The Global Market for Cellulose Nanofibers to 2030

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Cellulose nanofibers (CNF) are bio-based materials with high mechanical strength (stronger than steel), high aspect ratios, high transparency, and high chemical resistance. They are also lightweight. As a result, they are very attractive for application in composites and thermoplastics.

Research has been active for a number of years and products are now on the market, mainly in Japan. Products include adult diapers, automotive biocomposites, thermoplastic additives. Japanese sports shoe manufacturer Asics has utilized CNF in running shoes, incorporating CNF from Seiko PMC.

Most major paper manufacturers, faced with reduced market demand for paper are seeking to exploit the remarkable properties of CNFs. The market is exploding in Japan with large paper manufacturers such as Nippon Paper and Oji Holdings establishing multi-ton cellulose nanofiber production facilities.

Japanese chemicals manufacturers are also developing cellulose nanofiber production. Facilities have also been established in Europe (mainly Scandanavia), Canada and the United States.

The latest edition of The Global Market for Cellulose Nanofibers features a raft of new information including:

  • Expanded producer profiles including CNF production history, new products, production process from raw materials to products.
  • Expanded patent analysis.
  • Tables of nanocellulose capacities and production process by producer (CNF, CNC and MFC)
  • Competitive landscape analysis for competing materials.
  • Market tonnage estimations by application, based on % wt. of CNF, competing materials, usage (e.g. additive, polymer, coating) and penetration.
  • Analysis of market entry prices per application.

Report contents include:

  • Global production capacities, by producer, current and planned.
  • Production volumes by region.
  • Current products.
  • Stage of commercialization for cellulose nanofiber applications by company.
  • CNF applications by industry.
  • Market drivers, trends and challenges, by end user markets.
  • Competitive landscape of CNF by market, volumes, key trends and growth. Potential for CNF to gain market share by market volume across all end user markets.
  • In-depth market assessment of opportunities for CNF including potential revenues, growth rates, pricing, most likely applications and market challenges.
  • In-depth key player profiles, include products, current capacities and plans for new capacities, production processes, prices per kg and commercial activities. Companies profiled in the report include American Process, Inc., Imerys, Innventia AB, Asahi Kasei, Chuetsu Pulp & Paper Daicel, Daiichi Kogyo, Daio Paper, Nippon Paper, Oji Holdings, Sugino Machine, Seiko PMC, StoraEnso and Borregaard.

Published April 2019 | 318 pages, 140 tables, 112 figures | Table of contents

The Global Market for Cellulose Nanofibers to 2030
The Global Market for Cellulose Nanofibers to 2030
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The Global Market for Cellulose Nanofibers to 2030
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TABLE OF CONTENTS

1    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY………………………………………………………………. 30

  • 1.1     Applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 30
  • 1.2     Nanocellulose production capacities…………………………………………………………………………………………. 34
    • 1.2.1       Cellulose nanofibers (CNF)……………………………………………………………………………………………. 35
    • 1.2.2       Microfibrillated cellulose (MFC)……………………………………………………………………………………….. 36
    • 1.2.3       Cellulose nanocrystals(CNC)………………………………………………………………………………………….. 36
  • 1.3     Main opportunities in cellulose nanofibers………………………………………………………………………………….. 37
  • 1.4     Global production…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 40
    • 1.4.1       Production plants and production status……………………………………………………………………………. 40
  • 1.5     Market trends……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 41
  • 1.6     Market and technical challenges……………………………………………………………………………………………… 42
  • 1.7     Global cellulose nanofibers market size…………………………………………………………………………………….. 43
    • 1.7.1       The market for cellulose nanofibers in 2017……………………………………………………………………….. 43
    • 1.7.2       The market for cellulose nanofibers in 2018……………………………………………………………………….. 45
    • 1.7.3       CNF/MFC demand in tons, 2015–2030…………………………………………………………………………….. 46
    • 1.7.4       Cellulose nanofiber market by region……………………………………………………………………………….. 46
      • 1.7.4.1    Asia-Pacific……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 46

2    RESEARCH SCOPE AND METHODOLOGY…………………………………………. 48

  • 2.1     Report scope………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 48
  • 2.2     Research methodology………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 48
  • 2.3     Market opportunity analysis……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 49
    • 2.3.1       Stage of commercialization…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 49
    • 2.3.2       Economic impact by 2030……………………………………………………………………………………………… 49
    • 2.3.3       Current market size for equivalent applications…………………………………………………………………… 49
    • 2.3.4       Ease of commercialization……………………………………………………………………………………………… 49
    • 2.3.5       Competitive landscape………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 49
    • 2.3.6       Cost………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 50
    • 2.3.7       Competition from other materials…………………………………………………………………………………….. 50
    • 2.3.8       Regulatory/Government policy push…………………………………………………………………………………. 50
    • 2.3.9       Market pull…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 50
  • 2.4     Market challenges rating system……………………………………………………………………………………………… 50

