Biofuels are renewable transportation fuels derived from organic material including crops, agricultural residues, and waste. There has been a huge growth in the production and usage of biofuels as substitutes for fossil fuels. Due to the declining reserve of fossil resources as well as environmental concerns, and essential energy security, it is important to develop renewable and sustainable energy and chemicals.
The use of biofuels manufactured from plant-based biomass as feedstock would reduce fossil fuel consumption and consequently the negative impact on the environment. Renewable energy sources cover a broad raw material base, including cellulosic biomass (fibrous and inedible parts of plants), waste materials, algae, and biogas.
The Global Market for Biofuels 2023-2023, now in its Third Edition (first published June 2022), covers bio-based fuels based on utilization of:
First-Generation Feedstocks (food-based) e.g. Waste oils including used cooking oil, animal fats, and other fatty acids.
Second-Generation Feedstocks (non-food based) e.g. Lignocellulosic wastes and residues, Energy crops, Agricultural residues, Forestry residues, Biogenic fraction of municipal and industrial waste.
Third-Generation Feedstocks e.g. algal biomass
Fourth-Generation Feedstocks e.g. genetically modified (GM) algae and cyanobacteria.
Report contents include:
Market trends and drivers.
Biofuels pricing analysis.
Biofuel consumption to 2033.
SWOT analysis, by feedstock and biofuel type.
Recent industry developments, innovations and investments.
Market analysis including key players, end use markets, production processes, costs, production capacities, market demand for biofuels including:
biofuel from plastic waste & used tires
biofuels from carbon capture
chemical recycling based biofuels
Production and synthesis methods.
198 company profiles. Companies profiled include BTG Bioliquids, Byogy Renewables, Caphenia, Enerkem, Infinium. Eni S.p.A., Ensyn, FORGE Hydrocarbons Corporation, Fulcrum Bioenergy, Genecis Bioindustries, Gevo, Haldor Topsoe, Infinium Electrofuels, Opera Bioscience, Reverion GmbH, Steeper Energy, SunFire GmbH, Vertus Energy and Viridos, Inc.
1 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
2 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
2.1 Comparison to fossil fuels 23
2.2 Role in the circular economy 23
2.3 Market drivers 24
2.4 Market challenges 25
2.5 Liquid biofuels market 2020-2033, by type and production 26
3 INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENTS 2020-2023
4.1 The global biofuels market 35
4.1.1 Diesel substitutes and alternatives 36
4.1.2 Gasoline substitutes and alternatives 37
4.2 SWOT analysis: Biofuels market 38
4.3 Comparison of biofuel costs 2023, by type 39
4.4 Types 40
4.4.1 Solid Biofuels 40
4.4.2 Liquid Biofuels 41
4.4.3 Gaseous Biofuels 41
4.4.4 Conventional Biofuels 42
4.4.5 Advanced Biofuels 43
4.5 Feedstocks 44
4.5.1 First-generation (1-G) 46
4.5.2 Second-generation (2-G) 47
184.108.40.206 Lignocellulosic wastes and residues 48
220.127.116.11 Biorefinery lignin 49
4.5.3 Third-generation (3-G) 53
18.104.22.168 Algal biofuels 53
4.5.4 Fourth-generation (4-G) 56
4.5.5 Advantages and disadvantages, by generation 56
4.5.6 Energy crops 58
22.214.171.124 Feedstocks 58
126.96.36.199 SWOT analysis 58
4.5.7 Agricultural residues 59
188.8.131.52 Feedstocks 59
184.108.40.206 SWOT analysis 60
4.5.8 Manure, sewage sludge and organic waste 61
220.127.116.11 Processing pathways 61
18.104.22.168 SWOT analysis 62
4.5.9 Forestry and wood waste 63
22.214.171.124 Feedstocks 63
126.96.36.199 SWOT analysis 64
4.5.10 Feedstock costs 65
5 HYDROCARBON BIOFUELS
5.1 Biodiesel 66
5.1.1 Biodiesel by generation 67
5.1.2 SWOT analysis 68
5.1.3 Production of biodiesel and other biofuels 70
Figure 55. Resources required for liquid e-fuel production. 160
Figure 56. Levelized cost and fuel-switching CO2 prices of e-fuels. 164
Figure 57. Cost breakdown for e-fuels. 166
Figure 58. Pathways for algal biomass conversion to biofuels. 168
Figure 59. SWOT analysis for algae-derived biofuels. 169
Figure 60. Algal biomass conversion process for biofuel production. 171
Figure 61. Classification and process technology according to carbon emission in ammonia production. 173
Figure 62. Green ammonia production and use. 175
Figure 63. Schematic of the Haber Bosch ammonia synthesis reaction. 177
Figure 64. Schematic of hydrogen production via steam methane reformation. 177
Figure 65. SWOT analysis for green ammonia. 179
Figure 66. Estimated production cost of green ammonia. 184
Figure 67. Projected annual ammonia production, million tons. 185
Figure 68. CO2 capture and separation technology. 187
Figure 69. Conversion route for CO2-derived fuels and chemical intermediates. 189
Figure 70. Conversion pathways for CO2-derived methane, methanol and diesel. 190
Figure 71. SWOT analysis for biofuels from carbon capture. 192
Figure 72. CO2 captured from air using liquid and solid sorbent DAC plants, storage, and reuse. 193
Figure 73. Global CO2 capture from biomass and DAC in the Net Zero Scenario. 194
Figure 74. DAC technologies. 196
Figure 75. Schematic of Climeworks DAC system. 197
Figure 76. Climeworks’ first commercial direct air capture (DAC) plant, based in Hinwil, Switzerland. 198
Figure 77. Flow diagram for solid sorbent DAC. 199
Figure 78. Direct air capture based on high temperature liquid sorbent by Carbon Engineering. 199
Figure 79. Global capacity of direct air capture facilities. 204
Figure 80. Global map of DAC and CCS plants. 210
Figure 81. Schematic of costs of DAC technologies. 212
Figure 82. DAC cost breakdown and comparison. 213
Figure 83. Operating costs of generic liquid and solid-based DAC systems. 215
Figure 84. CO2 feedstock for the production of e-methanol. 218
Figure 85. Schematic illustration of (a) biophotosynthetic, (b) photothermal, (c) microbial-photoelectrochemical, (d) photosynthetic and photocatalytic (PS/PC), (e) photoelectrochemical (PEC), and (f) photovoltaic plus electrochemical (PV+EC) approaches for CO2 c 220