The Global Market for Nanofibers to 2027

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Nanofibers have exceptionally high surface area-to-volume ratio and high porosity, which makes them attractive materials for a range of applications. They have wide-ranging morphologies, and are produced using a variety of materials such as:

  • Natural polymers.
  • Synthetic polymers.
  • Carbon nanomaterials (carbon nanotubes, graphene, carbon nanofibers)
  • Semiconducting materials
  • Composite materials.
  • Chitin
  • Wood and other pulp (cellulose nanofibers)

Techniques such as centrifugal spinning, electrospinning, meltblowing and bicomponent spinning have been studied extensively for the production of nanofibers with varying degrees of commercial success. There have also been several new synthesis methods developed.

The market for nanofibers generally encompasses polymer nanofibers, alumina nanofibers and to a lesser extent carbon nanofiber and cellulose nanofibers. Main applications of nanofibers are:

  • Air/water filtration (membranes).
  • Composites.
  • Bio medical (bone/skin regeneration, tissue scaffolds, hydrogel bandages for woundcare).
  • Protective textiles and wearable electronics.
  • Energy Storage (battery separators, conductive additives for batteries).
  • Textiles.

The recent development and commercial production of cellulose nanofibers has opened up new markets.

Report contents include:

  • Market volume for nanofibers, historical and forecast to 2027.
  • Current products.
  • Stage of commercialization for nanofiber applications by company.
  • Market drivers, trends and challenges, by end user markets.
  • End user market assessment for nanofibers in composites, textiles, medical and healthcare, electronics, filtration, batteries, sensors, acoustics etc.
  • In-depth market assessment of opportunities for  nanofibers including potential revenues, growth rates, pricing, most likely applications and market challenges.
  • In-depth company profiles, include products, capacities, production processes and commercial activities.

Published September 2018 | 345 pages, 77 tables, 73 figures |  Table of contents

The Global Market for Nanofibers to 2027
The Global Market for Nanofibers to 2027
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The Global Market for Nanofibers to 2027
The Global Market for Nanofibers to 2027
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TABLE OF CONTENTS

1    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY…………………………………………………………. 27

  • 1.1    Polymer, alumina and carbon nanofibers……………………………………………………………………….. 28
  • 1.2    Cellulose nanofibers……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 29
  • 1.3    Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 29
    • 1.3.1     Polymer, alumina, carbon and other nanofibers…………………………………………………….. 29
    • 1.3.2     Cellulose nanofibers………………………………………………………………………………………………. 30
  • 1.4    Market drivers………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 38
  • 1.5    Market and technical challenges…………………………………………………………………………………….. 40
    • 1.5.1     Polymer, alumina and carbon nanofibers……………………………………………………………….. 40
    • 1.5.2     Cellulose nanofibers………………………………………………………………………………………………. 41
  • 1.6    Global nanofibers market size………………………………………………………………………………………… 43
    • 1.6.1     Polymer, alumina, carbon and other nanofiber revenues 2015-2027…………………….. 43
    • 1.6.2     Cellulose nanofiber revenues 2015-2027………………………………………………………………. 47
    • 1.6.3     Regional markets…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 49

2    RESEARCH SCOPE AND METHODOLOGY…………………………….. 53

  • 2.1    Report scope………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 53
  • 2.2    Research methodology…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 53
  • 2.3    MARKET OPPORTUNITY ANALYSIS……………………………………………………………………………. 54
    • 2.3.1     Stage of commercialization…………………………………………………………………………………….. 54
    • 2.3.2     Economic impact by 2027………………………………………………………………………………………. 54
    • 2.3.3     Current market size for equivalent applications……………………………………………………… 54
    • 2.3.4     Ease of commercialization……………………………………………………………………………………… 55
    • 2.3.5     Competitive landscape…………………………………………………………………………………………… 55
    • 2.3.6     Cost……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 55
    • 2.3.7     Competition from other materials…………………………………………………………………………… 55
    • 2.3.8     Regulatory/Government policy push………………………………………………………………………. 55
    • 2.3.9     Market pull……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 56
  • 2.4    MARKET CHALLENGES RATING SYSTEM…………………………………………………………………. 56

