The Global Market for Bio-based Chemicals, Polymers and Materials 2021

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Published August 2021 | 685 pages, 119 tables, 211 figures | Table of contents

Building new value chains through the utilisation of bio-based and biomass components for the development of innovative products will accelerate the transition from traditional production technologies to the concept of biorefineries. Developing bio-based chemicals, polymers and products in a sustainable manner allows for substantial new business opportunities. Bio-based chemicals are obtained through biological, chemical or physical transformation of plant or animal based feedstocks, which include sugar, starch, oils and fats, and lignocellulose from forestry, agricultural crops and organic waste.

The global opportunities offered by the transition to a more sustainable, low waste economy are vast, and the last decade has seen a substantial increase in interest in bio-based chemicals with many drop-in or novel bio-based chemicals being developed and introduced to the market.

New technologies and traditional methods coupled with biotechnologies applied to biomass feedstocks and waste streams from various sources, such as urban waste or agricultural residues or wastes from food and feed streams, will convert renewable resources into high added-value sustainable bioproducts.

Report contents include: 

  • In depth market analysis of bio-based chemical feedstocks, biopolymers, bioplastics, natural fibers and lignin. 
  • Global production capacities, market demand and trends 2019-2025
  • Analysis of biobased chemical including 11-Aminoundecanoic acid (11-AA), 1,4-Butanediol (1,4-BDO), Dodecanedioic acid (DDDA), Epichlorohydrin (ECH), Ethylene, Furan derivatives, 5-Chloromethylfurfural (5-CMF), 2,5-Furandicarboxylic acid (2,5-FDCA), Furandicarboxylic methyl ester (FDME), Isosorbide,  Itaconic acid, 5 Hydroxymethyl furfural (HMF), Lactic acid (D-LA), Lactic acid – L-lactic acid (L-LA), Lactide, Levoglucosenone, Levulinic acid, Monoethylene glycol (MEG), Monopropylene glycol (MPG), Muconic acid, Naphtha, 1,5-Pentametylenediamine (DN5), 1,3-Propanediol (1,3-PDO), Sebacic acid and Succinic acid.
  • Analysis of synthetic biopolymers market including Polylactic acid (Bio-PLA), Polyethylene terephthalate (Bio-PET), Polytrimethylene terephthalate (Bio-PTT), Polyethylene furanoate (Bio-PEF), Polyamides (Bio-PA), Poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (Bio-PBAT), Polybutylene succinate (PBS) and copolymers, Polyethylene (Bio-PE), Polypropylene (Bio-PP)
  • Analysis of naturally produced bio-based polymers including Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA), Polysaccharides, Microfibrillated cellulose (MFC), Cellulose nanocrystals, Cellulose nanofibers,  Protein-based bioplastics, Algal and fungal. 
  • Market segmentation analysis. 
  • Analysis of types of natural fibers including plant fibers, animal fibers including alternative leather, wool, silk fiber and down and polysaccharides. 
  • Markets for natural fibers, including composites, aerospace, automotive, construction & building, sports & leisure, textiles, consumer products and packaging.
  • Production capacities of lignin producers. 
  • In depth analysis of biorefinery lignin production. 
  • Profiles of over 500 companies. Companies profiled include NatureWorks, Total Corbion, Danimer Scientific, Novamont, Mitsubishi Chemicals, Indorama, Braskem, Avantium, Borealis, Cathay, Dupont, BASF, Arkema, DuPont, BASF ,  AMSilk GmbH, Notpla, Loliware, Bolt Threads, Ecovative, Kraig Biocraft Laboratories, Spiber, Bast Fiber Technologies Inc., Kelheim Fibres GmbH, BComp, Circular Systems, Evrnu, Natural Fiber Welding, Icytos, Versalis SpA, Clariant, MetGen Oy, Praj Industries Ltd., Bloom Biorenewables SA, FP Innovations, UPM, Klabin SA, RenCom AB and many more. 

 

 

 

 

1              EXECUTIVE SUMMARY   33

  • 1.1          Market trends   35
  • 1.2          Global production to 2030            35
  • 1.3          Main producers and global production capacities               37
    • 1.3.1      Producers           37
    • 1.3.2      By biobased and sustainable plastic type               39
    • 1.3.3      By region             43
  • 1.4          Global demand for biobased and sustainable plastics 2020, by market     45
  • 1.5          Impact of COVID-19 pandemic on the bioplastics market and future demand        48
  • 1.6          Challenges for the biobased and sustainable plastics market         48

 

2              RESEARCH METHODOLOGY         50

 

3              THE GLOBAL PLASTICS MARKET 51

  • 3.1          Global production            51
  • 3.2          The importance of plastic              51
  • 3.3          Issues with plastics use  52

 

4              BIO-BASED CHEMICALS 53

  • 4.1          Types    53
  • 4.2          Production capacities     54
  • 4.3          Bio-based adipic acid      55
  • 4.4          11-Aminoundecanoic acid (11-AA)            55
  • 4.5          1,4-Butanediol (1,4-BDO)              55
  • 4.6          Dodecanedioic acid (DDDA)         56
  • 4.7          Epichlorohydrin (ECH)    57
  • 4.8          Ethylene              58
  • 4.9          Furfural 59
  • 4.10        5-Chloromethylfurfural (5-CMF) 60
  • 4.11        2,5-Furandicarboxylic acid (2,5-FDCA)     60
  • 4.12        Furandicarboxylic methyl ester (FDME)  60
  • 4.13        Isosorbide           61
  • 4.14        Itaconic acid       61
  • 4.15        3-Hydroxypropionic acid (3-HP) 61
  • 4.16        5 Hydroxymethyl furfural (HMF) 62
  • 4.17        Lactic acid (D-LA)             62
  • 4.18        Lactic acid – L-lactic acid (L-LA)   62
  • 4.19        Lactide  63
  • 4.20        Levoglucosenone             64
  • 4.21        Levulinic acid      64
  • 4.22        Monoethylene glycol (MEG)       65
  • 4.23        Monopropylene glycol (MPG)    66
  • 4.24        Muconic acid      67
  • 4.25        Naphtha              67
  • 4.26        Pentamethylene diisocyanate    68
  • 4.27        1,3-Propanediol (1,3-PDO)           69
  • 4.28        Sebacic acid        69
  • 4.29        Succinic acid (SA)             70

 

