The Global Market for Biofuels 2022-2032

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July 2022 | 230 pages, 45 tables, 43 figures | Download table of contents

Renewable energy sources can be converted directly into biofuels. There has been a huge growth in the production and usage of biofuels as substitutes for fossil fuels. Due to the declining reserve of fossil resources as well as environmental concerns, and essential energy security, it is important to develop renewable and sustainable energy and chemicals.

The use of biofuels manufactured from plant-based biomass as feedstock would reduce fossil fuel consumption and consequently the negative impact on the environment.  Renewable energy sources cover a broad raw material base, including cellulosic biomass (fibrous and inedible parts of plants), waste materials, algae, and biogas.

The Global Market for Biofuels covers biobased fuels, bio-diesel, renewable diesel,  sustainable aviation fuels (SAFs), biogas, electrofuels (e-fuels), green ammonia based on utilization of:

  • First-Generation Feedstocks (food-based) e.g. Waste oils including used cooking oil, animal fats, and other fatty acids.
  • Second-Generation Feedstocks (non-food based) e.g. Lignocellulosic wastes and residues, Energy crops, Agricultural residues, Forestry residues, Biogenic fraction of municipal and industrial waste.
  • Third-Generation Feedstocks e.g. algal biomass
  • Fourth-Generation Feedstocks e.g. genetically modified (GM) algae and cyanobacteria.

 

Report contents include:

  • Market trends and drivers.
  • Market challenges.
  • Biofuels costs, now and estimated to 2032. 
  • Biofuel consumption to 2032. 
  • Market analysis including key players, end use markets, production processes, costs, production capacities, market demand for biofuels, bio-jet fuels, biodiesel, biobased alcohol fuels, renewable diesel, biogas, electrofuels, green ammonia and other relevant technologies. 
  • Production and synthesis methods.
  • Biofuel industry developments and investments 2020-2022.
  • 114 company profiles including BTG Bioliquids, Byogy Renewables, Caphenia, Enerkem, Infinium. Eni S.p.A., Ensyn, FORGE Hydrocarbons Corporation, Fulcrum Bioenergy, Genecis Bioindustries, Gevo, Haldor Topsoe, Opera Bioscience, Steeper Energy,  SunFire GmbH, Vertus Energy and many more. 

 

 

1              RESEARCH METHODOLOGY         13

 

2              EXECUTIVE SUMMARY   14

  • 2.1          Market drivers  14
  • 2.2          Market challenges           15
  • 2.3          Liquid biofuels market 2020-2032, by type and production            16

 

3             BIOFUELS INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENTS 2020-2022    20

 

4              BIOFUELS            24

  • 4.1          The global biofuels market           24
    • 4.1.1      Diesel substitutes and alternatives           25
    • 4.1.2      Gasoline substitutes and alternatives      26
    • 4.1.3      Alcohol fuels      27
  • 4.2          Comparison of biofuel costs 2022, by type            29
  • 4.3          Types    30
    • 4.3.1      Solid Biofuels     30
    • 4.3.2      Liquid Biofuels  31
    • 4.3.3      Gaseous Biofuels             32
    • 4.3.4      Conventional Biofuels    32
    • 4.3.5      Advanced Biofuels           32
  • 4.4          Feedstocks         34
    • 4.4.1      First-generation (1-G)    35
    • 4.4.2      Second-generation (2-G)              36
      • 4.4.2.1   Lignocellulosic wastes and residues         36
      • 4.4.2.2   Biorefinery lignin              37
    • 4.4.3      Third-generation (3-G)  42
      • 4.4.3.1   Algal biofuels     42
    • 4.4.4      Fourth-generation (4-G) 44
    • 4.4.5      Advantages and disadvantages, by generation    44

 

5              HYDROCARBON BIOFUELS            48

  • 5.1          Biodiesel              48
    • 5.1.1      Biodiesel by generation 48
    • 5.1.2      Production          49
      • 5.1.2.1   Pyrolysis of biomass        50
      • 5.1.2.2   Vegetable oil transesterification 51
      • 5.1.2.3   Vegetable oil hydrogenation (HVO)         52
      • 5.1.2.4   Biodiesel from tall oil      53
      • 5.1.2.5   Fischer-Tropsch BioDiesel             53
      • 5.1.2.6   Hydrothermal liquefaction of biomass    54
      • 5.1.2.7   CO2 capture and Fischer-Tropsch (FT)     55
      • 5.1.2.8   Dymethyl ether 56
    • 5.1.3      Global market   57
  • 5.2          Renewable diesel            58
    • 5.2.1      Production          59
    • 5.2.2      Global consumption to 2032        59
  • 5.3          Bio-jet (bio-aviation) fuels            60
    • 5.3.1      Description         60
    • 5.3.2      Global market   61
    • 5.3.3      Production pathways     62
    • 5.3.4      Costs     64
    • 5.3.5      Biojet fuel production capacities                64
    • 5.3.6      Challenges          65
    • 5.3.7      Global consumption to 2032        66
  • 5.4          Syngas  67
  • 5.5          Biogas and biomethane 68
    • 5.5.1      Feedstocks         69

