The Global Market for Carbon Nanomaterials 2020: Carbon Nanotubes, Graphene, Fullerenes, Carbon and Graphene Quantum Dots and Nanodiamonds

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Published March 2020, 735 pages, 224 tables, 197 figures

Carbon based-nanomaterials include fullerenes, carbon nanotubes (CNTs), graphene and its derivatives, graphene oxide, nanodiamonds, and carbon-based quantum dots (CQDs). Due to their unique structural dimensions and excellent mechanical, electrical, thermal, optical and chemical properties, carbon nanomaterials have gained great interest in a wide range of industrial market.

Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphene are the strongest, lightest and most conductive fibres known to man, with a performance-per-weight greater than any other material. In direct competition in a number of markets, they are complementary in others.

Once the most promising of all nanomaterials, MWCNTs face stiff competition in conductive applications from graphene and other 2D materials and in mechanically enhanced composites from nanocellulose. Several major producers have closed their MWCNT capacities, but applications continue to come to market and LG Chem has established a large-scale production facility. Super-aligned CNT arrays, films and yarns have found applications in consumer electronics, batteries, polymer composites, aerospace, sensors, heaters, filters and biomedicine.

Large-scale industrial production of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) has been initiated, promising new market opportunities in transparent conductive films, condcuctive materials, transistors, sensors and memory devices. Again, a number of producers have ceased production, but those left are finding increased demand for their materials. SCWNTs are regarded as one of the most promising candidates to utilized as building blocks in next generation electronics.

Two-dimensional(2D) materials are currently one of the most active areas of nanomaterials research, and offer a huge opportunity for both fundamental studies and practical applications, including superfast, low-power, flexible and wearable electronics, sensors, photonics and electrochemical energy storage devices that will have an immense impact on our society.

Graphene is a ground-breaking two-dimensional (2D) material that possesses extraordinary electrical and mechanical properties that promise a new generation of innovative devices. New methods of scalable synthesis of high-quality graphene, clean delamination transfer and device integration have resulted in the commercialization of state-of-the-art electronics such as graphene touchscreens in smartphones and flexible RF devices on plastics.

Nanodiamonds (NDs) are relatively easy and inexpensive to produce, and have moved towards large-scale commercialization due to their excellent mechanical, thermal properties and chemical stability.

Other carbon nanomaterials of interest include fullerenes and more recently, carbon and graphene quantum dots.

This report on the carbon nanotubes, graphene and 2D materials and nanodiamonds market is by far the most comprehensive and authoritative report produced.

Report contents include:

  • Carbon nanotubes, fullerene, nanodiamond and graphene products. 
  • Assessment of carbon nanomaterials market including production volumes, competitive landscape, commercial prospects, applications, demand by market and region, commercialization timelines, prices and producer profiles.
  • Unique assessment tools for the carbon nanomaterials market, end user applications, economic impact, addressable markets and market challenges to provide the complete picture of where the real opportunities in carbon nanomaterials are.
  • Company profiles of carbon nanotubes, graphene, 2D materials, fullerenes, carbon quantum dots and nanodiamonds producers and product developers, including products, target markets and contact details
  • Market assessment of other 2D materials.
  • Assessment of carbon nanomaterials by market including applications, key benefits, market megatrends, market drivers for, technology drawbacks, competing materials, potential consumption of to 2030 and main players.
  • In depth-assessment of carbon nanomaterials producer and distributor pricing in 2020.
  • Global market for carbon nanomaterials in tons, by sector, historical and forecast to 2030. 
  • Full list of technology collaborations, strategic partnerships, and M&As in the global carbon nanomaterials market.
  • In-depth profiles of carbon nanomaterials producers including products, production capacities, manufacturing methods, collaborations, licensing, customers and target markets. 
  • Detailed forecasts for key growth areas, opportunities and demand.

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1       EXECUTIVE SUMMARY....................................................................................................................... 41

1.1    GRAPHENE....................................................................................................................................... 41

1.1.1      Why graphene?........................................................................................................................ 41

1.1.1.1        Exceptional properties.................................................................................................... 41

1.1.1.2        Commercial opportunities............................................................................................... 42

1.1.1.3        Collaboration key?.......................................................................................................... 43

1.1.2      The market in 2019................................................................................................................... 43

1.1.3      Future global market outlook.................................................................................................... 46

1.1.4      Graphene producers and production capacities...................................................................... 48

1.1.5      Global graphene demand,  2018-2030, tons........................................................................... 50

1.1.6      Graphene market by region...................................................................................................... 58

1.1.6.1        Asia-Pacific..................................................................................................................... 58

1.1.6.2        North America................................................................................................................. 61

1.1.6.3        Europe............................................................................................................................. 63

1.1.7      Graphene products................................................................................................................... 65

1.1.8      Graphene investments............................................................................................................. 67

1.1.9      Industrial collaborations and licence agreements.................................................................... 69

1.1.10    Graphene market challenges................................................................................................... 75

1.2    CARBON NANOTUBES.................................................................................................................... 77

1.2.1      Exceptional properties.............................................................................................................. 80

1.2.2      Products and applications........................................................................................................ 81

1.2.3      MWCNTs.................................................................................................................................. 82

1.2.3.1        Applications..................................................................................................................... 83

1.2.3.2        Producers........................................................................................................................ 83

1.2.3.3        Production....................................................................................................................... 84

1.2.3.4        Market demand, tons...................................................................................................... 85

1.2.4      SWCNTs................................................................................................................................... 86

1.2.4.1        Applications..................................................................................................................... 87

1.2.4.2        Production....................................................................................................................... 87

1.2.4.3        Market demand, tons...................................................................................................... 89

1.2.5      Carbon nanotubes market challenges..................................................................................... 90

1.3    NANODIAMONDS............................................................................................................................. 91

2       OVERVIEW OF GRAPHENE................................................................................................................ 93

2.1    History................................................................................................................................................ 94

2.2    Types of graphene............................................................................................................................. 96

2.3    Properties........................................................................................................................................... 97

2.4    Graphene Quantum Dots.................................................................................................................. 98

2.4.1      Synthesis................................................................................................................................ 100

2.4.2      Applications............................................................................................................................ 101

2.4.2.1        Optoelectronics, electronics and photonics.................................................................. 101

2.4.2.2        Energy........................................................................................................................... 101

2.4.2.3        Biomedicine and healthcare......................................................................................... 101

2.4.2.4        Other............................................................................................................................. 101

2.4.3      Pricing..................................................................................................................................... 102

2.4.4      Producers............................................................................................................................... 102

3       OVERVIEW OF CARBON NANOTUBES........................................................................................... 103

3.1    Properties......................................................................................................................................... 104

3.2    Multi-walled nanotubes (MWCNT).................................................................................................. 105

3.2.1      Properties............................................................................................................................... 105

3.2.2      Applications............................................................................................................................ 105

3.3    Single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNT)........................................................................................ 105

3.3.1      Properties............................................................................................................................... 106

3.3.2      Applications............................................................................................................................ 106

3.3.3      Comparison between MWCNTs and SWCNTs..................................................................... 109

3.3.4      Double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWNTs).......................................................................... 109

3.3.4.1        Properties...................................................................................................................... 109

3.3.4.2        Applications................................................................................................................... 110

3.3.5      Few-walled carbon nanotubes (FWNTs)............................................................................... 110

3.3.5.1        Properties...................................................................................................................... 110

3.3.5.2        Applications................................................................................................................... 110

3.4    Carbon Nanohorns (CNHs)............................................................................................................. 110

3.4.1      Properties............................................................................................................................... 110

3.4.2      Applications............................................................................................................................ 111

3.5    Carbon Onions................................................................................................................................. 111

3.5.1      Properties............................................................................................................................... 111

