construction sector- market drivers, applications and challenges for NF use.                433
  • Table 103. Applications of natural fibers in the building/construction sector.         434
  • Table 104. Natural fibers in the sports and leisure sector-market drivers, applications and challenges for NF use.  435
  • Table 105. Natural fibers in the textiles sector- market drivers, applications and challenges for NF use.     435
  • Table 106. Natural fibers in the packaging sector-market drivers, applications and challenges for NF use. 438
  • Table 107. Oji Holdings CNF products.     545
  • Table 108. Technical lignin types and applications.             588
  • Table 109. Classification of technical lignins.         590
  • Table 110. Lignin content of selected biomass.   591
  • Table 111. Properties of lignins and their applications.     592
  • Table 112. Example markets and applications for lignin.  594
  • Table 113. Processes for lignin production.           596
  • Table 114. Biorefinery feedstocks.           602
  • Table 115. Comparison of pulping and biorefinery lignins.              602
  • Table 116. Commercial and pre-commercial biorefinery lignin production facilities and  processes              603
  • Table 117. Market drivers and trends for lignin.  607
  • Table 118. Lignin industry developments 2020-2021.        608
  • Table 119. Production capacities of technical lignin producers.    609
  • Table 120. Production capacities of biorefinery lignin producers. 609
  • Table 121. Estimated consumption of lignin, 2019-2031 (000 MT).             610
  • Table 122. Prices of benzene, toluene, xylene and their derivatives.          612
  • Table 123. Application of lignin in plastics and polymers. 614
  • Table 124. Lignin-derived anodes in lithium batteries.     621
  • Table 125. Application of lignin in binders, emulsifiers and dispersants.   623
  • Table 126. Categories and examples of solid biofuel.        699
  • Table 127. Comparison of biofuels and e-fuels to fossil and electricity.      700
  • Table 128. Biorefinery feedstocks.           701
  • Table 129. Feedstock conversion pathways.         702
  • Table 130. First-Generation Feedstocks. 702
  • Table 131.  Lignocellulosic ethanol plants and capacities.                703
  • Table 132. Comparison of pulping and biorefinery lignins.              704
  • Table 133. Commercial and pre-commercial biorefinery lignin production facilities and  processes              705
  • Table 134. Operating and planned lignocellulosic biorefineries and industrial flue gas-to-ethanol. 707
  • Table 135. Properties of microalgae and macroalgae.       709
  • Table 136. Yield of algae and other biodiesel crops.           709
  • Table 137. Advantages and disadvantages of biofuels, by generation.       710
  • Table 138. Advantages and disadvantages of biojet fuel  715
  • Table 139. Production pathways for bio-jet fuel. 716
  • Table 140. Current and announced biojet fuel facilities and capacities.     719
  • Table 141, Biodiesel production techniques.        720
  • Table 142. Biodiesel by generation.         721
  • Table 143. Biogas feedstocks.     728
  • Table 144. Applications of e-fuels, by type.           732
  • Table 145. Overview of e-fuels. 733
  • Table 146. Benefits of e-fuels.    733
  • Table 147. Main characteristics of different electrolyzer technologies.     738
  • Table 148. Advantages and disadvantages of DAC.             740
  • Table 149. DAC companies and technologies.      741
  • Table 150. Markets for DAC.        742
  • Table 151. Cost estimates of DAC.             742
  • Table 152. Challenges for DAC technology.           743
  • Table 153. DAC technology developers and production.  744
  • Table 154. Market challenges for e-fuels.              749
  • Table 155. E-fuels companies.    749
  • Table 156. Green ammonia projects (current and planned).          754
  • Table 157. Blue ammonia projects.          756
  • Table 158. Ammonia fuel cell technologies.          757
  • Table 159. Market overview of green ammonia in marine fuel.    758
  • Table 160. Summary of marine alternative fuels. 759
  • Table 161. Estimated costs for different types of ammonia.           760
  • Table 162. Main players in green ammonia.          762
  • Table 163. Granbio Nanocellulose Processes.      802
  •  

