The Global Market for Advanced Antimicrobial Coatings and Technologies 2023-2033

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Published January 2023 | 397  pages, 64 tables, 80 figures | Download Table of contents

The use of advanced antimicrobial  coatings and technology (virucidal, bactericidal and fungicidal) has come to the fore recently due to the impact of the Covid-19 crisis, and has greatly increased demand, especially for high touch surfaces in healthcare, retail, hotels, offices and the home. Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) has been declared one of the top 10 global public health threats facing humanity by the World Health Organization and is projected to be responsible for the death of 10 million people every year by 2050. Antimicrobial surface technologies are considered an important factor in limiting the spread of infectious diseases, as a form of environmental disease control.

Industry interest in these types of coatings products was previously hindered by high price, and mainly limited to food packaging and healthcare settings. However, a significant market opportunity has arisen for companies to develop advanced coatings and surface solutions that can counter the health hazards caused by bacteria and viruses for a wide range of applications. 

Their use makes it possible to provide enhanced antimicrobial, antiviral, mold-reducing and TVOC degrading processes, that are non-toxic and environmentally friendly, allowing for exceptional hygiene standards in all areas of work and life. As a result, it is possible create a healthier living and working environment and to offer holistic solutions to people with a diminished immune system. Antimicrobial-based surface coatings prevent the spread of bacteria, fungi and viruses via infected surfaces of so called high-traffic objects, such as door and window handles in public places, hospitals, public buildings, schools, elderly homes etc. 

Advanced Antimicrobial Coatings and Technologies have numerous applications, for virtually all surfaces including: 

  • Medical facilities and laboratories
  • Medical equipment;
  • Fabrics and clothing like face masks;
  • Hospital furniture;
  • Hotels and other public spaces;
  • Window glass;
  • Pharmaceutical labs;
  • Packaging;
  • Food packaging areas and restaurants;
  • Food processing equipment;
  • Transportation, air ducts and air ventilation systems;
  • Appliances;
  • Sporting and exercise equipment;
  • Containers;
  • Aircraft interiors and buildings;
  • Cruise lines and other marine vessels;
  • Restroom accessories;
  • Shower enclosures;
  • Handrails;
  • Schools and childcare facilities;
  • Playgrounds.

 

Report contents include: 

  • Current technology and materials used in Advanced Antimicrobial Coatings and Surfaces. These include self-cleaning coatings, photocatalytic coatings, graphene, silicon dioxide nanoparticles, silver/nanosilver, photocatalytic coatings, zinc oxide/zinc oxide nanoparticles, hydrogels, nanocellulose, carbon nanotubes, fullerenes, gold nanoparticles, cerium oxide nanoparticles, chitosan/chitosan nanoparticles, copper particles, adaptive biomaterials, electroactive smart materials, 2D materials and antibacterial liquid metals.  
  • Global market revenue forecasts to 2033, broken down by applications, regions, markets and types of coatings. 
  • Analysis of end user markets for Advanced Antimicrobial Coatings and Technologies including:
    • Interiors
      • Stainless steel, glass, plastics and ceramic surfaces.
      • Medical facilities and sensitive building applications.
      • Air conditioning and ventilation systems.
      • Hand rails.
      • Restroom accessories.
    • Medical
      • Medical hygiene-medical devices and surface hygiene.
      • Wall coatings for hospitals.
      • Hospital furniture.
      • Medical implants.
      • Wound dressings.
      • Catheters.
      • Pharmaceutical labs.
      • Fabric supplies, scrubs, linens, masks (medical textiles).
    • Packaging
      • Food packaging.
      • Polymeric films with anti-microbial properties for food packaging.
      • Nanosilver coatings.
      • Antibacterial coatings on plastic films.
    • Textiles
      • Antibacterial cotton textiles for clothing and apparel.
      • Interior textiles.
      • Automotive textiles.
    • Food processing
      • Food preparation facilities.
      • Food packaging.
      • Food processing equipment.
    • Filtration
      • Water purification.
      • Air filtration units.
    • Other
      • Fitness equipment.
      • Water coolers and ice-making equipment.
      • Automotive interiors.
      • Reusable water bottles, coffee cups and shopping bags.
      • Consumer goods-children's toys, personal care items and appliances.
  • Profiles of 219 companies. Companies profiled include Advanced Materials-JTJ s.r.o., Axcentive SARL, Bio-Fence, Covalon Technologies Ltd., CuConcepts GmbH, EnvisionSQ, Fusion Bionic GmbH, GrapheneCA, Halomine, HeiQ Materials, Integricote, Kastus, MedicFibers, Nano Came Co. Ltd., Nanosono, NanoTouch Materials, Nanoveu, NBD Nanotechnologies, NitroPep, OrganoClick, PPG, Reactive Surfaces and Spartha Medical SAS.

