The Global Market for Non-Carbon 2D Materials

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Graphene has brought to the world’s attention the exceptional properties of two-dimensional (2D) nanosheet materials. Due to its exceptional transport, mechanical and thermal properties, graphene has been at the forefront of nanomaterials research over the past few years. Its development has enabled researchers to explore other 2D layered materials, such as the transition metal dichalcogenides, a wide variety of oxides and nitrides and clays.

Researchers have therefore looked beyond graphene in recent years to other layered 2D materials, such as borophene, molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) and phosphorene. These materials possess the intrinsic properties of graphene, such as high electrical conductivity, insulating and semi-conducting properties, high thermal conductivity, high mechanical strength, gas diffusion barriers, high chemical stability and radiation shielding, but crucially also possess a semiconductor band gap. Theoretical and experimental works on these materials have rapidly increased in the past couple of years and they are now commercially available from several advanced materials producers.

Non-carbon 2D materials covered in this report include:

  • borophene.
  • molybdenum disulfide (MoS2).
  • hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN).
  • phosphorene.
  • graphitic carbon nitride.
  • germanene.
  • graphane.
  • graphdiyne.
  • stanene/tinene.
  • tungsten diselenide.
  • rhenium disulfide.
  • diamene.
  • silicene.
  • antimonene.
  • indium selenide.

Markets these materials could significantly impact and are covered in this report include:

  • Electronics.
  • Batteries (Lithium-ion, sodium-ion, lithium-sulfur, lithium-oxygen).
  • Sensors.
  • Separation membranes.
  • Photocatalysts.
  • Thermoelectrics.
  • Photovoltaics.

Report contents include:

  • Properties of non-carbon 2D materials.
  • Applications of non-carbon 2D materials.
  • Addressable markets for non-carbon 2D materials.
  • Non-carbon 2D materials roadmap.
  • Patent landscape.
  • Production and pricing.
  • Profiles of 2D materials producers.

Published May 2019 | 76 pages, 17 tables, 25 figures | Table of contents

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

1        EXECUTIVE SUMMARY…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 9

2        RESEARCH METHODOLOGY……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 13

3        INTRODUCTION……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 17

  • 3.1     Types of non-carbon 2D materials……………………………………………………………………………………………. 17
    • 3.1.1       Transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs)………………………………………………………………………… 17
    • 3.1.2       2D oxides…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 17
    • 3.1.3       Hexagonal boron nitride………………………………………………………………………………………………… 17
    • 3.1.4       Single element…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 18
  • 3.2     Synthesis and production………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 19
  • 3.3     Patent landscape…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 20

4        BOROPHENE…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 21

  • 4.1     Properties…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 21
  • 4.2     Applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 22
  • 4.3     Market opportunity……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 23

5        PHOSPHORENE……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 24

  • 5.1     Properties…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 24
  • 5.2     Fabrication methods……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 26
  • 5.3     Challenges for the use of phosphorene in devices……………………………………………………………………….. 26
  • 5.4     Applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 26
    • 5.4.1       Electronics…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 26
    • 5.4.2       Field effect transistors…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 27
    • 5.4.3       Thermoelectrics…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 27
    • 5.4.4       Batteries……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 27
      • 5.4.4.1    Lithium-ion batteries (LIB)………………………………………………………………………………………….. 27
      • 5.4.4.2    Sodium-ion batteries………………………………………………………………………………………………… 28
      • 5.4.4.3    Lithium–sulfur batteries…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 28
    • 5.4.5   Supercapacitors………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 28
    • 5.4.6    Photodetectors……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 28
    • 5.4.7    Sensors…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 28
  • 5.5     Market opportunity……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 29

6        GRAPHITIC CARBON NITRIDE (g-C3N4)…………………………………………………………………………………….. 30

  • 6.1     Properties…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 30
  • 6.2     Synthesis…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 31
  • 6.3     C2N…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 31
  • 6.4     Applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 32
    • 6.4.1       Electronics…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 32
    • 6.4.2       Filtration membranes……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 32
    • 6.4.3       Photocatalysts…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 32
    • 6.4.4       Batteries (LIBs)……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 32
    • 6.4.5       Sensors…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 32
  • 6.5     Market opportunity……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 32

