The Global Market for Wearable, Printed, Flexible, Foldable and Stretchable Electronics

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flexible electronics market

Published September 21 2020 | 620 pages | 96 tables, 166 figures

The rapid boom in smart wearable and integrated electronic devices has stimulated demand for advanced intelligent systems with high performance, micro size, mechanical flexibility, and high-temperature stability for application as  flexible and stretchable displays, personal health monitoring, human motion capturing, smart textiles, electronic skins and more.

Wearable technology, wearables, or wearable devices is incorporation electronics into clothing or accessories that can be worn on a user’s body. The purpose of wearable technologies is to provide entertainment, healthcare, and education in people’s daily lives. Wearable electronics encompasses the incorporation of technological components in clothing accessories or objects we carry. The development of next-generation, wearable flexible electronics relies on novel materials that are:

  • Mechanically flexible.
  • Low-cost.
  • Electrically conductive.
  • Optically transparent.

 

There is increasing demand for wearable electronics from industries such as:

  • Medical and healthcare monitoring and diagnostics.
  • Sportswear and fitness monitoring (bands).
  • Consumer electronics such as smart watches, smart glasses and headsets.
  • Military GPS trackers, equipment (helmets) and wearable robots.
  • Smart apparel and footwear in fashion and sport.
  • Workplace safety and manufacturing.

The development of printed, flexible and stretchable conductors over the last decade has resulted in commercialization of flexible and stretchable sensors, circuits, displays, and energy harvesters for next-generation wearables and soft robotics. These systems must be able to conform to the shape of and survive the environment in which they must operate. They are typically fabricated on flexible plastic substrates or are printed/woven into fabrics.

The electronics industry is moving at a fast pace from standard, inflexible form factors to stretchable and conformable devices. Printed, flexible and stretchable electronics products are increasing weekly from wearables for healthcare to smart packaging, sensors, automotive tail lights and displays, flexible displays, photovoltaics and more.

Based on a new generation of advanced materials, printed, flexible and stretchable sensors and electronics will enable new possibilities in a diverse range of industries from healthcare to automotive to buildings. These technologies will drive innovation in smart medical technology, automotive, smart manufacturing, Internet of Things (IoT) and consumer electronics.

In the flexible displays market, electronics giants such as Samsung and LG Electronics are rolling our flexible, foldable and rollable smartphone and tablet products. LGs rollable LG Signature’s OLED TV R will be available in 2020 and foldable smartphones have already come to market.

Wearable and mobile health monitoring technologies have recently received enormous interest worldwide due to the rapidly aging global populations and the drastically increasing demand for in-home healthcare. Commercially available and near commercial wearable devices facilitate the transmission of biomedical informatics and personal health recording. Body worn sensors, which can provide real-time continuous measurement of pertinent physiological parameters noninvasively and comfortably for extended periods of time, are of crucial importance for emerging applications of mobile medicine. Wearable sensors that can wirelessly provide pertinent health information while remaining unobtrusive, comfortable, low cost, and easy to operate and interpret, play an essential role.

Battery and electronics producers require thin, flexible energy storage and conversion devices to power their wearable technology. The growth in flexible electronics has resulted in increased demand for flexible, stretchable, bendable, rollable and foldable batteries and supercapacitors as power sources for application in flexible and wearable devices.

Many major companies have integrated conductive and electronic ink and materials in applications ranging from photovoltaics to smart packaging. There are over 100 companies with products in this space for RFID, smart clothing, sensors, antennas and transistors. As well as advancing product security and consumer interaction, the use of smart inks and coatings in active and intelligent packaging can help reduce food waste and improve medical compliance-which would have significant environmental benefits.

Report contents include:

  • Current applications, state of the art, market and products (including producers, functionalities, prices) in wearable electronics, medical and healthcare monitoring, electronics and smart textiles, energy for wearables, flexible, foldable and stretchable displays and conductive inks. 
  • Advanced materials used in wearables, displays, printed, flexible, foldable and stretchable electronics and sensors.
  • Stage of commercialization for applications, from basic research to market entry. Markets covered include conductive inks, wearables and IoT, medical & healthcare sensors, electronic clothing & smart apparel, energy harvesting & storage, electronics components and flexible displays.
  • Market figures for printable, flexible and stretchable electronics, by markets, materials and applications to 2027. Market impact of COVID-19 assessed. 
  • Profiles of over 400 product developers.
  • 60 companies profiled in wearables including BeBop Sensors, dorsaVi Ltd., Epicore Biosystems, Equivital Inc., FeelIT, Hitachi, Ltd., Holst Centre, Magic Leap, miomove s.r.o and more. All smart watch and fitness tracker products profiled including functionalities and prices. 
  • 134 companies profiled in medical and healthcare wearables including 1drop Inc., Abbott, AerBetic, Inc.,  Alertgy, Aura Devices, Biobeat,  BioIntelliSense, Cardiomo, CareWear, cosinuss, Dexcom, Embr Labs, Eccrine Systems, Gentag, i-Sens, WBD101 and more.
  • 58 companies profiled in electronic textiles (E-textiles) including Ambiotex, BloomerTech, Chronolife, clim8, Emglare, Formosa Taffeta, Healthwatch Technologies, Hexoskin, Inuheat, Litex, Myant, SankiConsys Co., Ltd. and more.
  • 32 companies profiled in energy storage and harvesting including Bionic Power, BrightVolt, Canatu Oy, ChivoTech, Enfucell Oy, Jenax, LG Chem and more.
  • 57 companies profiled in printed, flexible and stretchable displays including C3Nano, Cambrios, iBeam, CurveSYS GmbH, Etulipa, Futaba, Kyulux, Samsung and more.
  • 98 companies profiled in conductive ink including Ash Chemical, Cemedine, DuPont, EMS/Nagase, Henkel, Jujo Chemical, Panasonic, Taiyo, Toyobo, VFP Ink Technologies, and more.