3.5.2      Applications............................................................................................................................ 112

3.6    Boron Nitride nanotubes (BNNTs)................................................................................................... 112

3.6.1      Properties............................................................................................................................... 112

3.6.2      Applications............................................................................................................................ 113

4       OVERVIEW OF FULLERENES........................................................................................................... 115

4.1    Properties......................................................................................................................................... 115

4.2    Applications...................................................................................................................................... 116

5       OVERVIEW OF NANODIAMONDS.................................................................................................... 116

5.1    Production methods......................................................................................................................... 117

5.1.1      Fluorescent nanodiamonds (FNDs)....................................................................................... 118

5.2    Applications...................................................................................................................................... 119

6       GRAPHENE PRODUCTION................................................................................................................ 123

7       CARBON NANOTUBE PRODUCTION............................................................................................... 129

8       GRAPHENE PATENTS AND PUBLICATIONS.................................................................................. 135

9       CARBON NANOTUBES PATENTS.................................................................................................... 136

10     GRAPHENE PRODUCTION................................................................................................................ 139

10.1       Commercial production capacities.............................................................................................. 141

10.2       Graphene oxide and reduced Graphene Oxide production capacities...................................... 141

10.2.1    By producer............................................................................................................................ 141

10.2.2    By region................................................................................................................................. 142

10.3       Graphene nanoplatelets production capacities.......................................................................... 144

10.3.1    By producer............................................................................................................................ 144

10.3.2    Production capacity by region................................................................................................ 145

10.4       CVD graphene film...................................................................................................................... 146

10.4.1    By producer............................................................................................................................ 146

10.5       Graphene production issues and challenges............................................................................. 147

10.5.1    Oversupply.............................................................................................................................. 147

10.5.2    Quality..................................................................................................................................... 147

10.5.3    Large-volume markets............................................................................................................ 148

10.5.4    Commoditisation..................................................................................................................... 148

10.5.5    Industrial end-user perspective.............................................................................................. 148

11     CARBON NANOMATERIALS PRICING............................................................................................. 150

11.1       Graphene pricing......................................................................................................................... 150

11.1.1    Pristine graphene flakes pricing/CVD graphene.................................................................... 152

11.1.2    Few-Layer graphene pricing................................................................................................... 153

11.1.3    Graphene nanoplatelets pricing............................................................................................. 154

11.1.4    Graphene oxide (GO) and reduced Graphene Oxide (rGO) pricing...................................... 155

11.1.5    Graphene quantum dots pricing............................................................................................. 157

11.1.6    Multilayer graphene (MLG) pricing......................................................................................... 158

11.1.7    Graphene ink.......................................................................................................................... 158

11.2       Carbon nanotubes pricing........................................................................................................... 159

11.3       Nanodiamonds pricing................................................................................................................ 160

11.4       Fullerenes pricing........................................................................................................................ 163

12     CARBON NANOMATERIALS IN 3D PRINTING................................................................................ 164

12.1       Market overview.......................................................................................................................... 164

12.2       Applications................................................................................................................................. 164

12.3       Market assessment..................................................................................................................... 165

12.4       Global market in tons, historical and forecast to 2030............................................................... 167

12.5       Product developers..................................................................................................................... 168

13     CARBON NANOMATERIALS IN ADHESIVES.................................................................................. 171

13.1       Market overview.......................................................................................................................... 171

13.2       Applications................................................................................................................................. 171

13.3       Market prospects......................................................................................................................... 172

13.4       Market assessment..................................................................................................................... 173

13.5       Global market in tons, historical and forecast to 2030............................................................... 175

13.6       Product developers..................................................................................................................... 176

14     CARBON NANOMATERIALS IN AEROSPACE................................................................................ 178

14.1       Market overview.......................................................................................................................... 178

14.2       Applications................................................................................................................................. 179

14.3       Market prospects......................................................................................................................... 180

14.4       Market assessment..................................................................................................................... 180

14.5       Global market in tons, historical and forecast to 2030............................................................... 183

14.6       Product developers..................................................................................................................... 184

15     CARBON NANOMATERIALS IN AUTOMOTIVE............................................................................... 187

15.1       Market overview.......................................................................................................................... 187

15.2       Applications................................................................................................................................. 187

15.3       Market prospects......................................................................................................................... 189

15.4       Market assessment..................................................................................................................... 190

15.5       Global market in tons, historical and forecast to 2030............................................................... 192

15.6       Product developers..................................................................................................................... 193

16     CARBON NANOMATERIALS IN BATTERIES.................................................................................. 198

16.1       Market overview.......................................................................................................................... 198

16.2       Applications................................................................................................................................. 199

16.3       Market prospects......................................................................................................................... 200

16.4       Market assessment..................................................................................................................... 200

16.5       Global market in tons, historical and forecast to 2030............................................................... 204

16.6       Product developers..................................................................................................................... 206

17     CARBON NANOMATERIALS IN COMPOSITES............................................................................... 211

17.1       Market overview.......................................................................................................................... 211

17.2       Fiber-based polymer composite parts........................................................................................ 212

17.2.1    Market prospects.................................................................................................................... 212

17.2.2    Applications............................................................................................................................ 213

17.2.3    Market assessment................................................................................................................ 215

17.3       Metal-matrix composites............................................................................................................. 219

17.3.1    Market assessment................................................................................................................ 219

17.4       Global market in tons, historical and forecast to 2030............................................................... 221

17.5       Product developers..................................................................................................................... 222

18     CARBON NANOMATERIALS IN CONDUCTIVE INKS..................................................................... 229

18.1       Market overview.......................................................................................................................... 229

18.2       Applications................................................................................................................................. 230

18.3       Market prospects......................................................................................................................... 231

18.4       Market assessment..................................................................................................................... 232

18.5       Global market in tons, historical and forecast to 2030............................................................... 236

18.6       Product developers..................................................................................................................... 237

19     CARBON NANOMATERIALS IN CONSTRUCTION.......................................................................... 240

19.1       Market overview.......................................................................................................................... 240

19.2       Market prospects......................................................................................................................... 241

19.3       Market assessment..................................................................................................................... 241

19.3.1    Cement................................................................................................................................... 242

19.3.2    Asphalt bitumen...................................................................................................................... 244

19.4       Global market in tons, historical and forecast to 2030............................................................... 245

19.5       Product developers..................................................................................................................... 246

20     CARBON NANOMATERIALS IN ELECTRONICS............................................................................. 248

20.1       WEARABLE ELECTRONICS AND DISPLAYS......................................................................... 249

20.1.1    Market overview..................................................................................................................... 249

20.1.2    Market prospects.................................................................................................................... 249

20.1.3    Applications............................................................................................................................ 250

20.1.4    Market assessment................................................................................................................ 251

20.1.5    Global market, historical and forecast to 2030...................................................................... 255

20.1.6    Product developers................................................................................................................. 256

20.2       CARBON NANOMATERIALS IN TRANSISTORS AND INTEGRATED CIRCUITS................. 259

20.2.1    Market overview..................................................................................................................... 259

20.2.2    Applications............................................................................................................................ 260

20.2.3    Market prospects.................................................................................................................... 261

20.2.4    Market assessment................................................................................................................ 262

20.2.5    Global market, historical and forecast to 2030...................................................................... 265

20.2.6    Product developers................................................................................................................. 266

20.3       CARBON NANOMATERIALS IN MEMORY DEVICES............................................................. 269

20.3.1    Market overview..................................................................................................................... 269

20.3.2    Market prospects.................................................................................................................... 269

20.3.3    Market assessment................................................................................................................ 270

20.3.4    Global market in tons, historical and forecast to 2030........................................................... 272

20.3.5    Product developers................................................................................................................. 273