5              BIOPOLYMERS AND BIOPLASTICS              71

  • 5.1          Bio-based or renewable plastics 71
    • 5.1.1      Drop-in bio-based plastics            71
    • 5.1.2      Novel bio-based plastics                72
  • 5.2          Biodegradable and compostable plastics                73
    • 5.2.1      Biodegradability               73
    • 5.2.2      Compostability  74
  • 5.3          Advantages and disadvantages  75
  • 5.4          Types of Bio-based and/or Biodegradable Plastics              75
  • 5.5          Market leaders by biobased and/or biodegradable plastic types  77
  • 5.6          SYNTHETIC BIO-BASED POLYMERS            78
    • 5.6.1      Polylactic acid (Bio-PLA) 79
      • 5.6.1.1   Market analysis 79
      • 5.6.1.2   Producers           80
    • 5.6.2      Polyethylene terephthalate (Bio-PET)     81
      • 5.6.2.1   Market analysis 81
      • 5.6.2.2   Producers           83
    • 5.6.3      Polytrimethylene terephthalate (Bio-PTT)             83
      • 5.6.3.1   Market analysis 83
      • 5.6.3.2   Producers           83
    • 5.6.4      Polyethylene furanoate (Bio-PEF)             84
      • 5.6.4.1   Market analysis 84
      • 5.6.4.2   Comparative properties to PET   85
      • 5.6.4.3   Producers           86
    • 5.6.5      Polyamides (Bio-PA)       87
      • 5.6.5.1   Market analysis 87
      • 5.6.5.2   Producers           88
    • 5.6.6      Poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (Bio-PBAT)        88
      • 5.6.6.1   Market analysis 88
      • 5.6.6.2   Producers           89
    • 5.6.7      Polybutylene succinate (PBS) and copolymers     90
      • 5.6.7.1   Market analysis 90
      • 5.6.7.2   Producers           91
    • 5.6.8      Polyethylene (Bio-PE)    91
      • 5.6.8.1   Market analysis 92
      • 5.6.8.2   Producers           92
    • 5.6.9      Polypropylene (Bio-PP) 92
      • 5.6.9.1   Market analysis 92
      • 5.6.9.2   Producers           93
  • 5.7          NATURAL BIO-BASED POLYMERS               93
    • 5.7.1      Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA)     94
      • 5.7.1.1   Market analysis 94
      • 5.7.1.2   Commercially available PHAs      95
      • 5.7.1.3   Producers           96
    • 5.7.2      Polysaccharides 97
      • 5.7.2.1   Microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) 98
      • 5.7.2.2   Cellulose nanocrystals    99
      • 5.7.2.3   Cellulose nanofibers       101
    • 5.7.3      Protein-based bioplastics             104
      • 5.7.3.1   Types, applications and producers            105
    • 5.7.4      Algal and fungal 106
      • 5.7.4.1   Algal      106
      • 5.7.4.2   Mycelium            109
    • 5.7.5      Chitosan              112
  • 5.8          PRODUCTION OF BIOBASED AND SUSTAINABLE PLASTICS, BY REGION      112
    • 5.8.1      North America   114
    • 5.8.2      Europe 114
    • 5.8.3      Asia-Pacific         115
      • 5.8.3.1   China     115
      • 5.8.3.2   Japan    115
      • 5.8.3.3   Thailand               115
      • 5.8.3.4   Indonesia            115
    • 5.8.4      Latin America    116
  • 5.9          MARKET SEGMENTATION OF BIOPLASTICS           117
    • 5.9.1      Packaging            120
    • 5.9.2      Consumer products        121
    • 5.9.3      Automotive        122
    • 5.9.4      Building & construction 123
    • 5.9.5      Textiles 124
    • 5.9.6      Electronics          125
    • 5.9.7      Agriculture and horticulture        126
  • 5.10        BIO-BASED CHEMCALS, BIOPOLYMERS AND BIOPLASTICS COMPANY PROFILES     128
    • 5.10.1    9Fiber, Inc.          128
    • 5.10.2    ADBioplastics     129
    • 5.10.3    Advanced Biochemical (Thailand) Co., Ltd.             129
    • 5.10.4    AGRANA Staerke GmbH 130
    • 5.10.5    Algix LLC               131
    • 5.10.6    AlgiKnit 132
    • 5.10.7    AMSilk GmbH    133
    • 5.10.8    An Phát Bioplastics          133
    • 5.10.9    Ankor Bioplastics Co., Ltd.            134
    • 5.10.10  Anellotech, Inc. 134
    • 5.10.11  Anqing He Xing Chemical Co., Ltd.             135
    • 5.10.12  Applied Bioplastics           136
    • 5.10.13  Aquafil S.p.A.     136
    • 5.10.14  Aquapak Polymers Ltd   137
    • 5.10.15  Archer Daniel Midland Company (ADM) 138
    • 5.10.16  Arctic Biomaterials Oy    139
    • 5.10.17  Arkema S.A         139
    • 5.10.18  Arlanxeo              140
    • 5.10.19  Arrow Greentech             141
    • 5.10.20  Attis Innovations, llc        142
    • 5.10.21  AVA Biochem AG              142
    • 5.10.22  Avantium B.V.   143
    • 5.10.23  Avani Eco             144
    • 5.10.24  Ayas Renewables Inc.     145
    • 5.10.25  Azolla    145
    • 5.10.26  BASF SE 146
    • 5.10.27  BBCA Biochemical & GALACTIC Lactic Acid Co., Ltd.           147
    • 5.10.28  Bcomp ltd.          148
    • 5.10.29  Bioextrax AB      149
    • 5.10.30  Bio Fab NZ           149
    • 5.10.31  Biofibre GmbH  150
    • 5.10.32  Biofine Technology, LLC 151
    • 5.10.33  BioLogiQ, Inc.     151
    • 5.10.34  Bio-on S.P.A.      152
    • 5.10.35  Bioextrax AB      153
    • 5.10.36  Biome Bioplastics             154
    • 5.10.37  BIOTEC GmbH & Co. KG 155
    • 5.10.38  Biofiber Tech Sweden AB              155
    • 5.10.39  Bioplastech Ltd 156
    • 5.10.40  Biotrem                156
    • 5.10.41  BlockTexx Pty Ltd.            157
    • 5.10.42  BluCon Biotech GmbH    158
    • 5.10.43  Blue BioFuels, Inc.            158
    • 5.10.44  Bluepha Beijing Lanjing Microbiology Technology Co., Ltd.             159
    • 5.10.45  Bolt Threads       160
    • 5.10.46  Borealis AG         160
    • 5.10.47  Borregaard Chemcell      161
    • 5.10.48  B-PREG 162
    • 5.10.49  Braskem SA        162
    • 5.10.50  Bio Fab NZ           164
    • 5.10.51  Carbiolice            164
    • 5.10.52  Carbios 165
    • 5.10.53  Cardia Bioplastics Ltd.    166
    • 5.10.54  CARAPAC Company        166
    • 5.10.55  Cargill    167
    • 5.10.56  Catalyxx               167
    • 5.10.57  Cathay Industrial Biotech, Ltd.    168
    • 5.10.58  Celanese Corporation    169
    • 5.10.59  Cellucomp Ltd.  169
    • 5.10.60  Cellugy 170
    • 5.10.61  Cellutech AB (Stora Enso)             171
    • 5.10.62  Cerdia International GmbH (formerly Rhodia Acetow GmbH)        172
    • 5.10.63  CH-Bioforce Oy 173
    • 5.10.64  Checkerspot, Inc.             173
    • 5.10.65  Chempolis           174
    • 5.10.66  Chengdu Dikang Biomedical Co., Ltd.       174
    • 5.10.67  China New Materials Holdings Ltd.           175
    • 5.10.68  Chongqing Bofei Biochemical Products Co., Ltd.  175
    • 5.10.69  Chuetsu Pulp & Paper Co., Ltd.   176
    • 5.10.70  Circa Group        179
    • 5.10.71  CJ CheilJedang Corporation         179
    • 5.10.72  Corumat, Inc.     180
    • 5.10.73  Clariant AG         180
    • 5.10.74  Cristal Union Group        181
    • 5.10.75  Cruz Foam           182
    • 5.10.76  CuanTec Ltd.      182
    • 5.10.77  Daicel Polymer Ltd.         184
    • 5.10.78  Daio Paper Corporation 184
    • 5.10.79  DAK Americas LLC            187
    • 5.10.80  Danimer Scientific LLC    188
    • 5.10.81  Diamond Green Diesel   189
    • 5.10.82  DIC Corporation 189
    • 5.10.83  Dongying Hebang Chemical Corp.             190
    • 5.10.84  Dow, Inc.             191
    • 5.10.85  Royal DSM N.V  191
    • 5.10.86  DuFor Resins B.V.             192
    • 5.10.87  DuPont 193
    • 5.10.88  DuPont Tate & Lyle Bio Products Co., LLC               194
    • 5.10.89  Eastman Chemical Ltd. Corporation          195
    • 5.10.90  Ecoshell                195
    • 5.10.91  Ecovia Renewables         196
    • 5.10.92  Ecovative Design LLC       197
    • 5.10.93  EMS-Grivory      198
    • 5.10.94  Eni S.p.A.             199
    • 5.10.95  Esbottle Oy         199
    • 5.10.96  Evolved By Nature           200
    • 5.10.97  Evonik Industries AG      201
    • 5.10.98  Fairbrics               202
    • 5.10.99  Far Eastern New Century Corporation     202
    • 5.10.100               Fiberlean Technologies  203
    • 5.10.101               Fiberight              204
    • 5.10.102               FKuR Kunststoff GmbH  205
    • 5.10.103               Floreon 206
    • 5.10.104               Fraunhofer Institute for Silicate Research ISC       207
    • 5.10.105               Fraunhofer Institute for Structural Durability and System Reliability LBF   208
    • 5.10.106               Fuji Pigment Co., Ltd.      208
    • 5.10.107               Fujian Haobang Chemical Industries        210
    • 5.10.108               Full Cycle Bioplastics LLC               210
    • 5.10.109               Futerro 211
    • 5.10.110               Futuramat Sarl   212
    • 5.10.111               Gen3Bio               212
    • 5.10.112               Genecis Bioindustries, Inc.           213
    • 5.10.113               Genomatica       214
    • 5.10.114               Grabio Greentech Corporation  214
    • 5.10.115               Granbio Technologies    215
    • 5.10.116               GS Alliance Co. Ltd           217
    • 5.10.117               Guangzhou Bio-plus Materials Technology Co., Ltd.           219
    • 5.10.118               Haldor Topsoe A/S           219
    • 5.10.119               Hattori Shoten K.K.         220
    • 5.10.120               Hebei Casda Biomaterials Co., Ltd.            221
    • 5.10.121               Hebei Jiaao Glycerol Chemical Co., Ltd    222
    • 5.10.122               Hebei Jiheng Chemical Co., Ltd.  222
    • 5.10.123               Hebei Xinhua Lactic Acid Co.        223
    • 5.10.124               Heilongjiang Chenneng Bioengineering Ltd.          223
    • 5.10.125               Henan Jindan Lactic Acid Technology Co., Ltd.      223
    • 5.10.126               Henan Piaoan Group Co., Ltd.     224
    • 5.10.127               Henan Xinghan Biological Technology Co., Ltd.    224
    • 5.10.128               Hengshui Jinghua Chemical Co., Ltd.        225
    • 5.10.129               Hengli Petrochemical     225
    • 5.10.130               Hitachi Plant Technologies Ltd    226
    • 5.10.131               Hokuetsu Toyo Fibre Co., Ltd.     227
    • 5.10.132               Hubei Guangshui National Chemical Co., Ltd         229
    • 5.10.133               Humintech          230
    • 5.10.134               Hunan Anhua Lactic Acid Co        230
    • 5.10.135               India Glycols Ltd.              231
    • 5.10.136               Indochine Bio Plastiques (ICBP) Sdn Bhd 231
    • 5.10.137               Indorama Ventures Public Co. Ltd.            232
    • 5.10.138               Inovyn  233
    • 5.10.139               Inspidere B.V.    233
    • 5.10.140               Ioniqa   234
    • 5.10.141               Itaconix 234
    • 5.10.142               Jiangsu Anpon Electrochemical Co., Ltd  235
    • 5.10.143               Jiangsu Jinhe Hi-Tech Co., Ltd.    236
    • 5.10.144               Jiangsu Senda Biological Engineering Co., Ltd.      236