 

 

1              INTRODUCTION 26

  • 1.1          Aims and objectives of the study               26
  • 1.2          Market definition             26
    • 1.2.1      Properties of nanomaterials        27
    • 1.2.2      Categorization   28

 

2              RESEARCH METHODOLOGY         30

 

3              EXECUTIVE SUMMARY   31

  • 3.1          Antimicrobial additives and coatings market growing       31
    • 3.1.1      Advantages        31
    • 3.1.2      Properties           32
    • 3.1.3      Applications       32
  • 3.2          Nanocoatings    33
  • 3.3          Antimicrobial and anti-viral coatings and surfaces             36
    • 3.3.1      Self-cleaning antimicrobial coatings and surfaces               36
      • 3.3.1.1   Bionic self-cleaning coatings        36
      • 3.3.1.2   Photocatalytic self-cleaning coatings       38
      • 3.3.1.3   Anti-fouling and easy-to-clean nanocoatings       40
    • 3.3.2      Anti-viral coatings and surfaces 42
    • 3.3.3      Nanomaterials applications          44
    • 3.3.4      Cleanliness of indoor and public areas driving demand for antimicrobials 45
  • 3.4          Anti-viral coatings            46
    • 3.4.1      Reusable Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)   48
    • 3.4.2      Wipe on coatings             48
    • 3.4.3      Facemask coatings           48
    • 3.4.4      Long-term mitigation of surface contamination with nanocoatings             49
  • 3.5          Main market players by antimicrobial technology area    50
  • 3.6          Global market size and opportunity to 2033          51
    • 3.6.1      End user markets for antimicrobial coatings         51
    • 3.6.2      Global forecast for antimicrobial coatings to 2033              52
  • 3.7          Market and technical challenges               55
  • 3.8          Market drivers and trends            56

 