21     CARBON NANOMATERIALS IN FILTRATION................................................................................. 275

21.1       Market overview.......................................................................................................................... 275

21.2       Applications................................................................................................................................. 277

21.3       Market prospects......................................................................................................................... 278

21.4       Market assessment..................................................................................................................... 278

21.5       Global market in tons, historical and forecast to 2030............................................................... 283

21.6       Product developers..................................................................................................................... 284

22     CARBON NANOMATERIALS IN FUEL CELLS................................................................................. 288

22.1       Market overview.......................................................................................................................... 288

22.2       Applications................................................................................................................................. 289

22.3       Market prospects......................................................................................................................... 290

22.4       Market assessment..................................................................................................................... 290

22.5       Global market in tons, historical and forecast to 2030............................................................... 294

22.6       Product developers..................................................................................................................... 295

23     CARBON NANOMATERIALS IN LIFE SCIENCES AND MEDICINE............................................... 295

23.1       Market overview.......................................................................................................................... 295

23.2       Applications................................................................................................................................. 297

23.3       Market prospects......................................................................................................................... 299

23.3.1    Drug delivery........................................................................................................................... 299

23.3.2    Imaging and diagnostics......................................................................................................... 300

23.3.3    Implants.................................................................................................................................. 300

23.3.4    Medical biosensors................................................................................................................. 301

23.3.5    Woundcare............................................................................................................................. 302

23.4       Market assessment..................................................................................................................... 302

23.5       Global market in tons, historical and forecast to 2030............................................................... 309

23.6       Product developers..................................................................................................................... 310

24     CARBON NANOMATERIALS IN LIGHTING...................................................................................... 315

24.1       Market overview.......................................................................................................................... 315

24.2       Applications................................................................................................................................. 315

24.3       Market prospects......................................................................................................................... 316

24.4       Market assessment..................................................................................................................... 317

24.5       Global market in tons, historical and forecast to 2030............................................................... 319

24.6       Product developers..................................................................................................................... 320

25     CARBON NANOMATERIALS IN LUBRICANTS............................................................................... 322

25.1       Market overview.......................................................................................................................... 322

25.2       Applications................................................................................................................................. 323

25.3       Market prospects......................................................................................................................... 324

25.4       Market assessment..................................................................................................................... 324

25.5       Global market in tons, historical and forecast to 2030............................................................... 327

25.6       Product developers..................................................................................................................... 328

26     CARBON NANOMATERIALS IN OIL AND GAS............................................................................... 330

26.1       Market overview.......................................................................................................................... 330

26.2       Applications................................................................................................................................. 331

26.3       Market prospects......................................................................................................................... 332

26.4       Market assessment..................................................................................................................... 332

26.5       Global market in tons, historical and forecast to 2030............................................................... 334

26.6       Product developers..................................................................................................................... 336

27     CARBON NANOMATERIALS IN PAINTS AND COATINGS............................................................ 337

27.1       Market overview.......................................................................................................................... 337

27.2       Applications................................................................................................................................. 341

27.3       Market prospects......................................................................................................................... 341

27.4       Market assessment..................................................................................................................... 342

27.5       Global market in tons, historical and forecast to 2030............................................................... 348

27.6       Product developers..................................................................................................................... 349

28     CARBON NANOMATERIALS IN PHOTONICS................................................................................. 356

28.1       Market overview.......................................................................................................................... 356

28.2       Applications................................................................................................................................. 356

28.3       Market prospects......................................................................................................................... 356

28.4       Market assessment..................................................................................................................... 357

28.5       Global market in tons, historical and forecast to 2030............................................................... 361

28.6       Product developers..................................................................................................................... 362

29     CARBON NANOMATERIALS IN PHOTOVOLTAICS........................................................................ 364

29.1       Market overview.......................................................................................................................... 364

29.2       Applications................................................................................................................................. 364

29.3       Market prospects......................................................................................................................... 365

29.4       Market assessment..................................................................................................................... 366

29.5       Global market in tons, historical and forecast to 2030............................................................... 368

29.6       Product developers..................................................................................................................... 369

30     CARBON NANOMATERIALS IN RUBBER AND TIRES................................................................... 371

30.1       Market overview.......................................................................................................................... 371

30.2       Applications................................................................................................................................. 372

30.3       Market prospects......................................................................................................................... 373

30.4       Market assessment..................................................................................................................... 374

30.5       Global market in tons, historical and forecast to 2030............................................................... 377

30.6       Product developers..................................................................................................................... 378

31     CARBON NANOMATERIALS IN SENSORS..................................................................................... 381

31.1       Market overview.......................................................................................................................... 381

31.2       Applications................................................................................................................................. 382

31.3       Market prospects......................................................................................................................... 383

31.4       Market assessment..................................................................................................................... 384

31.5       Global market in tons, historical and forecast to 2030............................................................... 388

31.6       Product developers..................................................................................................................... 389

32     CARBON NANOMATERIALS IN SMART TEXTILES AND APPAREL............................................ 393

32.1       Market overview.......................................................................................................................... 393

32.2       Applications................................................................................................................................. 395

32.3       Market prospects......................................................................................................................... 396

32.4       Market assessment..................................................................................................................... 396

32.5       Global market in tons, historical and forecast to 2030............................................................... 401

32.6       Product developers..................................................................................................................... 402

33     CARBON NANOMATERIALS IN SUPERCAPACITORS.................................................................. 407

33.1       Market overview.......................................................................................................................... 407

33.2       Applications................................................................................................................................. 408

33.3       Market prospects......................................................................................................................... 408

33.4       Market assessment..................................................................................................................... 409

33.5       Global market in tons, historical and forecast to 2030............................................................... 413

33.6       Product developers..................................................................................................................... 414

34     OTHER MARKETS.............................................................................................................................. 416

34.1       ELECTRONIC POLISHING MATERIALS.................................................................................. 416

34.1.1    Market prospects.................................................................................................................... 416

34.1.2    Market overview..................................................................................................................... 417

34.1.3    Market assessment................................................................................................................ 417

34.2       COSMETICS............................................................................................................................... 419

34.2.1    Market prospects.................................................................................................................... 419

34.2.2    Market overview..................................................................................................................... 420

34.2.3    Market assessment................................................................................................................ 420

34.3       CABLING..................................................................................................................................... 423

34.3.1    Market assessment................................................................................................................ 423

34.4       THERMAL INTERFACE MATERIALS........................................................................................ 424

34.4.1    Market assessment................................................................................................................ 424

34.5       ANTI-STATIC PLASTIC PARTS................................................................................................ 425

34.5.1    Market assessment................................................................................................................ 425

35     GRAPHENE COMPANY PROFILES.................................................................................................. 425 (236 COMPANY PROFILES)

36     MULTI-WALLED CARBON NANOTUBES COMPANY PROFILES.................................................. 570

(93 COMPANY PROFILES)

37     SINGLE-WALLED CARBON NANOTUBES COMPANY PROFILES............................................... 631 (12 COMPANY PROFILES)

38     NANODIAMONDS COMPANY PROFILES........................................................................................ 642 (26 COMPANY PROFILES)

(236 COMPANY PROFILES)

39    FULLERENES COMPANY PROFILES............................................................................................... 665

(40 COMPANY PROFILES)

40     OTHER 2-D MATERIALS.................................................................................................................... 674

40.1       BOROPHENE............................................................................................................................. 676

40.1.1    Properties............................................................................................................................... 676

40.1.2    Applications............................................................................................................................ 677

40.2       PHOSPHORENE........................................................................................................................ 678

40.2.1    Properties............................................................................................................................... 678

40.2.2    Applications............................................................................................................................ 680

40.3       GRAPHITIC CARBON NITRIDE (g-C3N4)................................................................................ 683