3    POLYMER, ALUMINA, CARBON, CELLULOSE AND OTHER NANOFIBERS TECHNICAL OVERVIEW…………………………………………………………….. 59

  • 3.1    Types of nanofibers………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 59
    • 3.1.1     Polymer nanofibers………………………………………………………………………………………………… 60
    • 3.1.2     Alumina nanofibers………………………………………………………………………………………………… 61
    • 3.1.3     Carbon nanofibers………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 61
    • 3.1.4     Cellulose nanofibers………………………………………………………………………………………………. 61
      • 3.1.4.1       Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 64
      • 3.1.4.2       Production methods of CNF producers………………………………………………………….. 65
  • 3.2    Sythesis of nanofibers……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 67
    • 3.2.1     Electrospinning………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 67
    • 3.2.2     Electro-hydrodynamic direct writing……………………………………………………………………….. 68
    • 3.2.3     Centrifugal jet spinning…………………………………………………………………………………………… 69
    • 3.2.4     Plasma-induced synthesis……………………………………………………………………………………… 70
    • 3.2.5     CO2 laser supersonic drawing……………………………………………………………………………….. 70
    • 3.2.6     Solution blow spinning……………………………………………………………………………………………. 70
    • 3.2.7     Cellulose nanofiber synthesis………………………………………………………………………………… 71

4    NANOFIBERS MARKET DYNAMICS……………………………………….. 73

  • 4.1    Routes to commercialization…………………………………………………………………………………………… 73
  • 4.2    Volume of industry demand for nanofibers…………………………………………………………………….. 73
  • 4.3    Current end users for nanofibers, by market and company……………………………………………. 77

5    NANOFIBER TECHNOLOGY READINESS LEVEL (TRL)…………… 81

6    NANOFIBER INDUSTRY ANALYSIS……………………………………….. 82

  • 6.1    Supply chain analysis…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 82
  • 6.2    Production of nanofibers………………………………………………………………………………………………… 85
    • 6.2.1     Cellulose nanofiber production………………………………………………………………………………. 85
    • 6.2.1.1       Production capacities…………………………………………………………………………………….. 85
  • 6.2.2     Production volumes by end user market 2015-2027………………………………………………. 86
    • 6.2.2.1       Polymer, alumina, carbon and other nanofiber………………………………………………. 86
    • 6.2.2.2       Cellulose nanofibers………………………………………………………………………………………. 88
  • 6.2.3     Prices……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 89

