With the need to supplement global plastics production with sustainable alternatives, and the dearth of available recycled plastic (~9% of the world's plastic is recycled), many producers are turning to bio-based alternatives. Bio-based materials refer to products that mainly consist of a substance (or substances) derived from living matter (biomass) and either occur naturally or are synthesized, or it may refer to products made by processes that use biomass. Materials from biomass sources include bulk chemicals, platform chemicals, solvents, polymers, and biocomposites. The many processes to convert biomass components to value-added products and fuels can be classified broadly as biochemical or thermochemical. In addition, biotechnological processes that rely mainly on plant breeding, fermentation, and conventional enzyme isolation also are used. New bio-based materials that may compete with conventional materials are emerging continually, and the opportunities to use them in existing and novel products are explored in this publication.
There is growing consumer demand and regulatory push for bio-based chemicals, materials, polymers, plastics, paints, coatings and fuels with high performance, good recyclability and biodegradable properties to underpin transition towards more sustainable manufacturing and products.
The Global Market for Bio-based Materials to 2033 presents a complete picture of the current market and future outlooks, covering bio-based chemicals and feedstocks, materials, polymers, bio-plastics, bio-fuels and bio-based paints and coatings. Contents include:
In depth market analysis of bio-based chemical feedstocks, biopolymers, bioplastics, natural fibers and lignin, biofuels and bio-based coatings and paints.
Global production capacities, market volumes and trends, current and forecast to 2033.
Figure 249. Resources required for liquid e-fuel production. 813
Figure 250. Levelized cost and fuel-switching CO2 prices of e-fuels. 817
Figure 251. Cost breakdown for e-fuels. 819
Figure 252. Pathways for algal biomass conversion to biofuels. 821
Figure 253. Algal biomass conversion process for biofuel production. 822
Figure 254. Classification and process technology according to carbon emission in ammonia production. 823
Figure 255. Green ammonia production and use. 825
Figure 256. Schematic of the Haber Bosch ammonia synthesis reaction. 827
Figure 257. Schematic of hydrogen production via steam methane reformation. 827
Figure 258. Estimated production cost of green ammonia. 833
Figure 259. Projected annual ammonia production, million tons. 834
Figure 260. CO2 capture and separation technology. 837
Figure 261. Conversion route for CO2-derived fuels and chemical intermediates. 838
Figure 262. Conversion pathways for CO2-derived methane, methanol and diesel. 839
Figure 263. CO2 captured from air using liquid and solid sorbent DAC plants, storage, and reuse. 842
Figure 264. Global CO2 capture from biomass and DAC in the Net Zero Scenario. 843
Figure 265. DAC technologies. 845
Figure 266. Schematic of Climeworks DAC system. 846
Figure 267. Climeworks’ first commercial direct air capture (DAC) plant, based in Hinwil, Switzerland. 847
Figure 268. Flow diagram for solid sorbent DAC. 848
Figure 269. Direct air capture based on high temperature liquid sorbent by Carbon Engineering. 849
Figure 270. Global capacity of direct air capture facilities. 854
Figure 271. Global map of DAC and CCS plants. 860
Figure 272. Schematic of costs of DAC technologies. 862
Figure 273. DAC cost breakdown and comparison. 863
Figure 274. Operating costs of generic liquid and solid-based DAC systems. 865
Figure 275. CO2 feedstock for the production of e-methanol. 868
Figure 276. Schematic illustration of (a) biophotosynthetic, (b) photothermal, (c) microbial-photoelectrochemical, (d) photosynthetic and photocatalytic (PS/PC), (e) photoelectrochemical (PEC), and (f) photovoltaic plus electrochemical (PV+EC) approaches for CO2 c 870