40.3.1    Properties............................................................................................................................... 683

40.3.4    Applications............................................................................................................................ 684

40.4       GERMANENE............................................................................................................................. 685

40.4.1    Properties............................................................................................................................... 685

40.4.2    Applications............................................................................................................................ 686

40.5       GRAPHDIYNE............................................................................................................................ 687

40.5.1    Properties............................................................................................................................... 687

40.5.2    Applications............................................................................................................................ 688

40.6       GRAPHANE................................................................................................................................ 689

40.6.1    Properties............................................................................................................................... 689

40.6.2    Applications............................................................................................................................ 690

40.7       HEXAGONAL BORON-NITRIDE............................................................................................... 690

40.7.1    Properties............................................................................................................................... 691

40.7.2    Applications............................................................................................................................ 691

40.8       MOLYBDENUM DISULFIDE (MoS2).......................................................................................... 693

40.8.1    Properties............................................................................................................................... 693

40.8.2    Applications............................................................................................................................ 694

40.9       RHENIUM DISULFIDE (ReS2) AND DISELENIDE (ReSe2).................................................... 696

40.9.1    Properties............................................................................................................................... 696

40.9.2    Applications............................................................................................................................ 697

40.10     SILICENE.................................................................................................................................... 697

40.10.1       Properties........................................................................................................................... 697

40.10.2       Applications........................................................................................................................ 698

40.11     STANENE/TINENE..................................................................................................................... 700

40.11.1       Properties........................................................................................................................... 700

40.11.2       Applications........................................................................................................................ 701

40.12     TUNGSTEN DISELENIDE.......................................................................................................... 702

40.12.1       Properties........................................................................................................................... 702

40.12.2       Applications........................................................................................................................ 702

40.13     ANTIMONENE............................................................................................................................ 703

40.13.1       Properties........................................................................................................................... 703

40.13.2       Applications........................................................................................................................ 703

40.14     DIAMENE.................................................................................................................................... 703

40.14.1       Properties........................................................................................................................... 703

40.14.2       Applications........................................................................................................................ 703

40.15     INDIUM SELENIDE.................................................................................................................... 703

40.15.1       Properties........................................................................................................................... 703

40.15.2       Applications........................................................................................................................ 704

40.16     COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF GRAPHENE AND OTHER 2D MATERIALS......................... 705

41     RESEARCH METHODOLOGY........................................................................................................... 707

42     REFERENCES..................................................................................................................................... 713

Tables

Table 1. Main graphene producers by country, annual production capacities, types and main markets they sell into 2020............................................................................................................................................. 48

Table 2. Demand for graphene (tons), 2018-2030.......................................................................................... 51

Table 3. Main graphene producers in North America..................................................................................... 61

Table 4. Main graphene producers in Europe................................................................................................. 64

Table 5: Consumer products incorporating graphene..................................................................................... 66

Table 6: Graphene investments and financial agreements............................................................................ 67

Table 7. Graphene industrial collaborations, licence agreements and target markets.................................. 70

Table 8. Graphene market challenges............................................................................................................ 76

Table 9. Market summary for carbon nanotubes-Selling grade particle diameter, usage, advantages, average price/ton, high volume applications, low volume applications and novel applications............................. 78

Table 10. Typical properties of SWCNT and MWCNT................................................................................... 80

Table 11: Properties of CNTs and comparable materials............................................................................... 80

Table 12. Key MWCNT producers.................................................................................................................. 83

Table 13. Annual production capacity of the key MWCNT producers in 2018............................................... 84

Table 14. MWCNT market demand forecast (tons), 2018-2030..................................................................... 86

Table 15.  Comparative properties of MWCNT and SWCNT......................................................................... 87

Table 16. Annual production capacity of the key SWCNT producers in 2018............................................... 88

Table 17. SWCNT market demand forecast (tons), 2018-2030. *.................................................................. 89

Table 18: Properties of graphene, properties of competing materials, applications thereof.......................... 97

Table 19. Comparison of graphene QDs and semiconductor QDs................................................................ 99

Table 20. Graphene quantum dot producers................................................................................................ 102

Table 21: Properties of carbon nanotubes.................................................................................................... 104

Table 22: Markets, benefits and applications of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes.................................... 107

Table 23: Comparison between single-walled carbon nanotubes and multi-walled carbon nanotubes...... 109

Table 24. Comparative properties of BNNTs and CNTs............................................................................... 113

Table 25: Markets, benefits and applications of fullerenes........................................................................... 116

Table 26. Summary of types of NDS and production methods-advantages and disadvantages................. 117

Table 27: Markets, benefits and applications of nanodiamonds........................................................... 119

Table 28. Assessment of graphene production methods............................................................................. 126

Table 29: SWCNT synthesis methods.......................................................................................................... 130

Table 30: Accumulated number of patent publications for graphene, 2004-2018........................................ 135

Table 31. Location of SWCNT patent filings 2008-2018............................................................................... 138

Table 32. Main SWCNT patent assignees.................................................................................................... 139

Table 33. Demand for graphene (tons), 2018-2030...................................................................................... 140

Table 34: Graphene oxide production capacity by producer, 2010-2019..................................................... 141

Table 35: Graphene oxide production capacity in tons by region, 2010-2019............................................. 142

Table 36: Graphene nanoplatelets capacity in tons by producer, 2010-2018.............................................. 144

Table 37: Graphene nanoplatelets capacity in tons by region, 2010-2019.................................................. 145

Table 38: CVD graphene film capacity by producer, 2010-2018/ 000s m2................................................... 146

Table 39: Types of graphene and typical prices........................................................................................... 150

Table 40: Pristine graphene flakes pricing by producer................................................................................ 152

Table 41: Few-layer graphene pricing by producer...................................................................................... 154

Table 42: Graphene nanoplatelets pricing by producer................................................................................ 154

Table 43: Graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide pricing, by producer............................................ 156

Table 44: Graphene quantum dots pricing by producer................................................................................ 157

Table 45: Multi-layer graphene pricing by producer...................................................................................... 158

Table 46: Graphene ink pricing by producer................................................................................................. 158

Table 47. Carbon nanotubes pricing (MWCNTS, SWCNT etc.) by producer............................................... 159

Table 48. Nanodiamonds pricing by producer/distributor............................................................................. 161

Table 49. Fullerenes pricing by producer...................................................................................................... 163

Table 50. Market overview for carbon nanomaterials in 3D printing............................................................ 164

Table 51. Applications of carbon nanomaterials in 3D printing.................................................................... 164

Table 52. Market and applications for carbon nanomaterials in 3D printing................................................ 165

Table 53: Demand for carbon nanomaterials in 3-D printing (tons), 2018-2030.......................................... 167

Table 54: Product developers in carbon nanomaterials in 3D printing......................................................... 168

Table 55. Market overview for carbon nanomaterials in adhesives.............................................................. 171

Table 56. Applications of carbon nanomaterials in adhesives...................................................................... 171

Table 57. Scorecard for carbon nanomaterials in adhesives........................................................................ 172

Table 58. Market and applications for carbon nanomaterials in adhesives.................................................. 173

Table 59: Demand for carbon nanomaterials in adhesives (tons), 2018-2030............................................. 175

Table 60: Product developers in carbon nanomaterials for adhesives......................................................... 176

Table 61. Market overview for carbon nanomaterials in aerospace............................................................. 178

Table 62. Applications of carbon nanomaterials in aerospace..................................................................... 179

Table 63. Scorecard for carbon nanomaterials in aerospace....................................................................... 180

Table 64. Market and applications for carbon nanomaterials in aerospace................................................. 180

Table 65: Demand for carbon nanomaterials in aerospace (tons), 2018-2030............................................ 183