List of Figures

  • Figure 1. Total global production capacities for biobased and sustainable plastics, all types, 000 tons.        42
  • Figure 2. Global production capacities of bioplastics 2018-2030, in 1,000 tons by biodegradable/non-biodegradable types.   44
  • Figure 3. Global production capacities of biobased and sustainable plastics in 2019-2030, by type, in 1,000 tons.  48
  • Figure 4. Global production capacities of bioplastics in 2019-2025, by type.           48
  • Figure 5. Global production capacities of bioplastics in 2030, by type.       49
  • Figure 6. Global production capacities of biobased and sustainable plastics 2020. 50
  • Figure 7. Global production capacities of biobased and sustainable plastics 2025. 51
  • Figure 8. Current and future applications of biobased and sustainable plastics.     52
  • Figure 9. Global demand for biobased and sustainable plastics by end user market, 2020.                53
  • Figure 10. Global production capacities for biobased and sustainable plastics by end user market 2019-2030, tons.                55
  • Figure 11. Challenges for the biobased and sustainable plastics market.   55
  • Figure 12. Global plastics production 1950-2018, millions of tons.              59
  • Figure 13. Bio-based chemicals production capacities, 2018-2025.               63
  • Figure 14. 1,4-Butanediol (BDO) production capacities, 2018-2025 (tonnes).         64
  • Figure 15. Dodecanedioic acid (DDDA) production capacities, 2018-2025 (tonnes).             65
  • Figure 16. Epichlorohydrin production capacities, 2018-2025 (tonnes).    66
  • Figure 17. Ethylene production capacities, 2018-2025 (tonnes).  67
  • Figure 18. L-lactic acid (L-LA) production capacities, 2018-2025 (tonnes). 71
  • Figure 19. Lactide production capacities, 2018-2025 (tonnes).     72
  • Figure 20. Bio-MEG producers capacities.              74
  • Figure 21. Bio-MPG production capacities, 2018-2025.      75
  • Figure 22. Naphtha production capacities, 2018-2025 (tonnes).  76
  • Figure 23. 1,3-Propanediol (1,3-PDO) production capacities, 2018-2025 (tonnes). 77
  • Figure 24. Sebacic acid production capacities, 2018-2025 (tonnes).           78
  • Figure 25.  Coca-Cola PlantBottle®.           81
  • Figure 26. Interrelationship between conventional, bio-based and biodegradable plastics.              81
  • Figure 27. Production capacities of Polyethylene furanoate (PEF) to 2025.               96
  • Figure 28. PHA family.    107
  • Figure 29. BLOOM masterbatch from Algix.           130
  • Figure 30. Typical structure of mycelium-based foam.     133
  • Figure 31. Commercial mycelium composite construction materials.          134
  • Figure 32. Global production capacities of biobased and sustainable plastics 2020.              136
  • Figure 33. Global production capacities of biobased and sustainable plastics 2025.              136
  • Figure 34. Global production capacities for biobased and sustainable plastics by end user market 2019, 1,000 tons.                140
  • Figure 35. Global production capacities for biobased and sustainable plastics by end user market 2020, 1,000 tons.                141
  • Figure 36. Global production capacities for biobased and sustainable plastics by end user market 2030      142
  • Figure 37. PHA bioplastics products.        142
  • Figure 38. Global production capacities for biobased and sustainable plastics in packaging 2019-2030, in 1,000 tons.                143
  • Figure 39. Global production capacities for biobased and sustainable plastics in consumer products 2019-2030, in 1,000 tons.         144
  • Figure 40. Global production capacities for biobased and sustainable plastics in automotive 2019-2030, in 1,000 tons.                145
  • Figure 41. Global production capacities for biobased and sustainable plastics in building and construction 2019-2030, in 1,000 tons.     146
  • Figure 42. Global production capacities for biobased and sustainable plastics in textiles 2019-2030, in 1,000 tons.                147
  • Figure 43. Global production capacities for biobased and sustainable plastics in electronics 2019-2030, in 1,000 tons.                148
  • Figure 44. Biodegradable mulch films.     149
  • Figure 45. Global production capacities for biobased and sustainable plastics in agriculture 2019-2030, in 1,000 tons.                149
