The Global Market for Renewable Materials (Bio-based, CO2-based and Recycled)

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Published January 2023 | 1,175 pages, 454 figures, 303 tables | Download table of contents

Bio-based, CO2-based and recycled materials are the only viable alternatives to fossil-based chemicals and materials.  Demand for chemicals and materials based on renewable sources is growing fast, driven by corporate commitments to sustainability, government regulation & policies and consumer preferences. 

The Global Market for Renewable Materials covers sectors, products, emerging technologies, and companies in bio- and CO2-based chemicals and materials, and advanced chemical recycling, with 1,175 pages of content. The report provides a comprehensive overview of the latest developments in renewable alternatives to fossil based carbon, with profiles of over 1,140 companies developing sustainable raw materials and technologies.

Report contents include:

Bio-materials

  • In depth market analysis of bio-based chemical feedstocks, biopolymers, bioplastics, natural fibers and lignin, biofuels and bio-based coatings and paints. 
  • Global production capacities, market volumes and trends, current and forecast to 2033. 
  • Analysis of bio-based chemical including 11-Aminoundecanoic acid (11-AA), 1,4-Butanediol (1,4-BDO), Dodecanedioic acid (DDDA), Epichlorohydrin (ECH), Ethylene, Furan derivatives, 5-Chloromethylfurfural (5-CMF), 2,5-Furandicarboxylic acid (2,5-FDCA), Furandicarboxylic methyl ester (FDME), Isosorbide,  Itaconic acid, 5 Hydroxymethyl furfural (HMF), Lactic acid (D-LA), Lactic acid – L-lactic acid (L-LA), Lactide, Levoglucosenone, Levulinic acid, Monoethylene glycol (MEG), Monopropylene glycol (MPG), Muconic acid, Naphtha, 1,5-Pentametylenediamine (DN5), 1,3-Propanediol (1,3-PDO), Sebacic acid and Succinic acid.
  • Analysis of synthetic bio-polymers and bio-plastics market including Polylactic acid (Bio-PLA), Polyethylene terephthalate (Bio-PET), Polytrimethylene terephthalate (Bio-PTT), Polyethylene furanoate (Bio-PEF), Polyamides (Bio-PA), Poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (Bio-PBAT), Polybutylene succinate (PBS) and copolymers, Polyethylene (Bio-PE), Polypropylene (Bio-PP)
  • Analysis of naturally produced bio-based polymers including Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA), Polysaccharides, Microfibrillated cellulose (MFC), Cellulose nanocrystals, Cellulose nanofibers,  Protein-based bioplastics, Algal and fungal materials. 
  • Analysis of market for bio-fuels. 
  • Analysis of types of natural fibers including plant fibers, animal fibers including alternative leather, wool, silk fiber and down and polysaccharides. 
  • Markets for natural fibers, including composites, aerospace, automotive, construction & building, sports & leisure, textiles, consumer products and packaging.
  • Production capacities of lignin producers. 
  • In depth analysis of biorefinery lignin production. 
  • Analysis of the market for bio-based, sustainable paints and coatings. 
  • Analysis of types of bio-coatings and paints market.  Including Alkyd coatings, Polyurethane coatings, Epoxy coatings, Acrylate resins, Polylactic acid (Bio-PLA), Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA), Cellulose, Rosins, Biobased carbon black, Lignin, Edible coatings, Protein-based biomaterials for coatings, Alginate etc. 

 

Carbon Capture, Utilization and Storage 

  • Analysis of the global market for carbon capture, utilization, and storage (CCUS) technologies.
  • Market developments, funding and investment in carbon capture, utilization, and storage (CCUS) 2020-2023.
  • Analysis of key market dynamics, trends, opportunities and factors influencing the global carbon, capture utilization & storage technologies market and its subsegments.
  • Market barriers to carbon capture, utilization, and storage (CCUS) technologies.
  • National policies.
  • Prices to January 2023. 
  • Latest CCS projects updates.
  • Latest developments in carbon capture, storage and utilization technologies
  • Market analysis of CO2-derived products including fuels, chemicals, building materials from minerals, building materials from waste, enhanced oil recovery, and CO2 use to enhance the yields of biological processes.

 

Advanced Chemical Recycling

  • Overview of the global plastics and bioplastics markets.
  • Market drivers and trends.
  • Advanced chemical recycling industry developments 2020-2023.
  • Capacities by technology. 
  • Market maps and value chain. 
  • In-depth analysis of advanced chemical recycling technologies. 
  • Advanced recycling technologies covered include:
    • Pyrolysis
    • Gasification
    • Dissolution
    • Depolymerisation
    • Emerging technologies.

 

Profiles of over 1,140 companies. Companies profiled include NatureWorks, Total Corbion, Danimer Scientific, Novamont, Mitsubishi Chemicals, Indorama, Braskem, Avantium, Borealis, Cathay, Dupont, BASF, Arkema, DuPont, BASF, AMSilk GmbH,  Loliware, Bolt Threads, Ecovative, Bioform Technologies, Algal Bio, Kraig Biocraft Laboratories, Biotic Circular Technologies Ltd., Full Cycle Bioplastics, Stora Enso Oyj, Spiber, Traceless Materials GmbH, CJ Biomaterials, Natrify, Plastus, Humble Bee Bio, B’ZEOS, Ecovative, Notpla, Smartfiber, Keel Labs, MycoWorks, Algiecel, Aspiring Materials, Cambridge Carbon Capture, Carbon Engineering Ltd., Captura, Carbyon BV, CarbonCure Technologies Inc., CarbonOrO, Carbon Collect, Climeworks, Dimensional Energy, Dioxycle, Ebb Carbon, enaDyne, Fortera Corporation, Global Thermostat, Heirloom Carbon Technologies, High Hopes Labs, LanzaTech, Liquid Wind AB, Lithos, Living Carbon, Mars Materials, Mercurius Biorefining, Mission Zero Technologies, OXCUU, Oxylum, Paebbl, Prometheus Fuels, RepAir, Sunfire GmbH, Sustaera, Svante, Travertine Technologies, Verdox,  Agilyx, APK AG, Aquafil, Carbios, Eastman, Extracthive, Fych Technologies, Garbo, gr3n SA, Ioniqa, Itero, Licella, Mura Technology, revalyu Resources GmbH, Plastic Energy, Polystyvert, Pyrowave, ReVital Polymers and SABIC.

 

 

1              RESEARCH METHODOLOGY         77

 

2              BIO-BASED CHEMICALS AND FEEDSTOCKS MARKET           79

  • 2.1          Types    79
  • 2.2          Production capacities     80
  • 2.3          Bio-based adipic acid      82
    • 2.3.1      Applications and production       82
  • 2.4          11-Aminoundecanoic acid (11-AA)            82
    • 2.4.1      Applications and production       83
  • 2.5          1,4-Butanediol (1,4-BDO)              84
    • 2.5.1      Applications and production       84
  • 2.6          Dodecanedioic acid (DDDA)         85
    • 2.6.1      Applications and production       86
  • 2.7          Epichlorohydrin (ECH)    87
    • 2.7.1      Applications and production       87
  • 2.8          Ethylene              88
    • 2.8.1      Applications and production       88
  • 2.9          Furfural 89
    • 2.9.1      Applications and production       89
  • 2.10        5-Hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) 90
    • 2.10.1    Applications and production       90
  • 2.11        5-Chloromethylfurfural (5-CMF) 90
    • 2.11.1    Applications and production       90
  • 2.12        2,5-Furandicarboxylic acid (2,5-FDCA)     91
    • 2.12.1    Applications and production       91
  • 2.13        Furandicarboxylic methyl ester (FDME)  91
  • 2.14        Isosorbide           92
    • 2.14.1    Applications and production       92
  • 2.15        Itaconic acid       92
    • 2.15.1    Applications and production       92
  • 2.16        3-Hydroxypropionic acid (3-HP) 93
    • 2.16.1    Applications and production       93
  • 2.17        5 Hydroxymethyl furfural (HMF) 94
    • 2.17.1    Applications and production       94
  • 2.18        Lactic acid (D-LA)             95
    • 2.18.1    Applications and production       95
  • 2.19        Lactic acid – L-lactic acid (L-LA)   95
    • 2.19.1    Applications and production       96
  • 2.20        Lactide  97
    • 2.20.1    Applications and production       97
  • 2.21        Levoglucosenone             98
    • 2.21.1    Applications and production       99
  • 2.22        Levulinic acid      99
    • 2.22.1    Applications and production       99
  • 2.23        Monoethylene glycol (MEG)       99
    • 2.23.1    Applications and production       100
  • 2.24        Monopropylene glycol (MPG)    101
    • 2.24.1    Applications and production       101
  • 2.25        Muconic acid      102
    • 2.25.1    Applications and production       102
  • 2.26        Bio-Naphtha      102
    • 2.26.1    Applications and production       103
    • 2.26.2    Production capacities     104
    • 2.26.3    Bio-naptha producers    104
  • 2.27        Pentamethylene diisocyanate    106
    • 2.27.1    Applications and production       106
  • 2.28        1,3-Propanediol (1,3-PDO)           106
    • 2.28.1    Applications and production       106
  • 2.29        Sebacic acid        107
    • 2.29.1    Applications and production       108
  • 2.30        Succinic acid (SA)             108
    • 2.30.1    Applications and production       109

 