3    INTRODUCTION…………………………………………………………………………. 52

  • 3.1     Cellulose……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 52
  • 3.2     Nanocellulose……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 52
  • 3.3     Properties of nanocellulose…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 53
  • 3.4     Advantages of nanocellulose………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 54
  • 3.5     Manufacture of CNF……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 54
  • 3.6     Production methods……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 55
  • 3.7     Types of nanocellulose………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 56
    • 3.7.1       Microfibrillated cellulose (MFC)……………………………………………………………………………………….. 58
    • 3.7.2       Cellulose nanofibers (CNF)……………………………………………………………………………………………. 58
      • 3.7.2.1    Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 58
      • 3.7.2.2    Production methods of CNF producers…………………………………………………………………………. 60
    • 3.7.3       Cellulose nanocrystals (CNC)…………………………………………………………………………………………. 61
      • 3.7.3.1    Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 62
      • 3.7.3.2    Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 63
    • 3.7.4       Bacterial Cellulose (BC)………………………………………………………………………………………………… 64
      • 3.7.4.1    Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 64
  • 3.8     Synthesis…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 64
    • 3.8.1       Microcrystalline cellulose (MC)……………………………………………………………………………………….. 65
    • 3.8.2       Microfibrillated cellulose (MFC)……………………………………………………………………………………….. 65
    • 3.8.3       Nanofibrillated cellulose (CNF)……………………………………………………………………………………….. 65
    • 3.8.4       Cellulose nanocrystals (CNC)…………………………………………………………………………………………. 66
    • 3.8.5       Bacterial cellulose particles (BC)…………………………………………………………………………………… 66

4    MARKET STRUCTURE……………………………………………………………………. 68

  • 4.1     Volume of industry demand for cellulose nanofibers…………………………………………………………………….. 68
  • 4.2     Current end users for cellulose nanofibers, by market and company………………………………………………… 69

5    SWOT ANALYSIS……………………………………………………………………… 71

6    REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS……………………………………………………. 73

  • 6.1     Standards…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 73
    • 6.1.1       International Standards Organization (ISO)……………………………………………………………………….. 73
    • 6.1.2       American National Standards…………………………………………………………………………………………. 73
    • 6.1.3       CSA Group…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 73
  • 6.2     Toxicity………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 73
  • 6.3     Regulation………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 75

7    GOVERNMENT FUNDING……………………………………………………………… 76

8    APPLICATIONS…………………………………………………………………………. 77

  • 8.1     High volume, medium volume and low volume cellulose nanofiber applications………………………………….. 77

9   TECHNOLOGY READINESS LEVEL (TRL)………………………………………….. 78

10 SUPPLY CHAIN………………………………………………………………………… 79

11 CNF PRICING/KG……………………………………………………………………… 81

12 PATENTS AND PUBLICATIONS………………………………………………………. 83

13 COMPETING MATERIALS…………………………………………………………….. 87

  • 13.1        Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT)……………………………………………………………………………… 87
    • 13.1.1     Brief description…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 87
    • 13.1.2     Volumes, values and growth…………………………………………………………………………………………… 87
    • 13.1.3     Key Trends…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 87
  • 13.2        Graphene………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 87
    • 13.2.1     Brief description…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 88
    • 13.2.2     Volumes, values and growth…………………………………………………………………………………………… 88
    • 13.2.3     Key Trends…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 88
  • 13.3        Carbon fibers………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 89
    • 13.3.1     Brief description…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 89
    • 13.3.2     Volumes, values and growth…………………………………………………………………………………………… 89
    • 13.3.3     Key Trends…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 89
    • 13.3.4     Growth………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 89