  • Figure 46. Algiknit yarn. 154
  • Figure 47. Bio-PA rear bumper stay.         170
  • Figure 48. formicobio™ technology.         200
  • Figure 49. nanoforest-S. 203
  • Figure 50. nanoforest-PDP.         203
  • Figure 51. nanoforest-MB.           204
  • Figure 52. CuanSave film.             209
  • Figure 53. ELLEX products.           212
  • Figure 54. CNF-reinforced PP compounds.            212
  • Figure 55. Kirekira! toilet wipes. 213
  • Figure 56. Mushroom leather.    224
  • Figure 57. Cellulose Nanofiber (CNF) composite with polyethylene (PE).  237
  • Figure 58. PHA production process.         239
  • Figure 59. Cutlery samples (spoon, knife, fork) made of nano cellulose and biodegradable plastic composite materials.                247
  • Figure 60. Non-aqueous CNF dispersion "Senaf" (Photo shows 5% of plasticizer). 249
  • Figure 61. CNF gel.           255
  • Figure 62. Block nanocellulose material. 256
  • Figure 63. CNF products developed by Hokuetsu.              256
  • Figure 64. Made of Air's HexChar panels.               283
  • Figure 65. IPA synthesis method.              290
  • Figure 66. MOGU-Wave panels. 292
  • Figure 67. Reishi.              296
  • Figure 68. Nippon Paper Industries’ adult diapers.             309
  • Figure 69. Compostable water pod.         311
  • Figure 70. CNF clear sheets.        319
  • Figure 71. Oji Holdings CNF polycarbonate product.          320
  • Figure 72. Manufacturing process for STARCEL.   341
  • Figure 73. Lyocell process.           351
  • Figure 74. Spider silk production.              355
  • Figure 75. Sulapac cosmetics containers.               358
  • Figure 76.  Sulzer equipment for PLA polymerization processing. 359
  • Figure 77. Teijin bioplastic film for door handles.               365
  • Figure 78. Corbion FDCA production process.      372
  • Figure 79. Visolis’ Hybrid Bio-Thermocatalytic Process.    379
  • Figure 80. Types of natural fibers.             387
  • Figure 81. Cotton production volume 2018-2030 (Million MT).     391
  • Figure 82. Kapok production volume 2018-2030 (MT).     392
  • Figure 83.  Luffa cylindrica fiber. 393
  • Figure 84. Jute production volume 2018-2030 (Million MT).          395
  • Figure 85. Hemp fiber production volume 2018-2030 (Million MT).            397
  • Figure 86. Flax fiber production volume 2018-2030 (MT).               398
  • Figure 87. Ramie fiber production volume 2018-2030 (MT).          400
  • Figure 88. Kenaf fiber production volume 2018-2030 (MT).           401
  • Figure 89. Sisal fiber production volume 2018-2030 (MT).              403
  • Figure 90. Abaca fiber production volume 2018-2030 (MT).          404
  • Figure 91. Coir fiber production volume 2018-2030 (MILLION MT).            406
  • Figure 92. Banana fiber production volume 2018-2030 (MT).        407
  • Figure 93. Pineapple fiber.           408
  • Figure 94. Bamboo fiber production volume 2018-2030 (MILLION MT).    413
  • Figure 95. Typical structure of mycelium-based foam.     413
  • Figure 96. Commercial mycelium composite construction materials.          414
  • Figure 97. BLOOM masterbatch from Algix.           417
  • Figure 98. Hemp fibers combined with PP in car door panel.         427
  • Figure 99. Car door produced from Hemp fiber.  429
  • Figure 100. Mercedes-Benz components containing natural fibers.            429
  • Figure 101. AlgiKicks sneaker, made with the Algiknit biopolymer gel.       437
  • Figure 102. Coir mats for erosion control.              437
  • Figure 103. Global fiber production in 2019, by fiber type, million MT and %.        440
  • Figure 104. Global fiber production (million MT) to 2020-2030.     441
  • Figure 105. Plant-based fiber production 2018-2030, by fiber type, MT.   442
  • Figure 106. Animal based fiber production 2018-2030, by fiber type, million MT. 443
  • Figure 107. Pluumo.        446
  • Figure 108. Algiknit yarn.              449
  • Figure 109. Amadou leather shoes.          450
  • Figure 110. Anpoly cellulose nanofiber hydrogel.               453
  • Figure 111. MEDICELLU™.            453
  • Figure 112. Asahi Kasei CNF fabric sheet.               455
  • Figure 113. Properties of Asahi Kasei cellulose nanofiber nonwoven fabric.            456
  • Figure 114. CNF nonwoven fabric.            457