3              BIO-BASED MATERIALS, PLASTICS AND POLYMERS MARKET          111

  • 3.1          Bio-based or renewable plastics 111
    • 3.1.1      Drop-in bio-based plastics            111
    • 3.1.2      Novel bio-based plastics                112
  • 3.2          Biodegradable and compostable plastics                113
    • 3.2.1      Biodegradability               113
    • 3.2.2      Compostability  114
  • 3.3          Advantages and disadvantages  115
  • 3.4          Types of Bio-based and/or Biodegradable Plastics              116
  • 3.5          Market leaders by biobased and/or biodegradable plastic types  117
  • 3.6          Regional/country production capacities, by main types   118
    • 3.6.1      Bio-based Polyethylene (Bio-PE) production capacities, by country             120
    • 3.6.2      Bio-based Polyethylene terephthalate (Bio-PET) production capacities, by country              121
    • 3.6.3      Bio-based polyamides (Bio-PA) production capacities, by country               122
    • 3.6.4      Bio-based Polypropylene (Bio-PP) production capacities, by country          123
    • 3.6.5      Bio-based Polytrimethylene terephthalate (Bio-PTT) production capacities, by country     125
    • 3.6.6      Bio-based Poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (PBAT) production capacities, by country         126
    • 3.6.7      Bio-based Polybutylene succinate (PBS) production capacities, by country              127
    • 3.6.8      Bio-based Polylactic acid (PLA) production capacities, by country 128
    • 3.6.9      Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) production capacities, by country  129
    • 3.6.10    Starch blends production capacities, by country 130
  • 3.7          SYNTHETIC BIO-BASED POLYMERS            131
    • 3.7.1      Polylactic acid (Bio-PLA) 131
      • 3.7.1.1   Market analysis 131
      • 3.7.1.2   Production          133
      • 3.7.1.3   Producers and production capacities, current and planned            133
        • 3.7.1.3.1               Lactic acid producers and production capacities  133
        • 3.7.1.3.2               PLA producers and production capacities               134
        • 3.7.1.3.3               Polylactic acid (Bio-PLA) production capacities 2019-2033 (1,000 tons)     135
    • 3.7.2      Polyethylene terephthalate (Bio-PET)     136
      • 3.7.2.1   Market analysis 136
      • 3.7.2.2   Producers and production capacities       137
      • 3.7.2.3   Polyethylene terephthalate (Bio-PET) production capacities 2019-2033 (1,000 tons)          138
    • 3.7.3      Polytrimethylene terephthalate (Bio-PTT)             139
      • 3.7.3.1   Market analysis 139
      • 3.7.3.2   Producers and production capacities       139
      • 3.7.3.3   Polytrimethylene terephthalate (PTT) production capacities 2019-2033 (1,000 tons)          140
    • 3.7.4      Polyethylene furanoate (Bio-PEF)             141
      • 3.7.4.1   Market analysis 141
      • 3.7.4.2   Comparative properties to PET   142
      • 3.7.4.3   Producers and production capacities       143
        • 3.7.4.3.1               FDCA and PEF producers and production capacities           143
        • 3.7.4.3.2               Polyethylene furanoate (Bio-PEF) production capacities 2019-2033 (1,000 tons). 144
    • 3.7.5      Polyamides (Bio-PA)       145
      • 3.7.5.1   Market analysis 145
      • 3.7.5.2   Producers and production capacities       146
      • 3.7.5.3   Polyamides (Bio-PA) production capacities 2019-2033 (1,000 tons)            147
    • 3.7.6      Poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (Bio-PBAT)        147
      • 3.7.6.1   Market analysis 147
      • 3.7.6.2   Producers and production capacities       148
      • 3.7.6.3   Poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (Bio-PBAT) production capacities 2019-2033 (1,000 tons)             149
    • 3.7.7      Polybutylene succinate (PBS) and copolymers     150
      • 3.7.7.1   Market analysis 150
      • 3.7.7.2   Producers and production capacities       151
      • 3.7.7.3   Polybutylene succinate (PBS) production capacities 2019-2033 (1,000 tons)           152
    • 3.7.8      Polyethylene (Bio-PE)    152
      • 3.7.8.1   Market analysis 152
      • 3.7.8.2   Producers and production capacities       153
      • 3.7.8.3   Polyethylene (Bio-PE) production capacities 2019-2033 (1,000 tons).        154
    • 3.7.9      Polypropylene (Bio-PP) 155
      • 3.7.9.1   Market analysis 155
      • 3.7.9.2   Producers and production capacities       155
      • 3.7.9.3   Polypropylene (Bio-PP) production capacities 2019-2033 (1,000 tons)      156
  • 3.8          NATURAL BIO-BASED POLYMERS               157
    • 3.8.1      Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA)     157
      • 3.8.1.1   Technology description 157
      • 3.8.1.2   Types    159
        • 3.8.1.2.1               PHB        161
        • 3.8.1.2.2               PHBV     161
      • 3.8.1.3   Synthesis and production processes        163
      • 3.8.1.4   Market analysis 166
      • 3.8.1.5   Commercially available PHAs      167
      • 3.8.1.6   Markets for PHAs             168
        • 3.8.1.6.1               Packaging            170
        • 3.8.1.6.2               Cosmetics           171
          • 3.8.1.6.2.1           PHA microspheres           171
        • 3.8.1.6.3               Medical 172
          • 3.8.1.6.3.1           Tissue engineering          172
          • 3.8.1.6.3.2           Drug delivery     172
        • 3.8.1.6.4               Agriculture          172
          • 3.8.1.6.4.1           Mulch film           172
          • 3.8.1.6.4.2           Grow bags           172
      • 3.8.1.7   Producers and production capacities       173
      • 3.8.1.8   PHA production capacities 2019-2033 (1,000 tons)            175
    • 3.8.2      Polysaccharides 176
      • 3.8.2.1   Microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) 176
        • 3.8.2.1.1               Market analysis 176
        • 3.8.2.1.2               Producers and production capacities       177
      • 3.8.2.2   Nanocellulose   177
        • 3.8.2.2.1               Cellulose nanocrystals    177
          • 3.8.2.2.1.1           Synthesis             178
          • 3.8.2.2.1.2           Properties           180
          • 3.8.2.2.1.3           Production          181
          • 3.8.2.2.1.4           Applications       181
          • 3.8.2.2.1.5           Market analysis 183
          • 3.8.2.2.1.6           Producers and production capacities       184
        • 3.8.2.2.2               Cellulose nanofibers       185
          • 3.8.2.2.2.1           Applications       185
          • 3.8.2.2.2.2           Market analysis 186
          • 3.8.2.2.2.3           Producers and production capacities       188
        • 3.8.2.2.3               Bacterial Nanocellulose (BNC)    189
          • 3.8.2.2.3.1           Production          189
          • 3.8.2.2.3.2           Applications       192
    • 3.8.3      Protein-based bioplastics             193
      • 3.8.3.1   Types, applications and producers            194
    • 3.8.4      Algal and fungal 195
      • 3.8.4.1   Algal      195
        • 3.8.4.1.1               Advantages        195
        • 3.8.4.1.2               Production          197
        • 3.8.4.1.3               Producers           197
      • 3.8.4.2   Mycelium            198
        • 3.8.4.2.1               Properties           198
        • 3.8.4.2.2               Applications       199
        • 3.8.4.2.3               Commercialization           200
    • 3.8.5      Chitosan              201
      • 3.8.5.1   Technology description 201
  • 3.9          PRODUCTION OF BIOBASED AND BIODEGRADABLE PLASTICS, BY REGION 202
    • 3.9.1      North America   203
    • 3.9.2      Europe 203
    • 3.9.3      Asia-Pacific         204
      • 3.9.3.1   China     204
      • 3.9.3.2   Japan    204
      • 3.9.3.3   Thailand               205
      • 3.9.3.4   Indonesia            205
    • 3.9.4      Latin America    206
  • 3.10        MARKET SEGMENTATION OF BIOPLASTICS           207
    • 3.10.1    Packaging            208
      • 3.10.1.1                Processes for bioplastics in packaging      208
      • 3.10.1.2                Applications       209
      • 3.10.1.3                Flexible packaging            209
        • 3.10.1.3.1             Production volumes 2019-2033   212
      • 3.10.1.4                Rigid packaging 212
        • 3.10.1.4.1             Production volumes 2019-2033   214
    • 3.10.2    Consumer products        215
      • 3.10.2.1                Applications       215
    • 3.10.3    Automotive        216
      • 3.10.3.1                Applications       216
      • 3.10.3.2                Production capacities     216
    • 3.10.4    Building & construction 217
      • 3.10.4.1                Applications       217
      • 3.10.4.2                Production capacities     217
    • 3.10.5    Textiles 218
      • 3.10.5.1                Apparel 218
      • 3.10.5.2                Footwear            219
      • 3.10.5.3                Medical textiles 221
      • 3.10.5.4                Production capacities     221
    • 3.10.6    Electronics          222
      • 3.10.6.1                Applications       222
      • 3.10.6.2                Production capacities     222
    • 3.10.7    Agriculture and horticulture        223
      • 3.10.7.1                Production capacities     224
  • 3.11        NATURAL FIBERS              224
    • 3.11.1    Manufacturing method, matrix materials and applications of natural fibers            228
    • 3.11.2    Advantages of natural fibers       229
    • 3.11.3    Commercially available next-gen natural fiber  products 230
    • 3.11.4    Market drivers for next-gen natural fibers             233
    • 3.11.5    Challenges          235
    • 3.11.6    Plants (cellulose, lignocellulose) 236
    • 3.11.6.1                Seed fibers         236
      • 3.11.6.1.1             Cotton  236
        • 3.11.6.1.1.1         Production volumes 2018-2033   237
      • 3.11.6.1.2             Kapok   237
        • 3.11.6.1.2.1         Production volumes 2018-2033   238
      • 3.11.6.1.3             Luffa      239
    • 3.11.6.2                Bast fibers           240
      • 3.11.6.2.1             Jute       240
      • 3.11.6.2.2             Production volumes 2018-2033   241
        • 3.11.6.2.2.1         Hemp    242
        • 3.11.6.2.2.2         Production volumes 2018-2033   243
      • 3.11.6.2.3             Flax        243
      • 3.11.6.2.3.1         Production volumes 2018-2033   244
      • 3.11.6.2.4             Ramie   245
      • 3.11.6.2.4.1         Production volumes 2018-2033   246
      • 3.11.6.2.5             Kenaf    246
        • 3.11.6.2.5.1         Production volumes 2018-2033   247
    • 3.11.6.3                Leaf fibers           248
      • 3.11.6.3.1             Sisal       248
        • 3.11.6.3.1.1         Production volumes 2018-2033   249
      • 3.11.6.3.2             Abaca    249
        • 3.11.6.3.2.1         Production volumes 2018-2033   250
    • 3.11.6.4                Fruit fibers          251
      • 3.11.6.4.1             Coir        251
        • 3.11.6.4.1.1         Production volumes 2018-2033   251
      • 3.11.6.4.2             Banana 252
        • 3.11.6.4.2.1         Production volumes 2018-2033   253
      • 3.11.6.4.3             Pineapple            254
    • 3.11.6.5                Stalk fibers from agricultural residues     255
      • 3.11.6.5.1             Rice fiber             255
      • 3.11.6.5.2             Corn      256
    • 3.11.6.6                Cane, grasses and reed  257
      • 3.11.6.6.1             Switch grass       257
      • 3.11.6.6.2             Sugarcane (agricultural residues)              257
      • 3.11.6.6.3             Bamboo               258
        • 3.11.6.6.3.1         Production volumes 2018-2033   259
      • 3.11.6.6.4             Fresh grass (green biorefinery)  259
    • 3.11.6.7                Modified natural polymers          260
      • 3.11.6.7.1             Mycelium            260
      • 3.11.6.7.2             Chitosan              262
      • 3.11.6.7.3             Alginate               263
    • 3.11.7    Animal (fibrous protein) 265
      • 3.11.7.1                Wool     265
        • 3.11.7.1.1             Alternative wool materials           266
        • 3.11.7.1.2             Producers           266
      • 3.11.7.2                Silk fiber              266
        • 3.11.7.2.1             Alternative silk materials               267
        • 3.11.7.2.1.1         Producers           267
      • 3.11.7.3                Leather 268
        • 3.11.7.3.1             Alternative leather materials       269
          • 3.11.7.3.1.1         Producers           269
      • 3.11.7.4                Fur         271
        • 3.11.7.4.1             Producers           271
      • 3.11.7.5                Down    271
      • 3.11.7.5.1             Alternative down materials          271
        • 3.11.7.5.1.1         Producers           271
    • 3.11.8    Markets for natural fibers            272
      • 3.11.8.1                Composites        272
      • 3.11.8.2                Applications       272
      • 3.11.8.3                Natural fiber injection moulding compounds       274
        • 3.11.8.3.1             Properties           274
        • 3.11.8.3.2             Applications       274
      • 3.11.8.4                Non-woven natural fiber mat composites              274
        • 3.11.8.4.1             Automotive        274
        • 3.11.8.4.2             Applications       275
      • 3.11.8.5                Aligned natural fiber-reinforced composites        275
      • 3.11.8.6                Natural fiber biobased polymer compounds         276
      • 3.11.8.7                Natural fiber biobased polymer non-woven mats              277
        • 3.11.8.7.1             Flax        277
        • 3.11.8.7.2             Kenaf    277
      • 3.11.8.8                Natural fiber thermoset bioresin composites       277
      • 3.11.8.9                Aerospace          278
        • 3.11.8.9.1             Market overview             278
      • 3.11.8.10              Automotive        278
        • 3.11.8.10.1          Market overview             278
        • 3.11.8.10.2          Applications of natural fibers      283
      • 3.11.8.11              Building/construction     283
        • 3.11.8.11.1          Market overview             284
        • 3.11.8.11.2          Applications of natural fibers      284
      • 3.11.8.12              Sports and leisure            285
        • 3.11.8.12.1          Market overview             285
      • 3.11.8.13              Textiles 285
        • 3.11.8.13.1          Market overview             285
        • 3.11.8.13.2          Consumer apparel           287
        • 3.11.8.13.3          Geotextiles        287
      • 3.11.8.14              Packaging            288
        • 3.11.8.14.1          Market overview             289
    • 3.11.9    Global production of natural fibers           291
      • 3.11.9.1                Overall global fibers market        291
      • 3.11.9.2                Plant-based fiber production      293
      • 3.11.9.3                Animal-based natural fiber production   294
  • 3.12        LIGNIN 295
    • 3.12.1    Introduction       295
      • 3.12.1.1                What is lignin?   295
        • 3.12.1.1.1             Lignin structure 296
      • 3.12.1.2                Types of lignin    297
        • 3.12.1.2.1             Sulfur containing lignin  299
        • 3.12.1.2.2             Sulfur-free lignin from biorefinery process            299
      • 3.12.1.3                Properties           300
      • 3.12.1.4                The lignocellulose biorefinery     302
      • 3.12.1.5                Markets and applications              303
      • 3.12.1.6                Challenges for using lignin            304
    • 3.12.2    Lignin production processes        305
      • 3.12.2.1                Lignosulphonates            307
      • 3.12.2.2                Kraft Lignin          307
        • 3.12.2.2.1             LignoBoost process         307
        • 3.12.2.2.2             LignoForce method         308
        • 3.12.2.2.3             Sequential Liquid Lignin Recovery and Purification             309
        • 3.12.2.2.4             A-Recovery+      310
      • 3.12.2.3                Soda lignin          311
      • 3.12.2.4                Biorefinery lignin              311
        • 3.12.2.4.1             Commercial and pre-commercial biorefinery lignin production facilities and  processes    312
      • 3.12.2.5                Organosolv lignins            314
      • 3.12.2.6                Hydrolytic lignin                315
    • 3.12.3    Markets for lignin             316
      • 3.12.3.1                Market drivers and trends for lignin         316
      • 3.12.3.2                Production capacities     317
        • 3.12.3.2.1             Technical lignin availability (dry ton/y)    317
        • 3.12.3.2.2             Biomass conversion (Biorefinery)             318
      • 3.12.3.3                Estimated consumption of lignin                318
      • 3.12.3.4                Prices    320
      • 3.12.3.5                Heat and power energy 320
      • 3.12.3.6                Pyrolysis and syngas       320
      • 3.12.3.7                Aromatic compounds     320
        • 3.12.3.7.1             Benzene, toluene and xylene      321
        • 3.12.3.7.2             Phenol and phenolic resins          321
        • 3.12.3.7.3             Vanillin 322
      • 3.12.3.8                Plastics and polymers     322
      • 3.12.3.9                Hydrogels            323
      • 3.12.3.10              Carbon materials              324
        • 3.12.3.10.1          Carbon black      324
        • 3.12.3.10.2          Activated carbons            324
        • 3.12.3.10.3          Carbon fiber       325
      • 3.12.3.11              Concrete             326
      • 3.12.3.12              Rubber 327
      • 3.12.3.13              Biofuels 327
      • 3.12.3.14              Bitumen and Asphalt      327
    • 3.12.3.15              Oil and gas          328
    • 3.12.3.16              Energy storage  328
      • 3.12.3.16.1          Supercapacitors 329
      • 3.12.3.16.2          Anodes for lithium-ion batteries 329
      • 3.12.3.16.3          Gel electrolytes for lithium-ion batteries                330
      • 3.12.3.16.4          Binders for lithium-ion batteries 330
      • 3.12.3.16.5          Cathodes for lithium-ion batteries            330
      • 3.12.3.16.6          Sodium-ion batteries      331
    • 3.12.3.17              Binders, emulsifiers and dispersants        331
    • 3.12.3.18              Chelating agents              333
    • 3.12.3.19              Ceramics              334
    • 3.12.3.20              Automotive interiors      334
    • 3.12.3.21              Fire retardants  335
    • 3.12.3.22              Antioxidants      335
    • 3.12.3.23              Lubricants           335
    • 3.12.3.24              Dust control       336
  • 3.13        BIO-BASED MATERIALS, PLASTICS AND POLYMERS COMPANY PROFILES  337 (492 company profiles)