Table 66: Product developers in carbon nanomaterials for aerospace........................................................ 184

Table 67. Market overview for carbon nanomaterials in automotive............................................................ 187

Table 68. Applications of carbon nanomaterials in automotive.................................................................... 188

Table 69. Scorecard for carbon nanomaterials in automotive...................................................................... 189

Table 70. Market and applications for carbon nanomaterials in automotive................................................ 190

Table 71: Demand for carbon nanomaterials in automotive (tons), 2018-2030........................................... 192

Table 72: Product developers in carbon nanomaterials in the automotive market...................................... 193

Table 73. Market overview for carbon nanomaterials in batteries................................................................ 198

Table 74. Applications of carbon nanomaterials in batteries........................................................................ 199

Table 75. Scorecard for carbon nanomaterials in batteries.......................................................................... 200

Table 76. Market and applications for carbon nanomaterials in batteries.................................................... 200

Table 77: Estimated demand for carbon nanomaterials in batteries (tons), 2018-2030.............................. 205

Table 78: Product developers in carbon nanomaterials for batteries........................................................... 206

Table 79. Market overview for carbon nanomaterials in composites............................................................ 212

Table 80. Scorecard for carbon nanomaterials in fiber-based polymer composite parts............................. 212

Table 81. Applications of carbon nanomaterials in fiber-based polymer composite parts........................... 213

Table 82. Market and applications for carbon nanomaterials in fiber-based composite parts..................... 215

Table 83. Market and applications for carbon nanomaterials in metal matrix composites........................... 220

Table 84. Global market for carbon nanomaterials in composites 2018-2030, tons.................................... 221

Table 85: Product developers in carbon nanomaterials composites............................................................ 222

Table 86. Market overview for carbon nanomaterials in conductive inks..................................................... 230

Table 87. Applications of carbon nanomaterials in conductive ink............................................................... 230

Table 88. Scorecard for carbon nanomaterials in conductive inks............................................................... 231

Table 89. Market and applications for carbon nanomaterials in conductive inks......................................... 232

Table 90. Comparative properties of conductive inks................................................................................... 235

Table 91: Demand for graphene in conductive ink (tons), 2018-2027.......................................................... 236

Table 92: Product developers in carbon nanomaterials for conductive inks................................................ 237

Table 93. Market overview for carbon nanomaterials in construction.......................................................... 240

Table 94. Scorecard for carbon nanomaterials in construction.................................................................... 241

Table 95. Carbon nanomaterials for cement................................................................................................. 242

Table 96. Carbon nanomaterials for asphalt bitumen................................................................................... 244

Table 97: Demand for carbon nanomaterials in construction (tons), 2018-2030......................................... 245

Table 98: Carbon nanomaterials product developers in construction.......................................................... 246

Table 99. Market overview for carbon nanomaterials in wearable electronics and displays....................... 249

Table 100. Scorecard for carbon nanomaterials in wearable electronics and displays............................... 249

Table 101. Applications of carbon nanomaterials in wearable electronics and displays............................. 250

Table 102. Market and applications for carbon nanomaterials in wearable electronics and displays......... 251

Table 103: Comparison of ITO replacements............................................................................................... 254

Table 104: Demand for carbon nanomaterials in wearable electronics and displays, 2018-2030............... 255

Table 105: Product developers in carbon nanomaterials for electronics...................................................... 256

Table 106. Market overview for carbon nanomaterials in transistors and integrated circuits...................... 259

Table 107. Applications of carbon nanomaterials in transistors and integrated circuits.............................. 260

Table 108. Scorecard for carbon nanomaterials in transistors and integrated circuits................................ 261

Table 109. Market and applications for carbon nanomaterials in transistors and integrated circuits.......... 262

Table 110: Demand for carbon nanomaterials in transistors and integrated circuits, 2018-2030................ 265

Table 111: Product developers in carbon nanomaterials transistors and integrated circuits....................... 266

Table 112. Market overview for carbon nanomaterials in memory devices................................................. 269

Table 113. Scorecard for carbon nanomaterials in memory devices........................................................... 269

Table 114. Market and applications for carbon nanomaterials in memory devices..................................... 270

Table 115: Demand for carbon nanomaterials in memory devices, 2018-2030........................................... 272

Table 116: Product developers in carbon nanomaterials for memory devices............................................. 273

Table 117: Comparison of CNT membranes with other membrane technologies....................................... 275

Table 118. Market overview for carbon nanomaterials in filtration............................................................... 276

Table 119. Applications of carbon nanomaterials in filtration....................................................................... 277

Table 120. Scorecard for carbon nanomaterials in filtration......................................................................... 278

Table 121. Market and applications for carbon nanomaterials in filtration................................................... 278

Table 122: Demand for carbon nanomaterials in filtration (tons), 2018-2030.............................................. 283

Table 123: Carbon nanomaterials companies in filtration............................................................................. 284

Table 124. Electrical conductivity of different catalyst supports compared to carbon nanotubes................ 288

Table 125. Market overview for carbon nanomaterials in fuel cells.............................................................. 289

Table 126. Applications of carbon nanomaterials in fuel cells...................................................................... 289

Table 127. Scorecard for carbon nanomaterials in fuel cells........................................................................ 290

Table 128. Market and applications for carbon nanomaterials in fuel cells.................................................. 290

Table 129: Demand for carbon nanomaterials in fuel cells (tons), 2018-2030............................................. 294

Table 130: Product developers in carbon nanomaterials for fuel cells......................................................... 295

Table 131. Market overview for carbon nanomaterials in life sciences and medicine................................. 296

Table 132. Applications of carbon nanomaterials in life sciences and biomedicine..................................... 297

Table 133. Scorecard for carbon nanomaterials in drug delivery................................................................. 299

Table 134. Scorecard for carbon nanomaterials in imaging and diagnostics............................................... 300

Table 135. Scorecard for carbon nanomaterials in medical implants........................................................... 300

Table 136. Scorecard for carbon nanomaterials in medical biosensors....................................................... 301

Table 137. Scorecard for carbon nanomaterials in woundcare.................................................................... 302

Table 138. Market and applications for carbon nanomaterials in life sciences and medicine..................... 302

Table 139: Demand for carbon nanomaterials in life sciences and medical (tons), 2018-2030.................. 309

Table 140: Product developers in carbon nanomaterials for life sciences and biomedicine........................ 310

Table 141. Market overview for carbon nanomaterials in lighting................................................................ 315

Table 142. Applications of carbon nanomaterials in lighting......................................................................... 316

Table 143. Scorecard for carbon nanomaterials in lighting.......................................................................... 316

Table 144. Market and applications for carbon nanomaterials in lighting.................................................... 317

Table 145: Demand for carbon nanomaterials in lighting, 2018-2030.......................................................... 319

Table 146: Product developers in carbon nanomaterials for lighting............................................................ 320

Table 147. Market overview for carbon nanomaterials in lubricants............................................................ 322

Table 148. Nanomaterial lubricant products................................................................................................. 322

Table 149. Applications of carbon nanomaterials in lubricants.................................................................... 323

Table 150. Scorecard for carbon nanomaterials in lubricants...................................................................... 324

Table 151. Market and applications for carbon nanomaterials in lubricants................................................ 324

Table 152: Demand for carbon nanomaterials in lubricants (tons), 2018-2030........................................... 327

Table 153: Product developers in carbon nanomaterials for lubricants....................................................... 328

Table 154. Market overview for carbon nanomaterials in oil and gas.......................................................... 331

Table 155. Applications of carbon nanomaterials in oil and gas.................................................................. 331

Table 156. Scorecard for carbon nanomaterials in oil and gas.................................................................... 332