 

 

1              EXECUTIVE SUMMARY   40

  • 1.1          The evolution of electronics        41
    • 1.1.1      The wearables revolution             42
    • 1.1.2      Wearable market leaders             44
    • 1.1.3      Flexible, stretchable, thin, and large-area form factors     45
  • 1.2          What are flexible and stretchable electronics?    46
    • 1.2.1      From rigid to flexible and stretchable      46
    • 1.2.2      Organic and printed electronics 48
    • 1.2.3      New conductive materials            48
    • 1.2.4      Foldable smartphones and tablets            51
  • 1.3          Growth in flexible and stretchable electronics market      54
    • 1.3.1      Recent growth in Printed, flexible and stretchable products          54
    • 1.3.2      Future growth   54
    • 1.3.3      Nanotechnology as a market driver          55
    • 1.3.4      Growth in remote health monitoring and diagnostics       55

 

2              RESEARCH METHODOLOGY         57

3              WEARABLE ELECTRONICS             58

  • 3.1          MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS  58
  • 3.2          APPLICATIONS  61
    • 3.2.1      Smartwatches   62
      • 3.2.1.1   Main smart watch producers and products           63
    • 3.2.2      Sports and fitness trackers           64
      • 3.2.2.1   Products              65
    • 3.2.3      Sleep trackers and wearable monitors    67
      • 3.2.3.1   Products              68
    • 3.2.4      Smart glasses and head-mounted displays (VR, AR, MR, vision loss and eye trackers)         69
      • 3.2.4.1   Products              70
    • 3.2.5      Military 73
    • 3.2.6      Industrial and workplace monitoring       74
    • 3.2.7      Flexible and stretchable electronics in wearables               75
    • 3.2.8      Stretchable artificial skin               78
  • 3.3          GLOBAL MARKET SIZE     78
  • 3.4          MARKET CHALLENGES    83
  • 3.5          COMPANY PROFILES       84 (60 company profiles)

 

4              MEDICAL AND HEALTHCARE SENSORS AND WEARABLES 121

  • 4.1          MARKET DRIVERS             121
  • 4.2          CURRENT STATE OF THE ART       124
    • 4.2.1      Monitoring solutions to track COVID-19 symptoms           128
    • 4.2.1.1   Temperature and respiratory rate monitoring     128
  • 4.3          APPLICATIONS  129
    • 4.3.1      Companies and products              130
    • 4.3.2      Electronic skin patches  135
    • 4.3.3      Nanomaterials-based devices     136
    • 4.3.4      Wearable health alert and monitoring devices    139
    • 4.3.5      Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM)   140
      • 4.3.5.1   Minimally-invasive CGM sensors               141
      • 4.3.5.2   Non-invasive CGM sensors          143
      • 4.3.5.3   Companies and products              145
    • 4.3.6      Cardiovascular   148
      • 4.3.6.1   ECG sensors       149
      • 4.3.6.2   PPG sensors       151
    • 4.3.7      Pregnancy and newborn monitoring        152
    • 4.3.8      Wearable temperature monitoring          153
    • 4.3.9      Hydration sensors           155
    • 4.3.10    Wearable sweat sensors (medical and sports)     156
      • 4.3.10.1                Products              159
    • 4.3.11    Wearable drug delivery 159
    • 4.3.12    Cosmetics patches           161
  • 4.4          Smart footwear 163
  • 4.5          Smart contact lenses      164
  • 4.6          Smart wound care           164
  • 4.7          Wearable exoskeletons 166
  • 4.8          Medical hearables           169
  • 4.9          GLOBAL MARKET SIZE     171
  • 4.10        MARKET CHALLENGES    173
  • 4.11        COMPANY PROFILES       175 (134 company profiles)

 