14 MARKETS FOR CELLULOSE NANOFIBERS…………………………………………… 91

  • 14.1        Composites market………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 91
    • 14.1.1     Trends in the composites market and CNF solutions……………………………………………………………. 91
    • 14.1.2     Comparison of CNF to other composite materials……………………………………………………………….. 93
    • 14.1.3     Applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 93
      • 14.1.3.1       By cellulose type…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 93
      • 14.1.3.2       Applications roadmap…………………………………………………………………………………………… 94
  • 14.2        Packaging………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 95
    • 14.2.1     Market trends and CNF solution………………………………………………………………………………………. 95
      • 14.2.1.1       Growth in the bio-based packaging sector…………………………………………………………………. 95
      • 14.2.1.2       Growth in the barrier food packaging sector………………………………………………………………. 96
      • 14.2.1.3       Growth in active packaging……………………………………………………………………………………. 96
      • 14.2.1.4       High demand for packaging films resistant to oxygen and moisture to increase shelf life……… 97
      • 14.2.1.5       Shortcoming of packaging biopolymers…………………………………………………………………….. 97
      • 14.2.1.6       Sustainable packaging solutions……………………………………………………………………………… 97
      • 14.2.1.7       Demand for packaging with enhanced functionality……………………………………………………… 97
      • 14.2.1.8       Anti-microbial packaging biofilm market is growing……………………………………………………… 98
    • 14.2.2     Applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 99
      • 14.2.2.1       Anti-bacterial………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 99
      • 14.2.2.2       Gas barrier………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 99
    • 14.2.3     CNF market in packaging…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 100
      • 14.2.3.1       Applications market readiness and market acceptability analysis………………………………….. 102
      • 14.2.3.2       Global demand in tons for CNF in packaging……………………………………………………………. 102
    • 14.2.4     Market challenges………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 103
    • 14.2.5     Product developer profiles……………………………………………………………………………………………. 104
  • 14.3        Aircraft and aerospace…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 105
    • 14.3.1     Market trends and CNF solution…………………………………………………………………………………….. 105
    • 14.3.2     Applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 106
      • 14.3.2.1       Composites………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 106
    • 14.3.3     CNF market in aircraft and aerospace…………………………………………………………………………….. 107
      • 14.3.3.1       Applications market readiness and market acceptability analysis………………………………….. 107
      • 14.3.3.2       Global demand in tons in aircraft and aerospace………………………………………………………. 107
    • 14.3.4     Market challenges………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 108
    • 14.3.5     Product developer profiles……………………………………………………………………………………………. 108
  • 14.4        Automotive……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 110
    • 14.4.1     Market trends and CNF solution…………………………………………………………………………………….. 110
      • 14.4.1.1       Environmental regulations……………………………………………………………………………………. 110
      • 14.4.1.2       Lightweighting…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 110
      • 14.4.1.3       Increasing use of natural fiber composites……………………………………………………………….. 110
      • 14.4.1.4       Safety……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 112
      • 14.4.1.5       Cost………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 112
    • 14.4.2     Applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 112
      • 14.4.2.1       Composites………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 112
      • 14.4.2.2       Polymer composites…………………………………………………………………………………………… 114
      • 14.4.2.3       Tires……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 115
      • 14.4.2.4       Applications market readiness and market acceptability analysis………………………………….. 116
      • 14.4.2.5       Global demand in tons in automotive……………………………………………………………………… 116
    • 14.4.3     Market challenges………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 117
    • 14.4.4     Product developer profiles……………………………………………………………………………………………. 118
  • 14.5        Construction and buildings……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 120
    • 14.5.1     Market drivers and trends…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 120
    • 14.5.2     Applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 121
    • 14.5.3     CNF market in construction………………………………………………………………………………………….. 121
      • 14.5.3.1       Applications market readiness and market acceptability analysis………………………………….. 121
      • 14.5.3.2       Global demand in tons in construction…………………………………………………………………….. 123
    • 14.5.4     Market challenges………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 124
    • 14.5.5     Product developer profiles……………………………………………………………………………………………. 125
  • 14.6        Paper and board…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 126
    • 14.6.1     Market drivers and trends…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 126
    • 14.6.2     Applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 126
    • 14.6.3     Properties…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 126
      • 14.6.3.1       Reinforcing agents……………………………………………………………………………………………… 127
      • 14.6.3.2       Transparency and flexibility………………………………………………………………………………….. 127
      • 14.6.3.3       Paper packaging……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 127
      • 14.6.3.4       Paper coatings………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 127
      • 14.6.3.5       Anti-microbials…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 127
    • 14.6.4     CNF market in paper & board……………………………………………………………………………………….. 128
      • 14.6.4.1       Applications market readiness and market acceptability analysis………………………………….. 128
      • 14.6.4.2       Global demand in tons in paper & board…………………………………………………………………. 128
    • 14.6.5     Market challenges………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 129
    • 14.6.6     Product developer profiles……………………………………………………………………………………………. 130
  • 14.7        Textiles and apparel……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 131
    • 14.7.1     Market drivers and trends…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 131
    • 14.7.2     Applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 132
      • 14.7.2.1       Sanitary products………………………………………………………………………………………………. 132
    • 14.7.3     CNF market in textiles…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 133
      • 14.7.3.1       Applications market readiness and market acceptability analysis………………………………….. 133
      • 14.7.3.2       Global demand in tons in textiles…………………………………………………………………………… 133
    • 14.7.4     Market challenges………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 134
    • 14.7.5     Product developer profiles……………………………………………………………………………………………. 135