7    MARKETS FOR NANOFIBERS……………………………………………….. 91

  • 7.1    COMPOSITES……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 91
    • 7.1.1     Market drivers………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 92
    • 7.1.2     Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 95
    • 7.1.3     Global market revenues…………………………………………………………………………………………. 96
      • 7.1.3.1       Biopackaging composites………………………………………………………………………………. 98
      • 7.1.3.2       Aerospace and aviation composites…………………………………………………………….. 107
      • 7.1.3.3       Automotive composites……………………………………………………………………………….. 113
      • 7.1.3.4       Construction & building composites…………………………………………………………….. 121
  • 7.2    TEXTILES…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 126
    • 7.2.1     Market drivers and trends…………………………………………………………………………………….. 126
    • 7.2.2     Applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 128
      • 7.2.2.1       E-textiles……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 129
      • 7.2.2.2       Sanitary products…………………………………………………………………………………………. 132
    • 7.2.3     Global market size and opportunity……………………………………………………………………… 133
    • 7.2.4     Market challenges………………………………………………………………………………………………… 134
  • 7.3    MEDICAL & HEALTHCARE…………………………………………………………………………………………. 135
    • 7.3.1     Market drivers and trends…………………………………………………………………………………….. 136
    • 7.3.2     Applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 137
      • 7.3.2.1       Drug therapeutics and delivery……………………………………………………………………. 138
      • 7.3.2.2       Medical implants………………………………………………………………………………………….. 139
      • 7.3.2.3       Tissue engineering………………………………………………………………………………………. 140
      • 7.3.2.4       Wound dressings…………………………………………………………………………………………. 140
      • 7.3.2.5       Lateral flow immunoassay labels…………………………………………………………………. 140
    • 7.3.3     Global market size and opportunity……………………………………………………………………… 140
  • 7.4    COATINGS, FILMS & PAINTS…………………………………………………………………………………….. 144
    • 7.4.1     Market drivers and trends…………………………………………………………………………………….. 144
    • 7.4.2     Applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 146
      • 7.4.2.1       Abrasion and scratch resistance………………………………………………………………….. 146
      • 7.4.2.2       Wood coatings…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 146
      • 7.4.2.3       Gas barriers…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 147
    • 7.4.3     Global market size……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 147
    • 7.4.4     Market challenges………………………………………………………………………………………………… 150
  • 7.5    AEROGELS………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 152
    • 7.5.1     Market drivers and trends…………………………………………………………………………………….. 152
    • 7.5.2     Global market size and opportunity……………………………………………………………………… 152
    • 7.5.3     Applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 154
      • 7.5.3.1       Thermal insulation……………………………………………………………………………………….. 154
      • 7.5.3.2       Medical………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 154
      • 7.5.3.3       Shape memory…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 155
  • 7.6    OIL AND GAS EXPLORATION……………………………………………………………………………………. 155
    • 7.6.1     Market drivers and trends…………………………………………………………………………………….. 155
    • 7.6.2     Applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 157
      • 7.6.2.1       Oil and fracking drilling fluids……………………………………………………………………….. 159
      • 7.6.2.2       Extraction…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 159
    • 7.6.3     Global market size and opportunity……………………………………………………………………… 160
    • 7.6.4     Market challenges………………………………………………………………………………………………… 161
  • 7.7    FILTRATION………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 162
    • 7.7.1     Market drivers and trends…………………………………………………………………………………….. 162
    • 7.7.2     Applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 167
      • 7.7.2.1       Water filtration……………………………………………………………………………………………… 168
      • 7.7.2.2       Air filtration…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 169
      • 7.7.2.3       Virus filtration……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 170
    • 7.7.3     Global market size and opportunity……………………………………………………………………… 171
    • 7.7.4     Market challenges………………………………………………………………………………………………… 175
  • 7.8    RHEOLOGY MODIFIERS…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 176
    • 7.8.1     Applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 176
      • 7.8.1.1       Food…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 177
      • 7.8.1.2       Pharmaceuticals………………………………………………………………………………………….. 177
      • 7.8.1.3       Cosmetics……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 177
  • 7.9    ELECTRONICS……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 178
    • 7.9.1     Market drivers and trends…………………………………………………………………………………….. 178
    • 7.9.2     Applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 180
      • 7.9.2.1       Nanofiber sensors……………………………………………………………………………………….. 181
      • 7.9.2.2       Wearable electronics…………………………………………………………………………………… 182
      • 7.9.2.3       Nanopaper…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 184
      • 7.9.2.4       Paper memory……………………………………………………………………………………………… 186
      • 7.9.2.5       Conductive inks……………………………………………………………………………………………. 186
    • 7.9.3     Global market size and opportunity……………………………………………………………………… 187
    • 7.9.4     Market assessment for nanofibers in electronics…………………………………………………. 189
    • 7.9.5     Market challenges………………………………………………………………………………………………… 191
  • 7.10      3D PRINTING…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 193
    • 7.10.1        Market drivers and trends………………………………………………………………………………… 193
    • 7.10.2        Global market size and opportunity………………………………………………………………….. 193
    • 7.10.3        Market challenges……………………………………………………………………………………………. 194
  • 7.11      BATTERIES……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 194
    • 7.11.1        Global market size and opportunity………………………………………………………………….. 195
  • 7.12      PAPER & BOARD……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 196
  • 7.12.1        Market drivers and trends………………………………………………………………………………… 196
  • 7.12.2        Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 196
    • 7.12.2.1     Paper packaging………………………………………………………………………………………….. 198
    • 7.12.2.2     Paper coatings…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 198
    • 7.12.2.3     Anti-microbials……………………………………………………………………………………………… 199
  • 7.12.3        Global market size and opportunity………………………………………………………………….. 199
  • 7.12.4        Market opportunity assessment for nanofibers in paper and board…………………. 201
  • 7.12.5        Market challenges……………………………………………………………………………………………. 203

