The Global Market for Alternative and Renewable Fuels

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November 2021 | 233 pages, 28 tables, 20 figures | Table of Contents

The sustainability of petroleum-based fuel supply has gained broad attention from the global community due to the increase of usage in various sectors, depletion of petroleum resources, and uncertainty around crude oil market prices. Additionally, environmental problems have also been flagged from the increasing emissions of harmful pollutants and greenhouse gases. Therefore, the use of clean energy sources is crucial. Sustainable, Alternative and Renewable Fuels include bio-fuels, bio-diesel, renewable diesel,  sustainable aviation fuels (SAFs), biogas, electrofuels (e-fuels), green ammonia based on utilization of:

  • First-Generation Feedstocks (food-based) e.g. Waste oils including used cooking oil, animal fats, and other fatty acids.
  • Second-Generation Feedstocks (non-food based) e.g. Lignocellulosic wastes and residues, Energy crops, Agricultural residues, Forestry residues, Biogenic fraction of municipal and industrial waste.
  • Third-Generation Feedstocks e.g. algal biomass
  • Fourth-Generation Feedstocks e.g. genetically modified (GM) algae and cyanobacteria.

 

Report contents include:

  • Market trends and drivers.
  • Market challenges
  • Market analysis including key players, end use markets, production processes, costs, production capacities, market demand for biofuels, bio-jet fuels, biodiesel, renewable diesel, biogas, electrofuels, green ammonia and other relevant technologies. 
  • Industry developments 2020-2021.
  • 95 companies profiled include BTG Bioliquids, Byogy Renewables, Caphenia, Enerkem, Eni S.p.A., Ensyn, FORGE Hydrocarbons Corporation, Genecis Bioindustries, Gevo, Haldor Topsoe, Steeper Energy,  SunFire GmbH, Vertus Energy and many more. 

 

 

 

1              RESEARCH METHODOLOGY         11

 

2              EXECUTIVE SUMMARY   13

  • 2.1          Market drivers  13
  • 2.2          Definitions of advanced, alternative and renewable fuels               16
  • 2.3          Market challenges           19

 

3              INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENTS 2020-2021    20

 

4              BIOFUELS            21

  • 4.1          Feedstocks         22
    • 4.1.1      First-Generation Feedstocks       24
      • 4.1.1.1   Waste fats, oils, and greases       24
    • 4.1.2      Second-Generation Feedstocks 26
      • 4.1.2.1   Lignocellulosic wastes and residues         27
      • 4.1.2.2   Energy crops      28
      • 4.1.2.3   Agricultural residues      30
      • 4.1.2.4   Forestry residues             31
      • 4.1.2.5   Biogenic fraction of municipal and industrial waste           32
    • 4.1.3      Third-Generation Feedstocks     33
      • 4.1.3.1   Algal biofuels     33
    • 4.1.4      Fourth-Generation Feedstocks  35
  • 4.2          Production processes by generation        36
  • 4.3          Bioethanol          39
  • 4.4          Bio-jet (bio-aviation) fuels            41
    • 4.4.1      Description         41
    • 4.4.2      Sustainable aviation fuels market              42
    • 4.4.3      Feedstocks         44
      • 4.4.3.1   Waste fats, oils, and greases       45
      • 4.4.3.2   Lignocellulosic wastes and residues         46
    • 4.4.4      Production pathways     50
      • 4.4.4.1   HEFA bio-jets     50
      • 4.4.4.2   FT fuels 51
      • 4.4.4.3   SIP fuels               52
      • 4.4.4.4   ATJ fuels              53
    • 4.4.5      Costs     54
    • 4.4.6      Biojet fuel production capacities                55
    • 4.4.7      Challenges          56
    • 4.4.8      Market demand forecast in litres and $   57
  • 4.5          Biomass-based diesel     58
    • 4.5.1      Biodiesel              59
      • 4.5.1.1   Introduction       59
      • 4.5.1.2   Production capacities     60
    • 4.5.2      Renewable diesel            61
      • 4.5.2.1   Feedstocks         61
      • 4.5.2.2   Production          62
      • 4.5.2.3   Production capacities     63
      • 4.5.2.4   Market growth  64
  • 4.6          Syngas  65
  • 4.7          Biogas   67
  • 4.8          Biomethanol      70
  • 4.9          Biobutanol          71
  • 4.10        Biofuel challenges            72
  • 4.11        Companies         75

 

