The Global Market for Biofuels to 2033

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January 2023 | 297 pages, 72 tables, 78 figures | Download table of contents

Renewable energy sources can be converted directly into biofuels. There has been a huge growth in the production and usage of biofuels as substitutes for fossil fuels. Due to the declining reserve of fossil resources as well as environmental concerns, and essential energy security, it is important to develop renewable and sustainable energy and chemicals.

The use of biofuels manufactured from plant-based biomass as feedstock would reduce fossil fuel consumption and consequently the negative impact on the environment.  Renewable energy sources cover a broad raw material base, including cellulosic biomass (fibrous and inedible parts of plants), waste materials, algae, and biogas.

The Global Market for Biofuels covers biobased fuels, bio-diesel, renewable diesel,  sustainable aviation fuels (SAFs), biogas, electrofuels (e-fuels), green ammonia based on utilization of:

  • First-Generation Feedstocks (food-based) e.g. Waste oils including used cooking oil, animal fats, and other fatty acids.
  • Second-Generation Feedstocks (non-food based) e.g. Lignocellulosic wastes and residues, Energy crops, Agricultural residues, Forestry residues, Biogenic fraction of municipal and industrial waste.
  • Third-Generation Feedstocks e.g. algal biomass
  • Fourth-Generation Feedstocks e.g. genetically modified (GM) algae and cyanobacteria.

 

Report contents include:

  • Market trends and drivers.
  • Market challenges.
  • Biofuels costs, now and estimated to 2033. 
  • Biofuel consumption to 2033. 
  • Market analysis including key players, end use markets, production processes, costs, production capacities, market demand for biofuels, bio-jet fuels, biodiesel, bio-naphtha, biobased alcohol fuels, biofuel from plastic waste & used tires, biofules from carbon capture renewable diesel, biogas, electrofuels, green ammonia and other relevant technologies. 
  • Production and synthesis methods.
  • Biofuel industry developments and investments 2020-2023.
  • 153 company profiles including BTG Bioliquids, Byogy Renewables, Caphenia, Enerkem, Infinium. Eni S.p.A., Ensyn, FORGE Hydrocarbons Corporation, Fulcrum Bioenergy, Genecis Bioindustries, Gevo, Haldor Topsoe, Opera Bioscience, Steeper Energy,  SunFire GmbH and Vertus Energy . 

 

 

1              RESEARCH METHODOLOGY         17

 

2              EXECUTIVE SUMMARY   18

  • 2.1          Market drivers  18
  • 2.2          Market challenges           19
  • 2.3          Liquid biofuels market 2020-2033, by type and production            20

 

3              INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENTS 2020-2023    24

 

4              BIOFUELS            28

  • 4.1          The global biofuels market           28
    • 4.1.1      Diesel substitutes and alternatives           28
    • 4.1.2      Gasoline substitutes and alternatives      30
  • 4.2          Comparison of biofuel costs 2022, by type            30
  • 4.3          Types    31
    • 4.3.1      Solid Biofuels     31
    • 4.3.2      Liquid Biofuels  32
    • 4.3.3      Gaseous Biofuels             32
    • 4.3.4      Conventional Biofuels    33
    • 4.3.5      Advanced Biofuels           33
  • 4.4          Feedstocks         34
    • 4.4.1      First-generation (1-G)    36
    • 4.4.2      Second-generation (2-G)              37
      • 4.4.2.1   Lignocellulosic wastes and residues         38
      • 4.4.2.2   Biorefinery lignin              39
    • 4.4.3      Third-generation (3-G)  43
      • 4.4.3.1   Algal biofuels     43
    • 4.4.4      Fourth-generation (4-G) 46
    • 4.4.5      Advantages and disadvantages, by generation    46

 