 

4              BIO-BASED FUELS MARKET           753

  • 4.1          The global biofuels market           753
    • 4.1.1      Diesel substitutes and alternatives           753
    • 4.1.2      Gasoline substitutes and alternatives      755
  • 4.2          Comparison of biofuel costs 2022, by type            755
  • 4.3          Types    756
    • 4.3.1      Solid Biofuels     756
    • 4.3.2      Liquid Biofuels  757
    • 4.3.3      Gaseous Biofuels             757
    • 4.3.4      Conventional Biofuels    758
    • 4.3.5      Advanced Biofuels           758
  • 4.4          Feedstocks         759
    • 4.4.1      First-generation (1-G)    761
    • 4.4.2      Second-generation (2-G)              762
      • 4.4.2.1   Lignocellulosic wastes and residues         763
      • 4.4.2.2   Biorefinery lignin              764
    • 4.4.3      Third-generation (3-G)  768
      • 4.4.3.1   Algal biofuels     768
        • 4.4.3.1.1               Properties           769
        • 4.4.3.1.2               Advantages        770
    • 4.4.4      Fourth-generation (4-G) 771
    • 4.4.5      Advantages and disadvantages, by generation    771
  • 4.5          HYDROCARBON BIOFUELS            774
    • 4.5.1      Biodiesel              774
      • 4.5.1.1   Biodiesel by generation 775
      • 4.5.1.2   Production of biodiesel and other biofuels            776
        • 4.5.1.2.1               Pyrolysis of biomass        777
        • 4.5.1.2.2               Vegetable oil transesterification 780
        • 4.5.1.2.3               Vegetable oil hydrogenation (HVO)         781
          • 4.5.1.2.3.1           Production process         782
        • 4.5.1.2.4               Biodiesel from tall oil      783
        • 4.5.1.2.5               Fischer-Tropsch BioDiesel             783
        • 4.5.1.2.6               Hydrothermal liquefaction of biomass    785
        • 4.5.1.2.7               CO2 capture and Fischer-Tropsch (FT)     786
        • 4.5.1.2.8               Dymethyl ether (DME)   786
      • 4.5.1.3   Global production and consumption        787
    • 4.5.2      Renewable diesel            789
      • 4.5.2.1   Production          789
      • 4.5.2.2   Global consumption       790
    • 4.5.3      Bio-jet (bio-aviation) fuels            792
      • 4.5.3.1   Description         792
      • 4.5.3.2   Global market   793
      • 4.5.3.3   Production pathways     793
    • 4.5.4      Costs     795
      • 4.5.4.1   Biojet fuel production capacities                796
      • 4.5.4.2   Challenges          797
      • 4.5.4.3   Global consumption       797
    • 4.5.5      Syngas  798
    • 4.5.6      Biogas and biomethane 799
      • 4.5.6.1   Feedstocks         802
    • 4.5.7      Bio-naphtha       803
      • 4.5.7.1   Overview            803
      • 4.5.7.2   Markets and applications              804
      • 4.5.7.3   Production capacities, by producer, current and planned               805
      • 4.5.7.4   Production capacities, total (tonnes), historical, current and planned        807
  • 4.6          ALCOHOL FUELS               808
    • 4.6.1      Biomethanol      808
      • 4.6.1.1   Methanol-to gasoline technology             808
          • 4.6.1.1.1               Production processes     809
          • 4.6.1.1.1.1           Anaerobic digestion        810
          • 4.6.1.1.1.2           Biomass gasification        810
          • 4.6.1.1.1.3           Power to Methane          811
    • 4.6.2      Bioethanol          812
      • 4.6.2.1   Technology description 812
      • 4.6.2.2   1G Bio-Ethanol  813
      • 4.6.2.3   Ethanol to jet fuel technology     813
      • 4.6.2.4   Methanol from pulp & paper production               814
      • 4.6.2.5   Sulfite spent liquor fermentation              814
      • 4.6.2.6   Gasification        815
        • 4.6.2.6.1               Biomass gasification and syngas fermentation    815
      • 4.6.2.7   Biomass gasification and syngas thermochemical conversion        815
      • 4.6.2.8   CO2 capture and alcohol synthesis           816
      • 4.6.2.9   Biomass hydrolysis and fermentation     816
        • 4.6.2.9.1               Separate hydrolysis and fermentation    816
        • 4.6.2.9.2               Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF)     817
        • 4.6.2.9.3               Pre-hydrolysis and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (PSSF)             817
        • 4.6.2.9.4               Simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation (SSCF)            818
        • 4.6.2.9.5               Direct conversion (consolidated bioprocessing) (CBP)      818
      • 4.6.2.10                Global ethanol consumption       819
    • 4.6.3      Biobutanol          820
    • 4.6.3.1   Production          822
  • 4.7          BIOFUEL FROM PLASTIC WASTE AND USED TIRES               823
    • 4.7.1      Plastic pyrolysis 823
    • 4.7.2      Used tires pyrolysis         824
      • 4.7.2.1   Conversion to biofuel     825
  • 4.8          ELECTROFUELS (E-FUELS)             827
    • 4.8.1      Introduction       827
      • 4.8.1.1   Benefits of e-fuels           829
    • 4.8.2      Feedstocks         830
      • 4.8.2.1   Hydrogen electrolysis     830
      • 4.8.2.2   CO2 capture       831
    • 4.8.3      Production          831
    • 4.8.4      Electrolysers      834
      • 4.8.4.1   Commercial alkaline electrolyser cells (AECs)       835
      • 4.8.4.2   PEM electrolysers (PEMEC)         835
      • 4.8.4.3   High-temperature solid oxide electrolyser cells (SOECs)  836
    • 4.8.5      Costs     836
    • 4.8.6      Market challenges           839
    • 4.8.7      Companies         840
  • 4.9          ALGAE-DERIVED BIOFUELS           841
    • 4.9.1      Technology description 841
    • 4.9.2      Production          841
  • 4.10        GREEN AMMONIA           843
    • 4.10.1    Production          843
      • 4.10.1.1                Decarbonisation of ammonia production               845
      • 4.10.1.2                Green ammonia projects              846
    • 4.10.2    Green ammonia synthesis methods         846
      • 4.10.2.1                Haber-Bosch process      846
      • 4.10.2.2                Biological nitrogen fixation          847
      • 4.10.2.3                Electrochemical production         848
        • 4.10.2.3.1             Chemical looping processes        848
    • 4.10.3    Blue ammonia   848
      • 4.10.3.1                Blue ammonia projects  848
    • 4.10.4    Markets and applications              849
      • 4.10.4.1                Chemical energy storage              849
        • 4.10.4.1.1             Ammonia fuel cells          849
      • 4.10.4.2                Marine fuel         850
    • 4.10.5    Costs     852
    • 4.10.6    Estimated market demand           854
    • 4.10.7    Companies and projects 854
  • 4.11        BIO-BASED FUELS COMPANY PROFILES   856 (151 company profiles)

 

5              BIO-BASED PAINTS AND COATINGS MARKET        980

  • 5.1          The global paints and coatings market    980
  • 5.2          Bio-based paints and coatings     981
  • 5.3          Challenges using bio-based paints and coatings   981
  • 5.4          Types of bio-based coatings and materials             982
    • 5.4.1      Alkyd coatings   982
      • 5.4.1.1   Alkyd resin properties    983
      • 5.4.1.2   Biobased alkyd coatings 984
      • 5.4.1.3   Products              985
    • 5.4.2      Polyurethane coatings   986
      • 5.4.2.1   Properties           986
      • 5.4.2.2   Biobased polyurethane coatings 987
      • 5.4.2.3   Products              988
    • 5.4.3      Epoxy coatings  989
      • 5.4.3.1   Properties           989
      • 5.4.3.2   Biobased epoxy coatings               990
      • 5.4.3.3   Products              991
    • 5.4.4      Acrylate resins   992
      • 5.4.4.1   Properties           992
      • 5.4.4.2   Biobased acrylates           993
      • 5.4.4.3   Products              993
    • 5.4.5      Polylactic acid (Bio-PLA) 994
      • 5.4.5.1   Properties           996
      • 5.4.5.2   Bio-PLA coatings and films            997
    • 5.4.6      Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA)     997
      • 5.4.6.1   Properties           999
      • 5.4.6.2   PHA coatings      1001
      • 5.4.6.3   Commercially available PHAs      1001
    • 5.4.7      Cellulose              1004
      • 5.4.7.1   Microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) 1009
        • 5.4.7.1.1               Properties           1010
        • 5.4.7.1.2               Applications in paints and coatings           1010
      • 5.4.7.2   Cellulose nanofibers       1011
        • 5.4.7.2.1               Properties           1011
        • 5.4.7.2.2               Product developers        1013
      • 5.4.7.3   Cellulose nanocrystals    1015
      • 5.4.7.4   Bacterial Nanocellulose (BNC)    1017
    • 5.4.8      Rosins   1017
    • 5.4.9      Biobased carbon black   1018
      • 5.4.9.1   Lignin-based      1018
      • 5.4.9.2   Algae-based       1018
    • 5.4.10    Lignin    1018
      • 5.4.10.1                Application in coatings   1019
    • 5.4.11    Edible coatings  1019
    • 5.4.12    Protein-based biomaterials for coatings 1021
      • 5.4.12.1                Plant derived proteins   1021
      • 5.4.12.2                Animal origin proteins   1021
    • 5.4.13    Alginate               1023
  • 5.5          Market for bio-based paints and coatings              1025
    • 5.5.1      Global market revenues to 2033, total    1025
    • 5.5.2      Global market revenues to 2033, by market         1026
  • 5.6          BIO-BASED PAINTS AND COATINGS COMPANY PROFILES 1030 (130 company profiles)

 