Table 157. Market and applications for carbon nanomaterials in oil and gas.............................................. 332

Table 158: Demand for carbon nanomaterials in oil and gas (tons), 2018-2030......................................... 335

Table 159: Product developers in carbon nanomaterials for oil and gas..................................................... 336

Table 160. Markets for nanocoatings............................................................................................................ 338

Table 161. Market overview for carbon nanomaterials in paints and coatings............................................. 340

Table 162. Applications of carbon nanomaterials in paints and coatings..................................................... 341

Table 163. Scorecard for carbon nanomaterials in paints and coatings...................................................... 341

Table 164. Market and applications for carbon nanomaterials in paints and coatings................................. 342

Table 165: Demand for carbon nanomaterials in paints and coatings (tons), 2018-2030........................... 348

Table 166: Product developers in carbon nanomaterials for paints and coatings........................................ 349

Table 167. Market overview for carbon nanomaterials in photonics............................................................ 356

Table 168. Applications of carbon nanomaterials in photonics.................................................................... 356

Table 169. Scorecard for carbon nanomaterials in photonics...................................................................... 356

Table 170. Market and applications for carbon nanomaterials in photonics................................................ 357

Table 171: Demand for carbon nanomaterials in photonics, 2018-2030...................................................... 361

Table 172: Product developers in carbon nanomaterials in photonics......................................................... 362

Table 173. Market overview for carbon nanomaterials in photovoltaics....................................................... 364

Table 174. Applications of carbon nanomaterials in photovoltaics............................................................... 364

Table 175. Scorecard for carbon nanomaterials in photovoltaics................................................................. 365

Table 176. Market and applications for carbon nanomaterials in photovoltaics........................................... 366

Table 177: Demand for carbon nanomaterials in photovoltaics (tons), 2018-2030...................................... 368

Table 178: Product developers in carbon nanomaterials for solar............................................................... 369

Table 179. Market overview for carbon nanomaterials in rubber and tires.................................................. 371

Table 180. Applications of carbon nanomaterials in rubber and tires........................................................... 372

Table 181. Scorecard for carbon nanomaterials in rubber and tires............................................................ 373

Table 182. Market and applications for carbon nanomaterials in rubber and tires...................................... 374

Table 183: Demand for carbon nanomaterials in rubber and tires (tons), 2018-2030................................. 377

Table 184: Product developers in carbon nanomaterials in rubber and tires............................................... 378

Table 185. Market overview for carbon nanomaterials in sensors............................................................... 382

Table 186. Applications of carbon nanomaterials in sensors....................................................................... 382

Table 187. Scorecard for carbon nanomaterials in sensors......................................................................... 384

Table 188. Market and applications for carbon nanomaterials in sensors................................................... 384

Table 189: Demand for carbon nanomaterials in sensors (tons), 2018-2030.............................................. 388

Table 190: Product developers in carbon nanomaterials for sensors.......................................................... 389

Table 191: Desirable functional properties for the textiles industry afforded by the use of nanomaterials.. 394

Table 192. Market overview for carbon nanomaterials in smart textiles and apparel.................................. 394

Table 193. Applications of carbon nanomaterials in smart textiles and apparel.......................................... 395

Table 194. Scorecard for carbon nanomaterials in smart textiles and apparel............................................ 396

Table 195. Market and applications for carbon nanomaterials in smart textiles and apparel...................... 397

Table 196: Demand for carbon nanomaterials in textiles (tons), 2018-2030................................................ 401

Table 197: Carbon nanomaterials product developers in smart textiles and apparel.................................. 402

Table 198. Market overview for carbon nanomaterials in supercapacitors.................................................. 407

Table 199. Applications of carbon nanomaterials in supercapacitors.......................................................... 408

Table 200. Scorecard for carbon nanomaterials in supercapacitors............................................................ 408

Table 201: Comparative properties of graphene supercapacitors and lithium-ion batteries........................ 409

Table 202. Market and applications for carbon nanomaterials in supercapacitors...................................... 409

Table 203: Demand for carbon nanomaterials in supercapacitors (tons), 2018-2030................................. 413

Table 204: Product developers in carbon nanomaterials for supercapacitors............................................. 414

Table 205. Carbon nanomaterials scorecard for nanodiamonds in electronic polishing materials.............. 416

Table 206: Market overview for carbon nanomaterials in polishing materials.............................................. 417

Table 207. Market and applications for carbon nanomaterials in polishing materials.................................. 417

Table 208. Nanomaterials scorecard for carbon nanomaterials in cosmetics.............................................. 419

Table 209: Market overview for carbon nanomaterials in cosmetics............................................................ 420

Table 210. Market and applications for carbon nanomaterials in cosmetics................................................ 420

Table 211. Market and applications for carbon nanomaterials in cabling.................................................... 424

Table 212. Market and applications for carbon nanomaterials in cabling.................................................... 424

Table 213. Market and applications for carbon nanomaterials in anti-static plastic parts............................ 425

Table 214. Sensor surface............................................................................................................................ 506

Table 215. Ex-graphene producers and product developers........................................................................ 567

Table 216: CNT producers and companies they supply/licence to.............................................................. 570

Table 217. Properties of carbon nanotube paper......................................................................................... 624

Table 218. Ex-producers of SWCNTs........................................................................................................... 641

Table 219. SWCNTs distributors................................................................................................................... 642

Table 220. Ex-producers of nanodiamonds.................................................................................................. 664

Table 221: 2D materials types....................................................................................................................... 674

Table 222: Electronic and mechanical properties of monolayer phosphorene, graphene and MoS2.......... 679

Table 223: Comparative analysis of graphene and other 2-D nanomaterials.............................................. 705

Table 224: Categorization of nanomaterials................................................................................................. 712

Figures

Figure 1. Demand for graphene, by market, 2019.......................................................................................... 45

Figure 2. Demand for graphene, by market, 2030.......................................................................................... 48

Figure 3. Demand for graphene, 2018-2030, tons.......................................................................................... 52

Figure 4. Global graphene demand by market, 2018-2030 (tons). Low estimate.......................................... 54

Figure 5. Global graphene demand by market, 2018-2030 (tons). Medium estimate.................................... 56

Figure 6. Global graphene demand by market, 2018-2030 (tons). High estimate......................................... 58

Figure 7: Demand for graphene in China, by market, 2019............................................................................ 59

Figure 8: Demand for graphene in Asia-Pacific, by market, 2019.................................................................. 59

Figure 9. Main graphene producers in Asia-Pacific........................................................................................ 60

Figure 10: Demand for graphene in North America, by market, 2019............................................................ 63

Figure 11: Demand for graphene in Europe, by market, 2018....................................................................... 65

Figure 12. Demand for MWCNT by application in 2019................................................................................. 85

Figure 13. SWCNT production capacity by producer in 2018 (tons).............................................................. 88

Figure 14. Calculated SWCNT sales volume by producer in 2018 (kg)......................................................... 89

Figure 15. The structure of eight different allotropes of the carbon element.................................................. 94

Figure 16: Graphene layer structure schematic.............................................................................................. 95

Figure 17: Illustrative procedure of the Scotch-tape based micromechanical cleavage of HOPG................ 95

Figure 18: Graphite and graphene.................................................................................................................. 96

Figure 19: Graphene and its descendants: top right: graphene; top left: graphite = stacked graphene; bottom right: nanotube=rolled graphene; bottom left: fullerene=wrapped graphene. ......................................... 97

Figure 20: Green-fluorescing graphene quantum dots................................................................................... 99

Figure 21. Schematic of (a) CQDs and (c) GQDs. HRTEM images of (b) C-dots and (d) GQDs showing combination of zigzag and armchair edges (positions marked as 1–4)................................................. 100