5              ELECTRONIC TEXTILES (E-TEXTILES) AND SMART TEXTILES               260

  • 5.1          MARKET DRIVERS             260
  • 5.2          MATERIALS AND COMPONENTS 264
    • 5.2.1      Conductive and stretchable yarns             265
    • 5.2.2      Conductive polymers     266
      • 5.2.2.1   PDMS    267
      • 5.2.2.2   PEDOT: PSS         268
    • 5.2.3      Conductive coatings        269
    • 5.2.4      Conductive inks 270
    • 5.2.5      Nanomaterials  272
      • 5.2.5.1   Nanocoatings in smart textiles   274
      • 5.2.5.2   Graphene           277
      • 5.2.5.3   Nanofibers         278
      • 5.2.5.4   Carbon nanotubes           280
    • 5.2.6      Phase change materials 282
      • 5.2.6.1   Temperature controlled fabrics  283
  • 5.3          APPLICATIONS, MARKETS AND PRODUCTS            284
    • 5.3.1      Smart clothing products 284
    • 5.3.2      Temperature monitoring and regulation 287
    • 5.3.3      Stretchable E-fabrics       288
    • 5.3.4      Sport & fitness  289
    • 5.3.5      Smart footwear 290
    • 5.3.6      Military/Defence             291
    • 5.3.7      Medical and healthcare 293
      • 5.3.7.1   Biometric monitoring     294
      • 5.3.7.2   ECG sensors       295
    • 5.3.8      Industrial and workplace monitoring       297
    • 5.3.9      Flexible and wearable display advertising              298
    • 5.3.10    Powering E-textiles         298
      • 5.3.10.1                Batteries              299
      • 5.3.10.2                Supercapactitors              300
      • 5.3.10.3                Energy harvesting            300
        • 5.3.10.3.1             Photovoltaic solar textiles            301
        • 5.3.10.3.2             Energy harvesting nanogenerators           302
          • 5.3.10.3.2.1         TENGs   303
          • 5.3.10.3.2.2         PENGs  303
        • 5.3.10.3.3             Radio frequency (RF) energy harvesting 304
  • 5.4          GLOBAL MARKET SIZE     304
  • 5.5          MARKET CHALLENGES    307
  • 5.6          COMPANY PROFILES       309 (63 company profiles)

 

6              PRINTED, FLEXIBLE AND STRETCHABLE ENERGY STORAGE AND HARVESTING         352

  • 6.1          MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS  352
  • 6.2          CURRENT STATE OF THE ART       353
    • 6.2.1      Products              353
    • 6.2.2      Nanomaterials  354
  • 6.3          APPLICATIONS  355
    • 6.3.1      Flexible and stretchable batteries in electronics  355
      • 6.3.1.1   Flexible and stretchable LIBs       356
        • 6.3.1.1.1               Fiber-shaped Lithium-Ion batteries          359
        • 6.3.1.1.2               Stretchable lithium-ion batteries               360
        • 6.3.1.1.3               Origami and kirigami lithium-ion batteries            361
      • 6.3.1.2   Flexible Zn-based batteries (ZIBs)             361
    • 6.3.2      Flexible and stretchable supercapacitors               362
      • 6.3.2.1   Materials             363
    • 6.3.3      3D Printed batteries       365
    • 6.3.4      Stretchable heaters        366
    • 6.3.5      Flexible and stretchable solar cells            367
    • 6.3.6      Stretchable nanogenerators       368
      • 6.3.6.1   TENGs   368
      • 6.3.6.2   PENGs  369
    • 6.3.7      Photovoltaic solar textiles            369
  • 6.4          GLOBAL MARKET SIZE     371
  • 6.5          MARKET CHALLENGES    374
  • 6.6          COMPANY PROFILES       375 (33 company profiles)

 

7              PRINTED, FLEXIBLE AND STRETCHABLE DISPLAYS AND CONSUMER ELECTRONICS 400

  • 7.1          MARKET DRIVERS             400
  • 7.2          CURRENT STATE OF THE ART       401
    • 7.2.1      Printed, flexible and stretchable circuit boards and interconnects              402
    • 7.2.2      Printed, flexible and stretchable transistors          403
  • 7.3          APPLICATIONS  403
    • 7.3.1      Flexible AMOLEDs            405
    • 7.3.2      Flexible PMOLED (Passive Matrix OLED) 407
    • 7.3.3      Foldable and rollable OLED smartphones              407
    • 7.3.4      Foldable and rollable OLED displays         408
    • 7.3.5      Transparent displays       408
    • 7.3.6      Curved automotive displays        410
    • 7.3.7      Flexible and wearable display advertising              411
    • 7.3.8      Flexible OLED lighting     411
    • 7.3.9      Flexible quantum dot displays    412
      • 7.3.9.1   Quantum dot enhancement film (QDEF) for current QLEDs            412
      • 7.3.9.2   Quantum Dot on Glass (QDOG)  413
      • 7.3.9.3   Quantum dot colour filters           414
      • 7.3.9.4   Quantum dots on-chip   416
      • 7.3.9.5   Electroluminescent quantum dots            417
      • 7.3.9.6   QD-Micro-LEDs 417
    • 7.3.10    Flexible electrophoretic displays                419
    • 7.3.11    Electrowetting displays  420
    • 7.3.12    Electrochromic Displays 420
      • 7.3.12.1                Inorganic metal oxides  421
      • 7.3.12.2                Organic EC materials       421
      • 7.3.12.3                Nanomaterials  421
    • 7.3.13    Flexible organic liquid crystal displays (OLCD)      422
  • 7.4          GLOBAL MARKET SIZE     423
  • 7.5          MARKET CHALLENGES    424
  • 7.6          COMPANY PROFILES       426 (47 company profiles)

 

8              CONDUCTIVE INKS          458

  • 8.1          MARKET DRIVERS             458
  • 8.2          CONDUCTIVE INK TYPES 459
    • 8.2.1      Conductive ink materials               460
  • 8.3          PRINTING METHODS      461
    • 8.3.1      Nanoparticle ink               465
  • 8.4          Sintering              465
  • 8.5          Conductive Filaments     466
  • 8.6          Conductive films, foils and grids 466
  • 8.7          Inkjet printing in flexible electronics        466
  • 8.8          Drawn-on-skin electronics           467
  • 8.9          CURRENT STATE OF THE ART       467
    • 8.9.1      Current products              467
  • 8.10        APPLICATIONS  468
    • 8.10.1    Comparative properties 468
    • 8.10.2    Nanomaterials in conductive inks              469
      • 8.10.2.1                Graphene conductive inks            471
    • 8.10.3    RFID       472
      • 8.10.3.1                Printed RFID antennaes 472
    • 8.10.4    Smart labels       473
    • 8.10.5    Smart clothing and electronic textiles     473
    • 8.10.6    Printed sensors 474
      • 8.10.6.1                Strain sensors    474
    • 8.10.7    Printed batteries              474
    • 8.10.8    In-mold electronics         474
    • 8.10.9    Printed transistors           475
  • 8.11        GLOBAL MARKET SIZE     477
  • 8.12        COMPANY PROFILES       479 (98 company profiles)