6              CARBON CAPTURE, UTILIZATION AND STORAGE MARKET               1151

  • 6.1          Main sources of carbon dioxide emissions             1151
  • 6.2          CO2 as a commodity       1152
  • 6.3          Meeting climate targets 1154
  • 6.4          Market drivers and trends            1155
  • 6.5          The current market and future outlook  1156
  • 6.6          CCUS Industry developments 2020-2023                1157
  • 6.7          CCUS investments           1162
    • 6.7.1      Venture Capital Funding                1162
  • 6.8          Government CCUS initiatives      1163
    • 6.8.1      North America   1163
    • 6.8.2      Europe 1163
    • 6.8.3      China     1164
  • 6.9          Market map       1166
  • 6.10        Commercial CCUS facilities and projects 1168
    • 6.10.1    Facilities               1169
      • 6.10.1.1                Operational        1169
      • 6.10.1.2                Under development/construction            1171
  • 6.11        CCUS Value Chain             1177
  • 6.12        Key market barriers for CCUS      1178
  • 6.13        What is CCUS?  1179
    • 6.13.1    Carbon Capture 1184
      • 6.13.1.1                Source Characterization 1184
      • 6.13.1.2                Purification         1185
      • 6.13.1.3                CO2 capture technologies            1186
    • 6.13.2    Carbon Utilization            1189
      • 6.13.2.1                CO2 utilization pathways              1190
    • 6.13.3    Carbon storage 1191
      • 6.13.3.1                Passive storage 1191
      • 6.13.3.2                Enhanced oil recovery   1192
  • 6.14        Transporting CO2             1193
    • 6.14.1    Methods of CO2 transport           1193
      • 6.14.1.1                Pipeline 1194
      • 6.14.1.2                Ship       1195
      • 6.14.1.3                Road      1195
      • 6.14.1.4                Rail         1195
    • 6.14.2    Safety   1196
  • 6.15        Costs     1196
    • 6.15.1    Cost of CO2 transport     1198
  • 6.16        Carbon credits   1201
  • 6.17        CARBON CAPTURE           1202
    • 6.17.1    CO2 capture from point sources 1203
      • 6.17.1.1                Transportation  1204
      • 6.17.1.2                Global point source CO2 capture capacities          1204
      • 6.17.1.3                By source            1206
      • 6.17.1.4                By endpoint       1207
    • 6.17.2    Main carbon capture processes 1208
      • 6.17.2.1                Materials             1208
      • 6.17.2.2                Post-combustion             1210
      • 6.17.2.3                Oxy-fuel combustion      1211
      • 6.17.2.4                Liquid or supercritical CO2: Allam-Fetvedt Cycle 1212
      • 6.17.2.5                Pre-combustion 1213
    • 6.17.3    Carbon separation technologies 1214
      • 6.17.3.1                Absorption capture         1216
      • 6.17.3.2                Adsorption capture         1220
      • 6.17.3.3                Membranes       1222
      • 6.17.3.4                Liquid or supercritical CO2 (Cryogenic) capture   1224
      • 6.17.3.5                Chemical Looping-Based Capture              1225
      • 6.17.3.6                Calix Advanced Calciner 1226
      • 6.17.3.7                Other technologies         1227
        • 6.17.3.7.1             Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs)     1228
        • 6.17.3.7.2             Microalgae Carbon Capture         1229
      • 6.17.3.8                Comparison of key separation technologies         1230
      • 6.17.3.9                Technology readiness level (TRL) of gas separtion technologies   1231
    • 6.17.4    Opportunities and barriers           1232
    • 6.17.5    Costs of CO2 capture      1234
    • 6.17.6    CO2 capture capacity      1235
    • 6.17.7    Bioenergy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS)         1237
      • 6.17.7.1                Overview of technology 1237
      • 6.17.7.2                Biomass conversion        1239
      • 6.17.7.3                BECCS facilities  1239
      • 6.17.7.4                Challenges          1240
    • 6.17.8    Direct air capture (DAC) 1241
      • 6.17.8.1                Description         1241
      • 6.17.8.2                Deployment       1243
      • 6.17.8.3                Point source carbon capture versus Direct Air Capture     1243
      • 6.17.8.4                Technologies     1244
        • 6.17.8.4.1             Solid sorbents   1245
        • 6.17.8.4.2             Liquid sorbents 1247
        • 6.17.8.4.3             Liquid solvents  1248
        • 6.17.8.4.4             Airflow equipment integration   1248
        • 6.17.8.4.5             Passive Direct Air Capture (PDAC)             1249
        • 6.17.8.4.6             Direct conversion             1249
        • 6.17.8.4.7             Co-product generation  1250
        • 6.17.8.4.8             Low Temperature DAC  1250
        • 6.17.8.4.9             Regeneration methods 1250
      • 6.17.8.5                Commercialization and plants     1251
      • 6.17.8.6                Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) in DAC             1251
      • 6.17.8.7                DAC plants and projects-current and planned      1252
      • 6.17.8.8                Markets for DAC               1259
      • 6.17.8.9                Costs     1259
      • 6.17.8.10              Challenges          1265
      • 6.17.8.11              Players and production  1265
    • 6.17.9    Other technologies         1266
      • 6.17.9.1                Enhanced weathering    1267
      • 6.17.9.2                Afforestation and reforestation 1267
      • 6.17.9.3                Soil carbon sequestration (SCS) 1268
      • 6.17.9.4                Biochar 1268
      • 6.17.9.5                Ocean fertilisation           1270
      • 6.17.9.6                Ocean alkalinisation        1270
  • 6.18        CARBON UTILIZATION    1271
    • 6.18.1    Overview            1272
      • 6.18.1.1                Current market status    1272
      • 6.18.1.2                Benefits of carbon utilization       1276
      • 6.18.1.3                Market challenges           1278
    • 6.18.2    Co2 utilization pathways               1279
    • 6.18.3    Conversion processes    1282
      • 6.18.3.1                Thermochemical              1282
        • 6.18.3.1.1             Process overview             1282
        • 6.18.3.1.2             Plasma-assisted CO2 conversion 1285
      • 6.18.3.2                Electrochemical conversion of CO2           1286
        • 6.18.3.2.1             Process overview             1287
      • 6.18.3.3                Photocatalytic and photothermal catalytic conversion of CO2       1289
      • 6.18.3.4                Catalytic conversion of CO2         1289
      • 6.18.3.5                Biological conversion of CO2       1290
      • 6.18.3.6                Copolymerization of CO2              1294
      • 6.18.3.7                Mineral carbonation       1295
    • 6.18.4    CO2-derived products    1299
      • 6.18.4.1                Fuels     1299
        • 6.18.4.1.1             Overview            1299
        • 6.18.4.1.2             Production routes            1301
        • 6.18.4.1.3             Methanol            1302
        • 6.18.4.1.4             Algae based biofuels       1303
        • 6.18.4.1.5             CO₂-fuels from solar        1304
        • 6.18.4.1.6             Companies         1305
        • 6.18.4.1.7             Challenges          1308
      • 6.18.4.2                Chemicals            1308
        • 6.18.4.2.1             Overview            1309
        • 6.18.4.2.2             Scalability            1309
        • 6.18.4.2.3             Applications       1310
          • 6.18.4.2.3.1         Urea production               1310
          • 6.18.4.2.3.2         CO₂-derived polymers   1310
          • 6.18.4.2.3.3         Inert gas in semiconductor manufacturing            1311
          • 6.18.4.2.3.4         Carbon nanotubes           1312
        • 6.18.4.2.4             Companies         1312
      • 6.18.4.3                Construction materials   1314
        • 6.18.4.3.1             Overview            1315
        • 6.18.4.3.2             CCUS technologies          1316
        • 6.18.4.3.3             Carbonated aggregates 1319
        • 6.18.4.3.4             Additives during mixing 1320
        • 6.18.4.3.5             Concrete curing 1320
        • 6.18.4.3.6             Costs     1321
        • 6.18.4.3.7             Companies         1321
        • 6.18.4.3.8             Challenges          1323
      • 6.18.4.4                CO2 Utilization in Biological Yield-Boosting           1324
        • 6.18.4.4.1             Overview            1324
        • 6.18.4.4.2             Applications       1324
          • 6.18.4.4.2.1         Greenhouses     1324
          • 6.18.4.4.2.2         Algae cultivation               1324
          • 6.18.4.4.2.3         Microbial conversion      1325
          • 6.18.4.4.2.4         Food and feed production            1327
        • 6.18.4.4.3             Companies         1327
    • 6.18.5    CO₂ Utilization in Enhanced Oil Recovery               1329
      • 6.18.5.1                Overview            1329
        • 6.18.5.1.1             Process 1329
        • 6.18.5.1.2             CO₂ sources        1330
      • 6.18.5.2                CO₂-EOR facilities and projects   1331
      • 6.18.5.3                Challenges          1333
    • 6.18.6    Enhanced mineralization               1334
      • 6.18.6.1                Advantages        1334
      • 6.18.6.2                In situ and ex-situ mineralization               1335
      • 6.18.6.3                Enhanced mineralization pathways          1335
      • 6.18.6.4                Challenges          1336
  • 6.19        CARBON STORAGE          1337
    • 6.19.1    CO2 storage sites             1339
      • 6.19.1.1                Storage types for geologic CO2 storage  1339
      • 6.19.1.2                Oil and gas fields              1341
      • 6.19.1.3                Saline formations             1342
    • 6.19.2    Global CO2 storage capacity        1345
    • 6.19.3    Costs     1347
    • 6.19.4    Challenges          1347
  • 6.20        COMPANY PROFILES       1349 (241 company profiles)

 

7              THE ADVANCED RECYCLING MARKET      1538

  • 7.1          Market drivers and trends            1539
  • 7.2          Industry developments 2020-2023            1541
  • 7.3          Industry collaborations, partnerships and licensing agreements  1544
  • 7.4          Capacities            1546
  • 7.5          Global polymer demand 2022-2040, segmented by recycling technology 1548
  • 7.6          Global market by recycling process          1549
  • 7.7          Chemically recycled plastic products        1550
  • 7.8          Market map       1551
  • 7.9          Value chain         1553
  • 7.10        Life Cycle Assessments (LCA) of Advanced Recycling         1555
  • 7.11        Market challenges           1557
  • 7.12        TECHNOLOGIES 1559
    • 7.12.1    Applications       1560
    • 7.12.2    Pyrolysis              1563
      • 7.12.2.1                Technology overview     1563
        • 7.12.2.1.1             Pyrolysis of plastic waste              1564
        • 7.12.2.1.2             Thermal pyrolysis             1566
        • 7.12.2.1.3             Catalytic pyrolysis            1567
        • 7.12.2.1.4             Polystyrene pyrolysis     1568
        • 7.12.2.1.5             Pyrolysis for production of diesel fuel      1569
        • 7.12.2.1.6             Co-pyrolysis of biomass and plastic wastes           1570
        • 7.12.2.1.7             Co-pyrolysis of biomass and plastic wastes           1571
      • 7.12.2.2                Comparative analysis of pyrolysis processes         1572
      • 7.12.2.3                SWOT analysis   1573
      • 7.12.2.4                Pyrolysis plant capacities, current and planned   1574
      • 7.12.2.5                Companies         1576
    • 7.12.3    Gasification        1579
      • 7.12.3.1                Technology overview     1579
        • 7.12.3.1.1             Syngas conversion to methonol 1580
        • 7.12.3.1.2             Integrated Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis      1581
        • 7.12.3.1.3             Chemcycling of waste to hydrogen           1582
      • 7.12.3.2                SWOT analysis   1584
      • 7.12.3.3                Companies         1585
    • 7.12.4    Dissolution          1586
      • 7.12.4.1                Technology overview     1586
        • 7.12.4.1.1             Processes            1587
        • 7.12.4.1.2             Recycling of polypropylene         1588
        • 7.12.4.1.3             Recycling of polystyrene               1588
        • 7.12.4.1.4             Recycling of multilayer films        1589
        • 7.12.4.1.5             Solid-liquid separation   1589
        • 7.12.4.1.6             Solvent recovery              1589
      • 7.12.4.2                SWOT analysis   1590
      • 7.12.4.3                Dissolution plant capacities, current and planned              1591
      • 7.12.4.4                Companies         1592
    • 7.12.5    Depolymerisation            1594
      • 7.12.5.1                Technology overview     1594
        • 7.12.5.1.1             Hydrolysis           1594
        • 7.12.5.1.2             Methanolysis     1595
        • 7.12.5.1.3             Glycolysis            1596
        • 7.12.5.1.4             Enzymolysis        1597
        • 7.12.5.1.5             Depolymerisation methods summary     1597
        • 7.12.5.1.6             Depolymerisation for the production of fuel         1598
        • 7.12.5.1.7             Depolymerisation for the production of feedstock            1599
        • 7.12.5.1.8             Depolymerisation for the production of plastic    1600
        • 7.12.5.1.9             Microwave technology for depolymerisation       1600
        • 7.12.5.1.10          Enzyme technology for depolymerisation              1601
        • 7.12.5.1.11          Ionic liquids        1602
      • 7.12.5.2                SWOT analysis   1603
      • 7.12.5.3                Depolymerisation plant capacities, current and planned 1604
      • 7.12.5.4                Companies         1605
    • 7.12.6    Emerging advanced recycling technologies           1608
      • 7.12.6.1                Microwave heating         1608
      • 7.12.6.2                Plasma  1609
      • 7.12.6.3                Supercritical fluids           1610
      • 7.12.6.4                Biotechnology   1611
  • 7.13        ADVANCED RECYCLING COMPANY PROFILES        1612 (134 company profiles)

 

8              REFERENCES       1741

 