7        GERMANENE…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 33

  • 7.1     Properties…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 34
  • 7.2     Applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 34
    • 7.2.1       Electronics…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 34
    • 7.2.2       Batteries……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 34
  • 7.3     Market opportunity assessment……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 34

8        GRAPHDIYNE………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 35

  • 8.1     Properties…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 36
  • 8.2     Applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 36
    • 8.2.1       Electronics…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 36
    • 8.2.2       Batteries……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 36
      • 8.2.2.1    Lithium-ion batteries (LIB)………………………………………………………………………………………….. 36
      • 8.2.2.2    Sodium ion batteries…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 37
    • 8.2.3       Separation membranes…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 37
    • 8.2.4       Water filtration…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 37
    • 8.2.5       Photocatalysts…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 37
    • 8.2.6       Photovoltaics………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 37
  • 8.3     Market opportunity assessment……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 37

9        GRAPHANE……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 39

  • 9.1     Properties…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 39
  • 9.2     Applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 39
    • 9.2.1       Electronics…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 39
    • 9.2.2       Hydrogen storage………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 39
  • 9.3     Market opportunity assessment……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 40

10      HEXAGONAL BORON-NITRIDE…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 41

  • 10.1        Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 41
  • 10.2        Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 42
    • 10.2.1     Electronics…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 42
    • 10.2.2     Fuel cells……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 42
    • 10.2.3     Adsorbents…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 42
    • 10.2.4     Photodetectors……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 42
    • 10.2.5     Textiles……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 42
    • 10.2.6     Biomedical…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 43
  • 10.3        Market opportunity assessment…………………………………………………………………………………………… 43

11      MOLYBDENUM DISULFIDE (MoS2)……………………………………………………………………………………………. 45

  • 11.1        Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 45
  • 11.2        Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 46
    • 11.2.1     Electronics…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 46
    • 11.2.2     Photovoltaics………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 47
    • 11.2.3     Piezoelectrics……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 47
    • 11.2.4     Sensors…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 47
      • 11.2.4.1       Filtration……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 47
    • 11.2.5     Batteries……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 48
    • 11.2.6     Fiber lasers………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 48
  • 11.3        Market opportunity assessment…………………………………………………………………………………………… 48

12      RHENIUM DISULFIDE (ReS2) AND DISELENIDE (ReSe2)………………………………………………………………. 49

  • 12.1        Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 49
  • 12.2        Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 49
  • 12.2.1     Electronics…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 49
  • 12.3        Market opportunity assessment…………………………………………………………………………………………… 50

13      SILICENE………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 51

  • 13.1        Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 51
  • 13.2        Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 52
    • 13.2.1     Electronics…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 52
    • 13.2.2     Photovoltaics………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 52
    • 13.2.3     Thermoelectrics…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 52
    • 13.2.4     Batteries……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 53
    • 13.2.5     Sensors…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 53
  • 13.3        Market opportunity assessment…………………………………………………………………………………………… 53

14      STANENE/TINENE…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 54

  • 14.1        Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 54
  • 14.2        Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 55
    • 14.2.1     Electronics…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 55
  • 14.3        Market opportunity assessment…………………………………………………………………………………………… 55

15      TUNGSTEN DISELENIDE…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 56

  • 15.1        Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 56
  • 15.2        Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 57
    • 15.2.1     Electronics…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 57
  • 15.3        Market opportunity assessment…………………………………………………………………………………………… 57

16      ANTIMONENE………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 58

  • 16.1        Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 58
  • 16.2        Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 58

17      DIAMENE………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 59

  • 17.1        Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 59
  • 17.2        Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 59
  • 17.3        Market opportunity assessment…………………………………………………………………………………………… 59

18      INDIUM SELENIDE………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 60

  • 18.1        Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 60
  • 18.2        Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 60
    • 18.2.1     Electronics…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 60
  • 18.3        Market opportunity assessment…………………………………………………………………………………………… 61