 

9              PRINTED, FLEXIBLE AND STRETCHABLE  ELECTRONIC MATERIALS AND COMPOSITES           528

  • 9.1          TRANSPARENT CONDUCTIVE FILMS (TCFs)            528
  • 9.2          CARBON NANOTUBES    529
    • 9.2.1      Properties           529
    • 9.2.2      Properties utilized in Printed, flexible and stretchable electronics               530
      • 9.2.2.1   Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT)            531
      • 9.2.2.2   Double-walled carbon nanotubes             533
    • 9.2.3      Applications in printed, flexible and stretchable electronics           533
  • 9.3          CONDUCTIVE POLYMERS (CP)     537
    • 9.3.1      Properties           537
      • 9.3.1.1   PDMS    537
      • 9.3.1.2   PEDOT: PSS         538
        • 9.3.1.2.1               Transparency     538
    • 9.3.2      Properties utilized in Printed, flexible and stretchable  electronics              538
    • 9.3.3      Applications in Printed, flexible and stretchable electronics           539
  • 9.4          GRAPHENE         540
    • 9.4.1      Properties           540
    • 9.4.2      Properties utilized in Printed, flexible and stretchable electronics               542
    • 9.4.3      Applications in Printed, flexible and stretchable electronics           543
      • 9.4.3.1   Electrodes           543
    • 9.4.3.2   Sensors 544
  • 9.5          METAL MESH     547
    • 9.5.1      Properties           547
    • 9.5.2      Properties utilized in Printed, flexible and stretchable electronics               548
    • 9.5.3      Applications in Printed, flexible and stretchable electronics           549
  • 9.6          SILVER INK (Flake, nanoparticles, nanowires, ion)               550
    • 9.6.1      Silver flake          550
    • 9.6.2      Silver (Ag) nanoparticle ink           550
      • 9.6.2.1   Conductivity       551
    • 9.6.3      Silver nanowires               551
    • 9.6.4      Prices    553
      • 9.6.4.1   Cost for printed area      554
  • 9.7          COPPER INK        555
    • 9.7.1      Silver-coated copper      555
    • 9.7.2      Copper (Cu) nanoparticle ink       555
    • 9.7.3      Prices    556
  • 9.8          NANOCELLULOSE             557
    • 9.8.1      Properties           557
    • 9.8.2      Properties utilized in Printed, flexible and stretchable electronics               558
      • 9.8.2.1   Cellulose nanofibers CNF              558
      • 9.8.2.2   Cellulose nanocrystals (CNC)       560
    • 9.8.3      Applications in Printed, flexible and stretchable electronics           560
      • 9.8.3.1   Nanopaper         561
      • 9.8.3.2   Paper memory  562
      • 9.8.3.3   Conductive inks 563
  • 9.9          NANOFIBERS     564
    • 9.9.1      Properties           564
    • 9.9.2      Properties utilized in Printed, flexible and stretchable electronics               564
    • 9.9.3      Applications in Printed, flexible and stretchable  electronics          564
  • 9.10        GRAPHENE QUANTUM DOTS      566
    • 9.10.1    Synthesis             567
    • 9.10.2    Recent synthesis methods           568
  • 9.11        ELECTROACTIVE POLYMERS (EAPS)           571
    • 9.11.1    Properties           571
  • 9.12        PEROVSKITE QUANTUM DOTS (PQDs)     572
    • 9.12.1    Properties           572
    • 9.12.2    Comparison to conventional quantum dots          573
    • 9.12.3    Synthesis methods          573
    • 9.12.4    Applications       574
      • 9.12.4.1                Displays                574
  • 9.13        OTHER TYPES     576
    • 9.13.1    Gold (Au) nanoparticle ink            576
    • 9.13.2    Siloxane inks      576
    • 9.13.3    Copper nanowires           576
  • 9.14        OTHER 2-D MATERIALS  577
    • 9.14.1    BOROPHENE      577
    • 9.14.1.1                Properties           577
    • 9.14.1.2                Applications       577
    • 9.14.2    BLACK PHOSPHORUS/PHOSPHORENE     578
    • 9.14.2.1                Properties           578
    • 9.14.2.2                Applications in Printed, flexible and stretchable  electronics          580
    • 9.14.3    GRAPHITIC CARBON NITRIDE (g-C3N4)    580
    • 9.14.3.1                Properties           580
    • 9.14.3.2                Applications in Printed, flexible and stretchable electronics           581
    • 9.14.4    GERMANENE     581
    • 9.14.4.1                Properties           582
    • 9.14.4.2                Applications in Printed, flexible and stretchable electronics           582
    • 9.14.5    GRAPHDIYNE     583
    • 9.14.5.1                Properties           583
    • 9.14.5.2                Applications in Printed, flexible and stretchable electronics           584
    • 9.14.6    GRAPHANE         584
    • 9.14.6.1                Properties           584
    • 9.14.6.2                Applications in Printed, flexible and stretchable electronics           584
    • 9.14.7    HEXAGONAL BORON NITRIDE     585
    • 9.14.7.1                Properties           585
    • 9.14.7.2                Applications in Printed, flexible and stretchable electronics           586
    • 9.14.8    MOLYBDENUM DISULFIDE (MoS2)            586
    • 9.14.8.1                Properties           587
    • 9.14.8.2                Applications in Printed, flexible and stretchable  electronics          588
    • 9.14.9    RHENIUM DISULFIDE (ReS2) AND DISELENIDE (ReSe2)     589
    • 9.14.9.1                Properties           589
    • 9.14.9.2                Applications in Printed, flexible and stretchable electronics           590
    • 9.14.10  SILICENE              590
    • 9.14.10.1              Properties           590
    • 9.14.10.2              Applications in Printed, flexible and stretchable electronics           591
    • 9.14.11  STANENE/TINENE            592
    • 9.14.11.1              Properties           592
    • 9.14.11.2              Applications in Printed, flexible and stretchable electronics           593
    • 9.14.12  TUNGSTEN DISELENIDE 593
    • 9.14.12.1              Properties           594
    • 9.14.12.2              Applications in Printed, flexible and stretchable electronics           594
    • 9.14.13  ANTIMONENE   594
    • 9.14.13.1              Properties           594
    • 9.14.13.2              Applications       594
    • 9.14.14  INDIUM SELENIDE            595
    • 9.14.14.1              Properties           595
    • 9.14.14.2              Applications       595