8    POLYMER, ALUMINA AND CARBON NANOFIBER COMPANY PROFILES………………………………………………………………………………. 204-231 (49 company profiles)

9    CELLULOSE NANOFIBER COMPANY PROFILES………………….. 232-335 (49 company profiles)

10 REFERENCES…………………………………………………………………….. 336

TABLES

  • Table 1: Market summary for polymer, alumina, carbon and other nanofibers…………………………… 28
  • Table 2: Applications of polymer, alumina, carbon and other nanofibers……………………………………. 29
  • Table 3: Markets and applications for cellulose nanofibers………………………………………………………… 31
  • Table 4: Market opportunity assessment for nanofibers, by application……………………………………… 34
  • Table 5: Market drivers for nanofibers………………………………………………………………………………………… 38
  • Table 6: Total global revenues for polymer, alumina, carbon and other nanofiber products 2015-2027, million USD…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 43
  • Table 7 Global revenues for polymer, alumina, carbon and other nanofiber products by type 2015-2027, million USD…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 45
  • Table 8 Global revenues for polymer, alumina, carbon and other nanofiber products by market 2015-2027, million USD………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 46
  • Table 9: Current and planned cellulose nanofiber production capacities, by major suppliers, pilot/pre-commercial and commercial volumes……………………………………………………………………… 49
  • Table 10 Global revenues for polymer, alumina, carbon and other nanofiber products by region 2015-2027, million USD………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 49
  • Table 11: Nanofibers types, properties and applications…………………………………………………………….. 59
  • Table 12: Applications of cellulose nanofibers……………………………………………………………………………. 64
  • Table 13: Production methods of CNF producers………………………………………………………………………. 65
  • Table 14: Nanofibrillated cellulose (MFC) preparation methods, resulting materials and applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 71
  • Table 15: Markets for nanofibers………………………………………………………………………………………………… 73
  • Table 16: Current and potential end users for nanofibers, by market and company…………………… 77
  • Table 17: Market summary for polymer, alumina, carbon and other nanofibers…………………………. 79
  • Table 18: Global nanofiber market supply chain analysis…………………………………………………………… 82
  • Table 19: Global cellulose nanofiber market supply chain analysis……………………………………………. 83
  • Table 20: Production capacities of CNF producers per annum in tons, current and planned……… 85
  • Table 21 Global revenues for polymer, alumina, carbon and other nanofiber products by market 2015-2027, million USD………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 86
  • Table 22: Product/price/application matrix of cellulose nanofiber producers………………………………. 89
  • Table 23: Comparative properties of polymer composites reinforcing materials…………………………. 95
  • Table 24: Equivalent cost of nanocellulose and competitive materials in polymer composites…… 96
  • Table 25: Nanofibers applications timeline in the polymer composites market…………………………… 96
  • Table 26: Application markets, competing materials, nanofibers advantages and current market size in composites………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 97
  • Table 27: Demand for cellulose nanofibers in the composites market, 2015-2027 (tons)…………… 98
  • Table 28: Application markets, competing materials, cellulose nanofiber advantages and current market size in packaging…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 104
  • Table 29:Demand for nanofibers in the biopackaging market, 2015-2027 (tons)……………………… 106
  • Table 30: Market challenges rating for nanofibers in the biopackaging market………………………… 107
  • Table 31: Applications in aerospace composites, by nanomaterials type and benefits thereof…. 110
  • Table 32: Demand for cellulose nanofibers in the aerospace and aviation market, 2015-2028 (tons)…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 112
  • Table 33: Market challenges rating for nanofibers in the aerospace market…………………………….. 113
  • Table 34: Applications of natural fiber composites in vehicles by manufacturers……………………… 115
  • Table 35: Application markets, competing materials, nanofibers advantages and current market size in the automotive sector……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 119
  • Table 36: Demand for nanofibers in the automotive composites market, 2015-2028 (tons)……… 120
  • Table 37: Applications and commercilization challenges for nanofibers in the automotive market. 121
  • Table 38: Market challenges rating for nanofibers in the automotive market……………………………. 121