    • 5.10.145               Jiangsu Suxing   237
    • 5.10.146               Jiangsu Torise Biomaterials Co., Ltd          237
    • 5.10.147               Jiangsu Yangnong Chemical Group Co., Ltd.          238
    • 5.10.148               Jiangsu Zhongzheng Biochemical Co., Ltd.              238
    • 5.10.149               Jilin COFCO Biomaterial Corporation        239
    • 5.10.150               JinHui ZhaoLang High Technology Co., Ltd.            239
    • 5.10.151               Jungbunzlauer Suisse AG              241
    • 5.10.152               Kaneka Corporation        241
    • 5.10.153               Khumo Renewables        242
    • 5.10.154               Kingfa Sci. & Tech. Co. Ltd.           243
    • 5.10.155               Kolon Industries               243
    • 5.10.156               Kraig Biocraft Laboratories           244
    • 5.10.157               LAM’ON               245
    • 5.10.158               Lactips S.A.         245
    • 5.10.159               LCY Biosciences 246
    • 5.10.160               Lean Orb              247
    • 5.10.161               Lenzing AG          248
    • 5.10.162               LEUNA-Harze GmbH       248
    • 5.10.163               Lingrove, Inc.     248
    • 5.10.164               Lixea Limited      249
    • 5.10.165               Locus Fermentation Solutions    250
    • 5.10.166               Loick Biowertstoff GmbH             250
    • 5.10.167               Loliware LLC       251
    • 5.10.168               LOTTE Chemical Corporation       251
    • 5.10.169               LyondellBasell Industries Holdings B.V.   252
    • 5.10.170               Made of Air GmbH          253
    • 5.10.171               Mango Materials, Inc.    254
    • 5.10.172               Marine Innovation Co., Ltd           254
    • 5.10.173               Meghmani Finechem Ltd.             255
    • 5.10.174               Mercurius Biorefining Inc              256
    • 5.10.175               METabolic EXplorer S.A. (METEX)              256
    • 5.10.176               Metgen Oy         257
    • 5.10.177               Mitsubishi Chemical Corporation              257
    • 5.10.178               Mitsubishi Polyester Film GmbH 259
    • 5.10.179               Mitsui Chemicals, Inc.     259
    • 5.10.180               Mobius 260
    • 5.10.181               Mogu S.r.l.          261
    • 5.10.182               Multibax Public Co., Ltd.                262
    • 5.10.183               Mura Technology Limited             263
    • 5.10.184               Musashino Chemical Laboratory, Ltd.      263
    • 5.10.185               MYCL     264
    • 5.10.186               MycoWorks        265
    • 5.10.187               Nabaco 266
    • 5.10.188               Nafigate Corporation a.s.              267
    • 5.10.189               Nanollose Ltd     267
    • 5.10.190               Nantong Cellulose Fibers Co., Ltd              269
    • 5.10.191               Nantong Jiuding Biological Engineering Co., Ltd. 269
    • 5.10.192               NatPol  270
    • 5.10.193               Natural Fiber Welding, INc.          271
    • 5.10.194               NatureWorks LLC             271
    • 5.10.195               NefFa    272
    • 5.10.196               Neste Oyj            273
    • 5.10.197               Newlight Technologies LLC           274
    • 5.10.198               New Zealand Natural Fibers (NZNF)         274
    • 5.10.199               NEXE Innovations Inc.    275
    • 5.10.200               Ningbo Huanyang Chemical Co., Ltd.        276
    • 5.10.201               Ningbo Tianan Biologic Material 276
    • 5.10.202               Ningbo Zhenyiang            277
    • 5.10.203               Nippon Paper Industries               277
    • 5.10.204               Norske Skog AS 280
    • 5.10.205               Northern Technologies International       280
    • 5.10.206               Notpla  281
    • 5.10.207               Novamont S.p.A.              282
    • 5.10.208               Novomer             283
    • 5.10.209               NUREL S.A.          283
    • 5.10.210               Nxtlevvel             284
    • 5.10.211               Oakbio, Inc.        285
    • 5.10.212               Oimo     285
    • 5.10.213               Oleon N.V.          286
    • 5.10.214               Oji Paper Company         287
    • 5.10.215               Origin Materials                291
    • 5.10.216               PHABuilder         292
    • 5.10.217               PHB Industrial S.A.           293
    • 5.10.218               Plafco Fibertech Oy         293
    • 5.10.219               Plantic Technologies Ltd.              293
    • 5.10.220               Plantics Biomaterials       295
    • 5.10.221               Polaris Renewables         295
    • 5.10.222               Polyferm             296
    • 5.10.223               Pond Biomaterials            296
    • 5.10.224               PT Intera Lestari Polimer               298
    • 5.10.225               PTT MCC Biochem Co., Ltd.          299
    • 5.10.226               Qnature UG        299
    • 5.10.227               Radical Plastics  300
    • 5.10.228               Radici Group      300
    • 5.10.229               Red Avenue New Materials Group            301
    • 5.10.230               RenCom AB        302
    • 5.10.231               Ripro Corporation            302
    • 5.10.232               Rodenburg Biopolymers B.V.      303
    • 5.10.233               Roquette S.A.    303
    • 5.10.234               RWDC Industries              304
    • 5.10.235               Samyang GENEX               305
    • 5.10.236               Saphium Biotechnology GMBH   306
    • 5.10.237               Saudi Basic Industries Corp. (SABIC)         306
    • 5.10.238               Sebacic Oman SAOC        307
    • 5.10.239               Seevix Material Sciences Ltd.       308
    • 5.10.240               SECI S.p.A.          309
    • 5.10.241               S-EnPol Co., Ltd.                309
    • 5.10.242               Seiko PMC Corporation  310
    • 5.10.243               Shandong Baisheng Biotechnology Co., Ltd.          312
    • 5.10.244               Shandong Fuwin New Material Co., Ltd. 312
    • 5.10.245               Shandong Landian Biological Technology Co., Ltd.              313
    • 5.10.246               Shandong Minji Chemical Co., Ltd.            314
    • 5.10.247               Shandong Siqiang Chemical Group Co., Ltd.          314
    • 5.10.248               Shanghai Tong-Jie-Liang Biomaterials Co., Ltd.     315
    • 5.10.249               Shantou Liangyi 315
    • 5.10.250               Shanxi Leda Biochemical Co., Ltd.              316
    • 5.10.251               Shanxi Zhengang Chemical Co., Ltd.          317
    • 5.10.252               Shenghong Group           317
    • 5.10.253               Shenzhen Ecomann Biotechnology Co., Ltd.          318
    • 5.10.254               Shenzhen Esun Industrial Co., Ltd.             319
    • 5.10.255               Shenzhen Guanghua Weiye Industry Co., Ltd.      320
    • 5.10.256               Showa Denko K.K.            320
    • 5.10.257               Sichuan Dikang Sci & Tech Pharmaceutical Industry Co., Ltd           321
    • 5.10.258               Sichuan Yibin Wuliangye Group Co., Ltd  321
    • 5.10.259               Sinolac (Huludao) Biotech Co., Ltd.           322
    • 5.10.260               Sinopec Group  322
    • 5.10.261               SK Chemicals Co., Ltd.    323
    • 5.10.262               Smartfiber AG   323
    • 5.10.263               Solvay SA             325
    • 5.10.264               Soma Bioworks/White Lemur Co.              325
    • 5.10.265               SPC Biotech Private Ltd. 326
    • 5.10.266               Spectrus Sustainable Solutions Pvt Ltd    327
    • 5.10.267               Spiber, Inc.          327
    • 5.10.268               Spidey Tek          328
    • 5.10.269               Spolchemie        330
    • 5.10.270               Stora Enso           330
    • 5.10.271               Succinity GmbH 331
    • 5.10.272               Sulapac Oy          331
    • 5.10.273               Sulzer Chemtech AG       332
    • 5.10.274               Sunar Misir         333
    • 5.10.275               SUPLA Bioplastics             334
    • 5.10.276               TAIF-NK 335
    • 5.10.277               Tanin sevnica kemicna industrija               335
    • 5.10.278               TBM Co., Ltd.     336
    • 5.10.279               TECNARO GmbH               337
    • 5.10.280               TechnipFMC       338
    • 5.10.281               Teijin Ltd              339
    • 5.10.282               TerraVerdae BioWorks Inc            340
    • 5.10.283               Teysha Technologies Limited       341
    • 5.10.284               thyssenkrupp Industrial Solutions AG      341
    • 5.10.285               Tianan Biologic Material Co., Ltd.              342
    • 5.10.286               Tianjin GreenBio Materials Co., Ltd           343
    • 5.10.287               Tianxing Biotechnology Co., Ltd. 344
    • 5.10.288               Tômtex 344
    • 5.10.289               Tongliao Xinghe Biotechnology Co., Ltd. 345
    • 5.10.290               Toray Industries, Inc.      345
    • 5.10.291               Total Corbion PLA            346
    • 5.10.292               Toyobo Co., Ltd.                347
    • 5.10.293               Treemera GmbH              348
    • 5.10.294               TripleW 348
    • 5.10.295               UBQ Materials   349
    • 5.10.296               Unitika Ltd.         350
    • 5.10.297               UPM-Kymmene Oyj        350
    • 5.10.298               VEnvirotech Biotechnology SL     351
    • 5.10.299               Virent Inc.           352
    • 5.10.300               VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd       353
    • 5.10.301               Vynova 354
    • 5.10.302               WeylChem International GmbH 354
    • 5.10.303               Woodly Ltd.        355
    • 5.10.304               Wuhan Sanjiang Space Good Biotech Co., Ltd.     355
    • 5.10.305               Xampla 356
    • 5.10.306               Xinjiang Lanshan Tunhe 357
    • 5.10.307               Xinjiang BlueRidge Tunhe Chemical Industry Joint Stock Co., Ltd. 357
    • 5.10.308               Yihai Kerry Group             358
    • 5.10.309               Yunan Fuji Bio-Material Technology Co., Ltd.        358
    • 5.10.310               Zhangjiagang Glory Chemical Industry Co., Ltd     358
    • 5.10.311               Zhejiang Hangzhou Xinfu Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd.             359
    • 5.10.312               Zheijang Haobang Chemical Co., Ltd.       359
    • 5.10.313               Zhejiang Hisun Biomaterials Co., Ltd.       360
    • 5.10.314               Zhejiang Youcheng New Materials Co., Ltd            360
    • 5.10.315               Zibo Qixiang Tengda Chemical Co., Ltd.   361