10           REFERENCES       597

 

Tables

  • Table 1. Types of wearable devices and applications.        40
  • Table 2. Wearable market leaders by market segment.   41
  • Table 3. Advanced materials for Printed, flexible and stretchable sensors and Electronics-Advantages and disadvantages.  45
  • Table 4. Sheet resistance (RS) and transparency (T) values for transparent conductive oxides and alternative materials for transparent conductive electrodes (TCE).       46
  • Table 5. Foldable smartphones and tablets, on or near market.   48
  • Table 6. Market drivers for printed, flexible and stretchable electronics for wearables and IoT.      55
  • Table 7. Main smart watch producers and products.         60
  • Table 8. Wearable sensors for sports performance.          62
  • Table 9. Wearable sensor products for monitoring sport performance.    63
  • Table 10. Wearable sleep tracker products.          65
  • Table 11. Smart glasses companies and products.              67
  • Table 12.Wearable electronics applications in the military.            71
  • Table 13. Applications in printed, flexible and stretchable electronics, by advanced materials type and benefits thereof.               73
  • Table 14. Global market for wearable electronics, 2015-2027, by product type, billions $. 77
  • Table 15.Market challenges in wearable electronics and IoT.         80
  • Table 16. Market drivers for printed, flexible and stretchable medical and healthcare sensors and wearables.        118
  • Table 17. Examples of wearable medical device products.              122
  • Table 18. Medical wearable companies applying products to COVID-19 monitoring and analysis.  125
  • Table 19. Applications in flexible and stretchable health monitors, by advanced materials type and benefits thereof.                134
  • Table 20. Wearable bio-signal monitoring devices.            136
  • Table 21. Technologies for minimally-invasive and non-invasive glucose detection-advantages and disadvantages.                138
  • Table 22. Commercial devices for non-invasive glucose monitoring not released or withdrawn from market.          141
  • Table 23. Minimally-invasive and non-invasive glucose monitoring products.         142
  • Table 24. Companies developing wearable swear sensors.             156
  • Table 25. Wearable drug delivery companies and products.          157
  • Table 26. Companies and products, cosmetics and drug delivery patches.               159
  • Table 27.Companies and products in smart footwear.     160
  • Table 28.Companies and products in smart contact lenses.           161
  • Table 29. Companies and products in smart wound care.                163
  • Table 30. Companies developing wearable exoskeletons.               164
  • Table 31. Companies and products in hearables. 166
  • Table 32. Global medical and healthcare wearables market, 2017-2027, billions $, by product.      169
  • Table 33. Market challenges in medical and healthcare sensors and wearables.   170
  • Table 34. Market drivers for printed, flexible, stretchable and organic electronic textiles. 257
  • Table 35. Types of smart textiles.              259
  • Table 36. Examples of smart textile products.      260
  • Table 37. Types of smart textiles.              261
  • Table 38. Examples of smart textile products.      261
  • Table 39. Types of flexible conductive polymers, properties and applications.        265
  • Table 40. Typical conductive ink formulation.      267
  • Table 41. Comparative properties of conductive inks.       268
  • Table 42. Applications in textiles, by advanced materials type and benefits thereof.           269
  • Table 43. Nanocoatings applied in the textiles industry-type of coating, nanomaterials utilized, benefits and applications.       271
  • Table 44. Applications and benefits of graphene in textiles and apparel.  274
  • Table 45. Properties of CNTs and comparable materials. 277
  • Table 46. Applications and markets for e-textiles.              281
  • Table 47. Commercially available smart clothing products.             281
  • Table 48. Electronic textiles products.     283
  • Table 49. Heated jacket products.             284
  • Table 50. Examples of materials used in flexible heaters and applications.               284
  • Table 51.Companies and products in smart footwear.     288
  • Table 52.Wearable electronics applications in the military.            289
  • Table 53. Comparison of prototype batteries (flexible, textile, and other) in terms of area-specific performance.  296
