The Global Market for Graphene, Carbon Nanotubes, Carbon Nanofibers, Nanodiamonds, Fullerenes (Carbon Nanomaterials) and 2D Materials 2022-2032

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Published March 2022 | 1207 pages, 306 figures, 377 tables | Download table of contents

Carbon based-nanomaterials include a range of carbon nanotubes (CNTs), carbon nanofibers, graphene and its derivatives, graphene oxide, nanodiamonds, fullerenes, and graphene quantum dots (GQDs). Due to their unique structural dimensions and excellent mechanical, electrical, thermal, optical and chemical properties, carbon nanomaterials have gained great interest in a wide range of industrial market. Two-dimensional (2D) materials are currently one of the most active areas of nanomaterials research, and offer a huge opportunity for both fundamental studies and practical applications, including superfast, low-power, flexible and wearable electronics, sensors, photonics and electrochemical energy storage devices that will have an immense impact on our society.

Report contents include:

  • Analysis of carbon nanotubes, carbon nanofibers, fullerenes, nanodiamonds, graphene quantum dots and graphene based products products. 
  • Assessment of carbon nanomaterials and 2D materials market including production volumes, competitive landscape, commercial prospects, applications, demand by market and region, commercialization timelines, prices and producer profiles. Markets covered include batteries, supercapacitors, sensors, composite and plastic additives, filtration membranes, concrete additives, textiles, electronics packaging, displays, quantum electronics, paints, anti-corrosion coatings etc. 
  • Unique assessment tools for the carbon nanomaterials and 2D materials market, end user applications, economic impact, addressable markets and market challenges to provide the complete picture of where the real opportunities in carbon nanomaterials and 2D materials are.
  • Company profiles of carbon nanotubes, graphene, 2D materials, fullerenes, carbon nanofibers, graphen quantum dots and nanodiamonds producers and product developers, including products, target markets and contact details
  • Assessment of carbon nanomaterials and 2D materials by market including applications, key benefits, market megatrends, market drivers for, technology drawbacks, competing materials, potential consumption of to 2032 and main players.
  • In depth-assessment of carbon nanomaterials producer and distributor pricing in 2021.
  • Global market for carbon nanomaterials in tons, by sector, historical and forecast to 2032. 
  • Full list of technology collaborations, strategic partnerships, and M&As in the global carbon nanomaterials and 2D materials market.
  • In-depth profiles of 548 carbon nanomaterials and 2D materials producers including products, production capacities, manufacturing methods, collaborations, licensing, customers and target markets. Companies profiled include Akhan Semiconductor, Atrago, Avadain, C12 Quantum Electronics, Carbonova, Ceylon Graphite, Chasm Advanced Materials, COnovate, DexMat, General Graphene Corp, Grapheal, Graphene One, Graphene-X, GRIP Molecular Technologies, Levidian, Li-S Energy Ltd., Micro Powder Inc, Nano-C, Nanograf, NanoXplore, Nantero,  OCSiAl, Paragraf, SkyNano, Sixonia Tech, SmartNanotubes Technologies, Universal Matter, Volexion etc. 
  • Detailed forecasts for key growth areas, opportunities and demand.

1              GRAPHENE         52

  • 1.1          Market overview             52
    • 1.1.1      Graphene properties     53
    • 1.1.2      Commercialization           53
    • 1.1.3      The graphene market to date     54
    • 1.1.4      Market outlook for 2022 and beyond      55
    • 1.1.5      The market in 2021          56
    • 1.1.6      Graphene commercial market developments 2020-2022 58
    • 1.1.7      Graphene funding and investments 2020-2022    62
    • 1.1.8      Publicly listed graphene companies         65
    • 1.1.9      Graphene global production capacities, in tons and by type          66
    • 1.1.10    Global demand for graphene      68
      • 1.1.10.1                Global graphene demand, to 2032, tons 68
      • 1.1.10.2                Global graphene demand, by end user market to 2032     71
      • 1.1.10.3                Graphene market, by region       74
    • 1.1.11    Graphene products         80
  • 1.2          Graphene market challenges      91
  • 1.3          Types of graphene           93
    • 1.3.1      Graphene materials        93
      • 1.3.1.1   CVD Graphene  94
      • 1.3.1.2   Graphene nanoplatelets               95
      • 1.3.1.3   Graphene oxide and reduced Graphene Oxide    96
      • 1.3.1.4   Graphene quantum dots (GQDs)               97
    • 1.3.2      Intermediate products  112
      • 1.3.2.1   Graphene masterbatches             112
      • 1.3.2.2   Graphene dispersions    112
  • 1.4          Graphene patents           114
  • 1.5          Graphene production    116
    • 1.5.1      Quality  118
    • 1.5.2      Assessment of graphene production methods    119
    • 1.5.3      Commercial production capacities            125
    • 1.5.4      Graphene oxide and reduced Graphene Oxide production capacities        125
      • 1.5.4.1   By producer       125
    • 1.5.5      Graphene nanoplatelets production capacities   127
      • 1.5.5.1   By producer       127
    • 1.5.6      CVD graphene film           129
      • 1.5.6.1   By producer       129
    • 1.5.7      Graphene production issues and challenges         130
      • 1.5.7.1   Oversupply         130
      • 1.5.7.2   Quality  130
      • 1.5.7.3   Large-volume markets   130
      • 1.5.7.4   Commoditisation             131
      • 1.5.7.5   Industrial end-user perspective 131
  • 1.6          Graphene pricing             132
    • 1.6.1      Pristine graphene flakes pricing/CVD graphene  134
    • 1.6.2      Few-Layer graphene pricing        135
    • 1.6.3      Graphene nanoplatelets pricing 136
    • 1.6.4      Graphene oxide (GO) and reduced Graphene Oxide (rGO) pricing               137
    • 1.6.5      Graphene quantum dots pricing 139
    • 1.6.6      Multilayer graphene (MLG) pricing           140
    • 1.6.7      Graphene ink     141
  • 1.7          Markets for graphene    142
    • 1.7.1      3D Printing          142
      • 1.7.1.1   Market outlook 142
      • 1.7.1.2   Market drivers, trends and applications  143
      • 1.7.1.3   Global market in tons, historical and forecast to 2032       146
      • 1.7.1.4   Product developers        148
    • 1.7.2      Adhesives           150
      • 1.7.2.1   Market outlook 150
      • 1.7.2.2   Market drivers, trends and applications  151
      • 1.7.2.3   Global market in tons, historical and forecast to 2032       154
      • 1.7.2.4   Product developers        155
    • 1.7.3      Aerospace          157
      • 1.7.3.1   Market overview             157
      • 1.7.3.2   Market prospects            157
      • 1.7.3.3   Market assessment        158
      • 1.7.3.4   Applications Map             160
      • 1.7.3.5   Global market in tons, historical and forecast to 2032       161
      • 1.7.3.6   Product developers        162
    • 1.7.4      Automotive        164
      • 1.7.4.1   Market outlook 166
      • 1.7.4.2   Market drivers, trends and applications  166
      • 1.7.4.3   Global market in tons, historical and forecast to 2032       169
      • 1.7.4.4   Product developers        171
    • 1.7.5      Batteries              175
      • 1.7.5.1   Market outlook 176
      • 1.7.5.2   Market drivers, trends and applications  180
      • 1.7.5.3   Global market in tons, historical and forecast to 2032       184
      • 1.7.5.4   Product developers        185
    • 1.7.6      Composotes      191
      • 1.7.6.1   Fiber-based polymer composite parts     192
      • 1.7.6.2   Metal-matrix composites             196
      • 1.7.6.3   Global market in tons, historical and forecast to 2032       198
      • 1.7.6.4   Product developers        199
    • 1.7.7      Conductive inks 204
      • 1.7.7.1   Market outlook 205
      • 1.7.7.2   Market drivers, trends and applications  205
      • 1.7.7.3   Global market in tons, historical and forecast to 2032       210
      • 1.7.7.4   Product developers        212
    • 1.7.8      Construction and buildings           215
      • 1.7.8.1   Market outlook 215
      • 1.7.8.2   Market drivers, trends and applications  216
      • 1.7.8.3   Global market in tons, historical and forecast to 2032       220
      • 1.7.8.4   Product developers        221
    • 1.7.9      Electronics          224
      • 1.7.9.1   Wearable electronics and displays            224
      • 1.7.9.2   Transistors and integrated circuits            231
      • 1.7.9.3   Memory devices              238
    • 1.7.10    Filtration membranes    243
      • 1.7.10.1                Market outlook 243
      • 1.7.10.2                Market drivers, trends and applications  244
      • 1.7.10.3                Global market in tons, historical and forecast to 2032       248
      • 1.7.10.4                Product developers        249
    • 1.7.11    Fuel cells              253
      • 1.7.11.1                Market outlook 253
      • 1.7.11.2                Market drivers, trends and applications  254
      • 1.7.11.3                Global market in tons, historical and forecast to 2032       257
      • 1.7.11.4                Product developers        259
    • 1.7.12    Life sciences and medicine           260
      • 1.7.12.1                Market outlook 261
      • 1.7.12.2                Market drivers, trends and applications  265
      • 1.7.12.3                Global market in tons, historical and forecast to 2032       270
      • 1.7.12.4                Product developers        272
    • 1.7.13    Lighting 276
      • 1.7.13.1                Market outlook 276
      • 1.7.13.2                Market drivers, trends and applications  277
      • 1.7.13.3                Global market in tons, historical and forecast to 2032       279
      • 1.7.13.4                Product developers        280
    • 1.7.14    Lubricants           282
      • 1.7.14.1                Market outlook 283
      • 1.7.14.2                Market drivers, trends and applications  283
      • 1.7.14.3                Global market in tons, historical and forecast to 2032       286
      • 1.7.14.4                Product developers        287
    • 1.7.15    Oil and gas          290
      • 1.7.15.1                Market outlook 290
      • 1.7.15.2                Market drivers, trends and applications  291
      • 1.7.15.3                Global market in tons, historical and forecast to 2032       293
      • 1.7.15.4                Product developers        294
    • 1.7.16    Paints and coatings         296
      • 1.7.16.1                Market outlook 296
      • 1.7.16.2                Market drivers, trends and applications  297
      • 1.7.16.3                Global market in tons, historical and forecast to 2031       300
      • 1.7.16.4                Product developers        301
    • 1.7.17    Photonics            307
      • 1.7.17.1                Market outlook 307
      • 1.7.17.2                Market drivers, trends and applications  307
      • 1.7.17.3                Global market in tons, historical and forecast to 2031       311
      • 1.7.17.4                Product developers        312
    • 1.7.18    Photovoltaics     314
      • 1.7.18.1                Market outlook 314
      • 1.7.18.2                Market drivers, trends and applications  315
      • 1.7.18.3                Global market in tons, historical and forecast to 2031       318
      • 1.7.18.4                Product developers        319
    • 1.7.19    Rubber and tires               321
      • 1.7.19.1                Market outlook 321
      • 1.7.19.2                Market drivers, trends and applications  322
      • 1.7.19.3                Global market in tons, historical and forecast to 2031       325
      • 1.7.19.4                Product developers        326
    • 1.7.20    Sensors 329
      • 1.7.20.1                Market outlook 331
      • 1.7.20.2                Market drivers, trends and applications  331
      • 1.7.20.3                Global market in tons, historical and forecast to 2031       335
      • 1.7.20.4                Product developers        336
    • 1.7.21    Textiles and apparel        341
      • 1.7.21.1                Market outlook 341
      • 1.7.21.2                Market drivers, trends and applications  342
      • 1.7.21.3                Global market in tons, historical and forecast to 2031       346
      • 1.7.21.4                Product developers        347
    • 1.7.22    Supercapacitors 353
      • 1.7.22.1                Market outlook 353
      • 1.7.22.2                Market drivers, trends and applications  354
      • 1.7.22.3                Global market in tons, historical and forecast to 2031       357
      • 1.7.22.4                Product developers        358
    • 1.7.23    Other markets   361
      • 1.7.23.1                Audio equipment             361
      • 1.7.23.2                Sporting goods and apparel         361
  • 1.8          Graphene company profiles        363 (322 company profiles)