4              ADVANCED MATERIALS USED IN ANTI-MICROBIAL COATINGS       61

  • 4.1          Metallic-based coatings 61
  • 4.2          Polymer-based coatings 61
  • 4.3          Antimicrobial nanomaterials       62
  • 4.4          Organic nanoparticles    64
    • 4.4.1      Types and properties     65
  • 4.5          Nanocoatings    67
    • 4.5.1      Properties of nanocoatings          67
    • 4.5.2      Benefits of using nanocoatings   68
      • 4.5.2.1   Types of nanocoatings   69
    • 4.5.3      Production and synthesis methods          69
      • 4.5.3.1   Depositing functional nanocomposite films          69
      • 4.5.3.2   Film coatings techniques analysis              70
      • 4.5.3.3   Superhydrophobic coatings on substrates             72
      • 4.5.3.4   Electrospray and electrospinning              73
      • 4.5.3.5   Chemical and electrochemical deposition              74
      • 4.5.3.6   Aerosol coating 77
      • 4.5.3.7   Layer-by-layer Self-assembly (LBL)            77
      • 4.5.3.8   Sol-gel process  79
      • 4.5.3.9   Etching 81
  • 4.6          Nanosilver and silver-ion antimicrobial coatings and additives      82
    • 4.6.1      Properties           82
      • 4.6.1.1   Antiviral properties of AgNPs      83
    • 4.6.2      Mode of action  85
    • 4.6.3      Environmental and safety considerations              87
    • 4.6.4      SWOT analysis   88
    • 4.6.5      Products and applications             88
      • 4.6.5.1   Silver nanocoatings         88
      • 4.6.5.2   Antimicrobial silver paints            89
    • 4.6.6      Markets               89
      • 4.6.6.1   Textiles 90
      • 4.6.6.2   Wound dressings and medical    90
      • 4.6.6.3   Consumer products        90
      • 4.6.6.4   Air filtration        91
    • 4.6.7      Companies         91
  • 4.7          Photocatalytic coatings (Titanium Dioxide)           93
    • 4.7.1      Development of photocatalytic coatings 94
      • 4.7.1.1   Market drivers and trends            94
    • 4.7.2      Mode of action  96
    • 4.7.3      Glass coatings    97
    • 4.7.4      Interior coatings               98
    • 4.7.5      Improving indoor air quality        98
    • 4.7.6      Disinfecting paints & coatings     99
    • 4.7.7      Applications       100
      • 4.7.7.1   Coatings               101
      • 4.7.7.2   Non-coatings applications            107
    • 4.7.8      Other metal based photocatalysts            109
      • 4.7.8.1   ZNO       109
      • 4.7.8.2   Bi-based photocatalysts 109
      • 4.7.8.3   Binary or Ternary sulfides             109
      • 4.7.8.4   Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs)          110
      • 4.7.8.5   WO3      111
    • 4.7.9      Metal free phototcatalysts          111
      • 4.7.9.1   Carbon nitride g-C3N4    112
      • 4.7.9.2   Silica carbide (SiC)            113
      • 4.7.9.3   Graphene oxide 113
      • 4.7.9.4   Transition-metal dichalcogenide MoS2   113
      • 4.7.9.5   Germanene       113
      • 4.7.9.6   Graphdiyne        115
      • 4.7.9.7   Bismuth oxychloride (BiOCl)        116
      • 4.7.9.8   Black phosphorus            117
  • 4.8          Zinc oxide coatings and additives              118
    • 4.8.1      Properties           118
    • 4.8.2      Mode of action  119
    • 4.8.3      Application in antimicrobial coatings       119
  • 4.9          Quaternary ammonium silane    122
    • 4.9.1      Mode of action  122
    • 4.9.2      Application in antimicrobial coatings       122
    • 4.9.3      Companies         122
  • 4.10        Bio-based antimicrobial coatings               124
    • 4.10.1    Chitosan              124
      • 4.10.1.1                Properties           124
      • 4.10.1.2                Application in antimicrobial coatings       125
    • 4.10.2    Antimicrobial peptide (AMP) coatings     127
      • 4.10.2.1                Properties           127
      • 4.10.2.2                Mode of action  127
      • 4.10.2.3                Application in antimicrobial coatings       127
    • 4.10.3    Nanocellulose (Nanocrystalline, Nanofibrillated, and Bacterial Cellulose) 130
      • 4.10.3.1                Properties           130
      • 4.10.3.2                Application in anti-microbial and anti-viral nanocoatings 131