  • Figure 115. Roof frame made of natural fiber.     460
  • Figure 116. Beyond Leather Materials product.   463
  • Figure 117. Natural fibres racing seat.     466
  • Figure 118. Cellugy materials.     472
  • Figure 119. nanoforest-S.             475
  • Figure 120. nanoforest-PDP.       475
  • Figure 121. nanoforest-MB.        476
  • Figure 122. Celish.           478
  • Figure 123. Trunk lid incorporating CNF. 479
  • Figure 124. ELLEX products.         480
  • Figure 125. CNF-reinforced PP compounds.          481
  • Figure 126. Kirekira! toilet wipes.              481
  • Figure 127. Color CNF.   482
  • Figure 128. Rheocrysta spray.     485
  • Figure 129. DKS CNF products.   486
  • Figure 130. Mushroom leather. 489
  • Figure 131. CNF based on citrus peel.      490
  • Figure 132. Citrus cellulose nanofiber.    491
  • Figure 133. Filler Bank CNC products.      494
  • Figure 134. Fibers on kapok tree and after processing.     495
  • Figure 135. Cellulose Nanofiber (CNF) composite with polyethylene (PE). 497
  • Figure 136. CNF products from Furukawa Electric.              498
  • Figure 137. Cutlery samples (spoon, knife, fork) made of nano cellulose and biodegradable plastic composite materials.            502
  • Figure 138. Non-aqueous CNF dispersion "Senaf" (Photo shows 5% of plasticizer).              503
  • Figure 139. CNF gel.        506
  • Figure 140. Block nanocellulose material.              507
  • Figure 141. CNF products developed by Hokuetsu.            507
  • Figure 142. Marine leather products.      508
  • Figure 143. Dual Graft System.   511
  • Figure 144. Engine cover utilizing Kao CNF composite resins.        512
  • Figure 145. Acrylic resin blended with modified CNF (fluid) and its molded product (transparent film), and image obtained with AFM (CNF 10wt% blended).           513
  • Figure 146. Kami Shoji CNF products.      514
  • Figure 147. 0.3% aqueous dispersion of sulfated esterified CNF and dried transparent film (front side).     516
  • Figure 148. BioFlex process.        521
  • Figure 149. Chitin nanofiber product.      525
  • Figure 150. Marusumi Paper cellulose nanofiber products.            526
  • Figure 151. FibriMa cellulose nanofiber powder. 527
  • Figure 152. Cellulomix production process.           528
  • Figure 153. Nanobase versus conventional products.       529
  • Figure 154. MOGU-Wave panels.              532
  • Figure 155. CNF slurries.                533
  • Figure 156. Range of CNF products.          533
  • Figure 157. Reishi.           535
  • Figure 158. Nippon Paper Industries’ adult diapers.          541
  • Figure 159. Leather made from leaves.   542
  • Figure 160. Nike shoe with beLEAF™.      543
  • Figure 161. CNF clear sheets.      545
  • Figure 162. Oji Holdings CNF polycarbonate product.       547
  • Figure 163. XCNF.            552
  • Figure 164. CNF insulation flat plates.     554
  • Figure 165. Manufacturing process for STARCEL. 557
  • Figure 166. Lyocell process.         559
  • Figure 167. North Face Spiber Moon Parka.          561
  • Figure 168. Spider silk production.            562
  • Figure 169. 2 wt.% CNF suspension.       564
  • Figure 170. BiNFi-s Dry Powder. 565
  • Figure 171. BiNFi-s Dry Powder and Propylene (PP) Complex Pellet.          565
  • Figure 172. Silk nanofiber (right) and cocoon of raw material.       566
  • Figure 173. Sulapac cosmetics containers.             568
  • Figure 174. Comparison of weight reduction effect using CNF.     572
  • Figure 175. CNF resin products. 575
  • Figure 176. Vegea production process.   577
  • Figure 177. HefCel-coated wood (left) and untreated wood (right) after 30 seconds flame test.     579
  • Figure 178. Bio-based barrier bags prepared from Tempo-CNF coated bio-HDPE film.        580
  • Figure 179. Worn Again products.             581
  • Figure 180. Zelfo Technology GmbH CNF production process.       584
  • Figure 181. High purity lignin.     587
  • Figure 182. Lignocellulose architecture. 587
  • Figure 183. Extraction processes to separate lignin from lignocellulosic biomass and corresponding technical lignins.                588
  • Figure 184. The lignocellulose biorefinery.            594
  • Figure 185. LignoBoost process. 599
  • Figure 186. LignoForce system for lignin recovery from black liquor.          600