 

2              CARBON NANOTUBES    612

  • 2.1          Market overview             612
    • 2.1.1      The global market for carbon nanotubes in 2021                 614
    • 2.1.1.1   Demand for Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs)  increasing           614
    • 2.1.1.2   Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) gaining market traction            616
    • 2.1.2      Exceptional properties   616
    • 2.1.3      Market outlook in 2022  617
    • 2.1.4      Commercial CNT-based products              617
    • 2.1.5      MWCNTs             617
      • 2.1.5.1   Applications       618
      • 2.1.5.2   Key players         623
      • 2.1.5.3   Production capacities in 2021      624
      • 2.1.5.4   Market demand, metric tons (MT)            624
    • 2.1.6      SWCNTs               626
      • 2.1.6.1   Applications       626
      • 2.1.6.2   Global SWCNT market consumption        628
      • 2.1.6.3   Production capacities     629
    • 2.1.7      Carbon nanotubes market challenges     630
  • 2.2          Carbon nanotube materials         631
    • 2.2.1      Multi-walled nanotubes (MWCNT)           631
      • 2.2.1.1   Properties           631
      • 2.2.1.2   Applications       632
    • 2.2.2      Single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNT)  632
      • 2.2.2.1   Properties           632
      • 2.2.2.2   Applications       633
      • 2.2.2.3   Comparison between MWCNTs and SWCNTs       635
    • 2.2.3      Double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWNTs)          635
      • 2.2.3.1   Properties           635
      • 2.2.3.2   Applications       636
    • 2.2.4      Vertically aligned CNTs (VACNTs)              636
      • 2.2.4.1   Properties           636
      • 2.2.4.2   Synthesis of VACNTs       637
      • 2.2.4.3   Applications       638
    • 2.2.5      Few-walled carbon nanotubes (FWNTs) 638
      • 2.2.5.1   Properties           638
      • 2.2.5.2   Applications       639
    • 2.2.6      Carbon Nanohorns (CNHs)           639
      • 2.2.6.1   Properties           639
      • 2.2.6.2   Applications       640
    • 2.2.7      Carbon Onions  640
      • 2.2.7.1   Properties           640
      • 2.2.7.2   Applications       641
    • 2.2.8      Boron Nitride nanotubes (BNNTs)            641
      • 2.2.8.1   Properties           641
      • 2.2.8.2   Applications       642
  • 2.3          Intermediate products  643
    • 2.3.1      CNT yarns            643
    • 2.3.2      CNT films             644
  • 2.4          Synthesis and production             646
    • 2.4.1      Arc discharge synthesis 647
    • 2.4.2      Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD)             648
      • 2.4.2.1   Thermal CVD      648
      • 2.4.2.2   Plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD)     649
    • 2.4.3      High-pressure carbon monoxide synthesis            649
      • 2.4.3.1   High Pressure CO (HiPco)              649
      • 2.4.3.2   CoMoCAT            650
    • 2.4.4      Flame synthesis 650
    • 2.4.5      Laser ablation synthesis 651
    • 2.4.6      Vertically aligned nanotubes production 651
    • 2.4.7      Silane solution method 651
    • 2.4.8      Advantages and disadvantages of CNT synthesis methods             652
  • 2.5          Carbon nanotubes patents          653
  • 2.6          Carbon nanotubes pricing             655
    • 2.6.1      MWCNTs             655
    • 2.6.2      SWCNTs               656
  • 2.7          Markets for carbon nanotubes   657
    • 2.7.1      3D Printing          657
      • 2.7.1.1   Market overview             657
      • 2.7.1.2   Applications       657
      • 2.7.1.3   Market assessment        658
      • 2.7.1.4   Global market in tons, historical and forecast to 2032       660
      • 2.7.1.5   Product developers        661
    • 2.7.2      Adhesives           662
      • 2.7.2.1   Market overview             662
      • 2.7.2.2   Applications       663
      • 2.7.2.3   Market assessment        663
      • 2.7.2.4   Global market in tons, historical and forecast to 2032       666
      • 2.7.2.5   Product developers        667
    • 2.7.3      Aerospace          668
      • 2.7.3.1   Market overview             668
      • 2.7.3.2   Applications       669
      • 2.7.3.3   Market assessment        671
      • 2.7.3.4   Global market in tons, historical and forecast to 2032       672
      • 2.7.3.5   Product developers        674
    • 2.7.4      Automotive        677
      • 2.7.4.1   Market overview             677
      • 2.7.4.2   Applications       678
      • 2.7.4.3   Market assessment        680
      • 2.7.4.4   Global market in tons, historical and forecast to 2032       682
      • 2.7.4.5   Product developers        683
    • 2.7.5      Batteries              687
      • 2.7.5.1   Market overview             687
      • 2.7.5.2   Applications       688
      • 2.7.5.3   Market assessment        702
      • 2.7.5.4   Global market in tons, historical and forecast to 2032       705
      • 2.7.5.5   Product developers        706
    • 2.7.6      Composites        712
      • 2.7.6.1   Market overview             712
      • 2.7.6.2   Fiber-based polymer composite parts     712
      • 2.7.6.3   Metal-matrix composites             720
      • 2.7.6.4   Global market in tons, historical and forecast to 2032       721
      • 2.7.6.5   Product developers        723
    • 2.7.7      Conductive inks 729
      • 2.7.7.1   Market overview             729
      • 2.7.7.2   Applications       729
      • 2.7.7.3   Market assessment        730
      • 2.7.7.4   Global market in tons, historical and forecast to 2032       734
      • 2.7.7.5   Product developers        735
    • 2.7.8      Construction      737
      • 2.7.8.1   Market overview             737
      • 2.7.8.2   Market assessment        738
      • 2.7.8.3   Global market in tons, historical and forecast to 2032       741
      • 2.7.8.4   Product developers        742
    • 2.7.9      Electronics          744
      • 2.7.9.1   Wearable electronics and displays            744
      • 2.7.9.2   Transistors and integrated circuits.           752
      • 2.7.9.3   Memory devices              760
    • 2.7.10    Filtration              765
      • 2.7.10.1                Market overview             765
      • 2.7.10.2                Applications       767
      • 2.7.10.3                Market assessment        767
      • 2.7.10.4                Global market in tons, historical and forecast to 2032       771
      • 2.7.10.5                Product developers        772
    • 2.7.11    Fuel cells              774
      • 2.7.11.1                Market overview             774
      • 2.7.11.2                Applications       775
      • 2.7.11.3                Market assessment        776
      • 2.7.11.4                Global market in tons, historical and forecast to 2032       779
      • 2.7.11.5                Product developers        780
    • 2.7.12    Life sciences and biomedicine    781
      • 2.7.12.1                Market overview             781
      • 2.7.12.2                Applications       782
      • 2.7.12.3                Market assessment        788
      • 2.7.12.4                Global market in tons, historical and forecast to 2032       793
      • 2.7.12.5                Product developers        794
    • 2.7.13    Lubricants           800
      • 2.7.13.1                Market overview             800
      • 2.7.13.2                Applications       801
      • 2.7.13.3                Market assessment        802
      • 2.7.13.4                Global market in tons, historical and forecast to 2032       803
      • 2.7.13.5                Product developers        805
    • 2.7.14    Oil and gas          806
      • 2.7.14.1                Market overview             806
      • 2.7.14.2                Applications       807
      • 2.7.14.3                Market assessment        807
      • 2.7.14.4                Global market in tons, historical and forecast to 2032       809
      • 2.7.14.5                Product developers        810
    • 2.7.15    Paints and coatings         812
      • 2.7.15.1                Market overview             812
      • 2.7.15.2                Applications       815
      • 2.7.15.3                Market assessment        816
      • 2.7.15.4                Global market in tons, historical and forecast to 2032       820
      • 2.7.15.5                Product developers        821
    • 2.7.16    Photovoltaics     825
      • 2.7.16.1                Market overview             826
      • 2.7.16.2                Market assessment        826
      • 2.7.16.3                Global market in tons, historical and forecast to 2032       828
      • 2.7.16.4                Product developers        829
    • 2.7.17    Rubber and tires               831
      • 2.7.17.1                Market overview             831
      • 2.7.17.2                Applications       831
      • 2.7.17.3                Market assessment        832
      • 2.7.17.4                Global market in tons, historical and forecast to 2032       835
      • 2.7.17.5                Product developers        836
    • 2.7.18    Sensors 838
      • 2.7.18.1                Market overview             838
      • 2.7.18.2                Applications       839
      • 2.7.18.3                Market assessment        840
      • 2.7.18.4                Global market in tons, historical and forecast to 2032       842
      • 2.7.18.5                Product developers        844
    • 2.7.19    Smart textiles, electronic textiles and apparel.    847
      • 2.7.19.1                Market overview             847
      • 2.7.19.2                Applications       848
      • 2.7.19.3                Market assessment        849
      • 2.7.19.4                Global market in tons, historical and forecast to 2032       852
      • 2.7.19.5                Product developers        853
    • 2.7.20    Supercapacitors 854
      • 2.7.20.1                Market overview             854
      • 2.7.20.2                Applications       855
      • 2.7.20.3                Market assessment        856
      • 2.7.20.4                Global market in tons, historical and forecast to 2032       858
      • 2.7.20.5                Product developers        859
    • 2.7.21    Other markets   861
      • 2.7.21.1                Thermal interface materials         861
      • 2.7.21.2                Power cables     862
  • 2.8          Multi-walled carbon nanotubes company profiles             864 (131 company profiles)
  • 2.9          Single-walled carbon nanotubes company profiles            964 (16 company profiles)