 

6              NATURAL FIBERS              362

  • 6.1          Manufacturing method, matrix materials and applications of natural fibers            363
  • 6.2          Advantages of natural fibers       364
  • 6.3          Plants (cellulose, lignocellulose) 365
    • 6.3.1      Seed fibers         365
      • 6.3.1.1   Cotton  365
      • 6.3.1.2   Kapok   366
      • 6.3.1.3   Luffa      368
    • 6.3.2      Bast fibers           369
      • 6.3.2.1   Jute       369
      • 6.3.2.2   Hemp    370
      • 6.3.2.3   Flax        372
      • 6.3.2.4   Ramie   374
      • 6.3.2.5   Kenaf    375
    • 6.3.3      Leaf fibers           377
      • 6.3.3.1   Sisal       377
      • 6.3.3.2   Abaca    378
    • 6.3.4      Fruit fibers          380
      • 6.3.4.1   Coir        380
      • 6.3.4.2   Banana 381
      • 6.3.4.3   Pineapple            383
    • 6.3.5      Stalk fibers from agricultural residues     384
      • 6.3.5.1   Rice fiber             384
      • 6.3.5.2   Corn      384
    • 6.3.6      Cane, grasses and reed  385
      • 6.3.6.1   Switch grass       385
      • 6.3.6.2   Sugarcane (agricultural residues)              386
      • 6.3.6.3   Bamboo               386
      • 6.3.6.4   Fresh grass (green biorefinery)  388
    • 6.3.7      Modified natural polymers          388
      • 6.3.7.1   Mycelium            388
      • 6.3.7.2   Chitosan              390
      • 6.3.7.3   Alginate               391
  • 6.4          Animal (fibrous protein) 392
    • 6.4.1      Wool     392
      • 6.4.1.1   Alternative wool materials           393
      • 6.4.1.2   Producers           393
    • 6.4.2      Silk fiber              393
      • 6.4.2.1   Alternative silk materials               394
    • 6.4.3      Leather 395
      • 6.4.3.1   Alternative leather materials       395
    • 6.4.4      Down    396
      • 6.4.4.1   Alternative down materials          396
  • 6.5          MARKETS FOR NATURAL FIBERS 397
    • 6.5.1      Composites        397
    • 6.5.2      Applications       397
    • 6.5.3      Natural fiber injection moulding compounds       398
      • 6.5.3.1   Properties           399
      • 6.5.3.2   Applications       399
    • 6.5.4      Non-woven natural fiber mat composites              399
      • 6.5.4.1   Automotive        399
      • 6.5.4.2   Applications       400
    • 6.5.5      Aligned natural fiber-reinforced composites        400
    • 6.5.6      Natural fiber biobased polymer compounds         401
    • 6.5.7      Natural fiber biobased polymer non-woven mats              402
      • 6.5.7.1   Flax        402
      • 6.5.7.2   Kenaf    402
      • 6.5.8      Natural fiber thermoset bioresin composites       402
  • 6.6          Aerospace          403
    • 6.6.1      Market overview             403
  • 6.7          Automotive        403
    • 6.7.1      Market overview             403
    • 6.7.2      Applications of natural fibers      407
  • 6.8          Building/construction     408
    • 6.8.1      Market overview             408
    • 6.8.2      Applications of natural fibers      409
  • 6.9          Sports and leisure            410
    • 6.9.1      Market overview             410
  • 6.10        Textiles 410
    • 6.10.1    Market overview             410
    • 6.10.2    Consumer apparel           411
    • 6.10.3    Geotextiles        412
  • 6.11        Packaging            413
    • 6.11.1    Market overview             413
  • 6.12        NATURAL FIBERS GLOBAL PRODUCTION 415
    • 6.12.1    Overall global fibers market        415
    • 6.12.2    Plant-based fiber production      417
    • 6.12.3    Animal-based natural fiber production   418
  • 6.13        NATURAL FIBER COMPANY PROFILES      419
    • 6.13.1    3M         419
    • 6.13.2    9Fiber, Inc.          419
    • 6.13.3    Aeropowder Limited      420
    • 6.13.4    Agrisea 421
    • 6.13.5    AHLSTROM-MUNKSJO Oyj           422
    • 6.13.6    Algix LLC               422
    • 6.13.7    AlgiKnit 424
    • 6.13.8    Amadou Mushroom Leather       425
    • 6.13.9    AMSilk GmbH    426
    • 6.13.10  Ananas Anam Ltd.            427
    • 6.13.11  ANPOLY, Inc.      427
    • 6.13.12  Arekapak GmbH               429
    • 6.13.13  Asahi Kasei Chemicals Corporation           429
    • 6.13.14  Avani Eco             433
    • 6.13.15  Bambooder Biobased Fibers B.V.               434
    • 6.13.16  BASF SE 434
    • 6.13.17  B-PREG 435
    • 6.13.18  Bast Fiber Technologies, Inc.       436
    • 6.13.19  Betulium Oy       437
    • 6.13.20  Beyond Leather Materials ApS    437
    • 6.13.21  Biotecam             438
    • 6.13.22  Bolt Threads       439
    • 6.13.23  Bcomp ltd.          440
    • 6.13.24  Biophilica             441
    • 6.13.25  BlockTexx Pty Ltd.            442
    • 6.13.26  Cellicon B.V.       443
    • 6.13.27  Cellucomp Ltd.  443
    • 6.13.28  Cellugy 445
    • 6.13.29  Cellutech AB (Stora Enso)             446
    • 6.13.30  Checkerspot, Inc.             447
    • 6.13.31  Chuetsu Pulp & Paper Co., Ltd.   447
    • 6.13.32  Circular Systems               450
    • 6.13.33  Daicel Corporation          451
    • 6.13.34  DaikyoNishikawa Corporation     452
    • 6.13.35  Daio Paper Corporation 453
    • 6.13.36  Daishowa Paper Products Co. Ltd.             456
    • 6.13.37  DENSO Corporation         456
    • 6.13.38  DIC Products, Inc.             457
    • 6.13.39  DKS Co. Ltd.        459
    • 6.13.40  Desserto              461
    • 6.13.41  Ecopel   461
    • 6.13.42  Ecoshell                462
    • 6.13.43  Ecovative Design LLC       463
    • 6.13.44  Ehime Paper Manufacturing Co. Ltd.        464
    • 6.13.45  Evolved By Nature           465
    • 6.13.46  Enkev    466
    • 6.13.47  Evrnu    467
    • 6.13.48  Fillerbank Limited            467
    • 6.13.49  Flocus   468
    • 6.13.50  Fruit Leather Rotterdam               469
    • 6.13.51  Fuji Pigment Co., Ltd.      470
    • 6.13.52  Furukawa Electric Co., Ltd.           471
    • 6.13.53  Gelatex Technologies OÜ             472
    • 6.13.54  Grado Zero Innovation  473
    • 6.13.55  Granbio Technologies    474
    • 6.13.56  GS Alliance Co. Ltd           476
    • 6.13.57  Hattori Shoten K.K.         477
    • 6.13.58  Hexa Chemical Co. Ltd./Nature Gift          478
    • 6.13.59  Hokuetsu Toyo Fibre Co., Ltd.     479
    • 6.13.60  Icytos    481
    • 6.13.61  Infinited Fiber Company Oy         482
    • 6.13.62  JeNaCell GmbH 482
    • 6.13.63  Kao Corporation               483
    • 6.13.64  Kami Shoji Company       486
    • 6.13.65  Kelheim Fibres GmbH     486
    • 6.13.66  Kraig Biocraft Laboratories           487
    • 6.13.67  KRI Inc. 488
    • 6.13.68  Kusano Sakko K.K.            489
    • 6.13.69  Lenzing 490
    • 6.13.70  Le Qara 491
    • 6.13.71  Lingrove, Inc.     491
    • 6.13.72  Living Ink             492
    • 6.13.73  Lixea      492
    • 6.13.74  Malai Biomaterials Design Pvt. Ltd. (Malai)            494
    • 6.13.75  Marine Nanofiber Co., Ltd.           495
    • 6.13.76  Marusumi Paper Company Limited           496
    • 6.13.77  Masuko Sangyo Co., Ltd.               497
    • 6.13.78  Mitsubishi Chemical Corporation              498
    • 6.13.79  Modern Meadow, Inc.   501
    • 6.13.80  Mogu S.r.l.          502
    • 6.13.81  Mori Machinery Co., Ltd.               503
    • 6.13.82  MYCL     504
    • 6.13.83  MycoWorks        505
    • 6.13.84  Nanollose Ltd.   506
    • 6.13.85  Natural Fiber Welding, INc.          508
    • 6.13.86  Nature Coatings, Inc.      508
    • 6.13.87  NefFa    509
    • 6.13.88  New Zealand Natural Fibers (NZNF)         510
    • 6.13.89  Nippon Paper Industries               510
    • 6.13.90  Nova Kaeru         513
    • 6.13.91  Oji Paper COmpany         514
    • 6.13.92  Organic Disposables        518
    • 6.13.93  Orange Fiber S.r.l.            519
    • 6.13.94  Plafco Fibertech Oy         520
    • 6.13.95  Pond Biomaterials            520
    • 6.13.96  Provenance Biofabrics, Inc.          521
    • 6.13.97  Rengo Co., Ltd.  522
    • 6.13.98  Re:newcell          523
    • 6.13.99  Ripro Corporation            524
    • 6.13.100               Risho Kogyo Co. Ltd.        525
    • 6.13.101               SaltyCo Textiles 526
    • 6.13.102               Seevix Material Sciences Ltd.       526
    • 6.13.103               Seiko PMC Corporation  527
    • 6.13.104               Sharp Chemical Ind. Co., Ltd.       529
    • 6.13.105               Smartfiber AG   529
    • 6.13.106               Spiber, Inc.          531
    • 6.13.107               Spidey Tek          532
    • 6.13.108               Sugino Machine Limited 534
    • 6.13.109               Sulapac Oy          537
    • 6.13.110               Tandem Repeat 538
    • 6.13.111               TECNARO GmbH               539
    • 6.13.112               Tenbro Bamboo Company            540
    • 6.13.113               Tômtex 541
    • 6.13.114               Toray     541
    • 6.13.115               Toyota Boshoku Corporation      542
    • 6.13.116               TreeToTextile    543
    • 6.13.117               TS Tech Co., Ltd.               543
    • 6.13.118               Unitika Co., Ltd. 544
    • 6.13.119               UPM Biocomposites       545
    • 6.13.120               Vegea srl              546
    • 6.13.121               VitroLabs Inc      547
    • 6.13.122               VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd       548
    • 6.13.123               Woodly Ltd.        550
    • 6.13.124               Worn Again Technologies             551
    • 6.13.125               Yoshikawakuni Plastics Industries Co., Ltd.            552
    • 6.13.126               Zelfo Technology              552