Figure 22. Graphene quantum dots.............................................................................................................. 102

Figure 23: Schematic of single-walled carbon nanotube.............................................................................. 106

Figure 24: TIM sheet developed by Zeon Corporation................................................................................. 107

Figure 25: Double-walled carbon nanotube bundle cross-section micrograph and model.......................... 109

Figure 26. TEM image of FWNTs.................................................................................................................. 110

Figure 27: Schematic representation of carbon nanohorns.......................................................................... 111

Figure 28: TEM image of carbon onion......................................................................................................... 112

Figure 29: Schematic of Boron Nitride nanotubes (BNNTs). Alternating B and N atoms are shown in blue and red........................................................................................................................................................... 113

Figure 30: Fullerene schematic..................................................................................................................... 115

Figure 31. Fabrication methods of graphene................................................................................................ 123

Figure 32. TEM micrographs of: A) HR-CNFs; B) GANF® HR-CNF, it can be observed its high graphitic structure; C) Unraveled ribbon from the HR-CNF; D) Detail of the ribbon; E) Scheme of the structure of the HR-CNFs; F) Large single graphene oxide sheets derived from GANF.......................................... 124

Figure 33: (a) Graphene powder production line in The Sixth Element Materials Technology Co. Ltd. (b) Graphene film production line of Wuxi Graphene Films Co. Ltd............................................................ 125

Figure 34. Schematic illustration of the main graphene production methods............................................... 126

Figure 35: Schematic representation of methods used for carbon nanotube synthesis (a) Arc discharge (b) Chemical vapor deposition (c) Laser ablation (d) hydrocarbon flames.................................................. 130

Figure 36: Arc discharge process for CNTs.................................................................................................. 131

Figure 37: Schematic of thermal-CVD method............................................................................................. 131

Figure 38: Schematic of plasma-CVD method.............................................................................................. 132

Figure 39: CoMoCAT® process.................................................................................................................... 133

Figure 40: Schematic for flame synthesis of carbon nanotubes (a) premixed flame (b) counter-flow diffusion flame (c) co-flow diffusion flame (d) inverse diffusion flame.................................................................. 133

Figure 41: Schematic of laser ablation synthesis.......................................................................................... 134

Figure 42: Published patent publications for graphene, 2004-2018............................................................. 136

Figure 43: MWCNT patents filed 2007-2019................................................................................................. 137

Figure 44. SWCNT patent applications 2001-2018...................................................................................... 138

Figure 45. Demand for graphene, 2018-2030, tons...................................................................................... 140

Figure 46: Graphene oxide production capacity in tons by region, 2010-2019............................................ 143

Figure 47: Graphene nanoplatelets capacity in tons by region, 2010-2019................................................. 146

Figure 48: CVD Graphene on Cu Foil........................................................................................................... 152

Figure 49: Demand for carbon nanomaterials in 3-D printing (tons), 2018-2030......................................... 168

Figure 50. CNCTArch lightweight mounting for digital signalling.................................................................. 169

Figure 51: Demand for carbon nanomaterials in adhesives (tons), 2018-2030........................................... 176

Figure 52: Graphene Adhesives.................................................................................................................... 177

Figure 53. Carbon nanotube Composite Overwrap Pressure Vessel (COPV) developed by NASA........... 178

Figure 54: Demand for carbon nanomaterials in aerospace (tons), 2018-2030........................................... 183

Figure 55. HeatCoat technology schematic.................................................................................................. 184

Figure 56. Orbex Prime rocket...................................................................................................................... 185

Figure 57: Graphene enhanced aircraft cargo container.............................................................................. 185

Figure 58: Graphene aircraft......................................................................................................................... 186

Figure 59: Veelo carbon fiber nanotube sheet.............................................................................................. 186

Figure 60: Demand for carbon nanomaterials in automotive (tons), 2018-2030.......................................... 193

Figure 61: Supercar incorporating graphene................................................................................................ 194

Figure 62: Schematic of CNTs as heat-dissipation sheets........................................................................... 194

Figure 63. Graphene anti-corrosion primer................................................................................................... 195

Figure 64. Graphene-R Brake pads.............................................................................................................. 195

Figure 65: Antistatic graphene tire................................................................................................................ 196

Figure 66. Graphene engine oil additives..................................................................................................... 197

Figure 67: Demand for carbon nanomaterials in batteries (tons), 2018-2030.............................................. 205

Figure 68: Nano Lithium X Battery................................................................................................................ 206

Figure 69. Apollo Traveler graphene-enhanced USB-C / A fast charging power bank................................ 207

Figure 70. 6000mAh Portable graphene batteries........................................................................................ 208

Figure 71. Real Graphene Powerbank.......................................................................................................... 209

Figure 72. Graphene Functional Films - UniTran EH/FH.............................................................................. 210

Figure 73. Demand for carbon nanomaterials in composites (tons), 2018-2030......................................... 222

Figure 74. Graphene bike.............................................................................................................................. 223

Figure 75. Graphene lacrosse equipment..................................................................................................... 224

Figure 76. CNT anti-icing coating for wind turbines...................................................................................... 224

Figure 77. Graphene-based suitcase made from recycled plastic............................................................... 225

Figure 78. Aros Create.................................................................................................................................. 226

Figure 79. CSCNT Reinforced Prepreg........................................................................................................ 226

Figure 80. Grays graphene hockey sticks..................................................................................................... 229

Figure 81: Demand for graphene in conductive ink (tons), 2018-2030........................................................ 237

Figure 82: BGT Materials graphene ink product........................................................................................... 238

Figure 83: Nanotube inks.............................................................................................................................. 239

Figure 84: Printed graphene conductive ink.................................................................................................. 239

Figure 85: Textiles covered in conductive graphene ink............................................................................... 240

Figure 86. Comparison of nanofillers with supplementary cementitious materials and aggregates in concrete.................................................................................................................................................................. 242

Figure 87: Demand for carbon nanomaterials in construction (tons), 2018-2030........................................ 246

Figure 88. Graphene asphalt additives......................................................................................................... 247

Figure 89. OG (Original Graphene) Concrete Admix Plus............................................................................ 247

Figure 90: Demand for carbon nanomaterials in wearable electronics and displays, 2018-2030............... 256

Figure 91: Moxi flexible film developed for smartphone application............................................................. 257

Figure 92. Strategic Elements’ transparent glass demonstrator................................................................... 258

Figure 93: Carbon nanotube-based colour active matrix electrophoretic display (EPD) e-paper................ 258

Figure 94: Demand for carbon nanomaterials in transistors and integrated circuits, 2018-2030................ 266

Figure 95. Graphene IC in wafer tester......................................................................................................... 267

Figure 96: Schematic cross-section of a graphene based transistor (GBT, left) and a graphene field-effect transistor (GFET, right)........................................................................................................................... 267

Figure 97: Thin film transistor incorporating CNTs....................................................................................... 268

Figure 98: Demand for carbon nanomaterials in memory devices, 2018-2030............................................ 273

Figure 99: Carbon nanotubes NRAM chip.................................................................................................... 274

Figure 100. Layered structure of tantalum oxide, multilayer graphene and platinum used for resistive random-access memory (RRAM)......................................................................................................................... 274

Figure 101: Demand for carbon nanomaterials in filtration (tons), 2018-2030............................................. 284

Figure 102. Graphene anti-smog mask......................................................................................................... 285

Figure 103. Graphene filtration membrane................................................................................................... 286

Figure 104. Water filer cartridge.................................................................................................................... 286

Figure 105: Demand for carbon nanomaterials in fuel cells (tons), 2018-2030............................................ 294

Figure 106. Graphene-based E-skin patch................................................................................................... 296

Figure 107: Demand for carbon nanomaterials in life sciences and medical (tons), 2018-2030................. 310