    • 4.10.4    Adaptive biomaterials    132
      • 4.10.4.1                Properties           132
      • 4.10.4.2                Application in antimicrobial coatings       132
  • 4.11        Copper antimicrobial coatings and additives        133
    • 4.11.1    Properties           133
    • 4.11.2    Mode of action  134
    • 4.11.3    SWOT analysis   135
    • 4.11.4    Application in antimicrobial coatings       136
    • 4.11.5    Companies         136
  • 4.12        Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs)        137
    • 4.12.1    Properties           137
    • 4.12.2    Mode of action  137
  • 4.13        Hydrogels            140
    • 4.13.1    Properties           140
    • 4.13.2    Application in antimicrobial coatings       140
  • 4.14        Antibacterial liquid metals           142
    • 4.14.1    Properties           142
  • 4.15        Two-dimensional (2D) materials 143
    • 4.15.1    Black phosphorus (BP)   143
    • 4.15.2    Layered double hydroxides (LDHs)           143
    • 4.15.3    Transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs)              144
    • 4.15.4    Graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4)             145
    • 4.15.5    MXENE 145
  • 4.16        Hydrophobic and hydrophilic coatings and surfaces          147
    • 4.16.1    Hydrophilic coatings       147
    • 4.16.2    Hydrophobic coatings     147
      • 4.16.2.1                Properties           148
      • 4.16.2.2                Application in facemasks              148
  • 4.17        Superhydrophobic coatings and surfaces               149
    • 4.17.1    Properties           149
      • 4.17.1.1                Anti-microbial use           150
      • 4.17.1.2                Durability issues               151
      • 4.17.1.3                Nanocellulose   151
  • 4.18        Oleophobic and omniphobic coatings and surfaces           152
    • 4.18.1    SLIPS     152
    • 4.18.2    Covalent bonding             153
    • 4.18.3    Step-growth graft polymerization             153
    • 4.18.4    Applications       153
  • 4.19        Other advanced antimicrobial materials and additives in coatings               155
    • 4.19.1    Graphene           155
      • 4.19.1.1                Properties           155
      • 4.19.1.2                Graphene oxide 157
      • 4.19.1.3                Anti-bacterial activity      157
      • 4.19.1.4                Reduced graphene oxide (rGO) 158
      • 4.19.1.5                Application in antimicrobial coatings       159
      • 4.19.1.6                Companies         159
    • 4.19.2    Silicon dioxide/silica nanoparticles (Nano-SiO2)  161
      • 4.19.2.1                Properties           161
      • 4.19.2.2                Application in antimicrobial coatings       162
    • 4.19.3    Polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHMB)  163
      • 4.19.3.1                Properties           163
      • 4.19.3.2                Application in antimicrobial coatings       163
    • 4.19.4    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs)           163
      • 4.19.4.1                Properties           163
      • 4.19.4.2                Application in antimicrobial coatings       163
    • 4.19.5    Fullerenes           164
      • 4.19.5.1                Properties           164
      • 4.19.5.2                Application in antimicrobial coatings       165
    • 4.19.6    Cerium oxide nanoparticles         166
      • 4.19.6.1                Properties           166
    • 4.19.7    Iron oxide nanoparticles               167
      • 4.19.7.1                Properties           167
    • 4.19.8    Nitric oxide (NO) nanoparticles  168
      • 4.19.8.1                Properties           168
      • 4.19.8.2                Application in anti-microbial and anti-viral coatings           168
    • 4.19.9    Aluminium oxide (Al2O3) nanoparticles  169
      • 4.19.9.1                Properties           169
      • 4.19.9.2                Application in anti-microbial and anti-viral coatings           169
    • 4.19.10  Magnesium oxide nanoparticles 170
      • 4.19.10.1              Properties           170
    • 4.19.11  Piezoelectrics    170