  • Figure 187. Sequential liquid-lignin recovery and purification (SLPR) system.         600
  • Figure 188. A-Recovery+ chemical recovery concept.       601
  • Figure 189.  Schematic of a biorefinery for production of carriers and chemicals. 603
  • Figure 190. Organosolv lignin.     605
  • Figure 191. Hydrolytic lignin powder.      606
  • Figure 192. Estimated consumption of lignin, 2019-2031 (000 MT).            611
  • Figure 193. Schematic of WISA plywood home.   614
  • Figure 194. Lignin based activated carbon.            616
  • Figure 195. Lignin/celluose precursor.     618
  • Figure 196. ANDRITZ Lignin Recovery process.    632
  • Figure 197. DAWN Technology Process. 635
  • Figure 198. BALI™ technology.   638
  • Figure 199. Pressurized Hot Water Extraction.     641
  • Figure 200. sunliquid® production process.           645
  • Figure 201. Domsjö process.       646
  • Figure 202.  TMP-Bio Process.    649
  • Figure 203. Flow chart of the lignocellulose biorefinery pilot plant in Leuna.          650
  • Figure 204. AVAPTM process.     655
  • Figure 205. GreenPower+™ process.       656
  • Figure 206. BioFlex process.        663
  • Figure 207. LX Process.  665
  • Figure 208. METNIN™ Lignin refining technology.              668
  • Figure 209. Enfinity cellulosic ethanol technology process.            674
  • Figure 210: Plantrose process.    679
  • Figure 211. Hansa lignin.               683
  • Figure 212. UPM biorefinery process.     692
  • Figure 213. The Proesa® Process.              694
  • Figure 214. Goldilocks process and applications. 695
  • Figure 215.  Schematic of a biorefinery for production of carriers and chemicals. 705
  • Figure 216. Hydrolytic lignin powder.      708
  • Figure 217. Liquid biofuel production and consumption (in thousands of m3), 2000-2021.                712
  • Figure 218. Distribution of global liquid biofuel production in 2021.            713
  • Figure 219. Ethanol consumption 2010-2027 (million litres).         714
  • Figure 220. Global bio-jet fuel consumption 2010-2027 (M litres/year).   716
  • Figure 221. Global biodiesel consumption, 2010-2027 (M litres/year).      723
  • Figure 222. Global renewable diesel consumption, 2010-2027 (M litres/year).      725
  • Figure 223. Total syngas market by product in MM Nm³/h of Syngas, 2021.             726
  • Figure 224. Biogas and biomethane pathways.   728
  • Figure 225. Properties of petrol and biobutanol. 729
  • Figure 226. Biobutanol production route.              730
  • Figure 227. Process steps in the production of electrofuels.          731
  • Figure 228. Mapping storage technologies according to performance characteristics.        732
  • Figure 229. Production process for green hydrogen.         735
  • Figure 230. E-liquids production routes. 736
  • Figure 231. Fischer-Tropsch liquid e-fuel products.            736
  • Figure 232. Resources required for liquid e-fuel production.         737
  • Figure 233. Schematic of Climeworks DAC system.            741
  • Figure 234. Levelized cost and fuel-switching CO2 prices of e-fuels.           747
  • Figure 235. Cost breakdown for e-fuels. 748
  • Figure 236. Classification and process technology according to carbon emission in ammonia production.  751
  • Figure 237. Green ammonia production and use.               753
  • Figure 238. Schematic of the Haber Bosch ammonia synthesis reaction.  755
  • Figure 239. Schematic of hydrogen production via steam methane reformation. 755
  • Figure 240. Estimated production cost of green ammonia.             761
  • Figure 241. Projected annual ammonia production, million tons. 762
  • Figure 242. ANDRITZ Lignin Recovery process.    767
  • Figure 243. FBPO process             778
  • Figure 244. Direct Air Capture Process.   781
  • Figure 245. CRI process. 782
  • Figure 246. Domsjö process.       789
  • Figure 247. FuelPositive system. 797
  • Figure 248. Infinitree swing method.       808
  • Figure 249. Enfinity cellulosic ethanol technology process.            827
  • Figure 250: Plantrose process.    832
  • Figure 251. The Velocys process.               846
  • Figure 252. Goldilocks process and applications. 849

 

 

The Global Biobased Chemicals and Materials Market Report 2022
The Global Biobased Chemicals and Materials Market Report 2022
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