List of Tables

  • Table 1. List of Bio-based chemicals.        79
  • Table 2. Lactide applications.      97
  • Table 3. Biobased MEG producers capacities.       100
  • Table 4. Bio-naphtha market value chain.              102
  • Table 5. Bio-naptha producers and production capacities.              104
  • Table 6. Type of biodegradation.               114
  • Table 7. Advantages and disadvantages of biobased plastics compared to conventional plastics.   115
  • Table 8. Types of Bio-based and/or Biodegradable Plastics, applications. 116
  • Table 9. Market leader by Bio-based and/or Biodegradable Plastic types. 117
  • Table 10. Bioplastics regional production capacities, 1,000 tons, 2019-2033.           118
  • Table 11. Polylactic acid (PLA) market analysis-manufacture, advantages, disadvantages and applications.               131
  • Table 12. Lactic acid producers and production capacities.             133
  • Table 13. PLA producers and production capacities.          134
  • Table 14. Planned PLA capacity expansions in China.         134
  • Table 15. Bio-based Polyethylene terephthalate (Bio-PET) market analysis- manufacture, advantages, disadvantages and applications.              136
  • Table 16. Bio-based Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) producers and production capacities,           137
  • Table 17. Polytrimethylene terephthalate (PTT) market analysis-manufacture, advantages, disadvantages and applications.       139
  • Table 18. Production capacities of Polytrimethylene terephthalate (PTT), by leading producers.   139
  • Table 19. Polyethylene furanoate (PEF) market analysis-manufacture, advantages, disadvantages and applications.                141
  • Table 20. PEF vs. PET.     142
  • Table 21. FDCA and PEF producers.          143
  • Table 22. Bio-based polyamides (Bio-PA) market analysis - manufacture, advantages, disadvantages and applications.                145
  • Table 23. Leading Bio-PA producers production capacities.            146
  • Table 24. Poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (PBAT) market analysis- manufacture, advantages, disadvantages and applications.              147
  • Table 25. Leading PBAT producers, production capacities and brands.      148
  • Table 26. Bio-PBS market analysis-manufacture, advantages, disadvantages and applications.       150
  • Table 27. Leading PBS producers and production capacities.          151
  • Table 28. Bio-based Polyethylene (Bio-PE) market analysis- manufacture, advantages, disadvantages and applications.                152
  • Table 29. Leading Bio-PE producers.        153
  • Table 30. Bio-PP market analysis- manufacture, advantages, disadvantages and applications.        155
  • Table 31. Leading Bio-PP producers and capacities.           155
  • Table 32.Types of PHAs and properties. 160
  • Table 33. Comparison of the physical properties of different PHAs with conventional petroleum-based polymers. 162
  • Table 34. Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) extraction methods.          164
  • Table 35. Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) market analysis. 166
  • Table 36. Commercially available PHAs.  167
  • Table 37. Markets and applications for PHAs.       169
  • Table 38. Applications, advantages and disadvantages of PHAs in packaging.         170
  • Table 39. Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) producers.           173
  • Table 40. Microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) market analysis-manufacture, advantages, disadvantages and applications.                176
  • Table 41. Leading MFC producers and capacities.               177
  • Table 42. Synthesis methods for cellulose nanocrystals (CNC).     178
  • Table 43. CNC sources, size and yield.      179
  • Table 44. CNC properties.             180
  • Table 45. Mechanical properties of CNC and other reinforcement materials.         181
  • Table 46. Applications of nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC).               182
  • Table 47. Cellulose nanocrystals analysis.               183
  • Table 48: Cellulose nanocrystal production capacities and production process, by producer.          184
  • Table 49. Applications of cellulose nanofibers (CNF).        185
  • Table 50. Cellulose nanofibers market analysis.   186
  • Table 51. CNF production capacities (by type, wet or dry) and production process, by producer, metric tonnes.    188
  • Table 52. Applications of bacterial nanocellulose (BNC). 192
  • Table 53. Types of protein based-bioplastics, applications and companies.             194
  • Table 54. Types of algal and fungal based-bioplastics, applications and companies.             195
  • Table 55. Overview of alginate-description, properties, application and market size.          196
  • Table 56. Companies developing algal-based bioplastics. 197
  • Table 57. Overview of mycelium fibers-description, properties, drawbacks and applications.          198
  • Table 58. Companies developing mycelium-based bioplastics.      200
  • Table 59. Overview of chitosan-description, properties, drawbacks and applications.         201
  • Table 60. Global production capacities of biobased and sustainable plastics in 2019-2033, by region, tons.              202
  • Table 61. Biobased and sustainable plastics producers in North America. 203
  • Table 62. Biobased and sustainable plastics producers in Europe.               204
  • Table 63. Biobased and sustainable plastics producers in Asia-Pacific.       205
  • Table 64. Biobased and sustainable plastics producers in Latin America.  206
  • Table 65. Processes for bioplastics in packaging. 208
  • Table 66. Comparison of bioplastics’ (PLA and PHAs) properties to other common polymers used in product packaging.                210
  • Table 67. Typical applications for bioplastics in flexible packaging.              211
  • Table 68. Typical applications for bioplastics in rigid packaging.   213
  • Table 69. Types of next-gen natural fibers.            225
  • Table 70. Application, manufacturing method, and matrix materials of natural fibers.        228
  • Table 71. Typical properties of natural fibers.      230
  • Table 72. Commercially available next-gen natural fiber products.              230
  • Table 73. Market drivers for natural fibers.           233
  • Table 74. Overview of cotton fibers-description, properties, drawbacks and applications. 236
  • Table 75. Overview of kapok fibers-description, properties, drawbacks and applications. 237
  • Table 76. Overview of luffa fibers-description, properties, drawbacks and applications.    239
  • Table 77. Overview of jute fibers-description, properties, drawbacks and applications.     240
  • Table 78. Overview of hemp fibers-description, properties, drawbacks and applications.  242
  • Table 79. Overview of flax fibers-description, properties, drawbacks and applications.      243
  • Table 80. Overview of ramie fibers- description, properties, drawbacks and applications. 245
  • Table 81. Overview of kenaf fibers-description, properties, drawbacks and applications.  246
  • Table 82. Overview of sisal leaf fibers-description, properties, drawbacks and applications.            248
  • Table 83. Overview of abaca fibers-description, properties, drawbacks and applications.  249
  • Table 84. Overview of coir fibers-description, properties, drawbacks and applications.      251
  • Table 85. Overview of banana fibers-description, properties, drawbacks and applications.               252
  • Table 86. Overview of pineapple fibers-description, properties, drawbacks and applications.         254
  • Table 87. Overview of rice fibers-description, properties, drawbacks and applications.      255
  • Table 88. Overview of corn fibers-description, properties, drawbacks and applications.    256
  • Table 89. Overview of switch grass fibers-description, properties and applications.             257
  • Table 90. Overview of sugarcane fibers-description, properties, drawbacks and application and market size.           257
  • Table 91. Overview of bamboo fibers-description, properties, drawbacks and applications.             258
  • Table 92. Overview of mycelium fibers-description, properties, drawbacks and applications.          262
  • Table 93. Overview of chitosan fibers-description, properties, drawbacks and applications.            263
  • Table 94. Overview of alginate-description, properties, application and market size.          264
  • Table 95. Overview of wool fibers-description, properties, drawbacks and applications.   265
  • Table 96. Alternative wool materials producers. 266
  • Table 97. Overview of silk fibers-description, properties, application and market size.       267
  • Table 98. Alternative silk materials producers.    268
  • Table 99. Alternative leather materials producers.            269
  • Table 100. Next-gen fur producers.          271
  • Table 101. Alternative down materials producers.             271
  • Table 102. Applications of natural fiber composites.         272
  • Table 103. Typical properties of short natural fiber-thermoplastic composites.     274
  • Table 104. Properties of non-woven natural fiber mat composites.            275
  • Table 105. Properties of aligned natural fiber composites.             276
  • Table 106. Properties of natural fiber-bio-based polymer compounds.     276
  • Table 107. Properties of natural fiber-bio-based polymer non-woven mats.           277
  • Table 108. Natural fibers in the aerospace sector-market drivers, applications and challenges for NF use. 278
  • Table 109. Natural fiber-reinforced polymer composite in the automotive market.             280
  • Table 110. Natural fibers in the aerospace sector- market drivers, applications and challenges for NF use. 281
  • Table 111. Applications of natural fibers in the automotive industry.         283
  • Table 112. Natural fibers in the building/construction sector- market drivers, applications and challenges for NF use.                284
  • Table 113. Applications of natural fibers in the building/construction sector.         284
  • Table 114. Natural fibers in the sports and leisure sector-market drivers, applications and challenges for NF use.  285
  • Table 115. Natural fibers in the textiles sector- market drivers, applications and challenges for NF use.     286
  • Table 116. Natural fibers in the packaging sector-market drivers, applications and challenges for NF use. 289
  • Table 117. Technical lignin types and applications.             297
  • Table 118. Classification of technical lignins.         299
  • Table 119. Lignin content of selected biomass.   300
  • Table 120. Properties of lignins and their applications.     301
  • Table 121. Example markets and applications for lignin.  303
  • Table 122. Processes for lignin production.           305
  • Table 123. Biorefinery feedstocks.           311
  • Table 124. Comparison of pulping and biorefinery lignins.              311
  • Table 125. Commercial and pre-commercial biorefinery lignin production facilities and  processes              312
  • Table 126. Market drivers and trends for lignin.  316
  • Table 127. Production capacities of technical lignin producers.    317
  • Table 128. Production capacities of biorefinery lignin producers. 318
  • Table 129. Estimated consumption of lignin, 2019-2033 (000 MT).             318
  • Table 130. Prices of benzene, toluene, xylene and their derivatives.          321
  • Table 131. Application of lignin in plastics and polymers. 322
  • Table 132. Lignin-derived anodes in lithium batteries.     329
  • Table 133. Application of lignin in binders, emulsifiers and dispersants.   331
  • Table 134. Lactips plastic pellets.              545
  • Table 135. Oji Holdings CNF products.     617
  • Table 136. Comparison of biofuel costs (USD/liter) 2022, by type.              755
  • Table 137. Categories and examples of solid biofuel.        756
  • Table 138. Comparison of biofuels and e-fuels to fossil and electricity.      758
  • Table 139. Classification of biomass feedstock.   759
