With the need to supplement global plastics production with sustainable alternatives, and the dearth of available recycled plastic (~9% of the world's plastic is recycled), many producers are turning to bio-based alternatives. Bio-based materials refer to products that mainly consist of a substance (or substances) derived from living matter (biomass) and either occur naturally or are synthesized, or it may refer to products made by processes that use biomass. Materials from biomass sources include bulk chemicals, platform chemicals, solvents, polymers, and biocomposites. The many processes to convert biomass components to value-added products and fuels can be classified broadly as biochemical or thermochemical. In addition, biotechnological processes that rely mainly on plant breeding, fermentation, and conventional enzyme isolation also are used. New bio-based materials that may compete with conventional materials are emerging continually, and the opportunities to use them in existing and novel products are explored in this publication.
There is growing consumer demand and regulatory push for bio-based chemicals, materials, polymers, plastics, paints, coatings and fuels with high performance, good recyclability and biodegradable properties to underpin transition towards more sustainable manufacturing and products.
The Global Market for Bio-based and Sustainable Materials 2023-2033 presents a complete picture of the current market and future outlooks, covering bio-based chemicals and feedstocks, materials, polymers, bio-plastics, bio-fuels and bio-based paints and coatings. Contents include:
In depth market analysis of bio-based chemical feedstocks, biopolymers, bioplastics, natural fibers and lignin, biofuels and bio-based coatings and paints.
Global production capacities, market volumes and trends, current and forecast to 2033.
Figure 263. Resources required for liquid e-fuel production. 858
Figure 264. Levelized cost and fuel-switching CO2 prices of e-fuels. 863
Figure 265. Cost breakdown for e-fuels. 865
Figure 266. Pathways for algal biomass conversion to biofuels. 867
Figure 267. Algal biomass conversion process for biofuel production. 868
Figure 268. Classification and process technology according to carbon emission in ammonia production. 869
Figure 269. Green ammonia production and use. 871
Figure 270. Schematic of the Haber Bosch ammonia synthesis reaction. 873
Figure 271. Schematic of hydrogen production via steam methane reformation. 873
Figure 272. Estimated production cost of green ammonia. 879
Figure 273. Projected annual ammonia production, million tons. 880
Figure 274. CO2 capture and separation technology. 883
Figure 275. Conversion route for CO2-derived fuels and chemical intermediates. 884
Figure 276. Conversion pathways for CO2-derived methane, methanol and diesel. 885
Figure 277. CO2 captured from air using liquid and solid sorbent DAC plants, storage, and reuse. 888
Figure 278. Global CO2 capture from biomass and DAC in the Net Zero Scenario. 889
Figure 279. DAC technologies. 891
Figure 280. Schematic of Climeworks DAC system. 892
Figure 281. Climeworks’ first commercial direct air capture (DAC) plant, based in Hinwil, Switzerland. 893
Figure 282. Flow diagram for solid sorbent DAC. 894
Figure 283. Direct air capture based on high temperature liquid sorbent by Carbon Engineering. 895
Figure 284. Global capacity of direct air capture facilities. 900
Figure 285. Global map of DAC and CCS plants. 906
Figure 286. Schematic of costs of DAC technologies. 908
Figure 287. DAC cost breakdown and comparison. 909
Figure 288. Operating costs of generic liquid and solid-based DAC systems. 911
Figure 289. CO2 feedstock for the production of e-methanol. 914
Figure 290. Schematic illustration of (a) biophotosynthetic, (b) photothermal, (c) microbial-photoelectrochemical, (d) photosynthetic and photocatalytic (PS/PC), (e) photoelectrochemical (PEC), and (f) photovoltaic plus electrochemical (PV+EC) approaches for CO2 c 916