 

5              ENVIRONMENTAL AND REGULATORY      172

 

6              MARKETS FOR ADVANCED ANTIMICROBIAL COATINGS AND SURFACES    174

  • 6.1          HOUSEHOLD AND INDOOR SURFACES     174
    • 6.1.1      Market drivers and trends            174
    • 6.1.2      Applications       174
      • 6.1.2.1   Self-cleaning and easy-to-clean 174
      • 6.1.2.2   Indoor pollutants and air quality                174
    • 6.1.3      Global market size           176
  • 6.2          MEDICAL & HEALTHCARE SETTINGS         178
    • 6.2.1      Market drivers and trends            178
    • 6.2.2      Applications       179
      • 6.2.2.1   Medical surfaces and Hospital Acquired Infections (HAI) 180
      • 6.2.2.2   Wound dressings             181
      • 6.2.2.3   Medical equipment and instruments       181
      • 6.2.2.4   Fabric supplies scrubs, linens, masks (medical textiles)    182
      • 6.2.2.5   Medical implants              182
    • 6.2.3      Global market size           184
  • 6.3          CLOTHING AND TEXTILES              186
    • 6.3.1      Market drivers and trends            186
    • 6.3.2      Applications       186
      • 6.3.2.1   Antimicrobial clothing    187
    • 6.3.3      Global market size           192
  • 6.4          FOOD & BEVERAGE PRODUCTION AND PACKAGING         195
    • 6.4.1      Market drivers and trends            195
    • 6.4.2      Applications       196
      • 6.4.2.1   Antimicrobial coatings in food processing equipment, conveyor belts and preparation surfaces    196
      • 6.4.2.2   Antimicrobial coatings and films in food packaging            197
    • 6.4.3      Global market size           198
  • 6.5          OTHER MARKETS              200
    • 6.5.1      Automotive and transportation interiors                200
    • 6.5.2      Water and air filtration  202

 

7              ADVANCED ANTIMICROBIAL COATINGS AND TECHNOLOGIES COMPANIES             205 (219 company profiles)

 

8              REFERENCES       365

 