5              HYDROCARBON BIOFUELS            48

  • 5.1          Biodiesel              48
    • 5.1.1      Biodiesel by generation 49
    • 5.1.2      Production of biodiesel and other biofuels            50
      • 5.1.2.1   Pyrolysis of biomass        51
      • 5.1.2.2   Vegetable oil transesterification 54
      • 5.1.2.3   Vegetable oil hydrogenation (HVO)         55
      • 5.1.2.4   Biodiesel from tall oil      57
      • 5.1.2.5   Fischer-Tropsch BioDiesel             57
      • 5.1.2.6   Hydrothermal liquefaction of biomass    59
      • 5.1.2.7   CO2 capture and Fischer-Tropsch (FT)     59
      • 5.1.2.8   Dymethyl ether (DME)   60
    • 5.1.3      Global production and consumption        60
  • 5.2          Renewable diesel            63
    • 5.2.1      Production          63
    • 5.2.2      Global consumption       64
  • 5.3          Bio-jet (bio-aviation) fuels            66
    • 5.3.1      Description         66
    • 5.3.2      Global market   66
    • 5.3.3      Production pathways     67
    • 5.3.4      Costs     69
    • 5.3.5      Biojet fuel production capacities                70
    • 5.3.6      Challenges          70
    • 5.3.7      Global consumption       71
  • 5.4          Syngas  72
  • 5.5          Biogas and biomethane 73
    • 5.5.1      Feedstocks         75
  • 5.6          Bio-naphtha       77
    • 5.6.1      Overview            77
    • 5.6.2      Markets and applications              77
    • 5.6.3      Production capacities, by producer, current and planned               79
    • 5.6.4      Production capacities, total (tonnes), historical, current and planned        80

 

6              ALCOHOL FUELS               81

  • 6.1          Biomethanol      81
    • 6.1.1      Methanol-to gasoline technology             82
      • 6.1.1.1   Production processes     83
  • 6.2          Bioethanol          86
    • 6.2.1      Technology description 86
    • 6.2.2      1G Bio-Ethanol  86
    • 6.2.3      Ethanol to jet fuel technology     87
    • 6.2.4      Methanol from pulp & paper production               88
    • 6.2.5      Sulfite spent liquor fermentation              88
    • 6.2.6      Gasification        89
      • 6.2.6.1   Biomass gasification and syngas fermentation    89
      • 6.2.6.2   Biomass gasification and syngas thermochemical conversion        89
    • 6.2.7      CO2 capture and alcohol synthesis           90
    • 6.2.8      Biomass hydrolysis and fermentation     90
      • 6.2.8.1   Separate hydrolysis and fermentation    90
      • 6.2.8.2   Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF)     91
      • 6.2.8.3   Pre-hydrolysis and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (PSSF)             91
      • 6.2.8.4   Simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation (SSCF)            91
      • 6.2.8.5   Direct conversion (consolidated bioprocessing) (CBP)      92
    • 6.2.9      Global ethanol consumption       93
  • 6.3          Biobutanol          94
    • 6.3.1      Production          96

 

7              BIOFUEL FROM PLASTIC WASTE AND USED TIRES               97

  • 7.1          Plastic pyrolysis 97
  • 7.2          Used tires pyrolysis         98
    • 7.2.1      Conversion to biofuel     99

 

8              ELECTROFUELS (E-FUELS)             101

  • 8.1          Introduction       101
    • 8.1.1      Benefits of e-fuels           103
  • 8.2          Feedstocks         104
    • 8.2.1      Hydrogen electrolysis     104
    • 8.2.2      CO2 capture       105
  • 8.3          Production          105
  • 8.4          Electrolysers      107
    • 8.4.1      Commercial alkaline electrolyser cells (AECs)       109
    • 8.4.2      PEM electrolysers (PEMEC)         109
    • 8.4.3      High-temperature solid oxide electrolyser cells (SOECs)  109
  • 8.5          Costs     109
  • 8.6          Market challenges           113
  • 8.7          Companies         113

 

9              ALGAE-DERIVED BIOFUELS           115

  • 9.1          Technology description 115
  • 9.2          Production          115

 

10           GREEN AMMONIA           117

  • 10.1        Production          117
    • 10.1.1    Decarbonisation of ammonia production               119
    • 10.1.2    Green ammonia projects              120
  • 10.2        Green ammonia synthesis methods         120
    • 10.2.1    Haber-Bosch process      120
    • 10.2.2    Biological nitrogen fixation          121
    • 10.2.3    Electrochemical production         122
    • 10.2.4    Chemical looping processes        122
  • 10.3        Blue ammonia   122
    • 10.3.1    Blue ammonia projects  122
  • 10.4        Markets and applications              123
    • 10.4.1    Chemical energy storage              123
      • 10.4.1.1                Ammonia fuel cells          123
    • 10.4.2    Marine fuel         124
  • 10.5        Costs     126
  • 10.6        Estimated market demand           128
  • 10.7        Companies and projects 128