  • 14.8        Medicine & healthcare…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 136
    • 14.8.1     Market drivers and trends…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 136
    • 14.8.2     Applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 137
      • 14.8.2.1       Drug delivery…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 137
      • 14.8.2.2       Medical implants………………………………………………………………………………………………… 138
      • 14.8.2.3       Tissue engineering…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 138
      • 14.8.2.4       Wound dressings……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 138
      • 14.8.2.5       Lateral flow immunoassay labels…………………………………………………………………………… 139
    • 14.8.3     CNF market in medical & healthcare………………………………………………………………………………. 139
      • 14.8.3.1       Applications market readiness and market acceptability analysis………………………………….. 139
      • 14.8.3.2       Global demand in tons in medical & healthcare………………………………………………………… 140
    • 14.8.4     Product developer profiles……………………………………………………………………………………………. 141
  • 14.9        Coatings………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 142
    • 14.9.1     Market drivers and trends…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 142
    • 14.9.2     Applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 144
      • 14.9.2.1       Abrasion and scratch resistance……………………………………………………………………………. 144
      • 14.9.2.2       Wood coatings………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 144
      • 14.9.2.3       Anti-counterfeiting films……………………………………………………………………………………….. 144
      • 14.9.2.4       Gas barriers……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 145
    • 14.9.3     CNF market in coatings……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 145
      • 14.9.3.1       Applications market readiness and market acceptability analysis………………………………….. 147
      • 14.9.3.2       Global demand in tons in paints and coatings…………………………………………………………… 147
    • 14.9.4     Market challenges………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 148
    • 14.9.5     Product developer profiles……………………………………………………………………………………………. 150
  • 14.10      Aerogels………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 151
    • 14.10.1        Market drivers and trends………………………………………………………………………………………… 151
    • 14.10.2        Applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 151
      • 14.10.2.1     Thermal insulation……………………………………………………………………………………………… 151
      • 14.10.2.2     Shape memory………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 152
    • 14.10.3        CNF market in aerogels…………………………………………………………………………………………… 152
    • 14.10.4        Global demand in tons in aerogels……………………………………………………………………………… 152
    • 14.10.5        Product developer profiles……………………………………………………………………………………….. 153
  • 14.11      Oil and gas……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 154
    • 14.11.1        Market drivers and trends………………………………………………………………………………………… 154
    • 14.11.2        Applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 155
      • 14.11.2.1     Oil and fracking drilling fluids………………………………………………………………………………… 155
      • 14.11.2.2     Water-based drilling fluids……………………………………………………………………………………. 155
      • 14.11.2.3     Extraction…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 156
    • 14.11.3        CNF market in oil and gas………………………………………………………………………………………… 156
      • 14.11.3.1     Market assessment for cellulose nanofibers in oil and gas…………………………………………… 157
      • 14.11.3.2     Global demand in tons in oil and gas……………………………………………………………………… 158
    • 14.11.4        Market challenges………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 159
    • 14.11.5        Product developer profiles……………………………………………………………………………………….. 159
  • 14.12      Filtration……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 160
    • 14.12.1        Market drivers and trends………………………………………………………………………………………… 160
    • 14.12.2        Applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 161
      • 14.12.2.1     Nanomaterials in filtration…………………………………………………………………………………….. 161
      • 14.12.2.2     CNF membranes and filters………………………………………………………………………………….. 161
      • 14.12.2.3     Water filtration…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 162
      • 14.12.2.4     Air filtration……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 163
      • 14.12.2.5     Virus filtration……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 164
    • 14.12.3        CNF market in filtration and separation……………………………………………………………………….. 164
      • 14.12.3.1     Market assessment for cellulose nanofibers in filtration and separation………………………….. 165
      • 14.12.3.2     Global demand in tons in filtration………………………………………………………………………….. 165
    • 14.12.4        Market challenges………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 167
    • 14.12.5        Product developer profiles……………………………………………………………………………………….. 167
  • 14.13      Rheology modifiers…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 169
    • 14.13.1        Applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 169
      • 14.13.1.1     Food……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 169
      • 14.13.1.2     Pharmaceuticals………………………………………………………………………………………………… 169
      • 14.13.1.3     Cosmetics………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 170
    • 14.13.2        Product developer profiles……………………………………………………………………………………….. 170
  • 14.14      Printed, stretchable and flexible electronics………………………………………………………………………….. 171
    • 14.14.1        Market drivers and trends………………………………………………………………………………………… 171
    • 14.14.2        Applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 172
      • 14.14.2.1     Wearable electronics………………………………………………………………………………………….. 173
      • 14.14.2.2     Nanopaper……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 174
      • 14.14.2.3     Paper memory…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 175
      • 14.14.2.4     Conductive inks…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 175
    • 14.14.3        Global market size and opportunity…………………………………………………………………………….. 175
    • 14.14.4        Market assessment for cellulose nanofibers in printed and flexible electronics……………………… 178
    • 14.14.5        Market challenges………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 179
    • 14.14.6        Product developer profiles……………………………………………………………………………………….. 180
  • 14.15      3D printing……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 182
    • 14.15.1        Market drivers and trends………………………………………………………………………………………… 182
    • 14.15.2        Applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 183
    • 14.15.3        Global market size and opportunity…………………………………………………………………………….. 183
      • 14.15.3.1     Market assessment for cellulose nanofibers in 3D printing…………………………………………… 184
    • 14.15.4        Market challenges………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 184
    • 14.15.5        Product developer profiles……………………………………………………………………………………….. 184