 

3              CARBON NANOFIBERS   985

  • 3.1          Properties           985
  • 3.2          Synthesis             985
    • 3.2.1      Chemical vapor deposition           985
    • 3.2.2      Electrospinning 985
    • 3.2.3      Template-based               986
    • 3.2.4      From biomass    986
  • 3.3          Markets               986
    • 3.3.1      Batteries              986
    • 3.3.2      Supercapacitors 987
    • 3.3.3      Fuel cells              987
    • 3.3.4      CO2 capture       987
  • 3.4          Companies         988 (10 company profiles)

 

4              2-D MATERIALS 995

  • 4.1          2D MATERIALS PRODUCTION METHODS 999
    • 4.1.1      Top-down exfoliation     999
      • 4.1.1.1   Mechanical exfoliation method 1000
      • 4.1.1.2   Liquid exfoliation method            1000
    • 4.1.2      Bottom-up synthesis      1001
      • 4.1.2.1   Chemical synthesis in solution    1001
      • 4.1.2.2   Chemical vapor deposition           1001
  • 4.2          TYPES OF 2D MATERIALS              1003
    • 4.2.1      Hexagonal boron-nitride (h-BN)/Bboron nitride nanosheets (BNNSs)        1003
      • 4.2.1.1   Properties           1003
      • 4.2.1.2   Applications and markets             1004
    • 4.2.2      MXenes               1007
      • 4.2.2.1   Properties           1007
      • 4.2.2.2   Applications       1008
    • 4.2.3      Transition metal dichalcogenides (TMD) 1010
      • 4.2.3.1   Properties           1010
      • 4.2.3.2   Applications       1012
    • 4.2.4      Borophene         1015
    • 4.2.4.1   Properties           1015
    • 4.2.4.2   Applications       1015
    • 4.2.5      Phosphorene/ Black phosphorus              1017
    • 4.2.5.1   Properties           1017
    • 4.2.5.2   Applications       1018
    • 4.2.6      Graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4)             1022
    • 4.2.6.1   Properties           1022
    • 4.2.6.2   C2N        1022
    • 4.2.6.3   Applications       1023
    • 4.2.7      Germanene       1024
    • 4.2.7.1   Properties           1024
    • 4.2.7.2   Applications       1025
    • 4.2.8      Graphdiyne        1027
    • 4.2.8.1   Properties           1027
    • 4.2.8.2   Applications       1028
    • 4.2.9      Graphane            1030
    • 4.2.9.1   Properties           1030
    • 4.2.9.2   Applications       1030
    • 4.2.10    Rhenium disulfide (ReS2) and diselenide (ReSe2)               1032
    • 4.2.10.1                Properties           1032
    • 4.2.10.2                Applications       1032
    • 4.2.11    Silicene 1033
    • 4.2.11.1                Properties           1033
    • 4.2.11.2                Applications       1034
    • 4.2.12    Stanene/tinene 1036
    • 4.2.12.1                Properties           1036
    • 4.2.12.2                Applications       1037
    • 4.2.13    Antimonene      1038
    • 4.2.13.1                Properties           1038
    • 4.2.13.2                Applications       1038
    • 4.2.14    Indium selenide 1039
    • 4.2.14.1                Properties           1039
    • 4.2.14.2                Applications       1039
    • 4.2.15    Layered double hydroxides (LDH)             1040
    • 4.2.15.1                Properties           1040
    • 4.2.15.2                Applications       1040
  • 4.3          2D materials producer and supplier profiles         1043 (19 company profiles)

 

5              NANODIAMONDS            1060

  • 5.1          Types    1060
  • 5.1.1      Commercial nanodiamonds         1060
  • 5.1.2      Fluorescent nanodiamonds (FNDs)          1061
  • 5.2          Production methods-advantages and disadvantages        1063
  • 5.3          Applications       1064
  • 5.4          Markets               1068
    • 5.4.1      Lubricants           1068
      • 5.4.1.1   Nanolubricants 1068
      • 5.4.1.2   Products              1068
      • 5.4.1.3   Applications       1069
      • 5.4.1.4   Global market demand for nanodiamonds in lubricants to 2032, tons       1072
    • 5.4.2      Electronic polishing materials     1074
      • 5.4.2.1   Applications       1074
      • 5.4.2.2   Global market demand for nanodiamonds in polishing additives to 2032 (tons)    1076
    • 5.4.3      Electroplating and anti-wear/friction coatings     1077
      • 5.4.3.1   Applications       1078
      • 5.4.3.2   Global market demand for nanodiamonds in electroplating and anti-wear/friction coatings to 2032 (tons)                1081
    • 5.4.4      Composites        1084
      • 5.4.4.1   Fiber-based polymer composite parts     1084
      • 5.4.4.2   Metal-matrix composites             1089
    • 5.4.5      Skincare               1093
      • 5.4.5.1   Market for nanodiamonds in skincare     1093
      • 5.4.5.2   Market and applications                1094
      • 5.4.5.3   Global market demand for nanodiamonds in skincare to 2032 (tons)        1096
    • 5.4.6      Supercapacitors 1099
      • 5.4.6.1   Market for nanodiamonds in supercapacitors      1099
      • 5.4.6.2   Applications       1099
      • 5.4.6.3   Global market demand for nanodiamonds in supercapacitors to 2032 (tons)         1101
    • 5.4.7      Batteries              1103
      • 5.4.7.1   Market for nanodiamonds in batteries    1103
      • 5.4.7.2   Applications       1103
      • 5.4.7.3   Global market demand for nanodiamonds in batteries to 2032 (tons)       1104
    • 5.4.8      Drug delivery     1106
      • 5.4.8.1   Market for nanodiamonds in drug delivery           1106
      • 5.4.8.2   Applications       1113
  • 5.5          Nanodiamonds pricing   1117
  • 5.6          Nanodiamond company profiles 1119 (30 company profiles)

 

 

6              FULLERENES       1147

  • 6.1          Properties           1147
  • 6.2          Products              1148
  • 6.3          Applications       1149
  • 6.4          Global consumption in metric tonnes, 2010-2032               1149
  • 6.5          Prices    1151
  • 6.6          Fullerene company profiles         1152 (20 company profiles)

 

7              RESEARCH METHODOLOGY         1164

  • 7.1          Technology Readiness Level (TRL)             1165

 

8              REFERENCES       1167

 