 

11           BIOFUELS FROM CARBON CAPTURE         130

  • 11.1        Overview            131
  • 11.2        CO2 capture from point sources 133
  • 11.3        Production routes            134
  • 11.4        Direct air capture (DAC) 135
    • 11.4.1    Description         135
    • 11.4.2    Deployment       137
    • 11.4.3    Point source carbon capture versus Direct Air Capture     137
    • 11.4.4    Technologies     138
      • 11.4.4.1                Solid sorbents   140
      • 11.4.4.2                Liquid sorbents 142
      • 11.4.4.3                Liquid solvents  142
      • 11.4.4.4                Airflow equipment integration   143
      • 11.4.4.5                Passive Direct Air Capture (PDAC)             143
      • 11.4.4.6                Direct conversion             144
      • 11.4.4.7                Co-product generation  144
      • 11.4.4.8                Low Temperature DAC  144
      • 11.4.4.9                Regeneration methods 144
    • 11.4.5    Commercialization and plants     145
    • 11.4.6    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) in DAC             146
    • 11.4.7    DAC plants and projects-current and planned      146
    • 11.4.8    Markets for DAC               153
    • 11.4.9    Costs     154
    • 11.4.10  Challenges          159
    • 11.4.11  Players and production  160
  • 11.5        Methanol            160
  • 11.6        Algae based biofuels       161
  • 11.7        CO₂-fuels from solar        162
  • 11.8        Companies         164
  • 11.9        Challenges          166

 

12           COMPANY PROFILES       167 (153 company profiles)

 

13           REFERENCES       287

 