  • Table 39: Demand for cellulose nanofibers in the construction and building market, 2015-2028 (tons)…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 124
  • Table 40: Market challenges rating for nanofibers in the construction, building protection and architectural exterior coatings market…………………………………………………………………………………. 125
  • Table 41: Desirable functional properties for the textiles industry afforded by the use of nanofibers…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 128
  • Table 42: Demand for polymer nanofibers in the textiles market, 2015-2027 (millions USD)……. 134
  • Table 43: Market challenges rating for nanofibers in the textiles and apparel market………………. 134
  • Table 44: Nanofiber applications timeline in the medical and healthcare markets……………………. 138
  • Table 45: Demand for polymer, alumina, carbon and other nanofibers in the medical and healthcare market, 2015-2027 (million USD)……………………………………………………………………………………….. 142
  • Table 46: Demand for cellulose nanofibers in the medical and healthcare market, 2015-2028 (tons)…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 143
  • Table 47: Application markets, competing materials, nanofibers advantages and current market size in coatings and films…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 148
  • Table 48: Demand for cellulose nanofibers in the paint and coatings market, 2015-2027 (tons). 149
  • Table 49: Market challenges rating for nanofibers in the coatings and films market…………………. 152
  • Table 50: Demand for cellulose nanofibers in the aerogels market, 2015-2027 (tons)……………… 153
  • Table 51: Nanofibers applications timeline in the oil market……………………………………………………… 157
  • Table 52: Application markets, competing materials, cellulose nanofibers advantages and current market size in oil and gas……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 160
  • Table 53: Demand for cellulose nanofibers in the oil and gas exploration market, 2015-2027 (tons)…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 161
  • Table 54: Market challenges rating for nanofibers in the oil and gas exploration market………….. 162
  • Table 55: Types of filtration………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 163
  • Table 56: CNF membranes………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 165
  • Table 57: Nanofibers applications timeline in the filtration market…………………………………………….. 167
  • Table 58: Application markets, competing materials, nanofibers advantages and current market size in filtration…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 172
  • Table 59: Demand for polymer, alumina, carbon and other nanofibers in the air filtration market, 2015-2027 (million USD)…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 173
  • Table 60: Demand for polymer, alumina, carbon and other nanofibers in the liquid filtration market, 2015-2027 (million USD)…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 174
  • Table 61: Demand for cellulose nanofibers in the filtration market, 2015-2027 (tons)………………. 174
  • Table 62: Market challenges rating for nanofibers in the filtration market…………………………………. 175
  • Table 63: Nanofibers applications timeline in the rheology modifiers market……………………………. 176
  • Table 64: Properties of flexible electronics‐cellulose nanofiber film (nanopaper)……………………… 179
  • Table 65: Nanofiber applications timeline in flexible electronics……………………………………………….. 180
  • Table 66: Properties of flexible electronics cellulose nanofiber films………………………………………… 184
  • Table 67: Global market for wearables, 2014-2021, units and US$………………………………………….. 187
  • Table 68: Application markets, competing materials, nanofibers advantages and current market size in electronics………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 189
  • Table 69: Market opportunity assessment for cellulose nanofibers in flexible electronics…………. 190
  • Table 70: Market challenges rating for nanofibers in the printed and flexible electronics market. 192
  • Table 71: Market challenges rating for nanofibers in the 3D printing market…………………………….. 194
  • Table 72: Demand for polymer, carbon and other nanofibers in the batteries market, 2015-2027 (million USD)………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 195
  • Table 73: Nanofibers applications timeline in the paper and board markets…………………………….. 196
  • Table 74: Global packaging market, billions of US$…………………………………………………………………. 199
  • Table 75: Market opportunity assessment for nanofibers in paper and board………………………….. 201
  • Table 76: Demand for cellulose nanofibers in the paper and board market, 2015-2027 (tons)… 202
  • Table 77: Market challenges rating for nanofibers in the paper and board market…………………… 203