 

6              ALCOHOL FUELS               71

  • 6.1          Biomethanol      71
    • 6.1.1      Methanol-to gasoline technology             72
    • 6.1.2      Gasification        73
  • 6.2          Bioethanol          74
    • 6.2.1      Technology description 74
    • 6.2.2      1G Bio-Ethanol  76
    • 6.2.3      Ethanol to jet fuel technology     76
    • 6.2.4      Methanol from pulp & paper production               77
    • 6.2.5      Sulfite spent liquor fermentation              77
    • 6.2.6      Gasification        78
      • 6.2.6.1   Biomass gasification and syngas fermentation    78
      • 6.2.6.2   Biomass gasification and syngas conversion         79
    • 6.2.7      CO2 capture and alcohol synthesis           79
    • 6.2.8      Biomass hydrolysis and fermentation     81
    • 6.2.9      Global ethanol consumption       82
    • 6.2.10    Global bioethanol consumption to 2020-2032      82
  • 6.3          Biobutanol          84
    • 6.3.1      Production          85

 

7              BIOFUEL FROM PLASTIC WASTE AND USED TIREs                87

  • 7.1          Plastic pyrolysis 87
  • 7.2          Used tires pyrolysis         89

 

8              ELECTROFUELS (E-FUELS)             92

  • 8.1          Introduction       92
    • 8.1.1      Benefits of e-fuels           94
  • 8.2          Feedstocks         95
    • 8.2.1      Hydrogen electrolysis     95
    • 8.2.2      CO2 capture       96
  • 8.3          Production          96
  • 8.4          Electrolysers      98
    • 8.4.1      Commercial alkaline electrolyser cells (AECs)       100
    • 8.4.2      PEM electrolysers (PEMEC)         100
    • 8.4.3      High-temperature solid oxide electrolyser cells (SOECs)  100
  • 8.5          Direct Air Capture (DAC)               100
    • 8.5.1      Technologies     101
    • 8.5.2      Markets for DAC               103
    • 8.5.3      Costs     103
    • 8.5.4      Challenges          104
    • 8.5.5      Companies and production          105
    • 8.5.6      CO2 capture from point sources 106
  • 8.6          Costs     107
  • 8.7          Market challenges           110
  • 8.8          Companies         110

 

9              ALGAE-DERIVED BIOFUELS           112

  • 9.1          Technology description 112
  • 9.2          Production          114
  • 9.3          Cost       116

 

10           GREEN AMMONIA           119

  • 10.1        Production          119
    • 10.1.1    Decarbonisation of ammonia production               121
    • 10.1.2    Green ammonia projects              122
  • 10.2        Green ammonia synthesis methods         122
    • 10.2.1    Haber-Bosch process      122
    • 10.2.2    Biological nitrogen fixation          123
    • 10.2.3    Electrochemical production         124
    • 10.2.4    Chemical looping processes        124
  • 10.3        Blue ammonia   124
    • 10.3.1    Blue ammonia projects  124
  • 10.4        Markets and applications              125
    • 10.4.1    Chemical energy storage              125
      • 10.4.1.1                Ammonia fuel cells          125
    • 10.4.2    Marine fuel         126
  • 10.5        Costs     128
  • 10.6        Estimated market demand           129
  • 10.7        Companies and projects 130

 

11           COMPANY PROFILES       132 (114 company profiles)

 

12           REFERENCES       222

 