List of Tables

  • Table 1. Market drivers for biofuels.        18
  • Table 2. Market challenges for biofuels. 19
  • Table 3. Liquid biofuels market 2020-2033, by type and production.          22
  • Table 4. Industry developments in biofuels 2020-2023.    24
  • Table 5. Comparison of biofuel costs (USD/liter) 2022, by type.   30
  • Table 6. Categories and examples of solid biofuel.             31
  • Table 7. Comparison of biofuels and e-fuels to fossil and electricity.           33
  • Table 8. Classification of biomass feedstock.        34
  • Table 9. Biorefinery feedstocks. 35
  • Table 10. Feedstock conversion pathways.           35
  • Table 11. First-Generation Feedstocks.   36
  • Table 12.  Lignocellulosic ethanol plants and capacities.  38
  • Table 13. Comparison of pulping and biorefinery lignins. 39
  • Table 14. Commercial and pre-commercial biorefinery lignin production facilities and  processes 40
  • Table 15. Operating and planned lignocellulosic biorefineries and industrial flue gas-to-ethanol.  42
  • Table 16. Properties of microalgae and macroalgae.         44
  • Table 17. Yield of algae and other biodiesel crops.             45
  • Table 18. Advantages and disadvantages of biofuels, by generation.         46
  • Table 19. Biodiesel by generation.            49
  • Table 20. Biodiesel production techniques.          51
  • Table 21. Summary of pyrolysis technique under different operating conditions. 51
  • Table 22. Biomass materials and their bio-oil yield.            53
  • Table 23. Biofuel production cost from the biomass pyrolysis process.      53
  • Table 24. Properties of vegetable oils in comparison to diesel.     55
  • Table 25. Main producers of HVO and capacities.               56
  • Table 26. Example commercial Development of BtL processes.    57
  • Table 27. Pilot or demo projects for biomass to liquid (BtL) processes.     58
  • Table 28. Global biodiesel consumption, 2010-2033 (M litres/year).          62
  • Table 29. Global renewable diesel consumption, to 2033 (M litres/year). 64
  • Table 30. Advantages and disadvantages of biojet fuel    66
  • Table 31. Production pathways for bio-jet fuel.   67
  • Table 32. Current and announced biojet fuel facilities and capacities.        70
  • Table 33. Global bio-jet fuel consumption to 2033 (Million litres/year).    71
  • Table 34. Biogas feedstocks.       75
  • Table 35. Bio-based naphtha markets and applications.   78
  • Table 36. Bio-naphtha market value chain.            78
  • Table 37. Bio-based Naphtha production capacities, by producer.               79
  • Table 38. Comparison of biogas, biomethane and natural gas.      84
  • Table 39.  Processes in bioethanol production.  90
  • Table 40. Microorganisms used in CBP for ethanol production from biomass lignocellulosic.           92
  • Table 41. Ethanol consumption 2010-2033 (million litres).             93
  • Table 42. Applications of e-fuels, by type.             102
  • Table 43. Overview of e-fuels.    103
  • Table 44. Benefits of e-fuels.      103
  • Table 45. Main characteristics of different electrolyzer technologies.        108
  • Table 46. Market challenges for e-fuels. 113
  • Table 47. E-fuels companies.       113
  • Table 48. Green ammonia projects (current and planned).             120
  • Table 49. Blue ammonia projects.             122
  • Table 50. Ammonia fuel cell technologies.            123
  • Table 51. Market overview of green ammonia in marine fuel.       124
  • Table 52. Summary of marine alternative fuels.  125
  • Table 53. Estimated costs for different types of ammonia.             127
  • Table 54. Main players in green ammonia.            128
  • Table 55. Market overview for CO2 derived fuels.              131
  • Table 56. Point source examples.              133
  • Table 57. Advantages and disadvantages of DAC.               136
  • Table 58. Companies developing airflow equipment integration with DAC.             143
  • Table 59. Companies developing Passive Direct Air Capture (PDAC) technologies. 143
  • Table 60. Companies developing regeneration methods for DAC technologies.     145
  • Table 61. DAC companies and technologies.         145
  • Table 62. DAC technology developers and production.    147
  • Table 63. DAC projects in development. 152
  • Table 64. Markets for DAC.          153
  • Table 65. Costs summary for DAC.            154
  • Table 66. Cost estimates of DAC.               157
  • Table 67. Challenges for DAC technology.              159
  • Table 68. DAC companies and technologies.         160
  • Table 69. Microalgae products and prices.             162
  • Table 70. Main Solar-Driven CO2 Conversion Approaches.             163
  • Table 71. Companies in CO2-derived fuel products.          164
  • Table 72. Granbio Nanocellulose Processes.         218
  •  