 

FIGURES

  • Figure 1: CNF transparent sheet………………………………………………………………………………………………… 43
  • Figure 2: Total global revenues for polymer, alumina, carbon and other nanofiber products 2015-2027, million USD…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 44
  • Figure 3 Global revenues for polymer, alumina, carbon and other nanofiber products by type 2015-2027, million USD…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 45
  • Figure 4 Global revenues for polymer, alumina, carbon and other nanofiber products by market 2015-2027, million USD………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 47
  • Figure 5: Cellulose nanofibers market value, by end user market demand, 2015–2027 (Tons)…. 48
  • Figure 6 Global revenues for polymer, alumina, carbon and other nanofiber products by type 2015-2027, million USD…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 50
  • Figure 7: Demand for cellulose nanofibers by region 2017…………………………………………………………. 51
  • Figure 8: Demand for cellulose nanofibers by region 2027…………………………………………………………. 52
  • Figure 9: Types of nanocellulose………………………………………………………………………………………………… 62
  • Figure 10: Relationship between different kinds of nanocelluloses…………………………………………….. 63
  • Figure 11: CNF gel……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 64
  • Figure 12: Schematic of electrospinning nanofibers…………………………………………………………………… 68
  • Figure 13  Electrohydrodynamic writing of nanofibers………………………………………………………………… 69
  • Figure 14 Centrifugal jet spinning of nanofibers………………………………………………………………………….. 70
  • Figure 15 Solution blow spinning of nanofibers………………………………………………………………………….. 71
  • Figure 16: Schematic of typical commercialization route for nanofiber producer………………………… 73
  • Figure 17: Volume of industry demand by polymer, alumina, carbon and other nanofiber producer sales, 2017…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 76
  • Figure 18: Volume of industry demand by cellulose nanofiber producer sales, 2017…………………. 77
  • Figure 19: Technology Readiness Level (TRL) for nanofibers……………………………………………………. 82
  • Figure 20 Global revenues for polymer, alumina, carbon and other nanofiber products by market 2015-2027, million USD………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 88
  • Figure 21: Cellulose nanofibers market value, by end user market demand, 2015–2027 (Tons).. 88
  • Figure 22: Demand for cellulose nanofibers in the composites market, 2015-2027 (tons)………….. 98
  • Figure 23: Demand for cellulose nanofibers in the biopackaging market, 2015-2027 (tons)…….. 106
  • Figure 24: Demand for cellulose nanofibers in the aerospace and aviation market, 2015-2028 (tons)…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 112
  • Figure 25: Nanomaterials-based automotive components………………………………………………………… 117
  • Figure 26: NFC composite………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 118
  • Figure 27: Demand for cellulose nanofibers in the automotive composites market, 2015-2028 (tons)…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 120
  • Figure 28: Demand for cellulose nanofibers in the construction and building market, 2015-2028 (tons)…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 124
  • Figure 29: <hitoe> nanofiber conductive shirt original design(top) and current design (bottom).. 130
  • Figure 30: Garment-based printable electrodes……………………………………………………………………….. 131
  • Figure 31: CNF deodorant products…………………………………………………………………………………………. 133
  • Figure 32: Demand for polymer nanofibers in the textiles market, 2015-2027 (millions USD)….. 133
  • Figure 33: Demand for polymer, alumina, carbon and other nanofibers in the medical and healthcare market, 2015-2027 (million USD)………………………………………………………………………. 142
  • Figure 34: Demand for cellulose nanofibers in the medical and healthcare market, 2015-2028 (tons)…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 143
  • Figure 35: Demand for cellulose nanofibers in the paints and coatings market, 2015-2027 (tons)…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 149