  • Table 140. Biorefinery feedstocks.           760
  • Table 141. Feedstock conversion pathways.         760
  • Table 142. First-Generation Feedstocks. 761
  • Table 143.  Lignocellulosic ethanol plants and capacities.                763
  • Table 144. Comparison of pulping and biorefinery lignins.              764
  • Table 145. Commercial and pre-commercial biorefinery lignin production facilities and  processes              765
  • Table 146. Operating and planned lignocellulosic biorefineries and industrial flue gas-to-ethanol. 767
  • Table 147. Properties of microalgae and macroalgae.       769
  • Table 148. Yield of algae and other biodiesel crops.           770
  • Table 149. Advantages and disadvantages of biofuels, by generation.       771
  • Table 150. Biodiesel by generation.         775
  • Table 151. Biodiesel production techniques.        777
  • Table 152. Summary of pyrolysis technique under different operating conditions.              777
  • Table 153. Biomass materials and their bio-oil yield.         779
  • Table 154. Biofuel production cost from the biomass pyrolysis process.   779
  • Table 155. Properties of vegetable oils in comparison to diesel.   781
  • Table 156. Main producers of HVO and capacities.             782
  • Table 157. Example commercial Development of BtL processes. 783
  • Table 158. Pilot or demo projects for biomass to liquid (BtL) processes.   784
  • Table 159. Global biodiesel consumption, 2010-2033 (M litres/year).       788
  • Table 160. Global renewable diesel consumption, to 2033 (M litres/year).              791
  • Table 161. Advantages and disadvantages of biojet fuel  792
  • Table 162. Production pathways for bio-jet fuel. 794
  • Table 163. Current and announced biojet fuel facilities and capacities.     796
  • Table 164. Global bio-jet fuel consumption to 2033 (Million litres/year). 797
  • Table 165. Biogas feedstocks.     802
  • Table 166. Bio-based naphtha markets and applications. 804
  • Table 167. Bio-naphtha market value chain.         804
  • Table 168. Bio-based Naphtha production capacities, by producer.            805
  • Table 169. Comparison of biogas, biomethane and natural gas.   810
  • Table 170.  Processes in bioethanol production. 817
  • Table 171. Microorganisms used in CBP for ethanol production from biomass lignocellulosic.         818
  • Table 172. Ethanol consumption 2010-2033 (million litres).           819
  • Table 173. Applications of e-fuels, by type.           828
  • Table 174. Overview of e-fuels. 829
  • Table 175. Benefits of e-fuels.    829
  • Table 176. Main characteristics of different electrolyzer technologies.     834
  • Table 177. Market challenges for e-fuels.              839
  • Table 178. E-fuels companies.    840
  • Table 179. Green ammonia projects (current and planned).          846
  • Table 180. Blue ammonia projects.          848
  • Table 181. Ammonia fuel cell technologies.          849
  • Table 182. Market overview of green ammonia in marine fuel.    850
  • Table 183. Summary of marine alternative fuels. 851
  • Table 184. Estimated costs for different types of ammonia.           853
  • Table 185. Main players in green ammonia.          854
  • Table 186. Granbio Nanocellulose Processes.      908
  • Table 187. Types of alkyd resins and properties. 983
  • Table 188. Market summary for biobased alkyd coatings-raw materials, advantages, disadvantages, applications and producers.          984
  • Table 189. Biobased alkyd coating products.        985
  • Table 190. Types of polyols.         986
  • Table 191. Polyol producers.       987
  • Table 192. Biobased polyurethane coating products.        988
  • Table 193. Market summary for biobased epoxy resins.  990
  • Table 194. Biobased polyurethane coating products.        991
  • Table 195. Biobased acrylate resin products.        993
  • Table 196. Polylactic acid (PLA) market analysis. 994
  • Table 197. PLA producers and production capacities.        995
  • Table 198. Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) market analysis.              998
  • Table 199.Types of PHAs and properties.               1000
  • Table 200. Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) producers.        1002
  • Table 201. Commercially available PHAs.               1003
  • Table 202. Properties of micro/nanocellulose, by type.    1005
  • Table 203. Types of nanocellulose.           1008
  • Table 204: MFC production capacities (by type, wet or dry) and production process, by producer, metric tonnes. 1010
  • Table 205. Market overview for cellulose nanofibers in paints and coatings.           1011
  • Table 206. Companies developing cellulose nanofibers products in paints and coatings.   1013
  • Table 207. CNC properties.          1015
  • Table 208: Cellulose nanocrystal capacities (by type, wet or dry) and production process, by producer, metric tonnes.                1016
  • Table 209. Edible coatings market summary.       1020
  • Table 210. Types of protein based-biomaterials, applications and companies.       1022
  • Table 211. Overview of alginate-description, properties, application and market size.        1023
  • Table 212. Global market revenues for biobased paints and coatings, 2018-2033 (billions USD).    1025
  • Table 213. Market revenues for biobased paints and coatings, 2018-2033(billions USD), conservative estimate.    1026
  • Table 214. Market revenues for biobased paints and coatings, 2018-2033 (billions USD), high estimate.    1028
  • Table 215. Oji Holdings CNF products.     1115
  • Table 216. Carbon Capture, Utilisation and Storage (CCUS) market drivers and trends.      1155
  • Table 217. Carbon capture, usage, and storage (CCUS) industry developments 2020-2023.              1157
  • Table 218. Demonstration and commercial CCUS facilities in China.           1164
  • Table 219. Global commercial CCUS facilities-in operation.            1169
  • Table 220. Global commercial CCUS facilities-under development/construction.  1171
  • Table 221. Key market barriers for CCUS.               1178
  • Table 222. CO2 utilization and removal pathways              1181
  • Table 223. Approaches for capturing carbon dioxide (CO2) from point sources.    1184
  • Table 224. CO2 capture technologies.     1186
  • Table 225. Advantages and challenges of carbon capture technologies.   1187
  • Table 226. Overview of commercial materials and processes utilized in carbon capture.   1188
  • Table 227. Methods of CO2 transport.    1194
  • Table 228. Carbon capture, transport, and storage cost per unit of CO2    1196
  • Table 229. Estimated capital costs for commercial-scale carbon capture. 1197
  • Table 230. Point source examples.           1203
  • Table 231. Assessment of carbon capture materials          1208
  • Table 232. Chemical solvents used in post-combustion.  1211
  • Table 233. Commercially available physical solvents for pre-combustion carbon capture. 1214
  • Table 234. Main capture processes and their separation technologies.     1214
  • Table 235. Absorption methods for CO2 capture overview.           1216
  • Table 236. Commercially available physical solvents used in CO2 absorption.        1218
  • Table 237. Adsorption methods for CO2 capture overview.           1220
  • Table 238. Membrane-based methods for CO2 capture overview.              1223
  • Table 239. Benefits and drawbacks of microalgae carbon capture.              1230
  • Table 240. Comparison of main separation technologies.               1230
  • Table 241. Technology readiness level (TRL) of gas separtion technologies              1231
  • Table 242. Opportunities and Barriers by sector. 1232
  • Table 243. Existing and planned capacity for sequestration of biogenic carbon.     1239
  • Table 244. Existing facilities with capture and/or geologic sequestration of biogenic CO2. 1240
  • Table 245. Advantages and disadvantages of DAC.             1242
  • Table 246. Companies developing airflow equipment integration with DAC.           1249
  • Table 247. Companies developing Passive Direct Air Capture (PDAC) technologies.             1249
  • Table 248. Companies developing regeneration methods for DAC technologies.  1250
  • Table 249. DAC companies and technologies.      1251
  • Table 250. DAC technology developers and production.  1253
  • Table 251. DAC projects in development.              1258
  • Table 252. Markets for DAC.        1259
  • Table 253. Costs summary for DAC.          1259
  • Table 254. Cost estimates of DAC.             1263
  • Table 255. Challenges for DAC technology.           1265
  • Table 256. DAC companies and technologies.      1266
  • Table 257. Biological CCS technologies.  1266
  • Table 258. Biochar in carbon capture overview. 1269
  • Table 259. Carbon utilization revenue forecast by product (US$). 1276
  • Table 260. CO2 utilization and removal pathways.             1276
  • Table 261. Market challenges for CO2 utilization.               1278
  • Table 262. Example CO2 utilization pathways.     1279
  • Table 263. CO2 derived products via Thermochemical conversion-applications, advantages and disadvantages.    1282
  • Table 264. Electrochemical CO₂ reduction products.         1286
  • Table 265. CO2 derived products via electrochemical conversion-applications, advantages and disadvantages.      1287
  • Table 266. CO2 derived products via biological conversion-applications, advantages and disadvantages.  1291
  • Table 267. Companies developing and producing CO2-based polymers.   1294
  • Table 268. Companies developing mineral carbonation technologies.       1298
  • Table 269. Market overview for CO2 derived fuels.           1299
  • Table 270. Microalgae products and prices.          1303
  • Table 271. Main Solar-Driven CO2 Conversion Approaches.          1304
  • Table 272. Companies in CO2-derived fuel products.        1305
  • Table 273. Commodity chemicals and fuels manufactured from CO2.        1310
  • Table 274. Companies in CO2-derived chemicals products.            1312
  • Table 275. Carbon capture technologies and projects in the cement sector            1316
  • Table 276. Companies in CO2 derived building materials.               1321
  • Table 277. Market challenges for CO2 utilization in construction materials.            1323
  • Table 278. Companies in CO2 Utilization in Biological Yield-Boosting.        1327
  • Table 279. Applications of CCS in oil and gas production. 1329
  • Table 280. CO2 EOR/Storage Challenges.               1337
  • Table 281. Storage and utilization of CO2.             1338
  • Table 282. Global depleted reservoir storage projects.    1340
  • Table 283. Global CO2 ECBM storage projects.    1340
  • Table 284. CO2 EOR/storage projects.    1341
  • Table 285. Global storage sites-saline aquifer projects.    1343
  • Table 286. Global storage capacity estimates, by region. 1345
  • Table 287. Market drivers and trends in the advanced recycling market.  1539
  • Table 288. Advanced recycling industry developments 2020-2023.             1541
  • Table 289. Industry collaborations, partnerships and licensing agreements.           1544
  • Table 290. Chemically recycled plastic products. 1550
  • Table 291. Challenges in the advanced recycling market. 1557
  • Table 292. Applications of recycled materials.      1560
  • Table 293. Advanced recycling technologies overview.    1561
  • Table 294. Comparative analysis of pyrolysis processes.  1572
  • Table 295. Pyrolysis plant capacities, current and planned.            1574
  • Table 296. Advanced recycling-pyrolysis companies and type used.           1576
  • Table 297. Advanced recycling (Gasification) companies 1585
  • Table 298. Summary of dissolution processes.    1587
  • Table 299. Pyrolysis plant capacities, current and planned.            1591
  • Table 300. Advanced recycling (Dissolution) companies  1592
  • Table 301. Depolymerisation methods.  1597
  • Table 302. Depolymerisation plant capacities, current and planned.          1604
  • Table 303. Advanced recycling (Depolymerisation) companies     1605