 

7              LIGNIN 555

  • 7.1          INTRODUCTION 555
    • 7.1.1      What is lignin?   555
      • 7.1.1.1   Lignin structure 556
    • 7.1.2      Types of lignin    557
      • 7.1.2.1   Sulfur containing lignin  559
      • 7.1.2.2   Sulfur-free lignin from biorefinery process            559
    • 7.1.3      Properties           560
    • 7.1.4      The lignocellulose biorefinery     562
    • 7.1.5      Markets and applications              563
    • 7.1.6      Challenges for using lignin            565
  • 7.2          LIGNIN PRODUCTON PROCESSES              565
    • 7.2.1      Lignosulphonates            567
    • 7.2.2      Kraft Lignin          567
      • 7.2.2.1   LignoBoost process         568
      • 7.2.2.2   LignoForce method         568
      • 7.2.2.3   Sequential Liquid Lignin Recovery and Purification             569
      • 7.2.2.4   A-Recovery+      570
    • 7.2.3      Soda lignin          571
    • 7.2.4      Biorefinery lignin              571
      • 7.2.4.1   Commercial and pre-commercial biorefinery lignin production facilities and  processes    572
    • 7.2.5      Organosolv lignins            574
    • 7.2.6      Hydrolytic lignin                575
  • 7.3          MARKETS FOR LIGNIN    576
    • 7.3.1      Market drivers and trends for lignin         576
    • 7.3.2      Lignin industry developments 2020-2021               577
    • 7.3.3      Production capacities     578
      • 7.3.3.1   Technical lignin availability (dry ton/y)    578
      • 7.3.3.2   Biomass conversion (Biorefinery)             579
    • 7.3.4      Estimated consumption of lignin                579
    • 7.3.5      Prices    581
    • 7.3.6      Heat and power energy 581
    • 7.3.7      Pyrolysis and syngas       581
    • 7.3.8      Aromatic compounds     581
      • 7.3.8.1   Benzene, toluene and xylene      582
      • 7.3.8.2   Phenol and phenolic resins          582
      • 7.3.8.3   Vanillin 583
    • 7.3.9      Plastics and polymers     583
    • 7.3.10    Hydrogels            584
    • 7.3.11    Carbon materials              585
      • 7.3.11.1                Carbon black      585
      • 7.3.11.2                Activated carbons            585
      • 7.3.11.3                Carbon fiber       586
    • 7.3.12    Concrete             587
    • 7.3.13    Rubber 588
    • 7.3.14    Biofuels 588
    • 7.3.15    Bitumen and Asphalt      588
    • 7.3.16    Oil and gas          589
    • 7.3.17    Energy storage  590
      • 7.3.17.1                Supercapacitors 590
      • 7.3.17.2                Anodes for lithium-ion batteries 590
      • 7.3.17.3                Gel electrolytes for lithium-ion batteries                591
      • 7.3.17.4                Binders for lithium-ion batteries 591
      • 7.3.17.5                Cathodes for lithium-ion batteries            591
      • 7.3.17.6                Sodium-ion batteries      592
    • 7.3.18    Binders, emulsifiers and dispersants        592
    • 7.3.19    Chelating agents              594
    • 7.3.20    Ceramics              595
    • 7.3.21    Automotive interiors      595
    • 7.3.22    Fire retardants  595
    • 7.3.23    Antioxidants      596
    • 7.3.24    Lubricants           596
    • 7.3.25    Dust control       597
  • 7.4          COMPANY PROFILES       598
    • 7.4.1      Key players         598
    • 7.4.2      Aemetis, Inc.      598
    • 7.4.3      Andritz AG          599
    • 7.4.4      Anellotech, Inc. 601
    • 7.4.5      Attis Innovations, llc        602
    • 7.4.6      Avantium NV     603
    • 7.4.7      Blue Biofuels, Inc.            605
    • 7.4.8      Bloom Biorenewables SA              606
    • 7.4.9      The Borregaard Group   607
    • 7.4.10    Burgo Group S.p.A.         608
    • 7.4.11    Cellicon B.V.       609
    • 7.4.12    CH-Bioforce Oy 609
    • 7.4.13    Chempolis Oy    611
    • 7.4.14    CIMV     612
    • 7.4.15    Clariant AG         612
    • 7.4.16    Domsjö Fabriker AB         614
    • 7.4.17    Domtar Paper Company LLC        616
    • 7.4.18    Enerkem, Inc.    616
    • 7.4.19    Enviral   617
    • 7.4.20    FP Innovations  618
    • 7.4.21    Fraunhofer Center for Chemical-Biotechnological Processes CBP 619
    • 7.4.22    Fraunhofer Institute for Structural Durability and System Reliability LBF   620
    • 7.4.23    Futurity Bio-Ventures Ltd.            620
    • 7.4.24    G+E GETEC Holding GmbH            621
    • 7.4.25    Global Bioenergies SA    622
    • 7.4.26    Graanul Biotech OU        622
    • 7.4.27    Granbio Technologies    623
    • 7.4.28    exion Inc              626
    • 7.4.29    Ingevity 626
    • 7.4.30    Iogen Corporation           627
    • 7.4.31    Kanteleen Voima             628
    • 7.4.32    Klabin S.A.           628
    • 7.4.33    Leaf Resources Ltd.         629
    • 7.4.34    Lignin Industries               629
    • 7.4.35    LignoPure GmbH              630
    • 7.4.36    Lixea      631
    • 7.4.37    LXP Group GmbH             633
    • 7.4.38    Mehler Engineered Products GmbH         634
    • 7.4.39    Metgen Oy         635
    • 7.4.40    Mobius 637
    • 7.4.41    NewEnergyBlue LLC        638
    • 7.4.42    Nippon Paper Industries, Co. Ltd.              639
    • 7.4.43    Novozymes A/S 641
    • 7.4.44    ORLEN Południe               642
    • 7.4.45    Praj Industries Ltd.          642
    • 7.4.46    PRISMA Renewable Composites 644
    • 7.4.47    Pure Lignin Environmental Technology Ltd.           645
    • 7.4.48    Rayonier Advanced Materials     646
    • 7.4.49    Red Leaf Pulp     646
    • 7.4.50    RenFuel               646
    • 7.4.51    Renmatix             647
    • 7.4.52    Resolute Forest Products, Inc.    649
    • 7.4.53    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden AB   650
    • 7.4.54    Sainc Energy Limited       651
    • 7.4.55    SAPPI Biotech    651
    • 7.4.56    Sekab E-Technology AB 652
    • 7.4.57    Soma Bioworks/White Lemur Co.              653
    • 7.4.58    Spero Renewables          654
    • 7.4.59    St1 Oy   655
    • 7.4.60    Stora Enso Oyj   656
    • 7.4.61    SunCoal Industries GmbH             657
    • 7.4.62    Suzano SA           657
    • 7.4.63    Sweetwater Energy        658
    • 7.4.64    TECNARO GmbH               659
    • 7.4.65    UPM Biochemicals           660
    • 7.4.66    Valmet Oyj          661
    • 7.4.67    Versalis SpA        662
    • 7.4.68    Vertoro 663
    • 7.4.69    West Fraser Timber Co Ltd.          665
    • 7.4.70    Xingzhenghe Chemical Co., Ltd.  665
    • 7.4.71    Yokogawa Electric Corporation   666