List of Tables

  • Table 1. Graphene commercial market developments 2020-2022.               58
  • Table 2. Graphene funding and investments 2020-2022.  62
  • Table 3. Publicly listed graphene companies.       65
  • Table 4. Main graphene producers by country, annual production capacities, types and main markets they sell to.                66
  • Table 5. Demand for graphene (tons), 2018-2032.              69
  • Table 6. Main graphene producers in North America.       77
  • Table 7. Main graphene producers in Europe.      79
  • Table 8. Commercial products incorporating graphene.  81
  • Table 9. Graphene industrial collaborations, licence agreements and target markets.        84
  • Table 10. Graphene market challenges. 91
  • Table 11. Applications of GO and rGO.    96
  • Table 12. Comparison of graphene QDs and semiconductor QDs. 99
  • Table 13. Advantages and disadvantages of methods for preparing GQDs.              102
  • Table 14. Applications of graphene quantum dots.            103
  • Table 15. Markets and applications for graphene quantum dots in electronics and photonics.        104
  • Table 16. Markets and applications for graphene quantum dots in energy storage and conversion.             105
  • Table 17. Markets and applications for graphene quantum dots in sensors.           106
  • Table 18. Markets and applications for graphene quantum dots in biomedicine and life sciences. 107
  • Table 19. Markets and applications for graphene quantum dots in electronics.     108
  • Table 20. Market and technology challenges for graphene quantum dots.              109
  • Table 21. Prices for graphene quantum dots.       111
  • Table 22. Accumulated number of patent publications for graphene, 2004-2019. 115
  • Table 23. Assessment of graphene production methods. 120
  • Table 24. Demand for graphene (tons), 2018-2032.            123
  • Table 25. Graphene oxide production capacity by producer, 2014-2022.   125
  • Table 26. Graphene nanoplatelets capacity in tons by producer, 2010-2022.           127
  • Table 27. CVD graphene film capacity by producer, 2014-2022 in 000s m2.             129
  • Table 28. Types of graphene and typical prices.   132
  • Table 29. Pristine graphene flakes pricing by producer.   135
  • Table 30. Few-layer graphene pricing by producer.           136
  • Table 31. Graphene nanoplatelets pricing by producer.   136
  • Table 32. Graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide pricing, by producer.        138
  • Table 33. Graphene quantum dots pricing by producer.  139
  • Table 34. Multi-layer graphene pricing by producer.         140
  • Table 35. Graphene ink pricing by producer.        141
  • Table 36. Market overview for graphene in 3D printing.  142
  • Table 37. Market outlook for graphene in 3D printing.     142
  • Table 38. Market and applications for graphene in 3D printing.    143
  • Table 39. Demand for graphene in 3-D printing (tons), 2018-2032.              146
  • Table 40. Product developers in graphene 3D printing.    148
  • Table 41. Market overview for graphene in adhesives.    150
  • Table 42. Market outlook for graphene in adhesives.       151
  • Table 43. Market and applications for graphene in adhesives.      151
  • Table 44. Demand for graphene in adhesives (tons), 2018-2032.  154
  • Table 45. Product developers in graphene adhesives.      155
  • Table 46. Market overview for graphene in aerospace.    157
  • Table 47. Scorecard for graphene in aerospace.  157
  • Table 48. Market and applications for graphene in aerospace.     158
  • Table 49: Demand for graphene in aerospace (tons), 2018-2030. 161
  • Table 50: Product developers in graphene for aerospace.              162
  • Table 51. Market overview for graphene in the automotive market.          165
  • Table 52. Market outlook for graphene in automotive.    166
  • Table 53. Market and applications for graphene in automotive.   166
  • Table 54. Demand for graphene in automotive (tons), 2018-2032.               169
  • Table 55. Product developers in the graphene automotive market.           171
  • Table 56. Applications of nanomaterials in batteries.        175
  • Table 57. Market overview for graphene in batteries.      176
  • Table 58. Market outlook for graphene in batteries.         176
  • Table 59. Market drivers for use of nanomaterials in batteries.    177
  • Table 60. Applications of nanomaterials in flexible and stretchable batteries, by materials type and benefits thereof.                179
  • Table 61. Market and applications for graphene in batteries.        180
  • Table 62. Estimated demand for graphene in batteries (tons), 2018-2032.               184
  • Table 63. Product developers in graphene batteries.        185
  • Table 64. Market overview for graphene in composites. 191
  • Table 65. Market outlook for graphene in fiber-based polymer composite parts. 192
  • Table 66. Market and applications for graphene in fiber-based composite parts.  193
  • Table 67. Market and applications for graphene in metal matrix composites.        197
  • Table 68. Global market for graphene in composites 2018-2032, tons.      198
  • Table 69. Product developers in graphene composites.   199
  • Table 70. Market overview for graphene in conductive inks.          204
  • Table 71. Market outlook for graphene in conductive inks.            205
  • Table 72. Market and applications for graphene in conductive inks.           205
  • Table 73. Comparative properties of conductive inks.       208
  • Table 74. Demand for graphene in conductive ink (tons), 2018-2032.         210
  • Table 75. Product developers in graphene conductive inks.           212
  • Table 76. Market overview for graphene in construction and buildings.    215
  • Table 77. Market outlook for graphene in construction.  215
  • Table 78. Graphene for cement. 216
  • Table 79. Graphene for asphalt bitumen.               218
  • Table 80. Demand for graphene in construction (tons), 2018-2032.             220
  • Table 81: Graphene product developers in construction. 221
  • Table 82. Market overview for graphene in wearable electronics and displays.      224
  • Table 83. Market outlook for graphene in wearable electronics and displays.        225
  • Table 84. Market and applications for graphene in electronics.    225
  • Table 85. Comparison of ITO replacements.         227
  • Table 86. Demand for graphene in wearable, flexible and stretchable electronics, 2018-2032.         228
  • Table 87. Product developers in graphene-based electronics.       229
  • Table 88. Market overview for graphene in transistors and integrated circuits.      231
  • Table 89. Comparative properties of silicon and graphene transistors.      231
  • Table 90. Market outlook for graphene in transistors and integrated circuits.         231
  • Table 91. Market and applications for graphene in transistors and integrated circuits.       232
  • Table 92. Demand for graphene in transistors and integrated circuits, 2018-2032.                235
  • Table 93. Product developers in graphene transistors and integrated circuits.        236
  • Table 94. Market overview for graphene in memory devices.       238
  • Table 95. Market outlook for graphene in memory devices.          238
  • Table 96. Market and applications for graphene in memory devices.         239
  • Table 97. Demand for graphene in memory devices, 2018-2032.  240
  • Table 98. Product developers in graphene memory devices.         242
  • Table 99. Market overview for graphene in filtration.       243
  • Table 100. Market outlook for graphene in filtration.        243
  • Table 101. Market and applications for graphene in filtration.      244
  • Table 102. Demand for graphene in filtration (tons), 2018-2032.  248
  • Table 103. Graphene companies in filtration.       250
  • Table 104. Market overview for graphene in fuel cells.     253
  • Table 105. Market outlook for graphene in fuel cells.        253
  • Table 106. Market and applications for graphene in fuel cells.      254
  • Table 107. Demand for graphene in fuel cells (tons), 2018-2032.  257
  • Table 108. Product developers in graphene fuel cells.      259
  • Table 109. Market overview for graphene in life sciences and medicine.  261
  • Table 110. Market outlook for graphene in drug delivery.              261
  • Table 111. Scorecard for graphene in imaging and diagnostics.    262
  • Table 112. Scorecard for graphene in medical implants.  262
  • Table 113. Scorecard for graphene in medical biosensors.              263
  • Table 114. Scorecard for graphene in woundcare.             263
  • Table 115. Market and applications for graphene in life sciences and medicine.   265
  • Table 116. Demand for graphene in life sciences and medical (tons), 2018-2032.  270
  • Table 117. Product developers in graphene life sciences and biomedicine.             272
  • Table 118. Market overview for graphene in lighting.       276
  • Table 119. Market outlook for graphene in lighting.          276
  • Table 120. Market and applications for graphene in lighting.         277
  • Table 121. Demand for graphene in lighting, 2018-2032.  279
  • Table 122. Product developers in graphene lighting.         280
  • Table 123. Market overview for graphene in lubricants.  282
  • Table 124. Nanomaterial lubricant products.        282
  • Table 125. Market outlook for graphene in lubricants.     283
  • Table 126. Market and applications for graphene in lubricants.    284
  • Table 127. Demand for graphene in lubricants (tons), 2018-2032.                286
  • Table 128. Product developers in graphene lubricants.    287
  • Table 129. Market overview for graphene in oil and gas. 290
  • Table 130. Market outlook for graphene in oil and gas.    290
  • Table 131. Market and applications for graphene in oil and gas.  291
  • Table 132. Demand for graphene in oil and gas (tons), 2018-2032.              293
  • Table 133. Product developers in graphene oil and gas.   294
  • Table 134. Market overview for graphene in paints and coatings.                296
  • Table 135. Market outlook for graphene in paints and coatings.  296
  • Table 136. Market and applications for graphene in paints and coatings. 297
  • Table 137. Demand for graphene in paints and coatings (tons), 2018-2032.             300
  • Table 138. Product developers in graphene paints and coatings. 302
  • Table 139. Market outlook for graphene in photonics.     307
  • Table 140. Market and applications for graphene in photonics.    307
  • Table 141. Demand for graphene in photonics, 2018-2032.             311