LIST OF TABLES

  • Table 1: Categorization of nanomaterials.              28
  • Table 2: Properties of nanocoatings.        34
  • Table 3. Summary for bionic self-cleaning nanocoatings. 36
  • Table 4. Market summary for photocatalytic self-cleaning coatings.           38
  • Table 5. Summary of anti-fouling and easy-to-clean coatings.       40
  • Table 6. Anti-viral nanomaterials that inactivate different types of viruses, in preclinical assays in vitro.     43
  • Table 7. Applications of nanomaterials used in Advanced Bactericidal & Viricidal Coatings and Surfaces.   44
  • Table 8. Main market players by antimicrobial technology area.  50
  • Table 9. End user markets for antimicrobial coatings.       51
  • Table 10. Total global revenues for antimicrobial coatings, 2018-2033, millions USD.         52
  • Table 11. Total global revenues for antimicrobial coatings, 2018-2033, millions USD, conservative estimate, by coatings type.     54
  • Table 12. Market and technical challenges for antimicrobial coatings.       55
  • Table 13. Market drivers and trends in    56
  • Table 14: Nanomaterials used in nanocoatings and applications. 62
  • Table 15. Types of organic nanoparticles and application in antimicrobials.             65
  • Table 16: Technology for synthesizing nanocoatings agents.         69
  • Table 17: Film coatings techniques.         70
  • Table 18. Antibacterial properties of AgNPs.        82
  • Table 19. Antiviral properties of AgNPs. 84
  • Table 20. SWOT analysis for application of nanosilver and silver-ion antimicrobial coatings.            88
  • Table 21. Markets and applications for nanosilver-based Advanced Bactericidal & Viricidal Coatings and Surfaces. 89
  • Table 22. Companies developing antimicrobial silver nanocoatings.           91
  • Table 23. Photocatalytic coatings- principles, properties and applications.               93
  • Table 24. Development of photocatalytic coatings, by generation.             94
  • Table 25. Photocatalysts used in building materials to reduce pollution.   104
  • Table 26. Properties and applications of functionalized germanene.          115
  • Table 27. Antibacterial effects of ZnO NPs in different bacterial species.  120
  • Table 28. Companies developing antimicrobial Silane Quaternary Ammonium Compounds.           122
  • Table 29. Mechanism of chitosan antimicrobial action.    125
  • Table 30. Types of antibacterial AMP coatings.    128
  • Table 31. AMP contact-killing surfaces.   128
  • Table 32. Types of adaptive biomaterials in antimicrobial coatings.            132
  • Table 33. Antibacterial applications of Cu and CuO-based nanoparticles. 133
  • Table 34. SWOT analysis for application of copper antimicrobial coatings.               135
  • Table 35. Companies developing antimicrobial copper coatings.  136
  • Table 36. Antibacterial applications of Au-based nanoparticles.   137
  • Table 37. Types of antibacterial hydrogels.           140
  • Table 38: Contact angles of hydrophilic, super hydrophilic, hydrophobic and superhydrophobic surfaces. 148
  • Table 39: Disadvantages of commonly utilized superhydrophobic coating methods.           150
  • Table 40: Applications of oleophobic & omniphobic coatings.       153
  • Table 41. Types of carbon-based nanoparticles as antimicrobial agent, their mechanisms of action and characteristics.                155
  • Table 42. Graphene properties relevant to application in coatings.             156
  • Table 43. Bactericidal characters of graphene-based materials.   158
  • Table 44. Markets and applications for antimicrobial and antiviral graphene coatings.       159
  • Table 45. Commercial activity in antimicrobial and antiviral graphene nanocoatings.         159
  • Table 46. Types of carbon-based nanoparticles as antimicrobial agent, their mechanisms of action and characteristics.                165
  • Table 47. Global antimicrobial technology regulations.    172
  • Table 48: Market drivers and trends for antimicrobial coatings in household and indoor surface market.  174
  • Table 49. Global market for antimicrobial coatings in household and indoor surfaces 2018-2033, by revenues and types (millions USD).      176
  • Table 50: Market drivers and trends for antimicrobial coatings in medicine and healthcare.            178
  • Table 51: Nanocoatings applied in the medical industry-type of coating, nanomaterials utilized, benefits and applications.       180
  • Table 52. Types of advanced antimicrobial medical device coatings.           182
  • Table 53. Types of advanced coatings applied in medical implants.             183
  • Table 54. Nanomaterials utilized in medical implants.      183
  • Table 55. Global market for antimicrobial coatings in medical and healthcare settings to 2033, by revenues and types (millions USD).  185
  • Table 56: Market drivers and trends for antimicrobial coatings in the textiles and apparel industry.             186
  • Table 57. Applications in textiles, by advanced materials type and benefits thereof.           188
  • Table 58. Advanced coatings applied in the textiles industry-type of coating, nanomaterials utilized, benefits and applications.       189
  • Table 59. Global market for antimicrobial coatings in clothing and textiles 2018-2033, by revenues and types (millions USD).    193
  • Table 60. Market drivers and trends for antimicrobial coatings in the packaging market.  195
  • Table 61. Global market for antimicrobial coatings in food and beverage production & packaging to 2033, by revenues and types (millions USD).              198
  • Table 62. Advanced coatings applied in the automotive industry. 200
  • Table 63. Applications in air and water filters, by advanced materials type and benefits thereof.  203
  • Table 64. Photocatalytic coating schematic.          251