15 CELLULOSE NANOFIBER COMPANY PROFILES………………………………….. 186

16 CELLULOSE NANOFIBER RESEARCH GROUPS AND CENTRES     296

17 REFERENCES…………………………………………………………………………. 308

Tables

  • Table 1: Market summary for nanocellulose-Selling grade particle diameter, usage, advantages, average price/ton, market estimates, global consumption, main current applications, future applications………………………………… 30
  • Table 2: Markets and applications for nanocellulose…………………………………………………………………………………. 32
  • Table 3: CNF producer capacities 2018…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 35
  • Table 4: MFC producer capacities 2018…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 36
  • Table 5: Cellulose nanocrystal producer capacities 2018…………………………………………………………………………… 36
  • Table 6: Market opportunity assessment for cellulose nanofibers, by application…………………………………………….. 37
  • Table 7: Nanocellulose (CNF, MFC, NCC) production plants worldwide and production status…………………………… 40
  • Table 8: Market trends in cellulose nanofibers…………………………………………………………………………………………. 41
  • Table 9: Market and technical challenges in cellulose nanofibers…………………………………………………………………. 42
  • Table 10: Properties and applications of nanocellulose……………………………………………………………………………… 53
  • Table 11: Properties of cellulose nanofibrils relative to metallic and polymeric materials……………………………………. 55
  • Table 12: Types of nanocellulose…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 57
  • Table 13: Applications of cellulose nanofibers (CNF)………………………………………………………………………………… 59
  • Table 14: Production methods of main CNF producers……………………………………………………………………………… 60
  • Table 15: CNC sources and scale………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 62
  • Table 16: CNC properties…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 62
  • Table 17: Applications of nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC)………………………………………………………………………….. 63
  • Table 18: Applications of bacterial cellulose (BC)…………………………………………………………………………………….. 64
  • Table 19: Microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) preparation methods, resulting materials and applications…………………. 65
  • Table 20: Microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) preparation methods, resulting materials and applications…………………… 65
  • Table 21: Nanofibrillated cellulose (CNF) preparation methods, resulting materials and applications……………………. 65
  • Table 22: Cellulose nanocrystals (MFC) preparation methods, resulting materials and applications…………………….. 66
  • Table 23: Cellulose nanocrystals (MFC) preparation methods, resulting materials and applications…………………….. 66
  • Table 24: Current and potential end users for cellulose nanofibers, by market and company……………………………… 69
  • Table 25: SWOT analysis of cellulose nanofibers…………………………………………………………………………………….. 71
  • Table 26: Safety of Micro/Nanofibrillated cellulose……………………………………………………………………………………. 74
  • Table 27: Identified applications of CNFs and their categorization……………………………………………………………….. 77
  • Table 28: Global cellulose nanofiber market supply chain analysis………………………………………………………………. 79
  • Table 29: Product/price/application matrix of cellulose nanofiber producers…………………………………………………… 81
  • Table 30: Published patent publications for nanocellulose, 1997-2017………………………………………………………….. 83
  • Table 31: Nanocellulose patents by organisation……………………………………………………………………………………… 84
  • Table 32: Nanocellulose patents by organisation……………………………………………………………………………………… 85
  • Table 33: Main patent assignees for NCC………………………………………………………………………………………………. 85
  • Table 34: Main patent assignees for NFC………………………………………………………………………………………………. 86
  • Table 35: Main patent assignees for BCC………………………………………………………………………………………………. 86
  • Table 36: Price comparison of CNF applications versus entry price of other materials in composites…………………… 87
  • Table 37. Main applications for carbon fibers, volumes, potential for CNF to gain market share………………………….. 89
  • Table 38: Market drivers, trends and CNF solutions in composites market…………………………………………………….. 91
  • Table 39: Comparative properties of polymer composites reinforcing materials………………………………………………. 93
  • Table 40: Applications of nanocellulose in polymer composites by cellulose type…………………………………………….. 93
  • Table 41: Nanocellulose applications timeline in the polymer composites market…………………………………………….. 94
  • Table 42: Examples of antimicrobial immobilization into cellulose nanofibers………………………………………………….. 98
  • Table 43: Oxygen permeability of nanocellulose films compared to those made form commercially available petroleum based materials and other polymers……………………………………………………………………………………………… 100
  • Table 44: Market assessment for cellulose nanofibers in packaging……………………………………………………………. 100
  • Table 45: Application markets, competing materials, CNF advantages and current market size in packaging………. 100
  • Table 46: Market opportunity assessment for cellulose nanofibers in biopackaging………………………………………… 102
  • Table 47: Demand for cellulose nanofibers in the packaging market, 2015-2030 (tons)…………………………………… 103
  • Table 48: Market challenges rating for cellulose nanofibers in the biopackaging market………………………………….. 104
  • Table 49: Companies developing nanocellulose products in bio packaging, applications targeted and stage of commercialization……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 104
  • Table 50: Market drivers, trends and CNF solutions in aircraft and aerospace market…………………………………….. 105
  • Table 51. Application of CNF in aircraft and aerospace composites-usage, motivating, competing materials, overall market size, potential market for CNF……………………………………………………………………………………………. 106
  • Table 52: Market opportunity assessment for cellulose nanofibers in aircraft and aerospace……………………………. 107
  • Table 53: Demand for cellulose nanofibers in the aerospace and aviaton market, 2015-2030 (tons)…………………… 108
  • Table 54: Market challenges rating for cellulose nanofibers in the aircraft and aerospace market………………………. 108
  • Table 55: Companies developing CNF products aircraft and aerospace, applications targeted and stage of commercialization……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 108
  • Table 56: Applications of natural fiber composites in vehicles by manufacturers……………………………………………. 111
  • Table 57. Application of CNFs in polymer composites in automotive…………………………………………………………… 114
  • Table 58. Application of CNFs in tires in automotive tyres………………………………………………………………………… 115
  • Table 59: Market opportunity assessment for cellulose nanofibers in the automotive industry…………………………… 116
  • Table 60: Demand for cellulose nanofibers in the automotive market, 2015-2030 (tons)………………………………….. 117
  • Table 61: Applications and commercilization challenges for cellulose nanofibers in the automotive market………….. 117
  • Table 62: Market challenges rating for cellulose nanofibers in the automotive market…………………………………….. 117
  • Table 63: Companies developing cellulose nanofibers products in the automotive industry, applications targeted and stage of commercialization………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 118
  • Table 64: Market drivers, trends and CNF solutions in construction market………………………………………………….. 120
  • Table 65: Comparison of nanocellulose with steel and other materials………………………………………………………… 121
  • Table 66: Market opportunity assessment for cellulose nanofibers in the construction industry…………………………. 121
  • Table 67. Application of CNFs in cement………………………………………………………………………………………………. 122
  • Table 68. Application of CNFs in ultra-high performance concrete……………………………………………………………… 123
  • Table 69: Demand for cellulose nanofibers in the construction and building market, 2015-2030 (tons)……………….. 124
  • Table 70: Market challenges rating for cellulose nanofibers in the construction, building protection and architectural exterior coatings market……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 124
  • Table 71: Cellulose nanofibers in construction-Companies and products……………………………………………………… 125