  • Table 142. Product developers in graphene photonics.    313
  • Table 143. Market overview for graphene in photovoltaics.           314
  • Table 144. Market outlook for graphene in photovoltaics.              315
  • Table 145. Market and applications for graphene in photovoltaics.            315
  • Table 146. Demand for graphene in photovoltaics (tons), 2018-2032.        318
  • Table 147. Product developers in graphene solar.              319
  • Table 148. Market overview for graphene in rubber and tires.      321
  • Table 149. Market outlook for graphene in rubber and tires.         321
  • Table 150. Market and applications for graphene in rubber and tires.       322
  • Table 151. Demand for graphene in rubber and tires (tons), 2018-2032.   325
  • Table 152. Product developers in rubber and tires.            327
  • Table 153. Market overview for graphene in sensors.      330
  • Table 154. Market outlook for graphene in sensors.         331
  • Table 155. Market and applications for graphene in sensors.        331
  • Table 156. Demand for graphene in sensors (tons), 2018-2032.    335
  • Table 157. Product developers in graphene sensors.        336
  • Table 158. Market overview for graphene in smart textiles and apparel.  341
  • Table 159. Market outlook for graphene in smart textiles and apparel.     341
  • Table 160. Market and applications for graphene in smart textiles and apparel.    342
  • Table 161. Demand for graphene in textiles (tons), 2018-2032.     347
  • Table 162. Graphene product developers in smart textiles and apparel.   348
  • Table 163. Market overview for graphene in supercapacitors.      353
  • Table 164. Market outlook for graphene in supercapacitors.         353
  • Table 165: Comparative properties of graphene supercapacitors and lithium-ion batteries.            354
  • Table 166. Market and applications for graphene in supercapacitors.        354
  • Table 167. Demand for graphene in supercapacitors (tons), 2018-2032.    357
  • Table 168. Product developers in graphene supercapacitors.        358
  • Table 169. Graphene audio equipment producers and products. 361
  • Table 170. Graphene sporting goods producers and products.      362
  • Table 171. Performance criteria of energy storage devices.           609
  • Table 172. Market summary for carbon nanotubes-Selling grade particle diameter, usage, advantages, average price/ton, high volume applications, low volume applications and novel applications.        612
  • Table 173. Typical properties of SWCNT and MWCNT.     616
  • Table 174. Applications of MWCNTs.       618
  • Table 175. Annual production capacity of the key MWCNT producers in 2021 (MT).           624
  • Table 176. Demand for MWCNT by region in 2020, 2031.                625
  • Table 177: Markets, benefits and applications of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes.           626
  • Table 178. SWCNT market demand forecast (metric tons), 2018-2032.      628
  • Table 179. Annual production capacity of SWCNT producers in 2021 (KG).              629
  • Table 180. Carbon nanotubes market challenges.              630
  • Table 181. Markets, benefits and applications of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes.           633
  • Table 182. Comparison between single-walled carbon nanotubes and multi-walled carbon nanotubes.     635
  • Table 183. Comparative properties of BNNTs and CNTs.  642
  • Table 184. Applications of BNNTs.            642
  • Table 185. Comparison of  well-established approaches for CNT synthesis.             646
  • Table 186. SWCNT synthesis methods.   647
  • Table 187. Advantages and disadvantages of CNT synthesis methods        652
  • Table 188. MWCNTs and BNNTs pricing, by producer.      655
  • Table 189. SWCNTs pricing.          656
  • Table 190. Market overview for carbon nanotubes in 3D printing.               657
  • Table 191. Applications of carbon nanotubes in 3D printing.          658
  • Table 192. Market and applications for carbon nanotubesin 3D printing. 658
  • Table 193. Demand for carbon nanotubes in 3-D printing (tons), 2018-2032.          660
  • Table 194. Product developers in carbon nanotubes in 3D printing.            661
  • Table 195. Market overview for carbon nanotubes in adhesives. 663
  • Table 196. Applications of carbon nanotubes in adhesives.            663
  • Table 197. Market and applications for carbon nanotubes in adhesives.  664
  • Table 198. Demand for carbon nanotubes in adhesives (tons), 2018-2032.              666
  • Table 199. Product developers in carbon nanotubes for adhesives.           667
  • Table 200. Market overview for carbon nanotubes in aerospace. 669
  • Table 201. Applications of carbon nanomaterials in aerospace.    669
  • Table 202. Market and applications for carbon nanotubes in aerospace.  671
  • Table 203. Demand for carbon nanotubes in aerospace (tons), 2018-2032.              672
  • Table 204. Product developers in carbon nanotubes for aerospace.           674
  • Table 205. Market overview for carbon nanotubes in automotive.             678
  • Table 206. Applications of carbon nanotubes in automotive.        678
  • Table 207. Market and applications for carbon nanotubes in automotive.               680
  • Table 208. Demand for carbon nanotubes in automotive (tons), 2018-2032            682
  • Table 209. Product developers in carbon nanotubes in the automotive market.   683
  • Table 210. Market overview for carbon nanotubes in batteries.   687
  • Table 211. Applications of carbon nanotubes in batteries.              688
  • Table 212. Applications in sodium-ion batteries, by nanomaterials type and benefits thereof.       691
  • Table 213. Applications in lithium-air batteries, by nanomaterials type and benefits thereof.         692
  • Table 214. Applications in flexible and stretchable supercapacitors, by advanced materials type and benefits thereof.                700
  • Table 215. Market and applications for carbon nanotubes in batteries.    702
  • Table 216. Estimated demand for carbon nanotubes in batteries (tons), 2018-2032.            705
  • Table 217. Product developers in carbon nanotubes for batteries.             707
  • Table 218. Market overview for carbon nanotubes in composites.              712
  • Table 219. Applications of carbon nanotubes in fiber-based polymer composite parts.      713
  • Table 220. Market and applications for carbon nanotubes in fiber-based composite parts.              714
  • Table 221. Market and applications for carbon nanotubes in metal matrix composites.     720
  • Table 222. Global market for carbon nanotubes in composites 2018-2030, tons.  721
  • Table 223. Product developers in carbon nanotubes in composites.           723
  • Table 224. Market overview for carbon nanotubes in conductive inks.      729
  • Table 225. Applications of carbon nanomaterials in conductive ink.            729
  • Table 226. Market and applications for carbon nanotubes in conductive inks.        730
  • Table 227. Comparative properties of conductive inks.    733
  • Table 228. Demand for carbon nanotubes in conductive ink (tons), 2018-2027.     734
  • Table 229.  Product developers in carbon nanotubes for conductive inks. 735
  • Table 230. Market overview for carbon nanotubes in construction.            738
  • Table 231. Carbon nanotubes for cement.            739
  • Table 232. Carbon nanotubes for asphalt bitumen.           740
  • Table 233. Demand for carbon nanotubes in construction (tons), 2018-2032.         741
  • Table 234. Carbon nanotubes product developers in construction.             742
  • Table 235. Market overview for carbon nanotubes in wearable electronics and displays.  744
  • Table 236. Applications of carbon nanotubes in wearable electronics and displays.             745
  • Table 237. Market and applications for carbon nanotubes in wearable electronics and displays.    746
  • Table 238. Comparison of ITO replacements.       749
  • Table 239. Demand for carbon nanotubes in wearable electronics and displays, 2018-2032.            749
  • Table 240. Product developers in carbon nanotubes for electronics.          750
  • Table 241. Market overview for carbon nanotubes in transistors and integrated circuits.  752
  • Table 242. Applications of carbon nanotubes in transistors and integrated circuits.             753
  • Table 243. Market and applications for carbon nanotubes in transistors and integrated circuits.    754
  • Table 244. Demand for carbon nanotubes in transistors and integrated circuits, 2018-2032.            756
  • Table 245. Product developers in carbon nanotubes in transistors and integrated circuits.               757
  • Table 246. Market overview for carbon nanotubes in memory devices.    760
  • Table 247. Market and applications for carbon nanotubes in memory devices.     760
  • Table 248. Demand for carbon nanotubes in memory devices, 2018-2032.              762
  • Table 249. Product developers in carbon nanotubes for memory devices.              763
  • Table 250. Comparison of CNT membranes with other membrane technologies  765
  • Table 251. Market overview for carbon nanotubes in filtration.    766
  • Table 252. Applications of carbon nanotubes in filtration.               767
  • Table 253. Market and applications for carbon nanotubes in filtration.     767
  • Table 254. Demand for carbon nanotubes in filtration (tons), 2018-2032. 771
  • Table 255. Carbon nanotubes companies in filtration.      772
  • Table 256. Electrical conductivity of different catalyst supports compared to carbon nanotubes.  775
  • Table 257. Market overview for carbon nanotubes in fuel cells.   775
  • Table 258. Applications of carbon nanotubes in fuel cells.               775
  • Table 259. Market and applications for carbon nanotubes in fuel cells.     776
  • Table 260. Demand for carbon nanotubes in fuel cells (tons), 2018-2032. 779
  • Table 261. Product developers in carbon nanotubes for fuel cells.              780
  • Table 262. Market overview for carbon nanotubes in life sciences and medicine. 782
  • Table 263. Applications of carbon nanotubes in life sciences and biomedicine       782
  • Table 264. Scorecard for carbon nanotubes in drug delivery.        785
  • Table 265. Scorecard for carbon nanotubes in imaging and diagnostics.   785
  • Table 266. Scorecard for carbon nanotubes in medical implants. 786
  • Table 267. Scorecard for carbon nanotubes in medical biosensors.            787
  • Table 268. Scorecard for carbon nanotubes in woundcare.            787