19      COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF GRAPHENE AND OTHER 2D MATERIALS………………………………………. 62

20      TECHNOLOGY ROADMAP……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 63

21      PRODUCER PROFILES……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 64

22      GLOSSARY……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 72

23      REFERENCES………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 73

 

Tables

  • Table 1: 2D materials types………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 10
  • Table 2: Applications and addressable markets of borophene…………………………………………………………………….. 23
  • Table 3: Electronic and mechanical properties of monolayer phosphorene, graphene and MoS2………………………… 25
  • Table 4: Applications and addressable markets for phosphorene………………………………………………………………… 28
  • Table 5: Applications and addressable markets for graphitic carbon nitride……………………………………………………. 32
  • Table 6: Applications and addressable markets for germanene…………………………………………………………………… 34
  • Table 7: Applications and addressable markets for graphdiyne…………………………………………………………………… 36
  • Table 8: Applications and addressable markets for graphane……………………………………………………………………… 39
  • Table 9: Applications and addressable markets for hexagonal boron nitride…………………………………………………… 42
  • Table 10: Applications and addressable markets for molybdenum disulfide……………………………………………………. 47
  • Table 11: Applications and addressable markets for Rhenium disulfide (ReS2) and diselenide (ReSe2)………………. 49
  • Table 12: Applications and addressable markets for silicene………………………………………………………………………. 52
  • Table 13: Applications and addressable markets for stanine/tinene……………………………………………………………… 54
  • Table 14: Applications and addressable markets for tungsten diselenide………………………………………………………. 56
  • Table 15: Applications and addressable markets for diamene…………………………………………………………………….. 58
  • Table 16: Applications and addressable markets for indium selenide……………………………………………………………. 60
  • Table 17: Comparative analysis of graphene and other 2-D nanomaterials……………………………………………………. 61

Figures

  • Figure 1: Schematic of 2-D materials…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 11
  • Figure 2: Borophene schematic……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 21
  • Figure 3: Black phosphorus structure……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 24
  • Figure 4: Black Phosphorus crystal………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 25
  • Figure 5: Bottom gated flexible few-layer phosphorene transistors with the hydrophobic dielectric encapsulation……. 27
  • Figure 6: Graphitic carbon nitride…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 30
  • Figure 7: Structural difference between graphene and C2N-h2D crystal: (a) graphene; (b) C2N-h2D crystal. Credit: Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology……………………………………………………………………………. 31
  • Figure 8: Schematic of germanene……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 33
  • Figure 9: Graphdiyne structure…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 35
  • Figure 10: Schematic of Graphane crystal……………………………………………………………………………………………… 38
  • Figure 11: Structure of hexagonal boron nitride……………………………………………………………………………………….. 40
  • Figure 12: BN nanosheet textiles application…………………………………………………………………………………………… 42
  • Figure 13: Structure of 2D molybdenum disulfide…………………………………………………………………………………….. 44
  • Figure 14: SEM image of MoS2……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 45
  • Figure 15: Atomic force microscopy image of a representative MoS2 thin-film transistor…………………………………… 46
  • Figure 16: Schematic of the molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) thin-film sensor with the deposited molecules that create additional charge………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 46
  • Figure 17: Schematic of a monolayer of rhenium disulfide………………………………………………………………………….. 48
  • Figure 18: Silicene structure……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 50
  • Figure 19: Monolayer silicene on a silver (111) substrate…………………………………………………………………………… 51
  • Figure 20: Silicene transistor……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 51
  • Figure 21: Crystal structure for stanene…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 53
  • Figure 22: Atomic structure model for the 2D stanene on Bi2Te3(111)………………………………………………………….. 54
  • Figure 23: Schematic of tungsten diselenide…………………………………………………………………………………………… 55
  • Figure 24: Schematic of Indium Selenide (InSe)………………………………………………………………………………………. 59
  • Figure 25: Non-graphene 2D materials roadmap……………………………………………………………………………………… 62