  • Table 54. Global electronic textiles and smart clothing market 2017-2030, revenues (billions USD).             302
  • Table 55. Market challenges in E-textiles.              304
  • Table 56. Market drivers and trends for Printed, flexible and stretchable electronic energy storage and harvesting.                349
  • Table 57. Wearable energy storage and energy harvesting products.        351
  • Table 58. Nanomaterials in flexible and stretchable batteries, by materials type and benefits thereof.       351
  • Table 59. Applications in flexible and stretchable supercapacitors, by advanced materials type and benefits thereof.                361
  • Table 60. Examples of materials used in flexible heaters and applications.               363
  • Table 61. Global thin film, flexible and printed batteries market 2017-2027, revenues (millions USD) by applications.                369
  • Table 62. Market challenges in printed, flexible and stretchable energy storage.  371
  • Table 63. Market drivers for Printed, flexible and stretchable displays and electronic components.             397
  • Table 64. Printed, flexible and stretchable displays products.        398
  • Table 65. Applications in flexible and stretchable circuit boards, by advanced materials type and benefits thereof.                399
  • Table 66. Foldable display products and prototypes.        404
  • Table 67. Companies developing transparent display products.   407
  • Table 68. Companies developing curved automotive displays.      407
  • Table 69: QD colour filter options and advantages.           411
  • Table 70. Types of electrochromic materials and applications.      417
  • Table 71. Market challenges in printed, flexible and stretchable displays and consumer electronics.            421
  • Table 72. Market drivers and trends for Printed, flexible and stretchable conductive inks.                455
  • Table 73. Typical conductive ink formulation.      457
  • Table 74. Comparative properties of conductive inks.       458
  • Table 75. Characteristics of analog printing processes for conductive inks.              459
  • Table 76. Characteristics of digital printing processes for conductive inks.               460
  • Table 77. Printable electronics products.               464
  • Table 78. Comparative properties of conductive inks.       465
  • Table 79. Applications in conductive inks by type and benefits thereof.   466
  • Table 80. Price comparison of thin-film transistor (TFT) electronics technology.    473
  • Table 81. Global market for conductive inks 2017-2027, revenues (million $), by ink types.             475
  • Table 82. Comparison of ITO replacements.         525
  • Table 83. Properties of CNTs and comparable materials. 527
  • Table 84. Market and applications for SWCNTs in transparent conductive films.   531
  • Table 85. Companies developing carbon nanotubes for applications in Printed, flexible and stretchable  electronics.                533
  • Table 86. Types of flexible conductive polymers, properties and applications.        535
  • Table 87. Properties of graphene.             537
  • Table 88.Graphene properties relevant to application in sensors.               542
  • Table 89. Companies developing graphene for applications in Printed, flexible and stretchable electronics.             542
  • Table 90. Advantages and disadvantages of fabrication techniques to produce metal mesh structures.      544
  • Table 91.Types of flexible conductive polymers, properties and applications.         545
  • Table 92. Companies developing metal mesh for applications in Printed, flexible and stretchable  electronics.        546
  • Table 93. Silver nanocomposite ink after sintering and resin bonding of discrete electronic components. 548
  • Table 94. Nanocellulose properties.         554
  • Table 95. Properties and applications of nanocellulose    555
  • Table 96. Properties of flexible electronics‐cellulose nanofiber film (nanopaper). 555
  • Table 97. Properties of flexible electronics cellulose nanofiber films.         558
  • Table 98.Companies developing nanocellulose for applications in Printed, flexible and stretchable  electronics.     560
  • Table 99. Comparison of graphene QDs and semiconductor QDs. 563
  • Table 100. Comparative properties of conventional QDs and Perovskite QDs.        570
  • Table 101. Applications of perovskite QDs.           571
  • Table 102. Properties of perovskite QLEDs comparative to OLED and QLED.            572
  • Table 103. Electronic and mechanical properties of monolayer phosphorene, graphene and MoS2.            576

 