  • Table 269. Market and applications for carbon nanotubes in life sciences and medicine.  788
  • Table 270. Demand for carbon nanotubes in life sciences and medical (tons), 2018-2032. 793
  • Table 271. Product developers in carbon nanotubes for life sciences and biomedicine.     794
  • Table 272. Market overview for carbon nanotubes in lubricants. 800
  • Table 273. Nanomaterial lubricant products.        800
  • Table 274. Applications of carbon nanotubes in lubricants.            801
  • Table 275. Market and applications for carbon nanotubes in lubricants.   802
  • Table 276. Demand for carbon nanotubes in lubricants (tons), 2018-2032.              803
  • Table 277. Product developers in carbon nanotubes for lubricants.            805
  • Table 278. Market overview for carbon nanotubes in oil and gas.                806
  • Table 279. Applications of carbon nanotubes in oil and gas.           807
  • Table 280. Market and applications for carbon nanotubes in oil and gas. 807
  • Table 281. Demand for carbon nanotubes in oil and gas (tons), 2018-2032.             809
  • Table 282. Product developers in carbon nanotubes for oil and gas.           810
  • Table 283. Markets for carbon nanotube coatings.            812
  • Table 284. Market overview for carbon nanotubes in paints and coatings.              814
  • Table 285. Applications of carbon nanotubes in paints and coatings.         815
  • Table 286. Market and applications for carbon nanotubes in paints and coatings. 816
  • Table 287. Demand for carbon nanotubes in paints and coatings (tons), 2018-2032.            820
  • Table 288. Product developers in carbon nanotubes for paints and coatings.         821
  • Table 289. Market overview for carbon nanotubes in photovoltaics.          826
  • Table 290. Market and applications for carbon nanotubes in photovoltaics.           826
  • Table 291. Demand for carbon nanotubes in photovoltaics (tons), 2018-2032.       828
  • Table 292. Product developers in carbon nanotubes for solar.      829
  • Table 293. Market overview for carbon nanotubes in rubber and tires.     831
  • Table 294. Applications of carbon nanomaterials in rubber and tires.        831
  • Table 295. Market and applications for carbon nanotubes in rubber and tires.      832
  • Table 296. Demand for carbon nanotubes in rubber and tires (tons), 2018-2032.  835
  • Table 297. Product developers in carbon nanotubes in rubber and tires.  836
  • Table 298. Market overview for carbon nanotubes in sensors.     839
  • Table 299. Applications of carbon nanotubes in sensors. 839
  • Table 300. Market and applications for carbon nanotubes in sensors.       840
  • Table 301. Demand for carbon nanotubes in sensors (tons), 2018-2032.   843
  • Table 302. Product developers in carbon nanotubes for sensors. 844
  • Table 303. Desirable functional properties for the textiles industry afforded by the use of nanomaterials. 847
  • Table 304. Market overview for carbon nanotubes in smart textiles and apparel. 848
  • Table 305. Applications of carbon nanotubes in smart textiles and apparel.            848
  • Table 306. Market and applications for carbon nanotubes in smart textiles and apparel.  849
  • Table 307. Demand for carbon nanotubes in textiles (tons), 2018-2032.    852
  • Table 308. Carbon nanotubes product developers in smart textiles and apparel.  853
  • Table 309. Market overview for carbon nanotubes in supercapacitors.     854
  • Table 310. Applications of carbon nanotubes in supercapacitors. 855
  • Table 311. Market and applications for carbon nanotubes in supercapacitors.       856
  • Table 312. Demand for carbon nanotubes in supercapacitors (tons), 2018-2032.   858
  • Table 313. Product developers in carbon nanotubes for supercapacitors. 859
  • Table 314. Market and applications for carbon nanotubes in thermal interface materials. 861
  • Table 315. Market and applications for carbon nanotubes in power cables.            862
  • Table 316. Properties of carbon nanotube paper.              955
  • Table 317. Chasm SWCNT products.         965
  • Table 318. Thomas Swan SWCNT production.      981
  • Table 319. Comparison of synthesis methods for carbon nanofibers.         986
  • Table 320. 2D materials types.   997
  • Table 321. Comparison of  top-down exfoliation methods to produce 2D materials.            999
  • Table 322. Comparison of the bottom-up synthesis methods to produce 2D materials.      1002
  • Table 323. Properties of hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN). 1004
  • Table 324. Electronic and mechanical properties of monolayer phosphorene, graphene and MoS2.            1018
  • Table 325. Properties and applications of functionalized germanene.       1025
  • Table 326. GDY-based anode materials in LIBs and SIBs   1028
  • Table 327. Physical and electronic properties of Stanene.              1037
  • Table 328. Properties of nanodiamonds. 1062
  • Table 329. Summary of types of NDS and production methods-advantages and disadvantages.     1063
  • Table 330. Markets, benefits and applications of nanodiamonds. 1064
  • Table 331. Nanomaterial lubricant products.        1068
  • Table 332. Market overview for nanodiamonds in lubricants-market maturity, market demand, competitive landscape.                1069
  • Table 333. Market and applications for nanodiamonds in lubricants-applications, benefits, market megatrends, market drivers for use of nanodiamonds, technology challenges, competing materials, market demand. 1070
  • Table 334. Market market demand for nanodiamonds in lubricants to 2032, tons 1072
  • Table 335. Market overview for NDs in polishing materials-market maturity, market demand, competitive landscape.                1074
  • Table 336. Market and applications for nanodiamonds in polishing materials-applications, benefits, market megatrends, market drivers for use of nanodiamonds, technology challenges, competing materials, market demand.                1074
  • Table 337. Global market demand for nanodiamonds in polishing additives to 2032 (tons).             1076
  • Table 338. Market overview for NDs in electroplating and anti-friction/wear coatings-market maturity, market demand, competitive landscape..             1078
  • Table 339. Market and applications for NDs in electroplating and anti-wear/friction coatings-applications, benefits, market megatrends, market drivers for use of nanodiamonds, technology challenges, competing materials, market demand..            1078
  • Table 340. Global market demand for nanodiamonds in electroplating and anti-wear/friction coatings to 2032 (tons)                1082
  • Table 341. Market overview for nanodiamonds in composites-market maturity, market demand, competitive landscape..         1084
  • Table 342. Market overview for nanodiamonds in fiber-based polymer composite parts. 1084
  • Table 343. Market and applications for nanodiamonds in fiber-based composite parts-applications, benefits, market megatrends, market drivers for use of nanodiamonds, technology challenges, competing materials, market demand..                1085
  • Table 344. Global market demand for nanodiamonds in thermosets to 2032 (tons).           1087
  • Table 345. Global market demand for nanodiamonds in thermoplastics to 2032 (tons).    1088
  • Table 346. Market and applications for NDs in metal matrix composites-market maturity, market demand, competitive landscape.          1090
  • Table 347. Global market demand for nanodiamonds in metal composites to 2032, tons  1091
  • Table 348. Market overview for NDs in skincare (cosmetics).        1093
  • Table 349. Market and applications for nanodiamonds in skincare (cosmetics)-applications, benefits, market megatrends, market drivers for use of nanodiamonds, technology challenges, competing materials, market demand..                1094
  • Table 350. Global market demand for nanodiamonds in skincare to 2032 (tons)   1097
  • Table 351. Market overview for nanodiamonds in supercapacitors-market maturity, market demand, competitive landscape.          1099
  • Table 352. Market and applications for nanodiamonds in supercapactitors- applications, benefits, market megatrends, market drivers for use of nanodiamonds, technology challenges, competing materials, market demand.  1099
  • Table 353. Global market demand for nanodiamonds in supercapacitors to 2032 (tons)   1101
  • Table 354. Market overview for nanodiamonds in batteries -market maturity, market demand, competitive landscape.                1103
  • Table 355. Market and applications for NDs in batteries- applications, benefits, market megatrends, market drivers for use of nanodiamonds, technology challenges, competing materials, market demand.       1103
  • Table 356. Global market demand for nanodiamonds in batteries to 2032 (tons). 1105
  • Table 357. Market overview for NDs in drug delivery.      1107
  • Table 358.  Different nanoparticle vehicles used in nanomedicine.             1107
  • Table 359. FDA-approved nanotechnology-based products and clinical trials.         1108
  • Table 360. NDs for drug delivery-applications, benefits, market megatrends, market drivers for use of nanodiamonds, technology challenges, competing materials, market demand.     1113
  • Table 361. Pricing of nanodiamonds, by producer/distributor.     1117
  • Table 362. Production methods, by main ND producers. 1119
  • Table 363. Adamas Nanotechnologies, Inc. nanodiamond product list.      1120
  • Table 364. Carbodeon Ltd. Oy nanodiamond product list.               1125
  • Table 365. Daicel nanodiamond product list.        1127
  • Table 366. FND Biotech Nanodiamond product list.           1130
  • Table 367. JSC Sinta nanodiamond product list.   1134
  • Table 368. Plasmachem product list and applications.      1141
  • Table 369. Ray-Techniques Ltd. nanodiamonds product list.          1143
  • Table 370. Comparison of ND produced by detonation and laser synthesis.            1144
  • Table 371. Market overview for fullerenes-Selling grade particle diameter, usage, advantages, average price/ton, high volume applications, low volume applications and novel applications.      1147
  • Table 372. Types of fullerenes and applications. 1148
  • Table 373. Products incorporating fullerenes.     1148
  • Table 374. Markets, benefits and applications of fullerenes.         1149
  • Table 375. Global consumption of fullerenes in metric tonnes, 2010-2031.              1149
  • Table 376. Example prices of fullerenes. 1151
  • Table 377. Technology Readiness Level (TRL) Examples.  1165