 

8              REFERENCES       667

 

Tables

  • Table 1. Market drivers and trends in biobased and sustainable plastics.  35
  • Table 2. Global production capacities of biobased and sustainable plastics 2018-2030, in 1,000 tons.          36
  • Table 3. Global production capacities, by producers.        37
  • Table 4. Global production capacities of biobased and sustainable plastics 2019-2030, by type, in 1,000 tons.        39
  • Table 5. Global production capacities of biobased and sustainable plastics 2019-2025, by region, tons.      43
  • Table 6. Issues related to the use of plastics.        52
  • Table 7. List of Bio-based chemicals.        53
  • Table 8. Biobased MEG producers capacities.       65
  • Table 9. Type of biodegradation.               74
  • Table 10. Advantages and disadvantages of biobased plastics compared to conventional plastics. 75
  • Table 11. Types of Bio-based and/or Biodegradable Plastics, applications.               75
  • Table 12. Market leader by Bio-based and/or Biodegradable Plastic types.             77
  • Table 13. Polylactic acid (PLA) market analysis.    79
  • Table 14. Lactic acid producers and production capacities.             80
  • Table 15. PLA producers and production capacities.          81
  • Table 16. Bio-based Polyethylene terephthalate (Bio-PET) market analysis.            82
  • Table 17. Bio-based Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) producers.              83
  • Table 18. Polytrimethylene terephthalate (PTT) market analysis. 83
  • Table 19. Production capacities of Polytrimethylene terephthalate (PTT), by leading producers.   83
  • Table 20. Polyethylene furanoate (PEF) market analysis. 84
  • Table 21. PEF vs. PET.     85
  • Table 22. FDCA and PEF producers.          86
  • Table 23. Bio-based polyamides (Bio-PA) market analysis.              87
  • Table 24. Leading Bio-PA producers production capacities.            88
  • Table 25. Poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (PBAT) market analysis.            88
  • Table 26. Leading PBAT producers, production capacities and brands.      89
  • Table 27. Bio-PBS market analysis.            90
  • Table 28. Leading PBS producers and production capacities.          91
  • Table 29. Bio-based Polyethylene (Bio-PE) market analysis.           92
  • Table 30. Leading Bio-PE producers.        92
  • Table 31. Bio-PP market analysis.              93
  • Table 32. Leading Bio-PP producers and capacities.           93
  • Table 33. Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) market analysis. 95
  • Table 34. Commercially available PHAs.  96
  • Table 35. Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) producers.           97
  • Table 36. Microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) market analysis.            98
  • Table 37. Leading MFC producers and capacities.               99
  • Table 38. Cellulose nanocrystals analysis.               99
  • Table 39: Cellulose nanocrystal production capacities and production process, by producer.          100
  • Table 40. Cellulose nanofibers market analysis.   101
  • Table 41. CNF production capacities (by type, wet or dry) and production process, by producer.   103
  • Table 42. Types of protein based-bioplastics, applications and companies.             105
  • Table 43. Types of algal and fungal based-bioplastics, applications and companies.             106
  • Table 44. Overview of alginate-description, properties, application and market size.          107
  • Table 45. Companies developing algal-based bioplastics. 108
  • Table 46. Overview of mycelium fibers-description, properties, drawbacks and applications.          109
  • Table 47. Companies developing mycelium-based bioplastics.      111
  • Table 48. Overview of chitosan-description, properties, drawbacks and applications.         112
  • Table 49. Global production capacities of biobased and sustainable plastics in 2019-2025, by region, tons.              112
  • Table 50. Biobased and sustainable plastics producers in North America. 114
  • Table 51. Biobased and sustainable plastics producers in Europe.               114
  • Table 52. Biobased and sustainable plastics producers in Asia-Pacific.       115
  • Table 53. Biobased and sustainable plastics producers in Latin America.  116
  • Table 54. Granbio Nanocellulose Processes.         216
  • Table 55. Lactips plastic pellets. 246
  • Table 56. Oji Holdings CNF products.       289
  • Table 57. Application, manufacturing method, and matrix materials of natural fibers.        363
  • Table 58. Typical properties of natural fibers.      364
  • Table 59. Overview of cotton fibers-description, properties, drawbacks and applications. 365
  • Table 60. Overview of kapok fibers-description, properties, drawbacks and applications. 366
  • Table 61. Overview of luffa fibers-description, properties, drawbacks and applications.    368
  • Table 62. Overview of jute fibers-description, properties, drawbacks and applications.     369
  • Table 63. Overview of hemp fibers-description, properties, drawbacks and applications.  371
  • Table 64. Overview of flax fibers-description, properties, drawbacks and applications.      372
  • Table 65. Overview of ramie fibers- description, properties, drawbacks and applications. 374
  • Table 66. Overview of kenaf fibers-description, properties, drawbacks and applications.  375
  • Table 67. Overview of sisal fibers-description, properties, drawbacks and applications.     377
  • Table 68. Overview of abaca fibers-description, properties, drawbacks and applications.  378
  • Table 69. Overview of coir fibers-description, properties, drawbacks and applications.      380
  • Table 70. Overview of banana fibers-description, properties, drawbacks and applications.               381
  • Table 71. Overview of pineapple fibers-description, properties, drawbacks and applications.         383
  • Table 72. Overview of rice fibers-description, properties, drawbacks and applications.      384
  • Table 73. Overview of corn fibers-description, properties, drawbacks and applications.    384
  • Table 74. Overview of switch grass fibers-description, properties and applications.             385
  • Table 75. Overview of sugarcane fibers-description, properties, drawbacks and application and market size.           386
  • Table 76. Overview of bamboo fibers-description, properties, drawbacks and applications.             386
  • Table 77. Overview of mycelium fibers-description, properties, drawbacks and applications.          389
  • Table 78. Overview of chitosan fibers-description, properties, drawbacks and applications.            390
  • Table 79. Overview of alginate-description, properties, application and market size.          391
  • Table 80. Overview of wool fibers-description, properties, drawbacks and applications.   392
  • Table 81. Alternative wool materials producers. 393
  • Table 82. Overview of silk fibers-description, properties, application and market size.       393
  • Table 83. Alternative silk materials producers.    394
  • Table 84. Alternative leather materials producers.            395
  • Table 85. Alternative down materials producers. 396
  • Table 86. Applications of natural fiber composites.           397
  • Table 87. Typical properties of short natural fiber-thermoplastic composites.       399
  • Table 88. Properties of non-woven natural fiber mat composites.               400
  • Table 89. Properties of aligned natural fiber composites. 400
  • Table 90. Properties of natural fiber-bio-based polymer compounds.       401
  • Table 91. Properties of natural fiber-bio-based polymer non-woven mats.             402
  • Table 92. Natural fibers in the aerospace sector-market drivers, applications and challenges for NF use.   403
  • Table 93. Natural fiber-reinforced polymer composite in the automotive market. 405
  • Table 94. Natural fibers in the aerospace sector- market drivers, applications and challenges for NF use.  406
  • Table 95. Applications of natural fibers in the automotive industry.           407
  • Table 96. Natural fibers in the building/construction sector- market drivers, applications and challenges for NF use.                408
  • Table 97. Applications of natural fibers in the building/construction sector.           409
  • Table 98. Natural fibers in the sports and leisure sector-market drivers, applications and challenges for NF use.    410
  • Table 99. Natural fibers in the textiles sector- market drivers, applications and challenges for NF use.        410
  • Table 100. Natural fibers in the packaging sector-market drivers, applications and challenges for NF use. 413
  • Table 101. Oji Holdings CNF products.     516
  • Table 102. Technical lignin types and applications.             557
  • Table 103. Classification of technical lignins.         559
  • Table 104. Lignin content of selected biomass.   560
  • Table 105. Properties of lignins and their applications.     561
  • Table 106. Example markets and applications for lignin.  563
  • Table 107. Processes for lignin production.           565
  • Table 108. Biorefinery feedstocks.           571
  • Table 109. Comparison of pulping and biorefinery lignins.              571
  • Table 110. Commercial and pre-commercial biorefinery lignin production facilities and  processes              572
  • Table 111. Market drivers and trends for lignin.  576
  • Table 112. Lignin industry developments 2020-2021.        577
  • Table 113. Production capacities of technical lignin producers.    578
  • Table 114. Production capacities of biorefinery lignin producers. 579
  • Table 115. Estimated consumption of lignin, 2019-2031 (000 MT).             579
  • Table 116. Prices of benzene, toluene, xylene and their derivatives.          582
  • Table 117. Application of lignin in plastics and polymers. 583
  • Table 118. Lignin-derived anodes in lithium batteries.     590
  • Table 119. Application of lignin in binders, emulsifiers and dispersants.   592