Figures

  • Figure 1. Evolution of electronics.             39
  • Figure 2. Wove Band.     43
  • Figure 3. Wearable graphene medical sensor.     44
  • Figure 4. Applications timeline for organic and printed electronics.            45
  • Figure 5. Xiaomi MIX Flex.            51
  • Figure 6. Baby Monitor. 53
  • Figure 7. Wearable health monitor incorporating graphene photodetectors.         53
  • Figure 8. Applications of wearable flexible sensors worn on various body parts.    59
  • Figure 9. Wearable bio-fluid monitoring system for monitoring of hydration.         62
  • Figure 10. Beddr SleepTuner.     65
  • Figure 11. Vuzix Blade.   66
  • Figure 12. NReal Light MR smart glasses.               67
  • Figure 13. Wearable gas sensor. 72
  • Figure 14.Stretchable transistor.                73
  • Figure 15. Artificial skin prototype for gesture recognition.            75
  • Figure 16. Global market for wearables, 2015-2027, by product type, billions US$.              76
  • Figure 17. Global market for hearables, 2017-2027, by product type, billions $.    78
  • Figure 18. Global market for wearables, 2015-2027, by market share of product type        79
  • Figure 19.Connected human body and product examples.             122
  • Figure 20. Companies and products in wearable health monitoring and rehabilitation devices and products.           127
  • Figure 21. Smart e-skin system comprising health-monitoring sensors, displays, and ultra flexible PLEDs.  133
  • Figure 22.Graphene medical patch.          134
  • Figure 23. Graphene-based E-skin patch.               134
  • Figure 24. Technologies for minimally-invasive and non-invasive glucose detection.           137
  • Figure 25. Schematic of non-invasive CGM sensor.            141
  • Figure 26. Adhesive wearable CGM sensor.          142
  • Figure 27. VitalPatch.     146
  • Figure 28. Wearable ECG-textile.              146
  • Figure 29. Wearable ECG recorder.           147
  • Figure 30. Nexkin™.        148
  • Figure 31. Bloomlife.      150
  • Figure 32. Enfucell wearable temperature tag.    151
  • Figure 33. TempTraQ wearable wireless thermometer.   152
  • Figure 34. Nanowire skin hydration patch.             152
  • Figure 35. NIX sensors.  153
  • Figure 36. Wearable sweat sensor.           153
  • Figure 37. Wearable sweat sensor.           154
  • Figure 38. Gatorade's GX Sweat Patch.   155
  • Figure 39. Sweat sensor incorporated into face mask.      155
  • Figure 40. Lab-on-Skin™.              156
  • Figure 41. D-mine Pump.              157
  • Figure 42.My UV Patch. 158
  • Figure 43. Overview layers of L'Oreal skin patch. 159
  • Figure 44. Digitsole Smartshoe. 160
  • Figure 45. Schematic of smart wound dressing.  162
  • Figure 46. REPAIR electronic patch concept. Image courtesy of the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine.    163
  • Figure 47. Honda Walking Assist.               164
  • Figure 48. Nuheara IQbuds² Max.             166
  • Figure 49. Global medical and healthcare wearables market, 2017-2027, billions $, by product.    168
  • Figure 50. Global market for medical and healthcare sensors and wearables, 2015-2027, by market share of product type.     170
  • Figure 51. Conductive yarns.       262
  • Figure 52. Conductive yarns.       263
  • Figure 53. SEM image of cotton fibers with PEDOT:PSS coating.   264
  • Figure 54. Applications of graphene in smart textiles and apparel.              275
  • Figure 55. PCM cooling vest.       281
  • Figure 56. Myant sleeve tracks biochemical indicators in sweat.  286
  • Figure 57. iStimUweaR . 287
  • Figure 58. Digitsole Smartshoe. 288
  • Figure 59. Wearable medical technology.              291
  • Figure 60. VitalPatch.     292
  • Figure 61. Wearable ECG-textile.              292
  • Figure 62. Wearable ECG recorder.           293
  • Figure 63. Nexkin™.        294
  • Figure 64. Wearable gas sensor. 295
  • Figure 65. Basketball referee Royole fully flexible display.              295
  • Figure 66. Micro-scale energy scavenging techniques.     298
  • Figure 67. Schematic illustration of the fabrication concept for textile-based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) made by sewing textile electrodes onto cloth or paper.     299
  • Figure 68 . 3D print piezoelectric material.            300
  • Figure 69. Global electronic textiles and smart clothing market 2017-2030, revenues (billions USD).           303
  • Figure 70. Global market for electronic textiles and smart clothing, 2017-2027, by market share of product type. 304
  • Figure 71. Graphene dress. The dress changes colour in sync with the wearer’s breathing.              315
  • Figure 72. Descante Solar Thermo insulated jacket.           316
  • Figure 73. G+ Graphene Aero Jersey.      317
  • Figure 74. Flexible batteries on the market.          351
  • Figure 75. Printed 1.5V battery. 353
  • Figure 76. Materials and design structures in flexible lithium ion batteries.             353
  • Figure 77. LiBEST flexible battery.             354
  • Figure 78. Schematic of the structure of stretchable LIBs.               354
  • Figure 79. Electrochemical performance of materials in flexible LIBs.         355
  • Figure 80. Carbon nanotubes incorporated into flexible, rechargeable yarn batteries.        357
  • Figure 81. (A) Schematic overview of a flexible supercapacitor as compared to conventional supercapacitor.          360
  • Figure 82. Stretchable graphene supercapacitor. 362
  • Figure 83. Origami-like silicon solar cells.               365
  • Figure 84. Schematic illustration of the fabrication concept for textile-based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) made by sewing textile electrodes onto cloth or paper.     367
  • Figure 85. Global market for electronics and smart textiles, 2017-2027, by market share of product type. 369
  • Figure 86. Global thin film, flexible and printed batteries market 2017-2027, revenues (millions USD) by applications.                370
  • Figure 87. PowerWalk®. 374