 

LIST OF FIGURES

  • Figure 1. Self-cleaning superhydrophobic coating schematic.        38
  • Figure 2. Principle of superhydrophilicity.              39
  • Figure 3. Schematic of photocatalytic air purifying pavement.      40
  • Figure 4. Schematic of anti-viral coating using nano-actives for inactivation of any adhered virus on the surfaces. 43
  • Figure 5. Schematic of anti-viral coating using nano-actives for inactivation of any adhered virus on the surfaces. 47
  • Figure 6. Face masks coated with antibacterial & antiviral nanocoating.   49
  • Figure 7. Global revenues for antimicrobial coatings, 2018-2033, millions USD, conservative estimate.      53
  • Figure 8. Total global revenues for Advanced Bactericidal & Viricidal Coatings, 2018-2033, millions USD, conservative estimate, by coatings type.          55
  • Figure 9: Hydrophobic fluoropolymer nanocoatings on electronic circuit boards. 67
  • Figure 10: Nanocoatings synthesis techniques.   70
  • Figure 11: Techniques for constructing superhydrophobic coatings on substrates.              72
  • Figure 12: Electrospray deposition.          74
  • Figure 13. CVD technique.            75
  • Figure 14. Schematic of ALD.       77
  • Figure 15. A substrate undergoing layer-by-layer (LbL) nanocoating.         78
  • Figure 16. SEM images of different layers of TiO2 nanoparticles in steel surface.  78
  • Figure 17. The coating system is applied to the surface. The solvent evaporates. 80
  • Figure 18. A first organization takes place where the silicon-containing bonding component (blue dots in figure 2) bonds covalently with the surface and cross-links with neighbouring molecules to form a strong three-dimensional.                80
  • Figure 19. During the curing, the compounds organise themselves in a nanoscale monolayer. The fluorine-containing repellent component (red dots in figure) on top makes the glass hydro- phobic and oleophobic.  80
  • Figure 20. Antiviral mechanism of silver nanoparticles.    84
  • Figure 21. Antibacterial modes of action of, and bacterial resistance towards silver.           86
  • Figure 22.  Antibacterial activities of silver nanoparticles.               87
  • Figure 23. Titanium dioxide-coated glass (left) and ordinary glass (right). 95
  • Figure 24. Schematic of photocatalytic indoor air purification filter.           96
  • Figure 25. Schematic indoor air filtration.              99
  • Figure 26. Mechanism of photocatalysis on a surface treated with TiO2 nanoparticles.      99
  • Figure 27. Schematic showing the self-cleaning phenomena on superhydrophilic surface. 100
  • Figure 28. Schematic of photocatalytic air purifying pavement.   102
  • Figure 29. Self-Cleaning mechanism utilizing photooxidation.       103
  • Figure 30. Photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) air filter.            105
  • Figure 31. Mechanism of photocatalysis on a semiconductor particle surface for microbial treatment.       106
  • Figure 32. Schematic of photocatalytic water purification.              108
  • Figure 33. Schematic showing photocatalysis and photothermal catalysis promoted by MOFs.       110
  • Figure 34. MOF derived nanocomposites for photocatalytic applications. 111
  • Figure 35. Graphitic carbon nitride.          112
  • Figure 36. Schematic of germanene.       114
  • Figure 37. Graphdiyne structure.              116
  • Figure 38. Schematic of a monolayer of rhenium disulfide.            116
  • Figure 39. Schematic of antibacterial activity of ZnO NPs.               119
  • Figure 40. TEM images of Burkholderia seminalis treated with (a, c) buffer (control) and (b, d) 2.0 mg/mL chitosan; (A: additional layer; B: membrane damage).               125
  • Figure 41. Antimicrobial peptides mode of action.             127
  • Figure 42: Types of nanocellulose.            130
  • Figure 43. Antibacterial modes of action of, and bacterial resistance towards copper.       135
  • Figure 44. Antibacterial mechanisms and effects of functionalized gold nanoparticles.       139
  • Figure 45. Applications of antibacterial hydrogels              140
  • Figure 46: Structure of 2D molybdenum disulfide.             144
  • Figure 47: Graphitic carbon nitride.          145
  • Figure 48: (a) Water drops on a lotus leaf.             147
  • Figure 49: A schematic of (a) water droplet on normal hydrophobic surface with contact angle greater than 90° and (b) water droplet on a superhydrophobic surface with a contact angle > 150°.              148
  • Figure 50: Contact angle on superhydrophobic coated surface.   150
  • Figure 51: Self-cleaning nanocellulose dishware. 151
  • Figure 52: SLIPS repellent coatings.          152
  • Figure 53: Omniphobic coatings.                154
  • Figure 54. Antimicrobial activity of Graphene oxide (GO).              157
  • Figure 55. Hydrophobic easy-to-clean coating.    162
  • Figure 56. Mechanism of antimicrobial activity of carbon nanotubes.       164
  • Figure 57. Fullerene schematic. 164
  • Figure 58. Schematic representation of the antibacterial mechanism of cerium-based materials.  166
  • Figure 59. Piezoelectric antimicrobial mechanism.             171
  • Figure 60. Global market for antimicrobial coatings in household and indoor surfaces 2018-2033, by revenues and types (millions USD).      177
  • Figure 61. Nano-coated self-cleaning touchscreen.           180
  • Figure 62. Anti-bacertial sol-gel nanoparticle silver coating.           181
  • Figure 63. Global market for antimicrobial coatings in medical and healthcare settings to 2033, by revenues and types (millions USD).  185
  • Figure 64. Omniphobic-coated fabric.     187
  • Figure 65. Global market for antimicrobial coatings in clothing and textiles 2018-2033, by revenues and types (millions USD).    194
  • Figure 66. Steps during food processing and where contamination might occur from various sources.        197
  • Figure 67.  Oso fresh food packaging incorporating antimicrobial silver.   198
  • Figure 68. Global market for antimicrobial coatings in food and beverage production & packaging to 2033, by revenues and types (millions USD).              199
  • Figure 69. CuanSave film.             241
  • Figure 70. Lab tests on DSP coatings.       248
  • Figure 71. Laser-functionalized glass.      257
  • Figure 72. GrapheneCA anti-bacterial and anti-viral coating.          262
  • Figure 73. NOx reduction with TioCem®. 268
  • Figure 74. Microlyte® Matrix bandage for surgical wounds.           271
  • Figure 75. Self-cleaning nanocoating applied to face masks.          275
  • Figure 76. NanoSeptic surfaces. 309
  • Figure 77. Nasc NanoTechnology personnel shown applying MEDICOAT to airport luggage carts.  316
  • Figure 78. Heavy bacterial recovery from untreated fiber (left) versus Ultra-Fresh antimicrobial treated fiber (right) after testing using the ISO 20743 test method (Staphylococcus aureus test organism).      350
  • Figure 79. V-CAT® photocatalyst mechanism.      356
  • Figure 80. Applications of Titanystar.       361

 

 

 

The Global Market for Advanced Antimicrobial Coatings and Technologies 2023-2033
The Global Market for Advanced Antimicrobial Coatings and Technologies 2023-2033
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The Global Market for Advanced Antimicrobial Coatings and Technologies 2023-2033
The Global Market for Advanced Antimicrobial Coatings and Technologies 2023-2033
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