List of Tables

  • Table 1. Market drivers for biofuels.        14
  • Table 2. Market challenges for biofuels. 15
  • Table 3. Liquid biofuels market 2020-2032, by type and production.          18
  • Table 4. Industry developments in biofuels 2020-2022.    20
  • Table 5. Categories and examples of solid biofuel.             31
  • Table 6. Comparison of biofuels and e-fuels to fossil and electricity.           32
  • Table 7. Biorefinery feedstocks. 34
  • Table 8. Feedstock conversion pathways.              35
  • Table 9. First-Generation Feedstocks.     35
  • Table 10.  Lignocellulosic ethanol plants and capacities.  36
  • Table 11. Comparison of pulping and biorefinery lignins. 38
  • Table 12. Commercial and pre-commercial biorefinery lignin production facilities and  processes 39
  • Table 13. Operating and planned lignocellulosic biorefineries and industrial flue gas-to-ethanol.  40
  • Table 14. Properties of microalgae and macroalgae.         42
  • Table 15. Yield of algae and other biodiesel crops.             43
  • Table 16. Advantages and disadvantages of biofuels, by generation.         44
  • Table 17. Biodiesel by generation.            48
  • Table 18. Biodiesel production techniques.          49
  • Table 19. Advantages and disadvantages of biojet fuel    61
  • Table 20. Production pathways for bio-jet fuel.   62
  • Table 21. Current and announced biojet fuel facilities and capacities.        65
  • Table 22. Biogas feedstocks.       69
  • Table 23. Biomass gasification technologies and companies.         78
  • Table 24. Global bioethanol consumption to 2020-2032 (million liters).    82
  • Table 25. Applications of e-fuels, by type.             93
  • Table 26. Overview of e-fuels.    94
  • Table 27. Benefits of e-fuels.      94
  • Table 28. Main characteristics of different electrolyzer technologies.        99
  • Table 29. Advantages and disadvantages of DAC.               101
  • Table 30. DAC companies and technologies.         102
  • Table 31. Markets for DAC.          103
  • Table 32. Cost estimates of DAC.               103
  • Table 33. Challenges for DAC technology.              104
  • Table 34. DAC technology developers and production.    105
  • Table 35. Market challenges for e-fuels. 110
  • Table 36. E-fuels companies.       110
  • Table 37. Advantages of algal biomass over lignocellulosic biomass.          112
  • Table 38. Green ammonia projects (current and planned).             122
  • Table 39. Blue ammonia projects.             124
  • Table 40. Ammonia fuel cell technologies.            125
  • Table 41. Market overview of green ammonia in marine fuel.       126
  • Table 42. Summary of marine alternative fuels.  127
  • Table 43. Estimated costs for different types of ammonia.             128
  • Table 44. Main players in green ammonia.            130
  • Table 45. Granbio Nanocellulose Processes.         170
  •  

List of Figures

  • Figure 1. Liquid biofuel production and consumption (in thousands of m3), 2000-2021.     17
  • Figure 2. Distribution of global liquid biofuel production in 2021. 18
  • Figure 3. Liquid biofuels market 2020-2032, by type and production.        19
  • Figure 4. Comparison of biofuel costs (USD/gallon) 2022, by type.              29
  • Figure 5.  Schematic of a biorefinery for production of carriers and chemicals.      38
  • Figure 6. Hydrolytic lignin powder.           41
  • Figure 7. Global biodiesel consumption, 2010-2027 (M litres/year).           58
  • Figure 8. Global renewable diesel consumption, to 2032 (M litres/year). 60
  • Figure 9. Global bio-jet fuel consumption to 2032 (M litres/year).              66
  • Figure 10. Total syngas market by product in MM Nm³/h of Syngas, 2021.               67
  • Figure 11. Biogas and biomethane pathways.      69
  • Figure 12. Ethanol consumption 2010-2027 (million litres).            82
  • Figure 13. Global bioethanol consumption to 2020-2032 (million liters).  83
  • Figure 14. Properties of petrol and biobutanol.   84
  • Figure 15. Biobutanol production route. 85
  • Figure 16. Waste plastic production pathways to (A) diesel and (B) gasoline           87
  • Figure 17. Process steps in the production of electrofuels.             92
  • Figure 18. Mapping storage technologies according to performance characteristics.           93
  • Figure 19. Production process for green hydrogen.           96
  • Figure 20. E-liquids production routes.   97
  • Figure 21. Fischer-Tropsch liquid e-fuel products.              97
  • Figure 22. Resources required for liquid e-fuel production.            98
  • Figure 23. Schematic of Climeworks DAC system.               102
  • Figure 24. Levelized cost and fuel-switching CO2 prices of e-fuels.             108
  • Figure 25. Cost breakdown for e-fuels.   109
  • Figure 26. Algal gasification (step-wise) to produce biofuels.        118
  • Figure 27. Classification and process technology according to carbon emission in ammonia production.    120
  • Figure 28. Green ammonia production and use. 121
  • Figure 29. Schematic of the Haber Bosch ammonia synthesis reaction.     123
  • Figure 30. Schematic of hydrogen production via steam methane reformation.    123
  • Figure 31. Estimated production cost of green ammonia.               129
  • Figure 32. Projected annual ammonia production, million tons.   130
  • Figure 33. ANDRITZ Lignin Recovery process.       135
  • Figure 34. FBPO process 146
  • Figure 35. Direct Air Capture Process.     149
  • Figure 36. CRI process.   150
  • Figure 37. Domsjö process.          157
  • Figure 38. FuelPositive system.  165
  • Figure 39. Infinitree swing method.         176
  • Figure 40. Enfinity cellulosic ethanol technology process.               195
  • Figure 41: Plantrose process.      200
  • Figure 42. The Velocys process. 214
  • Figure 43. Goldilocks process and applications.   217

 

The Global Market for Biofuels 2022-2032
The Global Market for Biofuels 2022-2032
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The Global Market for Biofuels 2022-2032
The Global Market for Biofuels 2022-2032
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