 

List of Figures

  • Figure 1. Bio-based chemicals and feedstocks production capacities, 2018-2033.  81
  • Figure 2. Overview of Toray process. Overview of process             82
  • Figure 3. Production capacities for 11-Aminoundecanoic acid (11-AA)      83
  • Figure 4. 1,4-Butanediol (BDO) production capacities, 2018-2033 (tonnes).            85
  • Figure 5. Dodecanedioic acid (DDDA) production capacities, 2018-2033 (tonnes). 86
  • Figure 6. Epichlorohydrin production capacities, 2018-2033 (tonnes).      87
  • Figure 7. Ethylene production capacities, 2018-2033 (tonnes).     88
  • Figure 8. Potential industrial uses of 3-hydroxypropanoic acid.     94
  • Figure 9. L-lactic acid (L-LA) production capacities, 2018-2033 (tonnes).  96
  • Figure 10. Lactide production capacities, 2018-2033 (tonnes).     98
  • Figure 11. Bio-MEG production capacities, 2018-2033.      100
  • Figure 12. Bio-MPG production capacities, 2018-2033 (tonnes).  101
  • Figure 13. Biobased naphtha production capacities, 2018-2033 (tonnes). 104
  • Figure 14. 1,3-Propanediol (1,3-PDO) production capacities, 2018-2033 (tonnes). 107
  • Figure 15. Sebacic acid production capacities, 2018-2033 (tonnes).           108
  • Figure 16.  Coca-Cola PlantBottle®.           112
  • Figure 17. Interrelationship between conventional, bio-based and biodegradable plastics.              113
  • Figure 18. Bioplastics regional production capacities, 1,000 tons, 2019-2033.         119
  • Figure 19. Bio-based Polyethylene (Bio-PE), 1,000 tons, 2019-2033.            120
  • Figure 20. Bio-based Polyethylene terephthalate (Bio-PET) production capacities, 1,000 tons, 2019-2033   122
  • Figure 21. Bio-based polyamides (Bio-PA) production capacities, 1,000 tons, 2019-2033.   123
  • Figure 22. Bio-based Polypropylene (Bio-PP) production capacities, 1,000 tons, 2019-2033.             124
  • Figure 23. Bio-based Polytrimethylene terephthalate (Bio-PTT) production capacities, 1,000 tons, 2019-2033.         125
  • Figure 24. Bio-based Poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (PBAT) production capacities, 1,000 tons, 2019-2033.                126
  • Figure 25. Bio-based Polybutylene succinate (PBS) production capacities, 1,000 tons, 2019-2033.  127
  • Figure 26. Bio-based Polylactic acid (PLA) production capacities, 1,000 tons, 2019-2033.    128
  • Figure 27. PHA production capacities, 1,000 tons, 2019-2033.        129
  • Figure 28. Starch blends production capacities, 1,000 tons, 2019-2033.     130
  • Figure 29. Polylactic acid (Bio-PLA) production capacities 2019-2033 (1,000 tons).              136
  • Figure 30. Polyethylene terephthalate (Bio-PET) production capacities 2019-2033 (1,000 tons)     138
  • Figure 31. Polytrimethylene terephthalate (PTT) production capacities 2019-2033 (1,000 tons).   140
  • Figure 32. Production capacities of Polyethylene furanoate (PEF) to 2025.               143
  • Figure 33. Polyethylene furanoate (Bio-PEF) production capacities 2019-2033 (1,000 tons).            144
  • Figure 34. Polyamides (Bio-PA) production capacities 2019-2033 (1,000 tons).      147
  • Figure 35. Poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (Bio-PBAT) production capacities 2019-2033 (1,000 tons).       150
  • Figure 36. Polybutylene succinate (PBS) production capacities 2019-2033 (1,000 tons).    152
  • Figure 37. Polyethylene (Bio-PE) production capacities 2019-2033 (1,000 tons).   154
  • Figure 38. Polypropylene (Bio-PP) production capacities 2019-2033 (1,000 tons). 156
  • Figure 39. PHA family.    160
  • Figure 40. PHA production capacities 2019-2033 (1,000 tons).     175
  • Figure 41. TEM image of cellulose nanocrystals. 178
  • Figure 42. CNC preparation.        178
  • Figure 43. Extracting CNC from trees.      179
  • Figure 44. CNC slurry.     182
  • Figure 45. CNF gel.           185
  • Figure 46. Bacterial nanocellulose shapes              191
  • Figure 47. BLOOM masterbatch from Algix.           197
  • Figure 48. Typical structure of mycelium-based foam.     199
  • Figure 49. Commercial mycelium composite construction materials.          200
  • Figure 50. Global production capacities of biobased and sustainable plastics 2020.              202
  • Figure 51. Global production capacities of biobased and sustainable plastics 2025.              203
  • Figure 52. Global production capacities for biobased and sustainable plastics by end user market 2019-2033, 1,000 tons.      207
  • Figure 53. PHA bioplastics products.        209
  • Figure 54. The global market for biobased and biodegradable plastics for flexible packaging 2019–2033 (‘000 tonnes).                212
  • Figure 55. Bioplastics for rigid packaging, 2019–2033 (‘000 tonnes).          214
  • Figure 56. Global production capacities for biobased and biodegradable plastics in consumer products 2019-2033, in 1,000 tons.         215
  • Figure 57. Global production capacities for biobased and biodegradable plastics in automotive 2019-2033, in 1,000 tons.      216
  • Figure 58. Global production capacities for biobased and biodegradable plastics in building and construction 2019-2033, in 1,000 tons.        217
  • Figure 59. AlgiKicks sneaker, made with the Algiknit biopolymer gel.         219
  • Figure 60. Reebok's [REE]GROW running shoes. 219
  • Figure 61. Camper Runner K21.  221
  • Figure 62. Global production capacities for biobased and biodegradable plastics in textiles 2019-2033, in 1,000 tons.                221
  • Figure 63. Global production capacities for biobased and biodegradable plastics in electronics 2019-2033, in 1,000 tons.      223
  • Figure 64. Biodegradable mulch films.     223
  • Figure 65. Global production capacities for biobased and biodegradable plastics in agriculture 2019-2033, in 1,000 tons.      224
  • Figure 66. Types of natural fibers.             228
  • Figure 67. Absolut natural based fiber bottle cap.              231
  • Figure 68. Adidas algae-ink tees.               231
  • Figure 69. Carlsberg natural fiber beer bottle.     231
  • Figure 70. Miratex watch bands. 231
  • Figure 71. Adidas Made with Nature Ultraboost 22.           231
  • Figure 72. PUMA RE:SUEDE sneaker        232
  • Figure 73. Cotton production volume 2018-2033 (Million MT).     237
  • Figure 74. Kapok production volume 2018-2033 (MT).     238
  • Figure 75.  Luffa cylindrica fiber. 239
  • Figure 76. Jute production volume 2018-2033 (Million MT).          241
  • Figure 77. Hemp fiber production volume 2018-2033 ( MT).          243
  • Figure 78. Flax fiber production volume 2018-2033 (MT).               244
  • Figure 79. Ramie fiber production volume 2018-2033 (MT).          246
  • Figure 80. Kenaf fiber production volume 2018-2033 (MT).           247
  • Figure 81. Sisal fiber production volume 2018-2033 (MT).              249
  • Figure 82. Abaca fiber production volume 2018-2033 (MT).          251
  • Figure 83. Coir fiber production volume 2018-2033 (MILLION MT).            252
  • Figure 84. Banana fiber production volume 2018-2033 (MT).        253
  • Figure 85. Pineapple fiber.           254
  • Figure 86. A bag made with pineapple biomaterial from the H&M Conscious Collection 2019.         255
  • Figure 87. Bamboo fiber production volume 2018-2033 (MILLION MT).    259
  • Figure 88. Typical structure of mycelium-based foam.     260
  • Figure 89. Commercial mycelium composite construction materials.          261
  • Figure 90. Frayme Mylo™️.            261
  • Figure 91. BLOOM masterbatch from Algix.           265
  • Figure 92. Conceptual landscape of next-gen leather materials.   269
  • Figure 93. Hemp fibers combined with PP in car door panel.         278
  • Figure 94. Car door produced from Hemp fiber.  279
  • Figure 95. Mercedes-Benz components containing natural fibers.               280
  • Figure 96. AlgiKicks sneaker, made with the Algiknit biopolymer gel.         287
  • Figure 97. Coir mats for erosion control. 288
  • Figure 98. Global fiber production in 2021, by fiber type, million MT and %.           291
  • Figure 99. Global fiber production (million MT) to 2020-2033.       292
  • Figure 100. Plant-based fiber production 2018-2033, by fiber type, MT.   293
  • Figure 101. Animal based fiber production 2018-2033, by fiber type, million MT. 294
  • Figure 102. High purity lignin.     296
  • Figure 103. Lignocellulose architecture. 296
  • Figure 104. Extraction processes to separate lignin from lignocellulosic biomass and corresponding technical lignins.                297
  • Figure 105. The lignocellulose biorefinery.            303
  • Figure 106. LignoBoost process. 308
  • Figure 107. LignoForce system for lignin recovery from black liquor.          309
  • Figure 108. Sequential liquid-lignin recovery and purification (SLPR) system.         309
  • Figure 109. A-Recovery+ chemical recovery concept.       311
  • Figure 110.  Schematic of a biorefinery for production of carriers and chemicals. 312
  • Figure 111. Organosolv lignin.     315
  • Figure 112. Hydrolytic lignin powder.      315
  • Figure 113. Estimated consumption of lignin, 2019-2033 (000 MT).            319
  • Figure 114. Schematic of WISA plywood home.   322
  • Figure 115. Lignin based activated carbon.            324
  • Figure 116. Lignin/celluose precursor.     326
  • Figure 117. Pluumo.        341
  • Figure 118. ANDRITZ Lignin Recovery process.    351
  • Figure 119. Anpoly cellulose nanofiber hydrogel.               354
  • Figure 120. MEDICELLU™.            354
  • Figure 121. Asahi Kasei CNF fabric sheet.               364
  • Figure 122. Properties of Asahi Kasei cellulose nanofiber nonwoven fabric.            365
  • Figure 123. CNF nonwoven fabric.            366
  • Figure 124. Roof frame made of natural fiber.     374
  • Figure 125. Beyond Leather Materials product.   378
  • Figure 126. BIOLO e-commerce mailer bag made from PHA.          385
  • Figure 127. Reusable and recyclable foodservice cups, lids, and straws from Joinease Hong Kong Ltd., made with plant-based NuPlastiQ BioPolymer from BioLogiQ, Inc. 386
  • Figure 128. Fiber-based screw cap.           399
  • Figure 129. formicobio™ technology.      420
  • Figure 130. nanoforest-S.             422
  • Figure 131. nanoforest-PDP.       422
  • Figure 132. nanoforest-MB.        423
  • Figure 133. sunliquid® production process.           431
  • Figure 134. CuanSave film.           435
  • Figure 135. Celish.           436
  • Figure 136. Trunk lid incorporating CNF. 438
  • Figure 137. ELLEX products.         439
  • Figure 138. CNF-reinforced PP compounds.          440
  • Figure 139. Kirekira! toilet wipes.              440
  • Figure 140. Color CNF.   441
  • Figure 141. Rheocrysta spray.     448
  • Figure 142. DKS CNF products.   448
  • Figure 143. Domsjö process.       450
  • Figure 144. Mushroom leather. 460
  • Figure 145. CNF based on citrus peel.      462
  • Figure 146. Citrus cellulose nanofiber.    462
  • Figure 147. Filler Bank CNC products.      475
  • Figure 148. Fibers on kapok tree and after processing.     478
  • Figure 149.  TMP-Bio Process.    480
  • Figure 150. Flow chart of the lignocellulose biorefinery pilot plant in Leuna.          481
  • Figure 151. Water-repellent cellulose.    483
  • Figure 152. Cellulose Nanofiber (CNF) composite with polyethylene (PE). 485
  • Figure 153. PHA production process.       487
  • Figure 154. CNF products from Furukawa Electric.              488
  • Figure 155. AVAPTM process.     498
  • Figure 156. GreenPower+™ process.       499
  • Figure 157. Cutlery samples (spoon, knife, fork) made of nano cellulose and biodegradable plastic composite materials.            502
  • Figure 158. Non-aqueous CNF dispersion "Senaf" (Photo shows 5% of plasticizer).              505
  • Figure 159. CNF gel.        511
  • Figure 160. Block nanocellulose material.              512
  • Figure 161. CNF products developed by Hokuetsu.            512
  • Figure 162. Marine leather products.      516
  • Figure 163. Inner Mettle Milk products. 520
  • Figure 164. Kami Shoji CNF products.      533
  • Figure 165. Dual Graft System.   535
  • Figure 166. Engine cover utilizing Kao CNF composite resins.        536
  • Figure 167. Acrylic resin blended with modified CNF (fluid) and its molded product (transparent film), and image obtained with AFM (CNF 10wt% blended).           537
  • Figure 168. Kel Labs yarn.             538
  • Figure 169. 0.3% aqueous dispersion of sulfated esterified CNF and dried transparent film (front side).     542
  • Figure 170. BioFlex process.        554
  • Figure 171. Nike Algae Ink graphic tee.   556
  • Figure 172. LX Process.  560
  • Figure 173. Made of Air's HexChar panels.            562
  • Figure 174. TransLeather.             563
  • Figure 175. Chitin nanofiber product.      568
  • Figure 176. Marusumi Paper cellulose nanofiber products.            570
  • Figure 177. FibriMa cellulose nanofiber powder. 571
  • Figure 178. METNIN™ Lignin refining technology.              575
  • Figure 179. IPA synthesis method.            578
  • Figure 180. MOGU-Wave panels.              582
  • Figure 181. CNF slurries.                583
  • Figure 182. Range of CNF products.          583
  • Figure 183. Reishi.           587
  • Figure 184. Compostable water pod.       606
  • Figure 185. Leather made from leaves.   607
  • Figure 186. Nike shoe with beLEAF™.      607
  • Figure 187. CNF clear sheets.      617
  • Figure 188. Oji Holdings CNF polycarbonate product.       619
  • Figure 189. Enfinity cellulosic ethanol technology process.            632
  • Figure 190. Fabric consisting of 70 per cent wool and 30 per cent Qmilk. 637
  • Figure 191. XCNF.            645
  • Figure 192: Plantrose process.    647
  • Figure 193. LOVR hemp leather. 651
  • Figure 194. CNF insulation flat plates.     653
  • Figure 195. Hansa lignin.               660
  • Figure 196. Manufacturing process for STARCEL. 664
  • Figure 197. Manufacturing process for STARCEL. 668
  • Figure 198. 3D printed cellulose shoe.    677
  • Figure 199. Lyocell process.         680
  • Figure 200. North Face Spiber Moon Parka.          685
  • Figure 201. PANGAIA LAB NXT GEN Hoodie.         686
  • Figure 202. Spider silk production.            687
  • Figure 203. Stora Enso lignin battery materials.   692
  • Figure 204. 2 wt.% CNF suspension.       693
  • Figure 205. BiNFi-s Dry Powder. 694
  • Figure 206. BiNFi-s Dry Powder and Propylene (PP) Complex Pellet.          694
  • Figure 207. Silk nanofiber (right) and cocoon of raw material.       695
  • Figure 208. Sulapac cosmetics containers.             697
  • Figure 209.  Sulzer equipment for PLA polymerization processing.              698
  • Figure 210. Teijin bioplastic film for door handles.             708
  • Figure 211. Corbion FDCA production process.    716
  • Figure 212. Comparison of weight reduction effect using CNF.     717
  • Figure 213. CNF resin products. 721
  • Figure 214. UPM biorefinery process.     723
  • Figure 215. Vegea production process.   728
  • Figure 216. The Proesa® Process.              729
  • Figure 217. Goldilocks process and applications. 731
  • Figure 218. Visolis’ Hybrid Bio-Thermocatalytic Process. 735
  • Figure 219. HefCel-coated wood (left) and untreated wood (right) after 30 seconds flame test.     738
  • Figure 220. Worn Again products.             742
  • Figure 221. Zelfo Technology GmbH CNF production process.       747
  • Figure 222. Diesel and gasoline alternatives and blends. 754
  • Figure 223.  Schematic of a biorefinery for production of carriers and chemicals. 765
  • Figure 224. Hydrolytic lignin powder.      768
  • Figure 225. Regional production of biodiesel (billion litres).           775
  • Figure 226. Flow chart for biodiesel production. 780
  • Figure 227. Global biodiesel consumption, 2010-2033 (M litres/year).      788
  • Figure 228. Global renewable diesel consumption, to 2033 (M litres/year).            791
  • Figure 229. Global bio-jet fuel consumption to 2033 (Million litres/year). 797