5              ELECTROFUELS (E-FUELS)             79

  • 5.1          Introduction       79
    • 5.1.1      Benefits of e-fuels           82
  • 5.2          Feedstocks         83
    • 5.2.1      Hydrogen electrolysis     83
    • 5.2.2      CO2 capture       83
  • 5.3          Electrolysers      85
    • 5.3.1      Commercial alkaline electrolyser cells (AECs)       86
    • 5.3.2      PEM electrolysers            86
    • 5.3.3      High-temperature solid oxide electrolyser cells (SOECs)  86
      • 5.3.3.1   Syngas production           87
      • 5.3.3.2   Companies         88
    • 5.3.4      Electrolysis for power-to-X          90
  • 5.4          Direct Air Capture (DAC)               90
    • 5.4.1      Markets for DAC               92
    • 5.4.2      Costs     93
    • 5.4.3      Challenges          94
    • 5.4.4      Companies and technologies      95
    • 5.4.5      CO2 capture from point sources 98
  • 5.5          Production routes            99
  • 5.6          Costs     100
  • 5.7          Estimate market demand for e-fuels       102
  • 5.8          Market challenges           104
  • 5.9          Companies         107

 

6              GREEN AMMONIA           110

  • 6.1          Production          110
    • 6.1.1      Decarbonisation of ammonia production               113
    • 6.1.2      Green ammonia demonstration plants   114
  • 6.2          Green ammonia synthesis methods         114
    • 6.2.1      Haber-Bosch process      114
    • 6.2.2      Biological nitrogen fixation          115
    • 6.2.3      Electrochemical production         115
    • 6.2.4      Chemical looping processes        116
  • 6.3          Markets and applications              118
    • 6.3.1      Chemical energy storage and transporation          118
      • 6.3.1.1   Ammonia fuel cells          118
    • 6.3.2      Thermal energy storage 119
    • 6.3.3      Transport fuel   120
    • 6.3.4      Marine fuel         121
  • 6.4          Costs     123
  • 6.5          Companies         125

 

7              COMPANY PROFILES       127 (95 company profiles)

 

8              REFERENCES       230

 

Tables

  • Table 1. Market drivers for alternative and biofuels.         13
  • Table 2. Types of advanced, alternative and renewable fuels.       16
  • Table 3. Market challenges for alternative and bio-fuels. 19
  • Table 4. Industry developments in alternative and bio-fuels 2020-2021.    20
  • Table 5. Biofuels summary.          22
  • Table 6. Feedstock conversion pathways.              23
  • Table 7. Operating and planned lignocellulosic biorefineries.        27
  • Table 8.  Lignocellulosic ethanol plants and capacities.     28
  • Table 9. Yield of algae and other biodiesel crops.                33
  • Table 10. Biofuel production processes. 37
  • Table 11. Biofuel production facilities using organic wastes.          37
  • Table 12. Advantages and disadvantages of biojet fuel    43
  • Table 13. Feedstocks for bio-jet fuel production. 44
  • Table 14. Production pathways for bio-jet fuel.   50
  • Table 15. Current and announced biojet fuel facilities and capacities.        55
  • Table 16. Preparation and production of biodiesel using different methods.          59
  • Table 17. Biodiesel production capacities.             60
  • Table 18. Challenges for biofuels.              73
  • Table 19. Bio-fuel producers.      76
  • Table 20. Overview of e-fuels.    82
  • Table 21. Markets for DAC.          93
  • Table 22. Cost estimates of DAC.               94
  • Table 23. DAC technology developers and production.    96
  • Table 24. E-fuels companies.       107
  • Table 25. Green ammonia demonstration plantsGreen ammonia demonstration plants.  115
  • Table 26. Summary of marine alternative fuels.  122
  • Table 27. Main players in green ammonia.            126
  • Table 28. Granbio Nanocellulose Processes.         179

 

Figures

  • Figure 1. SAF demand forecast, billion litres to 2031.         57
  • Figure 2. SAF demand forecast, billion $ to 2031.                58
  • Figure 3. Biodiesel market forecasts to2031.         61
  • Figure 4. Renewable diesel produciton capacities.             64
  • Figure 5. Renewable diesel market forecast to 2031.         65
  • Figure 6. Process steps in the production of electrofuels. 80
  • Figure 7. Schematic of electrofuel production.    82
  • Figure 8. Schematic of Climeworks DAC system. 92
  • Figure 9. E-liquids production routes.      100
  • Figure 10. Fischer-Tropsch liquid e-fuel products.              101
  • Figure 11. Resources required for liquid e-fuel production.            101
  • Figure 12. Liquid hydrocarbon e-fuel costs (min/max).    102
  • Figure 13. Cost breakdown for e-fuels.   102
  • Figure 14.  Estimated market demand for e-fuels.             103
  • Figure 15.  E-fuels final efficiency in engines.       105
  • Figure 16. Green ammonia production and use. 113
  • Figure 17. Schematic of green ammonia production.        115
  • Figure 18. Applications of green ammonia.           119
  • Figure 19. Estimated market demand for green ammonia to 2031.              126
  • Figure 20. Cutlery samples (spoon, knife, fork) made of nano cellulose and biodegradable plastic composite materials.                182

 

 

The Global Market for Alternative and Renewable Fuels
The Global Market for Alternative and Renewable Fuels
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The Global Market for Alternative and Renewable Fuels
The Global Market for Alternative and Renewable Fuels
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