  • Table 72: Market drivers, trends and CNF solutions in the paper and board market……………………………………….. 126
  • Table 73: Cellulose nanofibers applications timeline in the paper and board markets……………………………………… 126
  • Table 74: Market opportunity assessment for cellulose nanofibers in paper and board……………………………………. 128
  • Table 75: Demand for cellulose nanofibers in the paper and board market, 2015-2030 (tons)…………………………… 129
  • Table 76: Market challenges rating for cellulose nanofibers in the paper and board market……………………………… 129
  • Table 77: Companies developing cellulose nanofibers products in paper and board, applications targeted and stage of commercialization……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 130
  • Table 78: Market drivers, trends and CNF solutions in the textiles market……………………………………………………. 131
  • Table 79: Market opportunity assessment for cellulose nanofibers in textiles………………………………………………… 133
  • Table 80: Demand for cellulose nanofibers in the paper and board market, 2015-2030 (tons)…………………………… 134
  • Table 81: Market challenges rating for cellulose nanofibers in the textiles market………………………………………….. 134
  • Table 82: Companies developing cellulose nanofibers products in textiles, applications targeted and stage of commercialization……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 135
  • Table 83: Market drivers, trends and CNF solutions in the medicine and healthcare market…………………………….. 136
  • Table 84: Cellulose nanofiber applications timeline in the medicine and healthcare markets…………………………….. 137
  • Table 85: Market opportunity assessment for cellulose nanofibers in medicine and healthcare…………………………. 139
  • Table 86: Demand for cellulose nanofibers in the medical and healthcare market, 2015-2030 (tons)………………….. 140
  • Table 87: Cellulose nanofibers product developers in medical and healthcare applications………………………………. 141
  • Table 88: Market drivers, trends and CNF solutions in the coatings market………………………………………………….. 142
  • Table 89: Nanocellulose applications timeline in the coatings and paints markets………………………………………….. 144
  • Table 90: Market assessment for cellulose nanofibers in coatings……………………………………………………………… 145
  • Table 91: Application markets, competing materials, cellulose nanofibers advantages and current market size in coatings and films……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 146
  • Table 92: Market opportunity assessment for cellulose nanofibers in coatings………………………………………………. 147
  • Table 93: Demand for cellulose nanofibers in the paint and coatings market, 2015-2030 (tons)………………………… 148
  • Table 94: Market challenges for CNF in coatings……………………………………………………………………………………. 148
  • Table 95: Market challenges rating for cellulose nanofibers in the coatings and films market……………………………. 149
  • Table 96: Companies developing cellulose nanofibers products in paper coatings and non-packaging coating products, applications targeted and stage of commercialization………………………………………………………………………… 150
  • Table 97: Market drivers, trends and CNF solutions in the aerogels market………………………………………………….. 151
  • Table 98: Cellulose nanofibers applications timeline in the aerogels market…………………………………………………. 151
  • Table 99: Demand for cellulose nanofibers in the aerogels market, 2015-2030 (tons)…………………………………….. 153
  • Table 100: Cellulose nanofibers product developers in aerogels………………………………………………………………… 153
  • Table 101: Market drivers, trends and CNF solutions in the filtration market…………………………………………………. 154
  • Table 102: Cellulose nanofibers applications timeline in the oil market………………………………………………………… 155
  • Table 103: Application markets, competing materials, cellulose nanofibers advantages and current market size in oil and gas………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 156
  • Table 104: Market assessment for cellulose nanofibers in oil and gas…………………………………………………………. 157
  • Table 105: Cellulose nanofibers in the oil and gas market-applications, stage of commercialization and estimated economic impact………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 157
  • Table 106: Demand for cellulose nanofibers in the oil and gas exploration market, 2015-2030 (tons)…………………. 158
  • Table 107: Market challenges rating for cellulose nanofibers in the oil and gas exploration market…………………….. 159
  • Table 108: Cellulose nanofibers product developers in oil and gas exploration……………………………………………… 159
  • Table 109: Market drivers, trends and CNF solutions in the filtration market…………………………………………………. 160
  • Table 110: Nanocellulose applications timeline in the filtration market…………………………………………………………. 161
  • Table 111: Types of filtration……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 162
  • Table 112: CNF membranes……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 163
  • Table 113: Application markets, competing materials, cellulose nanofibers advantages and current market size in filtration…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 165
  • Table 114: Market assessment for cellulose nanofibers in filtration…………………………………………………………….. 165
  • Table 115: Market opportunity assessment for cellulose nanofibers in the filtration industry……………………………… 165
  • Table 116: Demand for cellulose nanofibers in the filtration market, 2015-2030 (tons)…………………………………….. 166
  • Table 117: Market challenges rating for cellulose nanofibers in the filtration market……………………………………….. 167
  • Table 118: Companies developing cellulose nanofiber products in filtration, applications targeted and stage of commercialization……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 167
  • Table 119: Cellulose nanofibers applications timeline in the rheology modifiers market…………………………………… 169
  • Table 120: Commercial activity in cellulose nanofiber rheology modifiers…………………………………………………….. 170
  • Table 121: Market drivers, trends and CNF solutions in the printed and flexible electronics market……………………. 171
  • Table 122: Cellulose nanofiber applications timeline in flexible electronics…………………………………………………… 172
  • Table 123: Properties of flexible electronics‐cellulose nanofiber film (nanopaper)…………………………………………… 173
  • Table 124: Properties of flexible electronics cellulose nanofiber films………………………………………………………….. 174
  • Table 125: Global market for wearables, 2014-2021, units and US$…………………………………………………………… 176
  • Table 126: Application markets, competing materials, Cellulose nanofibers advantages and current market size in electronics……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 178
  • Table 127: Market assessment for cellulose nanofibers in the flexible and printed electronics sector………………….. 178
  • Table 128: Market opportunity assessment for cellulose nanofibers in flexible electronics……………………………….. 179
  • Table 129: Market challenges for use of CNF in printed and flexible electronics…………………………………………….. 179
  • Table 130: Market challenges rating for cellulose nanofibers in the printed and flexible electronics market………….. 180
  • Table 131: Companies developing cellulose nanofiber products in paper electronics, applications targeted and stage of commercialization……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 180
  • Table 132: Market drivers, trends and CNF solutions in the 3D printing market……………………………………………… 182
  • Table 133: Applications of CNF in 3D printing………………………………………………………………………………………… 183
  • Table 134. Application of CNFs in 3D printing………………………………………………………………………………………… 183
  • Table 135: Market opportunity assessment for cellulose nanofibers in 3D printing…………………………………………. 184
  • Table 136: Market challenges rating for cellulose nanofibers in the 3D printing market……………………………………. 184
  • Table 137: Companies developing cellulose nanofibers 3D printing products………………………………………………… 184
  • Table 138: Nanocellulose producers and types of nanocellulose produced…………………………………………………… 186
  • Table 139: Target market, by nanocellulose producer……………………………………………………………………………… 188
  • Table 140: Oji Holdings CNF products…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 256