 

Figures

  • Figure 1. Total global production capacities for biobased and sustainable plastics, all types, 000 tons.        34
  • Figure 2. Global production capacities of bioplastics 2018-2030, in 1,000 tons by biodegradable/non-biodegradable types.   37
  • Figure 3. Global production capacities of biobased and sustainable plastics in 2019-2030, by type, in 1,000 tons.  41
  • Figure 4. Global production capacities of bioplastics in 2019-2025, by type.           41
  • Figure 5. Global production capacities of bioplastics in 2030, by type.       42
  • Figure 6. Global production capacities of biobased and sustainable plastics 2020. 43
  • Figure 7. Global production capacities of biobased and sustainable plastics 2025. 44
  • Figure 8. Current and future applications of biobased and sustainable plastics.     45
  • Figure 9. Global demand for biobased and sustainable plastics by end user market, 2020.                46
  • Figure 10. Global production capacities for biobased and sustainable plastics by end user market 2019-2030, tons.                48
  • Figure 11. Challenges for the biobased and sustainable plastics market.   48
  • Figure 12. Global plastics production 1950-2018, millions of tons.              51
  • Figure 13. Bio-based chemicals production capacities, 2018-2025.               55
  • Figure 14. 1,4-Butanediol (BDO) production capacities, 2018-2025 (tonnes).         56
  • Figure 15. Dodecanedioic acid (DDDA) production capacities, 2018-2025 (tonnes).             57
  • Figure 16. Epichlorohydrin production capacities, 2018-2025 (tonnes).    58
  • Figure 17. Ethylene production capacities, 2018-2025 (tonnes).  59
  • Figure 18. L-lactic acid (L-LA) production capacities, 2018-2025 (tonnes). 63
  • Figure 19. Lactide production capacities, 2018-2025 (tonnes).     64
  • Figure 20. Bio-MEG producers capacities.              66
  • Figure 21. Bio-MPG production capacities, 2018-2025.      67
  • Figure 22. Naphtha production capacities, 2018-2025 (tonnes).  68
  • Figure 23. 1,3-Propanediol (1,3-PDO) production capacities, 2018-2025 (tonnes). 69
  • Figure 24. Sebacic acid production capacities, 2018-2025 (tonnes).           70
  • Figure 25.  Coca-Cola PlantBottle®.           72
  • Figure 26. Interrelationship between conventional, bio-based and biodegradable plastics.              73
  • Figure 27. Production capacities of Polyethylene furanoate (PEF) to 2025.               86
  • Figure 28. BLOOM masterbatch from Algix.           108
  • Figure 29. Typical structure of mycelium-based foam.     110
  • Figure 30. Commercial mycelium composite construction materials.          111
  • Figure 31. Global production capacities of biobased and sustainable plastics 2020.              113
  • Figure 32. Global production capacities of biobased and sustainable plastics 2025.              114
  • Figure 33. Global production capacities for biobased and sustainable plastics by end user market 2019, 1,000 tons.                118
  • Figure 34. Global production capacities for biobased and sustainable plastics by end user market 2020, 1,000 tons.                119
  • Figure 35. Global production capacities for biobased and sustainable plastics by end user market 2030      120
  • Figure 36. PHA bioplastics products.        120
  • Figure 37. Global production capacities for biobased and sustainable plastics in packaging 2019-2030, in 1,000 tons.                121
  • Figure 38. Global production capacities for biobased and sustainable plastics in consumer products 2019-2030, in 1,000 tons.         122
  • Figure 39. Global production capacities for biobased and sustainable plastics in automotive 2019-2030, in 1,000 tons.                123
  • Figure 40. Global production capacities for biobased and sustainable plastics in building and construction 2019-2030, in 1,000 tons.     124
  • Figure 41. Global production capacities for biobased and sustainable plastics in textiles 2019-2030, in 1,000 tons.                125
  • Figure 42. Global production capacities for biobased and sustainable plastics in electronics 2019-2030, in 1,000 tons.                126
  • Figure 43. Biodegradable mulch films.     127
  • Figure 44. Global production capacities for biobased and sustainable plastics in agriculture 2019-2030, in 1,000 tons.                127
  • Figure 45. Algiknit yarn. 132
  • Figure 46. Bio-PA rear bumper stay.         147
  • Figure 47. nanoforest-S. 177
  • Figure 48. nanoforest-PDP.         177
  • Figure 49. nanoforest-MB.           178
  • Figure 50. CuanSave film.             183
  • Figure 51. ELLEX products.           186
  • Figure 52. CNF-reinforced PP compounds.            186
  • Figure 53. Kirekira! toilet wipes. 187
  • Figure 54. Mushroom leather.    198
  • Figure 55. Cellulose Nanofiber (CNF) composite with polyethylene (PE).  209
  • Figure 56. PHA production process.         211
  • Figure 57. Cutlery samples (spoon, knife, fork) made of nano cellulose and biodegradable plastic composite materials.                218
  • Figure 58. Non-aqueous CNF dispersion "Senaf" (Photo shows 5% of plasticizer). 221
  • Figure 59. CNF gel.           227
  • Figure 60. Block nanocellulose material. 228
  • Figure 61. CNF products developed by Hokuetsu.              228
  • Figure 62. Made of Air's HexChar panels.               253
  • Figure 63. IPA synthesis method.              260
  • Figure 64. MOGU-Wave panels. 261
  • Figure 65. Reishi.              266
  • Figure 66. Nippon Paper Industries’ adult diapers.             279
  • Figure 67. Compostable water pod.         282
  • Figure 68. CNF clear sheets.        289
  • Figure 69. Oji Holdings CNF polycarbonate product.          290
  • Figure 70. Manufacturing process for STARCEL.   311
  • Figure 71. Lyocell process.           324
  • Figure 72. Spider silk production.              329
  • Figure 73. Sulapac cosmetics containers.               332
  • Figure 74.  Sulzer equipment for PLA polymerization processing. 333
  • Figure 75. Teijin bioplastic film for door handles.               340
  • Figure 76. Corbion FDCA production process.      347
  • Figure 77. Types of natural fibers.             362
  • Figure 78. Cotton production volume 2018-2030 (Million MT).     366
  • Figure 79. Kapok production volume 2018-2030 (MT).     367
  • Figure 80.  Luffa cylindrica fiber. 368
  • Figure 81. Jute production volume 2018-2030 (Million MT).          370
  • Figure 82. Hemp fiber production volume 2018-2030 (Million MT).            372
  • Figure 83. Flax fiber production volume 2018-2030 (MT).               373
  • Figure 84. Ramie fiber production volume 2018-2030 (MT).          375
  • Figure 85. Kenaf fiber production volume 2018-2030 (MT).           376
  • Figure 86. Sisal fiber production volume 2018-2030 (MT).              378
  • Figure 87. Abaca fiber production volume 2018-2030 (MT).          379
  • Figure 88. Coir fiber production volume 2018-2030 (MILLION MT).            381
  • Figure 89. Banana fiber production volume 2018-2030 (MT).        382
  • Figure 90. Pineapple fiber.           383
  • Figure 91. Bamboo fiber production volume 2018-2030 (MILLION MT).    388
  • Figure 92. Typical structure of mycelium-based foam.     388
  • Figure 93. Commercial mycelium composite construction materials.          389
  • Figure 94. BLOOM masterbatch from Algix.           392