  • Figure 230. Total syngas market by product in MM Nm³/h of Syngas, 2021.             799
  • Figure 231. Overview of biogas utilization.             800
  • Figure 232. Biogas and biomethane pathways.   801
  • Figure 233. Bio-based naphtha production capacities, 2018-2033 (tonnes).            807
  • Figure 234. Renewable Methanol Production Processes from Different Feedstocks.           809
  • Figure 235. Production of biomethane through anaerobic digestion and upgrading.           810
  • Figure 236. Production of biomethane through biomass gasification and methanation.    811
  • Figure 237. Production of biomethane through the Power to methane process.   812
  • Figure 238. Ethanol consumption 2010-2033 (million litres).         819
  • Figure 239. Properties of petrol and biobutanol. 821
  • Figure 240. Biobutanol production route.              821
  • Figure 241. Waste plastic production pathways to (A) diesel and (B) gasoline         823
  • Figure 242. Schematic for Pyrolysis of Scrap Tires.              825
  • Figure 243. Used tires conversion process.            826
  • Figure 244. Process steps in the production of electrofuels.          827
  • Figure 245. Mapping storage technologies according to performance characteristics.        828
  • Figure 246. Production process for green hydrogen.         831
  • Figure 247. E-liquids production routes. 832
  • Figure 248. Fischer-Tropsch liquid e-fuel products.            833
  • Figure 249. Resources required for liquid e-fuel production.         833
  • Figure 250. Levelized cost and fuel-switching CO2 prices of e-fuels.           837
  • Figure 251. Cost breakdown for e-fuels. 839
  • Figure 252.  Pathways for algal biomass conversion to biofuels.   841
  • Figure 253. Algal biomass conversion process for biofuel production.        842
  • Figure 254. Classification and process technology according to carbon emission in ammonia production.  843
  • Figure 255. Green ammonia production and use.               845
  • Figure 256. Schematic of the Haber Bosch ammonia synthesis reaction.  847
  • Figure 257. Schematic of hydrogen production via steam methane reformation. 847
  • Figure 258. Estimated production cost of green ammonia.             853
  • Figure 259. Projected annual ammonia production, million tons. 854
  • Figure 260. ANDRITZ Lignin Recovery process.    861
  • Figure 261. FBPO process             874
  • Figure 262. Direct Air Capture Process.   878
  • Figure 263. CRI process. 880
  • Figure 264. Colyser process.        886
  • Figure 265. ECFORM electrolysis reactor schematic.          890
  • Figure 266. Dioxycle modular electrolyzer.            891
  • Figure 267. Domsjö process.       893
  • Figure 268. FuelPositive system. 902
  • Figure 269. INERATEC unit.           917
  • Figure 270. Infinitree swing method.       918
  • Figure 271. Enfinity cellulosic ethanol technology process.            944
  • Figure 272: Plantrose process.    950
  • Figure 273. O12 Reactor.              967
  • Figure 274. Sunglasses with lenses made from CO2-derived materials.     967
  • Figure 275. CO2 made car part.  968
  • Figure 276. The Velocys process.               970
  • Figure 277. The Proesa® Process.              972
  • Figure 278. Goldilocks process and applications. 975
  • Figure 279. Paints and coatings industry by market segmentation 2019-2020.        981
  • Figure 280. PHA family. 1000
  • Figure 281: Schematic diagram of partial molecular structure of cellulose chain with numbering for carbon atoms and n= number of cellobiose repeating unit. 1004
  • Figure 282: Scale of cellulose materials.  1005
  • Figure 283. Nanocellulose preparation methods and resulting materials. 1006
  • Figure 284: Relationship between different kinds of nanocelluloses.         1008
  • Figure 285. Hefcel-coated wood (left) and untreated wood (right) after 30 seconds flame test.     1015
  • Figure 286: CNC slurry.  1016
  • Figure 287. High purity lignin.     1019
  • Figure 288. BLOOM masterbatch from Algix.        1024
  • Figure 289. Global market revenues for biobased paints and coatings, 2018-2033 (billions USD).  1026
  • Figure 290. Market revenues for biobased paints and coatings, 2018-2033 (billions USD), conservative estimate. 1027
  • Figure 291. Market revenues for biobased paints and coatings, 2018-2033 (billions USD), high      1029
  • Figure 292. Dulux Better Living Air Clean Biobased.           1032
  • Figure 293: NCCTM Process.        1053
  • Figure 294: CNC produced at Tech Futures’ pilot plant; cloudy suspension (1 wt.%), gel-like (10 wt.%), flake-like crystals, and very fine powder. Product advantages include:         1054
  • Figure 295. Cellugy materials.     1055
  • Figure 296. EcoLine® 3690 (left) vs Solvent-Based Competitor Coating (right).       1059
  • Figure 297. Rheocrysta spray.     1065
  • Figure 298. DKS CNF products.   1066
  • Figure 299. Domsjö process.       1067
  • Figure 300. CNF gel.        1083
  • Figure 301. Block nanocellulose material.              1083
  • Figure 302. CNF products developed by Hokuetsu.            1084
  • Figure 303. BioFlex process.        1097
  • Figure 304. Marusumi Paper cellulose nanofiber products.            1100
  • Figure 305: Fluorene cellulose ® powder.              1119
  • Figure 306. XCNF.            1124
  • Figure 307. Spider silk production.            1133
  • Figure 308. CNF dispersion and powder from Starlite.      1135
  • Figure 309. 2 wt.% CNF suspension.       1139
  • Figure 310. BiNFi-s Dry Powder. 1139
  • Figure 311. BiNFi-s Dry Powder and Propylene (PP) Complex Pellet.          1140
  • Figure 312. Silk nanofiber (right) and cocoon of raw material.       1140
  • Figure 313. HefCel-coated wood (left) and untreated wood (right) after 30 seconds flame test.     1145
  • Figure 314. Bio-based barrier bags prepared from Tempo-CNF coated bio-HDPE film.        1146
  • Figure 315. Bioalkyd products.   1150
  • Figure 316. Carbon emissions by sector. 1151
  • Figure 317. Overview of CCUS market     1153
  • Figure 318. Pathways for CO2 use.           1154
  • Figure 319. Regional capacity share 2022-2030.   1156
  • Figure 320. Global investment in carbon capture 2010-2022, millions USD.            1162
  • Figure 321. Carbon Capture, Utilization, & Storage (CCUS) Market Map.  1167
  • Figure 322. CCS deployment projects, historical and to 2035.        1168
  • Figure 323. Existing and planned CCS projects.    1177
  • Figure 324. CCUS Value Chain.    1177
  • Figure 325. Schematic of CCUS process. 1179
  • Figure 326. Pathways for CO2 utilization and removal.     1180
  • Figure 327. A pre-combustion capture system.   1186
  • Figure 328. Carbon dioxide utilization and removal cycle.               1190
  • Figure 329. Various pathways for CO2 utilization.               1191
  • Figure 330. Example of underground carbon dioxide storage.       1192
  • Figure 331. Transport of CCS technologies.           1193
  • Figure 332. Railroad car for liquid CO₂ transport 1196
  • Figure 333. Estimated costs of capture of one metric ton of carbon dioxide (Co2) by sector.           1198
  • Figure 334. Cost of CO2 transported at different flowrates            1199
  • Figure 335. Cost estimates for long-distance CO2 transport.          1200
  • Figure 336. CO2 capture and separation technology.        1202
  • Figure 337. Global capacity of point-source carbon capture and storage facilities.                1205
  • Figure 338. Global carbon capture capacity by CO2 source, 2021.                1206
  • Figure 339. Global carbon capture capacity by CO2 source, 2030.                1207
  • Figure 340. Global carbon capture capacity by CO2 endpoint, 2021 and 2030.        1207
  • Figure 341. Post-combustion carbon capture process.     1210
  • Figure 342. Postcombustion CO2 Capture in a Coal-Fired Power Plant.      1211
  • Figure 343. Oxy-combustion carbon capture process.      1212
  • Figure 344. Liquid or supercritical CO2 carbon capture process.   1213
  • Figure 345. Pre-combustion carbon capture process.       1214
  • Figure 346. Amine-based absorption technology.              1218
  • Figure 347. Pressure swing absorption technology.           1222
  • Figure 348. Membrane separation technology.   1224
  • Figure 349. Liquid or supercritical CO2 (cryogenic) distillation.      1225
  • Figure 350. Process schematic of chemical looping.           1226
  • Figure 351. Calix advanced calcination reactor.   1227
  • Figure 352. Fuel Cell CO2 Capture diagram.           1228
  • Figure 353. Microalgal carbon capture.   1229
  • Figure 354. Cost of carbon capture.          1234
  • Figure 355. CO2 capture capacity to 2030, MtCO2.            1235
  • Figure 356. Capacity of large-scale CO2 capture projects, current and planned vs. the Net Zero Scenario, 2020-2030.                1236
  • Figure 357. Bioenergy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS) process. 1238
  • Figure 358. CO2 captured from air using liquid and solid sorbent DAC plants, storage, and reuse. 1241
  • Figure 359. Global CO2 capture from biomass and DAC in the Net Zero Scenario. 1242
  • Figure 360.  DAC technologies.   1244
  • Figure 361. Schematic of Climeworks DAC system.            1245
  • Figure 362. Climeworks’ first commercial direct air capture (DAC) plant, based in Hinwil, Switzerland.        1246
  • Figure 363.  Flow diagram for solid sorbent DAC.                1247
  • Figure 364. Direct air capture based on high temperature liquid sorbent by Carbon Engineering.  1248
  • Figure 365. Global capacity of direct air capture facilities.               1253
  • Figure 366. Global map of DAC and CCS plants.   1259
  • Figure 367. Schematic of costs of DAC technologies.         1261
  • Figure 368. DAC cost breakdown and comparison.            1262
  • Figure 369. Operating costs of generic liquid and solid-based DAC systems.           1264
  • Figure 370. Schematic of biochar production.      1269
  • Figure 371. CO2 non-conversion and conversion technology, advantages and disadvantages.        1272
  • Figure 372. Applications for CO2.              1275
  • Figure 373. Cost to capture one metric ton of carbon, by sector. 1275
  • Figure 374. Life cycle of CO2-derived products and services.         1278
  • Figure 375. Co2 utilization pathways and products.           1281
  • Figure 376. Plasma technology configurations and their advantages and disadvantages for CO2 conversion.           1285
  • Figure 377. LanzaTech gas-fermentation process.              1290
  • Figure 378. Schematic of biological CO2 conversion into e-fuels. 1291
  • Figure 379. Econic catalyst systems.        1294
  • Figure 380. Mineral carbonation processes.         1297
  • Figure 381. Conversion route for CO2-derived fuels and chemical intermediates. 1300
  • Figure 382.  Conversion pathways for CO2-derived methane, methanol and diesel.            1301
  • Figure 383. CO2 feedstock for the production of e-methanol.      1302
  • Figure 384. Schematic illustration of (a) biophotosynthetic, (b) photothermal, (c) microbial-photoelectrochemical, (d) photosynthetic and photocatalytic (PS/PC), (e) photoelectrochemical (PEC), and (f) photovoltaic plus electrochemical (PV+EC) approaches for CO2 c     1304
  • Figure 385. Audi synthetic fuels. 1306
  • Figure 386.  Conversion of CO2 into chemicals and fuels via different pathways.  1309
  • Figure 387.  Conversion pathways for CO2-derived polymeric materials   1311
  • Figure 388. Conversion pathway for CO2-derived building materials.         1315
  • Figure 389. Schematic of CCUS in cement sector.               1316
  • Figure 390. Carbon8 Systems’ ACT process.          1319
  • Figure 391. CO2 utilization in the Carbon Cure process.   1320
  • Figure 392. Algal cultivation in the desert.            1325
  • Figure 393. Example pathways for products from cyanobacteria. 1326
  • Figure 394. Typical Flow Diagram for CO2 EOR.   1330
  • Figure 395. Large CO2-EOR projects in different project stages by industry.            1332
  • Figure 396. Carbon mineralization pathways.      1336
  • Figure 397. CO2 Storage Overview - Site Options                1339
  • Figure 398.  CO2 injection into a saline formation while producing brine for beneficial use.             1343
  • Figure 399. Subsurface storage cost estimation. 1347
  • Figure 400. Air Products production process.       1352
  • Figure 401. Aker carbon capture system.               1354
  • Figure 402. ALGIECEL PhotoBioReactor. 1357
  • Figure 403. Schematic of carbon capture solar project.    1361
  • Figure 404. Aspiring Materials method.  1362
  • Figure 405. Aymium’s Biocarbon production.       1365
  • Figure 406. Carbonminer technology.     1381
  • Figure 407. Carbon Blade system.             1385
  • Figure 408. CarbonCure Technology.       1391
  • Figure 409. Direct Air Capture Process.   1393
  • Figure 410. CRI process. 1396
  • Figure 411. PCCSD Project in China.          1411
  • Figure 412. Orca facility.                1412
  • Figure 413. Process flow scheme of Compact Carbon Capture Plant.          1416
  • Figure 414. Colyser process.        1417
  • Figure 415. ECFORM electrolysis reactor schematic.          1424
  • Figure 416. Dioxycle modular electrolyzer.            1425
  • Figure 417. Fuel Cell Carbon Capture.      1442
  • Figure 418. Topsoe's SynCORTM autothermal reforming technology.        1448
  • Figure 419. Carbon Capture balloon.        1451
  • Figure 420. Holy Grail DAC system.           1452
  • Figure 421. INERATEC unit.           1457
  • Figure 422. Infinitree swing method.       1459
  • Figure 423. Made of Air's HexChar panels.            1471
  • Figure 424. Mosaic Materials MOFs.        1479
  • Figure 425. Neustark modular plant.        1483
  • Figure 426. OCOchem’s Carbon Flux Electrolyzer.               1489
  • Figure 427. ZerCaL™ process.      1491
  • Figure 428. CCS project at Arthit offshore gas field.           1501
  • Figure 429. RepAir technology.  1504
  • Figure 430. Soletair Power unit. 1515
  • Figure 431. Sunfire process for Blue Crude production.    1521
  • Figure 432. CALF-20 has been integrated into a rotating CO2 capture machine (left), which operates inside a CO2 plant module (right).  1524
  • Figure 433. O12 Reactor.              1531
  • Figure 434. Sunglasses with lenses made from CO2-derived materials.     1531
  • Figure 435. CO2 made car part.  1531
  • Figure 436. Advanced recycling capacities 2022, by technology.  1546
  • Figure 437. Global polymer demand 2022-2040, segmented by recycling technology, million metric tons. 1548
  • Figure 438. Global market by recycling process, 2020-2033, millions USD.               1549
  • Figure 439. Market map for advanced recycling. 1551
  • Figure 440. Value chain for advanced recycling market.   1553
  • Figure 441. Schematic layout of a pyrolysis plant.               1564
  • Figure 442. SWOT analysis-pyrolysis for advanced recycling.          1573
  • Figure 443. SWOT analysis-gasification for advanced recycling.    1584
  • Figure 444. PureCycleTM process.            1587
  • Figure 445. SWOT analysis-dissoluiton for advanced recycling.     1590
  • Figure 446. Products obtained through the different solvolysis pathways of PET, PU, and PA.         1598
  • Figure 447. SWOT analysis-Depolymerisation for advanced recycling.       1603
  • Figure 448. NewCycling process.               1621
  • Figure 449. ChemCyclingTM prototypes. 1624
  • Figure 450. ChemCycling circle by BASF. 1625
  • Figure 451.  CreaSolv® process.  1653
  • Figure 452. MoReTec.    1675
  • Figure 453. Repsol Reciclex® Circular Polyolefins.               1714
  • Figure 454. Easy-tear film material from recycled material.            1714
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The Global Market for Renewable Materials (Bio-based, CO2-based and Recycled)
The Global Market for Renewable Materials (Bio-based, CO2-based and Recycled)
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