 

Figures

  • Figure 1: Market segmentation by type of nanocellulose, capacities 2018……………………………………………………… 35
  • Figure 2: Market segmentation by type of nanocellulose, percentage……………………………………………………………. 35
  • Figure 3: CNF wet powder………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 40
  • Figure 4: Cellulose nanofiber transparent sheet………………………………………………………………………………………. 44
  • Figure 5: Cellulose Nanofiber (CNF) composite with polyethylene (PE)…………………………………………………………. 44
  • Figure 6: CNF products……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 44
  • Figure 7: XCNF………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 45
  • Figure 8: CNF/MFC market value, by end user market demand, 2015–2030 (Tons)………………………………………… 46
  • Figure 9: CNF/MFC market by region, 2017……………………………………………………………………………………………. 47
  • Figure 10: CNF/MFC market by region, 2030………………………………………………………………………………………….. 47
  • Figure 11: Schematic diagram of partial molecular structure of cellulose chain with numbering for carbon atoms and n= number of cellobiose repeating unit………………………………………………………………………………………………… 52
  • Figure 12: Scale of cellulose materials…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 53
  • Figure 13: Types of nanocellulose………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 56
  • Figure 14: Relationship between different kinds of nanocelluloses……………………………………………………………….. 57
  • Figure 15: CNF gel……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 59
  • Figure 16: TEM image of cellulose nanocrystals………………………………………………………………………………………. 61
  • Figure 17: An iridescent biomimetic cellulose multilayer film remains after water that contains cellulose nanocrystals evaporates………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 61
  • Figure 18: Extracting CNC from trees……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 62
  • Figure 19: CNC slurry………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 63
  • Figure 20: Schematic of typical commercialization route for cellulose nanofiber producer………………………………….. 68
  • Figure 21: Volume of industry demand for CNF (external producer usage and external sales), 2017……………………. 69
  • Figure 22: Technology Readiness Level (TRL) for cellulose nanofibers…………………………………………………………. 78
  • Figure 23:  Nanocellulose patents by field of application……………………………………………………………………………. 84
  • Figure 24: Example process for producing NFC packaging film…………………………………………………………………… 98
  • Figure 25: Demand for cellulose nanofibers in the packaging market, 2015-2030 (tons)………………………………….. 102
  • Figure 26: Demand for cellulose nanofibers in the aerospace and aviaton market, 2015-2030 (tons)…………………. 107
  • Figure 27: Nanomaterials-based automotive components………………………………………………………………………… 112
  • Figure 28: CNF car engine cover developed in Japan Ministry of the Environment’s (MOE) Nano Cellulose Vehicle (NCV) Project…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 113
  • Figure 29: The structure of the CNF-based front hood…………………………………………………………………………….. 113
  • Figure 30: NFC composite………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 113
  • Figure 31: Demand for cellulose nanofibers in the automotive market, 2015-2030 (tons)…………………………………. 116
  • Figure 32: Nanowood with hierarchically aligned cellulose nanofibrils for insulation………………………………………… 121
  • Figure 33: Demand for cellulose nanofibers in the construction and building market, 2015-2030 (tons)………………. 123
  • Figure 34: Demand for cellulose nanofibers in the paper and board market, 2015-2030 (tons)………………………….. 129
  • Figure 35: CNF deoderant products…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 132
  • Figure 36: Demand for cellulose nanofibers in the textiles market, 2015-2030 (tons)………………………………………. 133
  • Figure 37: Demand for cellulose nanofibers in the medical and healthcare market, 2015-2030 (tons)…………………. 140
  • Figure 38: Demand for cellulose nanofibers in the paints and coatings market, 2015-2030 (tons)……………………… 147
  • Figure 39: Demand for cellulose nanofibers in the aerogels market, 2015-2030 (tons)……………………………………. 152
  • Figure 40: Nanocellulose sponge developed by EMPA for potential applications in oil recovery………………………… 155
  • Figure 41: Demand for cellulose nanofibers in the oil and gas exploration market, 2015-2030 (tons)………………….. 158
  • Figure 42: Nanocellulose virus filter paper…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 164
  • Figure 43: Demand for cellulose nanofibers in the filtration market, 2015-2030 (tons)…………………………………….. 166
  • Figure 44: Electronic components using NFC as insulating materials………………………………………………………….. 173
  • Figure 45:  Cellulose nanofiber films……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 174
  • Figure 46: Nanocellulose photoluminescent paper………………………………………………………………………………….. 174
  • Figure 47: LEDs shining on circuitry imprinted on a 5x5cm sheet of CNF…………………………………………………….. 174
  • Figure 48: Foldable nanopaper…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 175
  • Figure 49: Foldable nanopaper antenna……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 175
  • Figure 50: Paper memory (ReRAM)…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 175
  • Figure 51: Global market revenues for smart wearable devices 2014-2021, in US$……………………………………….. 176
  • Figure 52: Global market revenues for nanotech-enabled smart wearable devices 2014-2021 in US$, conservative estimate………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 177