 

List of Figures

  • Figure 1. Demand for graphene, by market, 2021.              57
  • Figure 2. Demand for graphene, 2018-2032, tons.             70
  • Figure 3. Global graphene demand by market, 2018-2032 (tons), conservative estimate. 71
  • Figure 4. Global graphene demand by market, 2018-2032 (tons). Medium estimate.         72
  • Figure 5. Global graphene demand by market, 2018-2032 (tons). High estimate. 73
  • Figure 6. Demand for graphene in China, by market, 2021.             74
  • Figure 7. Demand for graphene in Asia-Pacific, by market, 2021.  75
  • Figure 8. Main graphene producers in Asia-Pacific.            76
  • Figure 9. Demand for graphene in North America, by market, 2021.           78
  • Figure 10. Demand for graphene in Europe, by market, 2021.        80
  • Figure 11. Graphene and its descendants: top right: graphene; top left: graphite = stacked graphene; bottom right: nanotube=rolled graphene; bottom left: fullerene=wrapped graphene.   93
  • Figure 12. Types of CVD methods.            94
  • Figure 13. Schematic of the manufacture of GnPs starting from natural graphite. 96
  • Figure 14. Green-fluorescing graphene quantum dots.    98
  • Figure 15. Schematic of (a) CQDs and (c) GQDs. HRTEM images of (b) C-dots and (d) GQDs showing combination of zigzag and armchair edges (positions marked as 1–4).      98
  • Figure 16. Graphene quantum dots.        101
  • Figure 17. Top-down and bottom-up graphene QD synthesis methods.    102
  • Figure 18. Revenues for graphene quantum dots 2019-2032, millions USD              110
  • Figure 19. Published patent publications for graphene, 2004-2019.             116
  • Figure 20. Fabrication methods of graphene.       117
  • Figure 21. TEM micrographs of: A) HR-CNFs; B) GANF® HR-CNF, it can be observed its high graphitic structure; C) Unraveled ribbon from the HR-CNF; D) Detail of the ribbon; E) Scheme of the structure of the HR-CNFs; F) Large single graphene oxide sheets derived from GANF.         118
  • Figure 22. (a) Graphene powder production line The Sixth Element Materials Technology Co. Ltd. (b) Graphene film production line of Wuxi Graphene Films Co. Ltd. 119
  • Figure 23. Schematic illustration of the main graphene production methods.        120
  • Figure 24. Demand for graphene, 2018-2032, tons.           124
  • Figure 25. CVD Graphene on Cu Foil.        134
  • Figure 26. Applications of graphene in 3D printing.            146
  • Figure 27. Demand for graphene in 3-D printing (tons), 2018-2032.             147
  • Figure 28. CNCTArch lightweight mounting for digital signalling.  148
  • Figure 29. Applications of graphene in adhesives.              154
  • Figure 30. Demand for graphene in adhesives (tons), 2018-2032. 155
  • Figure 31. Graphene Adhesives. 156
  • Figure 32. Applications of graphene in aerospace.             160
  • Figure 33: Demand for graphene in aerospace (tons), 2018-2032.                161
  • Figure 34. Orbex Prime rocket.   162
  • Figure 35: Graphene enhanced aircraft cargo container. 163
  • Figure 36: Graphene aircraft.      163
  • Figure 37. Summary of graphene in automobiles.              165
  • Figure 38. Applications of graphene in automotive.          169
  • Figure 39. Demand for graphene in automotive (tons), 2018-2032.             170
  • Figure 40. Supercar incorporating graphene.       171
  • Figure 41. Graphene anti-corrosion primer.          172
  • Figure 42. Graphene-R Brake pads.          173
  • Figure 43. Antistatic graphene tire.          173
  • Figure 44. Graphene engine oil additives.              174
  • Figure 45. Applications of graphene in batteries. 184
  • Figure 46. Demand for graphene in batteries (tons), 2018-2032.  185
  • Figure 47. Apollo Traveler graphene-enhanced USB-C / A fast charging power bank.          186
  • Figure 48. Exide Graphene Lead Acid Battery.      187
  • Figure 49. 6000mAh Portable graphene batteries.             188
  • Figure 50. Real Graphene Powerbank.    189
  • Figure 51. Graphene Functional Films - UniTran EH/FH.   190
  • Figure 52. Applications of graphene in composites.           196
  • Figure 53. Demand for graphene in composites (tons), 2018-2032.             199
  • Figure 54. Graphene bike.            200
  • Figure 55. Graphene lacrosse equipment.             200
  • Figure 56. Graphene-based suitcase made from recycled plastic. 201
  • Figure 57. Aros Create.  202
  • Figure 58. Grays graphene hockey sticks.               203
  • Figure 59. Applications of graphene in conductive inks.   210
  • Figure 60. Demand for graphene in conductive ink (tons), 2018-2032.       211
  • Figure 61. BGT Materials graphene ink product. 212
  • Figure 62. Printed graphene conductive ink.         213
  • Figure 63. Textiles covered in conductive graphene ink.  213
  • Figure 64. Comparison of nanofillers with supplementary cementitious materials and aggregates in concrete.       216
  • Figure 65. Demand for graphene in construction (tons), 2018-2032.           221
  • Figure 66. Graphene asphalt additives.   222
  • Figure 67. OG (Original Graphene) Concrete Admix Plus. 222
  • Figure 68. Demand for graphene in wearable, flexible and stretchable electronics, 2018-2032.       229
  • Figure 69. Moxi flexible film developed for smartphone application.         229
  • Figure 70. Applications of graphene in transistors and integrated circuits.               234
  • Figure 71. Demand for graphene in transistors and integrated circuits, 2018-2032.              235
  • Figure 72. Graphene IC in wafer tester.  236
  • Figure 73. Schematic cross-section of a graphene based transistor (GBT, left) and a graphene field-effect transistor (GFET, right).      237
  • Figure 74. Demand for graphene in memory devices, 2018-2032.                241
  • Figure 75. Layered structure of tantalum oxide, multilayer graphene and platinum used for resistive random-access memory (RRAM).             242
  • Figure 76. Applications of graphene in filtration. 248
  • Figure 77. Demand for graphene in filtration (tons), 2018-2032.   249
  • Figure 78. Graphene anti-smog mask.     250
  • Figure 79. Graphene filtration membrane.            251
  • Figure 80. Graphene water filer cartridge.             251
  • Figure 81. Applications of graphene in fuel cells. 257
  • Figure 82. Demand for graphene in fuel cells (tons), 2018-2032.   258
  • Figure 83. Graphene-based E-skin patch.               260
  • Figure 84. Flexible and transparent bracelet that uses graphene to measure heart rate, respiration rate etc.           265
  • Figure 85. Applications of graphene in life sciences and medicine               270
  • Figure 86. Demand for graphene in life sciences and medical (tons), 2018-2032.   271
  • Figure 87. Graphene medical biosensors for wound healing.         273
  • Figure 88. Graphene Frontiers’ Six™ chemical sensors consists of a field effect transistor (FET) with a graphene channel. Receptor molecules, such as DNA, are attached directly to the graphene channel.            273
  • Figure 89. GraphWear wearable sweat sensor.   274
  • Figure 90. BioStamp nPoint.        275
  • Figure 91. Applications of graphene in lighting.   279
  • Figure 92. Demand for graphene in lighting, 2018-2032.   280
  • Figure 93. Graphene LED bulbs. 281
  • Figure 94. Applications of graphene in lubricants.              286
  • Figure 95. Demand for graphene in lubricants (tons), 2018-2032.                 287
  • Figure 96. Tricolit spray coating. 288
  • Figure 97. Graphenoil products. 288
  • Figure 98. Applications of graphene in oil and gas.             293
  • Figure 99. Demand for graphene in oil and gas (tons), 2018-2032.               294
  • Figure 100. Directa Plus Grafysorber.      295
  • Figure 101. Applications of graphene in paints and coatings.         300
  • Figure 102. Demand for graphene in paints and coatings (tons), 2018-2032.           301
  • Figure 103. Cryorig CPU cooling system with graphene coating.   302
  • Figure 104. Four layers of graphene oxide coatings on polycarbonate.      303
  • Figure 105. 23303 ZINCTON GNC graphene paint.              304
  • Figure 106. Graphene-enhanced anti-corrosion aerosols under their Hycote brand.            304
  • Figure 107. Scania Truck head lamp brackets ACT chamber 6 weeks, equivalent to 3y field use. Piece treated with GO to the left together with different non-GO coatings.         305
  • Figure 108. Schematic of graphene heat film.       306
  • Figure 109. Applications of graphene in photonics.            311
  • Figure 110. Demand for graphene in photonics, 2018-2032.           312
  • Figure 111. All-graphene optical communication link demonstrator operating at a data rate of 25 Gb/s per channel.                313
  • Figure 112. Applications of graphene in photovoltaics.    318
  • Figure 113. Demand for graphene in photovoltaics (tons), 2018-2032.       319
  • Figure 114. Graphene coated glass.          320
  • Figure 115. Applications of graphene in rubber and tires.               325
  • Figure 116. Demand for graphene in rubber and tires (tons), 2018-2032.  326
  • Figure 117. Eagle F1 graphene tire.          327
  • Figure 118. Graphene floor mats.              328
  • Figure 119. Vittoria Corsa G+ tire.             328
  • Figure 120. Graphene-based sensors for health monitoring.          330
  • Figure 121. Applications of graphene in sensors. 335
  • Figure 122. Demand for graphene in sensors (tons), 2018-2032.   336
  • Figure 123. AGILE R100 system. 337
  • Figure 124. Graphene fully packaged linear array detector.           338
  • Figure 125. GFET sensors.            338
  • Figure 126. Graphene is used to increase sensitivity to middle-infrared light.         340
  • Figure 127. Applications of graphene in smart textiles and apparel.           346
  • Figure 128. Demand for graphene in textiles (tons), 2018-2032.   347
  • Figure 129. 878 Project One jacket display.           348
  • Figure 130. Colmar graphene ski jacket. 349
  • Figure 131. Graphene dress. The dress changes colour in sync with the wearer’s breathing.           349
  • Figure 132. G+ Graphene Aero Jersey.    350
  • Figure 133. Inov-8 graphene shoes.         350
  • Figure 134. Graphene Functional Membranes - UniTran GM.        351
  • Figure 135. Graphene jacket.      352
  • Figure 136. Applications of graphene in supercapacitors. 357
  • Figure 137. Demand for graphene in supercapacitors (tons), 2018-2032.  358
  • Figure 138. KEPCO’s graphene supercapacitors. 359
  • Figure 139. Skeleton Technologies supercapacitor.           360
  • Figure 140. Zapgo supercapacitor phone charger.              360
  • Figure 141. Callaway Chrome Soft golf and Chrome Soft X golf balls.          362
  • Figure 142. Graphene heating films.        364
  • Figure 143. Graphene flake products.     370
  • Figure 144. AIKA Black-T.              374
  • Figure 145. Printed graphene biosensors.             383
  • Figure 146. Brain Scientific electrode schematic. 402
  • Figure 147. Graphene battery schematic.              428
  • Figure 148. Dotz Nano GQD products.     429
  • Figure 149. Graphene-based membrane dehumidification test cell.           436
  • Figure 150. Proprietary atmospheric CVD production.      446
  • Figure 151. Wearable sweat sensor.        479
  • Figure 152.  InP/ZnS, perovskite quantum dots and silicon resin composite under UV illumination.               485
  • Figure 153. Sensor surface.          501
  • Figure 154. BioStamp nPoint.      518
  • Figure 155. Nanotech Energy battery.     537
  • Figure 156. Hybrid battery powered electrical motorbike concept.             539
  • Figure 157. NAWAStitch integrated into carbon fiber composite. 540
  • Figure 158. Schematic illustration of three-chamber system for SWCNH production.          541
  • Figure 159. TEM images of carbon nanobrush.    542
  • Figure 160. Test performance after 6 weeks ACT II according to Scania STD4445.  555
  • Figure 161. Quantag GQDs and sensor.  557