Figure 108: CARESTREAM DRX-Revolution Nano Mobile X-ray System................................................... 311

Figure 109. Graphene medical biosensors for wound healing..................................................................... 312

Figure 110: Graphene Frontiers’ Six™ chemical sensors consists of a field effect transistor (FET) with a graphene channel. Receptor molecules, such as DNA, are attached directly to the graphene channel. 312

Figure 111: GraphWear wearable sweat sensor.......................................................................................... 313

Figure 112: Demand for carbon nanomaterials in lighting, 2018-2030......................................................... 320

Figure 113. Graphene LED bulbs.................................................................................................................. 321

Figure 114: Demand for carbon nanomaterials in lubricants (tons), 2018-2030.......................................... 328

Figure 115. Tricolit spray coating.................................................................................................................. 328

Figure 116. Graphenoil products................................................................................................................... 329

Figure 117: Demand for carbon nanomaterials in oil and gas (tons), 2018-2030........................................ 335

Figure 118: Directa Plus Grafysorber............................................................................................................ 336

Figure 119: Demand for carbon nanomaterials in paints and coatings (tons), 2018-2030.......................... 349

Figure 120. Cryorig CPU cooling system with graphene coating................................................................. 350

Figure 121: Four layers of graphene oxide coatings on polycarbonate........................................................ 351

Figure 122. CSCNT Reinforced Prepreg...................................................................................................... 352

Figure 123. 23303 ZINCTON GNC graphene paint...................................................................................... 352

Figure 124. Graphene-enhanced anti-corrosion aerosols under their Hycote brand................................... 353

Figure 125. Scania Truck head lamp brackets ACT chamber 6 weeks, equivalent to 3y field use. Piece treated with GO to the left together with different non-GO coatings...................................................... 353

Figure 126. Schematic of graphene heat film............................................................................................... 354

Figure 127: Demand for carbon nanomaterials in photonics, 2018-2030.................................................... 362

Figure 128. All-graphene optical communication link demonstrator operating at a data rate of 25 Gb/s per channel.................................................................................................................................................... 363

Figure 129: Demand for carbon nanomaterials in photovoltaics (tons), 2018-2030.................................... 369

Figure 130: Suntech/TCNT nanotube frame module.................................................................................... 370

Figure 131. Graphene coated glass.............................................................................................................. 371

Figure 132: Demand for carbon nanomaterials in rubber and tires (tons), 2018-2030................................ 378

Figure 133. Eagle F1 graphene tire............................................................................................................... 379

Figure 134. Graphene floor mats.................................................................................................................. 380

Figure 135. Vittoria Corsa G+ tire.................................................................................................................. 380

Figure 136. Graphene-based sensors for health monitoring........................................................................ 382

Figure 137: Demand for carbon nanomaterials in sensors (tons), 2018-2030............................................. 388

Figure 138. AGILE R100 system................................................................................................................... 390

Figure 139. Graphene fully packaged linear array detector.......................................................................... 390

Figure 140: GFET sensors............................................................................................................................ 391

Figure 141. Graphene is used to increase sensitivity to middle-infrared light.............................................. 392

Figure 142: Demand for carbon nanomaterials in textiles (tons), 2018-2030.............................................. 402

Figure 143. Colmar graphene ski jacket....................................................................................................... 403

Figure 144. Graphene dress. The dress changes colour in sync with the wearer’s breathing.................... 403

Figure 145. G+ Graphene Aero Jersey......................................................................................................... 404

Figure 146: Inov-8 graphene shoes.............................................................................................................. 405

Figure 147. Graphene Functional Membranes - UniTran GM...................................................................... 405

Figure 148. Graphene jacket......................................................................................................................... 406

Figure 149: Demand for carbon nanomaterials in supercapacitors (tons), 2018-2030................................ 414

Figure 150. Skeleton Technologies supercapacitor...................................................................................... 415

Figure 151: Zapgo supercapacitor phone charger........................................................................................ 416

Figure 152. Prototypes of nanodiamonds, fullerene and lignin sunscreen................................................... 423

Figure 153. Graphene heating films.............................................................................................................. 426

Figure 154. Graphene flake products............................................................................................................ 431

Figure 155. AIKA Black-T.............................................................................................................................. 434

Figure 156. Printed graphene biosensors..................................................................................................... 441

Figure 157. Graphene battery schematic...................................................................................................... 464

Figure 158. Test performance after 6 weeks ACT II according to Scania STD4445................................... 536

Figure 159. Talcoat graphene mixed with paint............................................................................................ 551

Figure 160. T-FORCE CARDEA ZERO........................................................................................................ 552

Figure 161: Prototype of Graphene-integrated UF filter cartridge................................................................ 553

Figure 162. AWN Nanotech water harvesting prototype.............................................................................. 573

Figure 163. Carbonics, Inc.’s carbon nanotube technology.......................................................................... 581

Figure 164. Fuji carbon nanotube products.................................................................................................. 586

Figure 165. Cup Stacked Type Carbon Nano Tubes schematic.................................................................. 588

Figure 166. CSCNT composite dispersion.................................................................................................... 588

Figure 167. Flexible CNT CMOS integrated circuits with sub-10 nanoseconds stage delays..................... 592

Figure 168. Koatsu Gas Kogyo Co. Ltd CNT product................................................................................... 594

Figure 169. Hybrid battery powered electrica motorbike concept................................................................ 608

Figure 170. Schematic illustration of three-chamber system for SWCNH production................................. 609

Figure 171. TEM images of carbon nanobrush............................................................................................. 610

Figure 172: Carbon nanotube paint product................................................................................................. 634

Figure 173. HiPCO® Reactor........................................................................................................................ 637

Figure 174: Schematic of 2-D materials........................................................................................................ 675

Figure 175: Borophene schematic................................................................................................................ 677

Figure 176: Black phosphorus structure....................................................................................................... 678

Figure 177: Black Phosphorus crystal........................................................................................................... 679

Figure 178: Bottom gated flexible few-layer phosphorene transistors with the hydrophobic dielectric encapsulation.......................................................................................................................................... 681

Figure 179: Graphitic carbon nitride.............................................................................................................. 683

Figure 180: Structural difference between graphene and C2N-h2D crystal: (a) graphene; (b) C2N-h2D crystal. Credit: Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology.................................................................. 684

Figure 181: Schematic of germanene........................................................................................................... 685

Figure 182: Graphdiyne structure.................................................................................................................. 687

Figure 183: Schematic of Graphane crystal.................................................................................................. 689

Figure 184: Structure of hexagonal boron nitride.......................................................................................... 691

Figure 185: BN nanosheet textiles application.............................................................................................. 692

Figure 186: Structure of 2D molybdenum disulfide....................................................................................... 693

Figure 187: SEM image of MoS2................................................................................................................... 694

Figure 188: Atomic force microscopy image of a representative MoS2 thin-film transistor......................... 695

Figure 189: Schematic of the molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) thin-film sensor with the deposited molecules that create additional charge.................................................................................................................. 696

Figure 190: Schematic of a monolayer of rhenium disulfide......................................................................... 696

Figure 191: Silicene structure........................................................................................................................ 697

Figure 192: Monolayer silicene on a silver (111) substrate.......................................................................... 698

Figure 193: Silicene transistor....................................................................................................................... 699

Figure 194: Crystal structure for stanene...................................................................................................... 700

Figure 195: Atomic structure model for the 2D stanene on Bi2Te3(111)..................................................... 700

Figure 196: Schematic of tungsten diselenide.............................................................................................. 702

Figure 197: Schematic of Indium Selenide (InSe)........................................................................................ 704

 

The Global Market for Carbon Nanomaterials 2020
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