  • Figure 53: Global market revenues for nanotech-enabled smart wearable devices 2014-2021 in US$, optimistic estimate………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 177
  • Figure 54: 3D printed CNFS in Paper Microfluidics devices………………………………………………………………………. 182
  • Figure 55. American Process, Inc. CNF production process……………………………………………………………………… 193
  • Figure 56: Asahi Kasei CNF fabric sheet………………………………………………………………………………………………. 195
  • Figure 57: Properties of Asahi Kasei cellulose nanofiber nonwoven fabric……………………………………………………. 196
  • Figure 58: CNF nonwoven fabric………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 197
  • Figure 59: Ashai Kasei CNF production process…………………………………………………………………………………….. 198
  • Figure 60. Borregaard Chemcell CNF production process………………………………………………………………………… 202
  • Figure 61. Chuetsu Pulp & Paper CNF production process………………………………………………………………………. 210
  • Figure 62. Daicel Corporation CNF production process……………………………………………………………………………. 213
  • Figure 63: Trunk lid incorporating CNF…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 214
  • Figure 64. CNF-reinforced PP compounds……………………………………………………………………………………………. 216
  • Figure 65. Kirekira! toilet wipes…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 216
  • Figure 66. Daio Paper CNF production process……………………………………………………………………………………… 217
  • Figure 67. DIC Products CNF production process…………………………………………………………………………………… 220
  • Figure 68: Rheocrysta spray……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 222
  • Figure 69. DKS Co. Ltd. CNF production process…………………………………………………………………………………… 223
  • Figure 70. Imerys CNF production process…………………………………………………………………………………………… 227
  • Figure 71: Cellulose Nanofiber (CNF) composite with polyethylene (PE)……………………………………………………… 228
  • Figure 72: Cutlery samples (spoon, knife, fork) made of nano cellulose and biodegradable plastic composite materials……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 230
  • Figure 73: CNF gel………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 231
  • Figure 74: Block nanocellulose material……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 232
  • Figure 75: CNF products developed by Hokuetsu…………………………………………………………………………………… 232
  • Figure 76: Innventia AB movable nanocellulose demo plant……………………………………………………………………… 233
  • Figure 77. Innventia CNF production process………………………………………………………………………………………… 234
  • Figure 78: Engine cover utilizing Kao CNF composite resins…………………………………………………………………….. 238
  • Figure 79: 0.3% aqueous dispersion of sulfated esterified CNF and dried transparent film (front side)………………… 239
  • Figure 80. Kruger Biomaterials, Inc. CNF production process……………………………………………………………………. 241
  • Figure 81: CNF slurries…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 245
  • Figure 82: Hydrophobization facilities for raw pulp………………………………………………………………………………….. 247
  • Figure 83: Mixing facilities for CNF-reinforced plastic………………………………………………………………………………. 247
  • Figure 84. Nippon Paper CNF production process………………………………………………………………………………….. 249
  • Figure 85: Nippon Paper Industries’ adult diapers…………………………………………………………………………………… 250
  • Figure 86: CNF wet powder………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 252
  • Figure 87: CNF transparent film………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 252
  • Figure 88: Transparent CNF sheets…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 253
  • Figure 89: CNF clear sheets………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 254
  • Figure 90. Oji Paper CNF production process………………………………………………………………………………………… 255
  • Figure 91: Fluorene cellulose ® powder……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 257
  • Figure 92. Performance Biofilaments CNF production process………………………………………………………………….. 258
  • Figure 93: XCNF…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 260
  • Figure 94. Seiko PMC CNF production process……………………………………………………………………………………… 264
  • Figure 95: Rubber soles incorporating CNF…………………………………………………………………………………………… 266
  • Figure 96. Stora Enso CNF production process……………………………………………………………………………………… 268
  • Figure 97: Silk nanofiber (right) and cocoon of raw material……………………………………………………………………… 270
  • Figure 98. BiNFi-s Dry Powder…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 270
  • Figure 99. BiNFi-s Dry Powder and Propylene (PP) Complex Pellet……………………………………………………………. 271
  • Figure 100. Sugino Machine CNF production process……………………………………………………………………………… 271
  • Figure 101: Silver / CNF composite dispersions……………………………………………………………………………………… 276
  • Figure 102: CNF/nanosilver powder…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 277
  • Figure 103: Comparison of weight reduction effect using CNF…………………………………………………………………… 278
  • Figure 104: CNF resin products………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 279
  • Figure 105. University of Maine CNF production process…………………………………………………………………………. 281
  • Figure 106. UPM-Kymmene CNF production process……………………………………………………………………………… 283
  • Figure 107. US Forest Service Products Laboratory CNF production process……………………………………………….. 285
  • Figure 108: Flexible electronic substrate made from CNF………………………………………………………………………… 286
  • Figure 109. VTT 100% bio-based stand-up pouches……………………………………………………………………………….. 289
  • Figure 110. VTT CNF production process…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 290
  • Figure 111: Bio-based barrier bags prepared from Tempo-CNF coated bio-HDPE film……………………………………. 291
  • Figure 112. Zelfo Technology GmbH CNF production process………………………………………………………………….. 294