  • Figure 162. The Sixth Element graphene products.            571
  • Figure 163. Thermal conductive graphene film.   572
  • Figure 164. Talcoat graphene mixed with paint.  583
  • Figure 165. T-FORCE CARDEA ZERO.         586
  • Figure 166. Market demand for carbon nanotubes by market, 2018-2032 (tons). 615
  • Figure 167. Demand for MWCNT by application in 2021. 623
  • Figure 168. Demand for MWCNT by application in 2021. 625
  • Figure 169. Demand for MWCNT by region in 2021.           625
  • Figure 170. SWCNT market demand forecast (metric tons), 2018-2032.     629
  • Figure 171. Schematic of single-walled carbon nanotube.              632
  • Figure 172. TIM sheet developed by Zeon Corporation.   633
  • Figure 173. Double-walled carbon nanotube bundle cross-section micrograph and model.              636
  • Figure 174. Schematic of a vertically aligned carbon nanotube (VACNT) membrane used for water treatment.       638
  • Figure 175. TEM image of FWNTs.             639
  • Figure 176. Schematic representation of carbon nanohorns.         640
  • Figure 177. TEM image of carbon onion. 641
  • Figure 178. Schematic of Boron Nitride nanotubes (BNNTs). Alternating B and N atoms are shown in blue and red.                642
  • Figure 179. Process flow chart from CNT thin film formation to device fabrication for solution and dry processes. 645
  • Figure 180. Schematic representation of methods used for carbon nanotube synthesis (a) Arc discharge (b) Chemical vapor deposition (c) Laser ablation (d) hydrocarbon flames.          647
  • Figure 181. Arc discharge process for CNTs.          648
  • Figure 182. Schematic of thermal-CVD method. 649
  • Figure 183. Schematic of plasma-CVD method.   649
  • Figure 184. CoMoCAT® process. 650
  • Figure 185. Schematic for flame synthesis of carbon nanotubes (a) premixed flame (b) counter-flow diffusion flame (c) co-flow diffusion flame (d) inverse diffusion flame.           651
  • Figure 186. Schematic of laser ablation synthesis.              651
  • Figure 187. MWCNT patents filed 2007-2022.       653
  • Figure 188. SWCNT patent applications 2001-2021.            654
  • Figure 189. Demand for carbon nanotubes in 3-D printing (tons), 2018-2032.         661
  • Figure 190. Demand for carbon nanotubes in adhesives (tons), 2018-2032.             667
  • Figure 191. Carbon nanotube Composite Overwrap Pressure Vessel (COPV) developed by NASA. 669
  • Figure 192. Demand for carbon nanomaterials in aerospace (tons), 2018-2032.     674
  • Figure 193. HeatCoat technology schematic.        675
  • Figure 194.  Veelo carbon fiber nanotube sheet. 676
  • Figure 195. Demand for carbon nanotubes in automotive (tons), 2018-2032.         683
  • Figure 196. Schematic of CNTs as heat-dissipation sheets.             684
  • Figure 197. Electrochemical performance of nanomaterials in LIBs.            688
  • Figure 198. Theoretical energy densities of different rechargeable batteries.        692
  • Figure 199. Printed 1.5V battery.              693
  • Figure 200. Materials and design structures in flexible lithium ion batteries.          694
  • Figure 201. LiBEST flexible battery.           694
  • Figure 202. Schematic of the structure of stretchable LIBs.             695
  • Figure 203. Electrochemical performance of materials in flexible LIBs.      695
  • Figure 204. Carbon nanotubes incorporated into flexible, rechargeable yarn batteries.     697
  • Figure 205. (A) Schematic overview of a flexible supercapacitor as compared to conventional supercapacitor.        699
  • Figure 206. Stretchable graphene supercapacitor.             701
  • Figure 207. Demand for carbon nanomaterials in batteries (tons), 2018-2032.       706
  • Figure 208. Demand for carbon nanotubes in composites (tons), 2018-2032.          722
  • Figure 209. CSCNT Reinforced Prepreg.  725
  • Figure 210. Demand for carbon nanotubes in conductive ink (tons), 2018-2032.    735
  • Figure 211. Nanotube inks           736
  • Figure 212. Comparison of nanofillers with supplementary cementitious materials and aggregates in concrete.     738
  • Figure 213. Demand for carbon nanotubes in construction (tons), 2018-2032.        742
  • Figure 214. Demand for carbon nanotubes in wearable electronics and displays, 2018-2032.           750
  • Figure 215. Demand for carbon nanomaterials in transistors and integrated circuits, 2018-2032.   757
  • Figure 216. Thin film transistor incorporating CNTs.          759
  • Figure 217. Demand for carbon nanotubes in memory devices, 2018-2032.             763
  • Figure 218. Carbon nanotubes NRAM chip.           764
  • Figure 219. Strategic Elements’ transparent glass demonstrator. 764
  • Figure 220. Demand for carbon nanotubes in filtration (tons), 2018-2032.               772
  • Figure 221. Demand for carbon nanotubes in fuel cells (tons), 2018-2032.               780
  • Figure 222. Demand for carbon nanotubes in life sciences and medical (tons), 2018-2032.               794
  • Figure 223. CARESTREAM DRX-Revolution Nano Mobile X-ray System.     795
  • Figure 224. Graphene medical biosensors for wound healing.       796
  • Figure 225. Graphene Frontiers’ Six™ chemical sensors consists of a field effect transistor (FET) with a graphene channel. Receptor molecules, such as DNA, are attached directly to the graphene channel.            797
  • Figure 226. GraphWear wearable sweat sensor. 797
  • Figure 227. Demand for carbon nanotubes in lubricants (tons), 2018-2032.             804
  • Figure 228. Demand for carbon nanotubes in oil and gas (tons), 2018-2032.           810
  • Figure 229. Demand for carbon nanotubes in paints and coatings (tons), 2018-2032.          821
  • Figure 230. CSCNT Reinforced Prepreg.  823
  • Figure 231. Demand for carbon nanotubes in photovoltaics (tons), 2018-2032.      829
  • Figure 232. Suntech/TCNT nanotube frame module         830
  • Figure 233. Demand for carbon nanotubes in rubber and tires (tons), 2018-2032.                836
  • Figure 234. Demand for carbon nanotubes in sensors (tons), 2018-2032. 843
  • Figure 235. Demand for carbon nanotubes in textiles (tons), 2018-2032.  853
  • Figure 236. Demand for carbon nanotubes in supercapacitors (tons), 2018-2032. 859
  • Figure 237. Nawa's ultracapacitors.          860
  • Figure 238. AWN Nanotech water harvesting prototype. 868
  • Figure 239. Carbonics, Inc.’s carbon nanotube technology.            883
  • Figure 240. Fuji carbon nanotube products.         893
  • Figure 241.  Internal structure of carbon nanotube adhesive sheet.           894
  • Figure 242. Carbon nanotube adhesive sheet.     895
  • Figure 243. Cup Stacked Type Carbon Nano Tubes schematic.      898
  • Figure 244. CSCNT composite dispersion.              898
  • Figure 245. Flexible CNT CMOS integrated circuits with sub-10 nanoseconds stage delays.              903
  • Figure 246. Koatsu Gas Kogyo Co. Ltd CNT product.           908
  • Figure 247. Test specimens fabricated using MECHnano’s radiation curable resins modified with carbon nanotubes.                916
  • Figure 248. Hybrid battery powered electrical motorbike concept.             928
  • Figure 249. NAWAStitch integrated into carbon fiber composite. 929
  • Figure 250. Schematic illustration of three-chamber system for SWCNH production.          930
  • Figure 251. TEM images of carbon nanobrush.    931
  • Figure 252. CNT film.      934
  • Figure 253. Schematic of a fluidized bed reactor which is able to scale up the generation of SWNTs using the CoMoCAT process.               966
  • Figure 254. Carbon nanotube paint product.        971
  • Figure 255. MEIJO eDIPS product.             972
  • Figure 256. HiPCO® Reactor.       975
  • Figure 257. Smell iX16 multi-channel gas detector chip.   979
  • Figure 258. The Smell Inspector. 980
  • Figure 259. Toray CNF printed RFID.         983
  • Figure 260. Structures of nanomaterials based on dimensions.    996
  • Figure 261. Schematic of 2-D materials.  997
  • Figure 262. Diagram of the mechanical exfoliation method.          1000
  • Figure 263. Diagram of liquid exfoliation method               1001
  • Figure 264. Structure of hexagonal boron nitride.              1003
  • Figure 265. BN nanosheet textiles application.    1006
  • Figure 266. Structure diagram of Ti3C2Tx.              1007
  • Figure 267.  Types and applications of 2D TMDCs.              1010
  • Figure 268. Left: Molybdenum disulphide (MoS2). Right: Tungsten ditelluride (WTe2)       1011
  • Figure 269. SEM image of MoS2.               1011
  • Figure 270. Atomic force microscopy image of a representative MoS2 thin-film transistor.              1013
  • Figure 271. Schematic of the molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) thin-film sensor with the deposited molecules that create additional charge.            1014
  • Figure 272. Borophene schematic.           1015
  • Figure 273. Black phosphorus structure. 1017
  • Figure 274. Black Phosphorus crystal.      1018
  • Figure 275. Bottom gated flexible few-layer phosphorene transistors with the hydrophobic dielectric encapsulation.                1019
  • Figure 276: Graphitic carbon nitride.        1022
  • Figure 277. Structural difference between graphene and C2N-h2D crystal: (a) graphene; (b) C2N-h2D crystal. Credit: Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology.         1023
  • Figure 278. Schematic of germanene.     1024
  • Figure 279. Graphdiyne structure.            1027
  • Figure 280. Schematic of Graphane crystal.           1030
  • Figure 281. Schematic of a monolayer of rhenium disulfide.          1032
  • Figure 282. Silicene structure.    1033
  • Figure 283. Monolayer silicene on a silver (111) substrate.            1034
  • Figure 284. Silicene transistor.    1034
  • Figure 285. Crystal structure for stanene.              1036
  • Figure 286. Atomic structure model for the 2D stanene on Bi2Te3(111).   1037
  • Figure 287. Schematic of Indium Selenide (InSe).               1039
  • Figure 288. Application of Li-Al LDH as CO2 sensor.           1041
  • Figure 289. Graphene-based membrane dehumidification test cell.           1050
  • Figure 290. Detonation Nanodiamond.   1061
  • Figure 291. DND primary particles and properties.            1061
  • Figure 292. Functional groups of Nanodiamonds.              1062
  • Figure 293. Market market demand for nanodiamonds in lubricants to 2032, tons              1073
  • Figure 294. Global market demand for nanodiamonds in polishing additives to 2032 (tons).           1077
  • Figure 295. Global market demand for nanodiamonds in electroplating and anti-wear/friction coatings to 2032 (tons)                1083
  • Figure 296. Global market demand for nanodiamonds in thermosets to 2032 (tons).         1088
  • Figure 297. Global market demand for nanodiamonds in thermoplastics to 2032 (tons).   1089
  • Figure 298. Global market demand for nanodiamonds in metal composites to 2032, tons 1092
  • Figure 299. Prototypes of nanodiamonds, fullerene and lignin sunscreen.               1093
  • Figure 300. Global market demand for nanodiamonds in skincare to 2032 (tons) 1098
  • Figure 301. Global market demand for nanodiamonds in supercapacitors to 2032 (tons)  1102
  • Figure 302. Global market demand for nanodiamonds in batteries to 2032 (tons).              1106
  • Figure 303. Application of NDs in biomedicine based on synthesis method.            1106
  • Figure 304. NBD battery.              1137
  • Figure 305. Neomond dispersions.           1139
  • Figure 306. Global consumption of fullerenes in metric tonnes, 2010-2031.            1150

 

The Global Market for Graphene, Carbon Nanotubes, Carbon Nanofibers, Nanodiamonds, Fullerenes (Carbon Nanomaterials) and 2D Materials 2022-2032
The Global Market for Graphene, Carbon Nanotubes, Carbon Nanofibers, Nanodiamonds, Fullerenes (Carbon Nanomaterials) and 2D Materials 2022-2032
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