  • Figure 36: Demand for cellulose nanofibers in the aerogels market, 2015-2027 (tons)……………. 153
  • Figure 37: Nanocellulose sponge developed by EMPA for potential applications in oil recovery. 158
  • Figure 38: Demand for cellulose nanofibers in the oil and gas exploration market, 2015-2027 (tons)…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 161
  • Figure 39: Nanocellulose virus filter paper………………………………………………………………………………… 171
  • Figure 40: Demand for polymer, alumina, carbon and other nanofibers in the air filtration market, 2015-2027 (million USD)…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 172
  • Figure 41: Demand for polymer, alumina, carbon and other nanofibers in the liquid filtration market, 2015-2027 (million USD)…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 173
  • Figure 42: Demand for cellulose nanofibers in the filtration market, 2015-2027 (tons)……………… 174
  • Figure 43: Electronic components using NFC as insulating materials………………………………………. 181
  • Figure 44:  Cellulose nanofiber films…………………………………………………………………………………………. 183
  • Figure 45: Nanocellulose photoluminescent paper…………………………………………………………………… 183
  • Figure 46: LEDs shining on circuitry imprinted on a 5x5cm sheet of CNF………………………………… 184
  • Figure 47: Foldable nanopaper…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 185
  • Figure 48: Foldable nanopaper antenna…………………………………………………………………………………… 186
  • Figure 49: Paper memory (ReRAM)…………………………………………………………………………………………. 186
  • Figure 50: Global market revenues for smart wearable devices 2014-2021, in US$………………… 187
  • Figure 51: Global market revenues for nanotech-enabled smart wearable devices 2014-2021 in US$, conservative estimate………………………………………………………………………………………………… 188
  • Figure 52: Global market revenues for nanotech-enabled smart wearable devices 2014-2021 in US$, optimistic estimate……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 189
  • Figure 53: Demand for polymer, carbon and other nanofibers in the batteries market, 2015-2027 (million USD)………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 195
  • Figure 54: Paper and board global demand……………………………………………………………………………… 200
  • Figure 55: Demand for cellulose nanofibers in the paper and board market, 2015-2027 (tons).. 202
  • Figure 56: Asahi Kasei CNF fabric sheet………………………………………………………………………………….. 236
  • Figure 57: Properties of Asahi Kasei cellulose nanofiber nonwoven fabric………………………………. 237
  • Figure 58: Rheocrysta spray…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 258
  • Figure 59: Hydrophobization facilities for raw pulp……………………………………………………………………. 270
  • Figure 60: Mixing facilities for CNF-reinforced plastic……………………………………………………………….. 270
  • Figure 61: Nippon Paper Industries’ adult diapers……………………………………………………………………. 271
  • Figure 62: CNF transparent film……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 274
  • Figure 63: CNF wet powder……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 275
  • Figure 64: Silk nanofiber (right) and cocoon of raw material…………………………………………………….. 288
  • Figure 65: Flexible electronic substrate made from CNF………………………………………………………….. 299
  • Figure 66: Bio-based barrier bags prepared from Tempo-CNF coated bio-HDPE film……………… 303
  • Figure 67: CNF gel……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 315
  • Figure 68: Block nanocellulose material……………………………………………………………………………………. 316
  • Figure 69: 0.3% aqueous dispersion of sulfated esterified CNF and dried transparent film (front side)……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 320
  • Figure 70: Fluorene cellulose ® powder…………………………………………………………………………………… 325
  • Figure 71: Silver / CNF composite dispersions…………………………………………………………………………. 332
  • Figure 72: CNF/nanosilver powder…………………………………………………………………………………………… 332
  • Figure 73: CNF resin products………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 333