  • Figure 88. Hitz all-solid-state lithium-ion battery.               382
  • Figure 89. ZincPoly™ Battery.      384
  • Figure 90. J.Flex.              385
  • Figure 91. Schematic illustration of three-chamber system for SWCNH production.            388
  • Figure 92. TEM images of carbon nanobrush.      389
  • Figure 93. Thin film transistor incorporating SWCNTs.      400
  • Figure 94. LG Signature OLED TV R.           401
  • Figure 95. Flexible display.           402
  • Figure 96. AMOLED schematic.   403
  • Figure 97. Mirage smart speaker with wraparound touch display.               404
  • Figure 98. Rollable display producers and products.          405
  • Figure 99. LG Display transparent OLED touch display.     406
  • Figure 100. Transparent display in subway carriage window.        406
  • Figure 101. Basketball referee Royole fully flexible display.            408
  • Figure 102. LG OLED flexible lighting panel.          409
  • Figure 103. Flexible OLED incorporated into automotive headlight.            409
  • Figure 104. Quantum dot film schematic.              410
  • Figure 105: Quantum Dots on Glass schematic.   411
  • Figure 106: Samsung 8K 65" QD Glass.    411
  • Figure 107: QD/OLED hybrid  schematic. 413
  • Figure 108: Electroluminescent quantum dots schematic.              414
  • Figure 109: The Wall microLED display.   415
  • Figure 110: Individual red, green and blue microLED arrays based on quantum dots.          415
  • Figure 111. Flexible & stretchable LEDs based on quantum dots. 416
  • Figure 112. LECTUM® display.     417
  • Figure 113. Argil electrochromic film integrated with polycarbonate lenses.          419
  • Figure 114. Organic LCD with a 10-mm bend radius.          419
  • Figure 115. Global flexible, foldable and rollable OLED revenues, 2017-2030 (billion $).     420
  • Figure 116. Global foldable displays revenues by application, 2018-2030 (millions $).         421
  • Figure 117. BGT Materials graphene ink product.               469
  • Figure 118. Flexible RFID tag.      470
  • Figure 119. Stretchable material for formed an in-molded electronics.     472
  • Figure 120. Wearable patch with a skin-compatible, pressure-sensitive adhesive. 472
  • Figure 121. Thin film transistor incorporating CNTs.          473
  • Figure 122. Global market for conductive inks 2017-2027, revenues (million $), by ink types.         474
  • Figure 123. Talcoat graphene mixed with paint.  517
  • Figure 124. Transparent conductive switches-PEDOT.      525
  • Figure 125. CNT stretchable Resin Film.  528
  • Figure 126. Schematic of single-walled carbon nanotube.              529
  • Figure 127. Flexible CNT CMOS integrated circuits with sub-10 nanoseconds stage delays.              530
  • Figure 128. Stretchable SWNT memory and logic devices for wearable electronics.             530
  • Figure 129. CNT transparent conductive film formed on glass and schematic diagram of its structure.        531
  • Figure 130. Stretchable carbon aerogel incorporating carbon nanotubes. 534
  • Figure 131. Graphene layer structure schematic. 539
  • Figure 132. Flexible graphene touch screen.         540
  • Figure 133. Graphene electrochromic devices.    541
  • Figure 134. Flexible mobile phones with graphene transparent conductive film.   541
  • Figure 135. Large-area metal mesh touch panel. 544
  • Figure 136. Bending durability of Ag nanowires. 550
  • Figure 137. Flexible silver nanowire wearable mesh.        550
  • Figure 138. Copper based inks on flexible substrate.         552
  • Figure 139. Cellulose nanofiber films.      556
  • Figure 140. Nanocellulose photoluminescent paper.        557
  • Figure 141. LEDs shining on circuitry imprinted on a 5x5cm sheet of CNF.               558
  • Figure 142. Foldable nanopaper.               559
  • Figure 143. Foldable nanopaper antenna.             559
  • Figure 144. Paper memory (ReRAM).      560
  • Figure 145. A pQLED device structure.    570
  • Figure 146. Development roadmap for perovskite QDs.  571
  • Figure 147. Perovskite quantum dots under UV light.       572
  • Figure 148. Borophene schematic.           574
  • Figure 149. Black phosphorus structure. 575
  • Figure 150. Black Phosphorus crystal.      576
  • Figure 151. Bottom gated flexible few-layer phosphorene transistors with the hydrophobic dielectric encapsulation.                577
  • Figure 152. Graphitic carbon nitride.        578
  • Figure 153. Schematic of germanene.     579
  • Figure 154. Graphdiyne structure.            580
  • Figure 155. Schematic of Graphane crystal.           581
  • Figure 156. Structure of hexagonal boron nitride.              582
  • Figure 157. Structure of 2D molybdenum disulfide.          584
  • Figure 158. SEM image of MoS2.               584
  • Figure 159. Atomic force microscopy image of a representative MoS2 thin-film transistor.              585
  • Figure 160. Schematic of the molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) thin-film sensor with the deposited molecules that create additional charge.            586
  • Figure 161. Schematic of a monolayer of rhenium disulphide.      586
  • Figure 162. Silicene structure.    587
  • Figure 163. Monolayer silicene on a silver (111) substrate.            588
  • Figure 164. Silicene transistor.    589
  • Figure 165. Crystal structure for stanene.              589
  • Figure 166. Atomic structure model for the 2D stanene on Bi2Te3(111).   590
  • Figure 167. Schematic of tungsten diselenide.     591
  • Figure 168. Schematic of Indium Selenide (InSe).               592

 

The Global Market for Wearable, Printed, Flexible, Foldable and Stretchable Electronics
The Global Market for Wearable, Printed, Flexible, Foldable and Stretchable Electronics
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The Global Market for Wearable, Printed, Flexible, Foldable and Stretchable Electronics
The Global Market for Wearable, Printed, Flexible, Foldable and Stretchable Electronics
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