List of Figures

  • Figure 1. Liquid biofuel production and consumption (in thousands of m3), 2000-2021.     21
  • Figure 2. Distribution of global liquid biofuel production in 2021. 22
  • Figure 3. Diesel and gasoline alternatives and blends.      29
  • Figure 4.  Schematic of a biorefinery for production of carriers and chemicals.      40
  • Figure 5. Hydrolytic lignin powder.           43
  • Figure 6. Regional production of biodiesel (billion litres). 49
  • Figure 7. Flow chart for biodiesel production.      54
  • Figure 8. Global biodiesel consumption, 2010-2033 (M litres/year).           61
  • Figure 9. Global renewable diesel consumption, to 2033 (M litres/year). 64
  • Figure 10. Global bio-jet fuel consumption to 2033 (Million litres/year).  71
  • Figure 11. Total syngas market by product in MM Nm³/h of Syngas, 2021.               72
  • Figure 12. Overview of biogas utilization.               74
  • Figure 13. Biogas and biomethane pathways.      75
  • Figure 14. Bio-based naphtha production capacities, 2018-2033 (tonnes).              81
  • Figure 15. Renewable Methanol Production Processes from Different Feedstocks.              83
  • Figure 16. Production of biomethane through anaerobic digestion and upgrading.              84
  • Figure 17. Production of biomethane through biomass gasification and methanation.       85
  • Figure 18. Production of biomethane through the Power to methane process.     86
  • Figure 19. Ethanol consumption 2010-2033 (million litres).            93
  • Figure 20. Properties of petrol and biobutanol.   95
  • Figure 21. Biobutanol production route. 95
  • Figure 22. Waste plastic production pathways to (A) diesel and (B) gasoline           97
  • Figure 23. Schematic for Pyrolysis of Scrap Tires. 99
  • Figure 24. Used tires conversion process.              100
  • Figure 25. Process steps in the production of electrofuels.             101
  • Figure 26. Mapping storage technologies according to performance characteristics.           102
  • Figure 27. Production process for green hydrogen.           105
  • Figure 28. E-liquids production routes.   106
  • Figure 29. Fischer-Tropsch liquid e-fuel products.              106
  • Figure 30. Resources required for liquid e-fuel production.            107
  • Figure 31. Levelized cost and fuel-switching CO2 prices of e-fuels.             111
  • Figure 32. Cost breakdown for e-fuels.   112
  • Figure 33.  Pathways for algal biomass conversion to biofuels.     115
  • Figure 34. Algal biomass conversion process for biofuel production.          116
  • Figure 35. Classification and process technology according to carbon emission in ammonia production.    117
  • Figure 36. Green ammonia production and use. 119
  • Figure 37. Schematic of the Haber Bosch ammonia synthesis reaction.     121
  • Figure 38. Schematic of hydrogen production via steam methane reformation.    121
  • Figure 39. Estimated production cost of green ammonia.               127
  • Figure 40. Projected annual ammonia production, million tons.   128
  • Figure 41. CO2 capture and separation technology.          130
  • Figure 42. Conversion route for CO2-derived fuels and chemical intermediates.   132
  • Figure 43.  Conversion pathways for CO2-derived methane, methanol and diesel.               133
  • Figure 44. CO2 captured from air using liquid and solid sorbent DAC plants, storage, and reuse.   135
  • Figure 45. Global CO2 capture from biomass and DAC in the Net Zero Scenario.   136
  • Figure 46.  DAC technologies.     139
  • Figure 47. Schematic of Climeworks DAC system.               140
  • Figure 48. Climeworks’ first commercial direct air capture (DAC) plant, based in Hinwil, Switzerland.          141
  • Figure 49.  Flow diagram for solid sorbent DAC.  141
  • Figure 50. Direct air capture based on high temperature liquid sorbent by Carbon Engineering.    142
  • Figure 51. Global capacity of direct air capture facilities. 147
  • Figure 52. Global map of DAC and CCS plants.      153
  • Figure 53. Schematic of costs of DAC technologies.           155
  • Figure 54. DAC cost breakdown and comparison.               156
  • Figure 55. Operating costs of generic liquid and solid-based DAC systems.              158
  • Figure 56. CO2 feedstock for the production of e-methanol.         161
  • Figure 57. Schematic illustration of (a) biophotosynthetic, (b) photothermal, (c) microbial-photoelectrochemical, (d) photosynthetic and photocatalytic (PS/PC), (e) photoelectrochemical (PEC), and (f) photovoltaic plus electrochemical (PV+EC) approaches for CO2 c     163
  • Figure 58. Audi synthetic fuels.  164
  • Figure 59. ANDRITZ Lignin Recovery process.       172
  • Figure 60. FBPO process 184
  • Figure 61. Direct Air Capture Process.     188
  • Figure 62. CRI process.   191
  • Figure 63. Colyser process.          198
  • Figure 64. Domsjö process.          202
  • Figure 65. ECFORM electrolysis reactor schematic.            204
  • Figure 66. Dioxycle modular electrolyzer.              205
  • Figure 67. FuelPositive system.  213
  • Figure 68. INERATEC unit.             227
  • Figure 69. Infinitree swing method.         228
  • Figure 70. Enfinity cellulosic ethanol technology process.               254
  • Figure 71: Plantrose process.      259
  • Figure 72. Sunfire process for Blue Crude production.      273
  • Figure 73. O12 Reactor. 275
  • Figure 74. Sunglasses with lenses made from CO2-derived materials.        275
  • Figure 75. CO2 made car part.    276
  • Figure 76. The Velocys process. 278
  • Figure 77. Goldilocks process and applications.   281
  • Figure 78. The Proesa® Process. 282

 

 

 

The Global Market for Biofuels to 2033
The Global Market for Biofuels to 2033
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