  • Figure 95. Hemp fibers combined with PP in car door panel.         402
  • Figure 96. Car door produced from Hemp fiber.  404
  • Figure 97. Mercedes-Benz components containing natural fibers.               404
  • Figure 98. AlgiKicks sneaker, made with the Algiknit biopolymer gel.         412
  • Figure 99. Coir mats for erosion control. 412
  • Figure 100. Global fiber production in 2019, by fiber type, million MT and %.        415
  • Figure 101. Global fiber production (million MT) to 2020-2030.     416
  • Figure 102. Plant-based fiber production 2018-2030, by fiber type, MT.   417
  • Figure 103. Animal based fiber production 2018-2030, by fiber type, million MT. 418
  • Figure 104. Pluumo.        421
  • Figure 105. Algiknit yarn.              424
  • Figure 106. Amadou leather shoes.          426
  • Figure 107. Anpoly cellulose nanofiber hydrogel.               428
  • Figure 108. MEDICELLU™.            428
  • Figure 109. Asahi Kasei CNF fabric sheet.               430
  • Figure 110. Properties of Asahi Kasei cellulose nanofiber nonwoven fabric.            431
  • Figure 111. CNF nonwoven fabric.            432
  • Figure 112. Roof frame made of natural fiber.     435
  • Figure 113. Beyond Leather Materials product.   438
  • Figure 114. Natural fibres racing seat.     441
  • Figure 115. Cellugy materials.     445
  • Figure 116. nanoforest-S.             448
  • Figure 117. nanoforest-PDP.       449
  • Figure 118. nanoforest-MB.        449
  • Figure 119. Celish.           451
  • Figure 120. Trunk lid incorporating CNF. 452
  • Figure 121. ELLEX products.         454
  • Figure 122. CNF-reinforced PP compounds.          454
  • Figure 123. Kirekira! toilet wipes.              455
  • Figure 124. Color CNF.   456
  • Figure 125. Rheocrysta spray.     459
  • Figure 126. DKS CNF products.   460
  • Figure 127. Mushroom leather. 463
  • Figure 128. CNF based on citrus peel.      464
  • Figure 129. Citrus cellulose nanofiber.    465
  • Figure 130. Filler Bank CNC products.      468
  • Figure 131. Fibers on kapok tree and after processing.     469
  • Figure 132. Cellulose Nanofiber (CNF) composite with polyethylene (PE). 471
  • Figure 133. CNF products from Furukawa Electric.              472
  • Figure 134. Cutlery samples (spoon, knife, fork) made of nano cellulose and biodegradable plastic composite materials.            476
  • Figure 135. Non-aqueous CNF dispersion "Senaf" (Photo shows 5% of plasticizer).              477
  • Figure 136. CNF gel.        479
  • Figure 137. Block nanocellulose material.              480
  • Figure 138. CNF products developed by Hokuetsu.            480
  • Figure 139. Marine leather products.      481
  • Figure 140. Dual Graft System.   484
  • Figure 141. Engine cover utilizing Kao CNF composite resins.        485
  • Figure 142. Acrylic resin blended with modified CNF (fluid) and its molded product (transparent film), and image obtained with AFM (CNF 10wt% blended).           485
  • Figure 143. Kami Shoji CNF products.      486
  • Figure 144. 0.3% aqueous dispersion of sulfated esterified CNF and dried transparent film (front side).     488
  • Figure 145. BioFlex process.        493
  • Figure 146. Chitin nanofiber product.      495
  • Figure 147. Marusumi Paper cellulose nanofiber products.            497
  • Figure 148. FibriMa cellulose nanofiber powder. 498
  • Figure 149. Cellulomix production process.           499
  • Figure 150. Nanobase versus conventional products.       500
  • Figure 151. MOGU-Wave panels.              502
  • Figure 152. CNF slurries.                503
  • Figure 153. Range of CNF products.          503
  • Figure 154. Reishi.           506
  • Figure 155. Nippon Paper Industries’ adult diapers.          512
  • Figure 156. Leather made from leaves.   513
  • Figure 157. Nike shoe with beLEAF™.      514
  • Figure 158. CNF clear sheets.      516
  • Figure 159. Oji Holdings CNF polycarbonate product.       518
  • Figure 160. XCNF.            523
  • Figure 161. CNF insulation flat plates.     525
  • Figure 162. Manufacturing process for STARCEL. 528
  • Figure 163. Lyocell process.         530
  • Figure 164. North Face Spiber Moon Parka.          531
  • Figure 165. Spider silk production.            533
  • Figure 166. 2 wt.% CNF suspension.       534
  • Figure 167. BiNFi-s Dry Powder. 535
  • Figure 168. BiNFi-s Dry Powder and Propylene (PP) Complex Pellet.          535
  • Figure 169. Silk nanofiber (right) and cocoon of raw material.       536
  • Figure 170. Sulapac cosmetics containers.             538
  • Figure 171. Comparison of weight reduction effect using CNF.     542
  • Figure 172. CNF resin products. 545
  • Figure 173. Vegea production process.   547
  • Figure 174. HefCel-coated wood (left) and untreated wood (right) after 30 seconds flame test.     549
  • Figure 175. Bio-based barrier bags prepared from Tempo-CNF coated bio-HDPE film.        550
  • Figure 176. Worn Again products.             551
  • Figure 177. Zelfo Technology GmbH CNF production process.       553
  • Figure 178. High purity lignin.     556
  • Figure 179. Lignocellulose architecture. 556
  • Figure 180. Extraction processes to separate lignin from lignocellulosic biomass and corresponding technical lignins.                557
  • Figure 181. The lignocellulose biorefinery.            563
  • Figure 182. LignoBoost process. 568
  • Figure 183. LignoForce system for lignin recovery from black liquor.          569
  • Figure 184. Sequential liquid-lignin recovery and purification (SLPR) system.         569
  • Figure 185. A-Recovery+ chemical recovery concept.       571
  • Figure 186.  Schematic of a biorefinery for production of carriers and chemicals. 572
  • Figure 187. Organosolv lignin.     575
  • Figure 188. Hydrolytic lignin powder.      575
  • Figure 189. Estimated consumption of lignin, 2019-2031 (000 MT).            580
  • Figure 190. Schematic of WISA plywood home.   583
  • Figure 191. Lignin based activated carbon.            585
  • Figure 192. Lignin/celluose precursor.     587
  • Figure 193. ANDRITZ Lignin Recovery process.    601
  • Figure 194. DAWN Technology Process. 604
  • Figure 195. BALI™ technology.   607
  • Figure 196. Pressurized Hot Water Extraction.     610
  • Figure 197. sunliquid® production process.           614
  • Figure 198. Domsjö process.       615
  • Figure 199.  TMP-Bio Process.    618
  • Figure 200. Flow chart of the lignocellulose biorefinery pilot plant in Leuna.          619
  • Figure 201. AVAPTM process.     624
  • Figure 202. GreenPower+™ process.       625
  • Figure 203. BioFlex process.        632
  • Figure 204. LX Process.  634
  • Figure 205. METNIN™ Lignin refining technology.              637
  • Figure 206. Enfinity cellulosic ethanol technology process.            643
  • Figure 207: Plantrose process.    648
  • Figure 208. Hansa lignin.               652
  • Figure 209. UPM biorefinery process.     661
  • Figure 210. The Proesa® Process.              663
  • Figure 211. Goldilocks process and applications. 664

 

 

The Global Market for Bio-based Chemicals, Polymers and Materials
The Global Market for Bio-based Chemicals, Polymers and Materials
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The Global Market for Bio-based Chemicals, Polymers and Materials
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