The Global Market for Cellulose Nanofibers to 2030

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Cellulose nanofibers (CNF) are bio-based materials with high mechanical strength (stronger than steel), high aspect ratios, high transparency, and high chemical resistance. They are also lightweight. As a result, they are very attractive for application in composites and thermoplastics.

Research has been active for a number of years and products are now on the market, mainly in Japan. Products include adult diapers, automotive biocomposites, thermoplastic additives. Japanese sports shoe manufacturer Asics has utilized CNF in running shoes, incorporating CNF from Seiko PMC.

Most major paper manufacturers, faced with reduced market demand for paper are seeking to exploit the remarkable properties of CNFs. The market is exploding in Japan with large paper manufacturers such as Nippon Paper and Oji Holdings establishing multi-ton cellulose nanofiber production facilities. Nippon Paper recently opened a new 450 ton cellulose nanofiber production facility.Japanese chemicals manufacturers are also developing cellulose nanofiber production. Facilities have also been established in Europe (mainly Scandanavia), Canada and the United States.

The latest edition of The Global Market for Cellulose Nanofibers features a raft of new information including:

  • Expanded producer profiles including CNF production history, new products, production process from raw materials to products.
  • Expanded patent analysis.
  • Tables of nanocellulose capacities and production process by producer (CNF, CNC and MFC)
  • Competitive landscape analysis for competing materials.
  • Market tonnage estimations by application, based on % wt. of CNF, competing materials, usage (e.g. additive, polymer, coating) and penetration.
  • Analysis of market entry prices per application.

Report contents include:

  • Global production capacities, by producer, current and planned.
  • Production volumes by region.
  • Current products.
  • Stage of commercialization for cellulose nanofiber applications by company.
  • CNF applications by industry.
  • Market drivers, trends and challenges, by end user markets.
  • Competitive landscape of CNF by market, volumes, key trends and growth. Potential for CNF to gain market share by market volume across all end user markets.
  • In-depth market assessment of opportunities for CNF including potential revenues, growth rates, pricing, most likely applications and market challenges.
  • In-depth key player profiles, include products, current capacities and plans for new capacities, production processes, prices per kg and commercial activities. Companies profiled in the report include American Process, Inc., Imerys, Innventia AB, Asahi Kasei, Chuetsu Pulp & Paper Daicel, Daiichi Kogyo, Daio Paper, Nippon Paper, Oji Holdings, Sugino Machine, Seiko PMC, StoraEnso and Borregaard.

Published November 2018 | 308 pages, 140 tables, 99 figures | Table of contents 

The Global Market for Cellulose Nanofibers to 2030
The Global Market for Cellulose Nanofibers to 2030
PDF (by email and download).
The Global Market for Cellulose Nanofibers to 2030
The Global Market for Cellulose Nanofibers to 2030
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The Global Market for Cellulose Nanofibers to 2030
The Global Market for Cellulose Nanofibers to 2030
PDF and print edition.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

1    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY…………………………………………………………. 29

  • 1.1     Applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 29
  • 1.2     Market segmentation by type of nanocellulose……………………………………………………………………………. 33
    • 1.2.1       CNF………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 34
    • 1.2.2       MFC…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 35
    • 1.2.3       Cellulose nanocrystals………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 35
  • 1.3     Main opportunities in cellulose nanofibers………………………………………………………………………………….. 36
  • 1.4     Global production…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 38
    • 1.4.1       Production plants and production status……………………………………………………………………………. 39
  • 1.5     Market trends……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 40
  • 1.6     Market and technical challenges……………………………………………………………………………………………… 41
  • 1.7     Global cellulose nanofibers market size…………………………………………………………………………………….. 42
    • 1.7.1       The market for cellulose nanofibers in 2017……………………………………………………………………….. 42
    • 1.7.2       The market for cellulose nanofibers in 2018……………………………………………………………………….. 44
    • 1.7.3       CNF/MFC demand in tons, 2015–2030…………………………………………………………………………….. 46
    • 1.7.4       Cellulose nanofiber market by region……………………………………………………………………………….. 47
      • 1.7.4.1    Asia-Pacific……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 47

2    RESEARCH SCOPE AND METHODOLOGY…………………………….. 49

  • 2.1     Report scope………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 49
  • 2.2     Research methodology………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 49
  • 2.3     MARKET OPPORTUNITY ANALYSIS………………………………………………………………………………………. 50
    • 2.3.1       Stage of commercialization…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 50
    • 2.3.2       Economic impact by 2030…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 51
    • 2.3.3       Current market size for equivalent applications…………………………………………………………………… 51
    • 2.3.4       Ease of commercialization……………………………………………………………………………………………… 51
    • 2.3.5       Competitive landscape………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 51
    • 2.3.6       Cost………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 51
    • 2.3.7       Competition from other materials…………………………………………………………………………………….. 51
    • 2.3.8       Regulatory/Government policy push…………………………………………………………………………………. 52
    • 2.3.9       Market pull…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 52
  • 2.4     MARKET CHALLENGES RATING SYSTEM………………………………………………………………………………. 52

3    INTRODUCTION……………………………………………………………………. 54

  • 3.1     Cellulose……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 54
  • 3.2     Nanocellulose……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 54
  • 3.3     Properties of nanocellulose…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 55
  • 3.4     Advantages of nanocellulose………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 56
  • 3.5     Manufacture of CNF……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 56
  • 3.6     Production methods……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 57
  • 3.7     Types of nanocellulose………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 58
    • 3.7.1       Microfibrillated cellulose (MFC)……………………………………………………………………………………….. 60
    • 3.7.2       Cellulose nanofibers (CNF)……………………………………………………………………………………………. 60
      • 3.7.2.1    Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 60
      • 3.7.2.2    Production methods of CNF producers…………………………………………………………………………. 62
    • 3.7.3       Cellulose nanocrystals (CNC)…………………………………………………………………………………………. 63
      • 3.7.3.1    Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 65
      • 3.7.3.2    Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 65
    • 3.7.4       Bacterial Cellulose (BC)………………………………………………………………………………………………… 67
      • 3.7.4.1    Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 67
  • 3.8     Synthesis…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 68
    • 3.8.1       Microcrystalline cellulose (MC)……………………………………………………………………………………….. 68
    • 3.8.2       Microfibrillated cellulose (MFC)……………………………………………………………………………………….. 68
    • 3.8.3       Nanofibrillated cellulose (CNF)……………………………………………………………………………………….. 68
    • 3.8.4       Cellulose nanocrystals (CNC)…………………………………………………………………………………………. 69
    • 3.8.5       Bacterial cellulose particles (CNC)…………………………………………………………………………………… 70

4    MARKET STRUCTURE………………………………………………………….. 71

  • 4.1     Volume of industry demand for cellulose nanofibers…………………………………………………………………….. 71
  • 4.2     Current end users for cellulose nanofibers, by market and company………………………………………………… 72

5    SWOT ANALYSIS FOR CELLULOSE NANOFIBERS………………… 75

6    REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS…………………………………………. 77

  • 6.1     STANDARDS……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 77
    • 6.1.1       International Standards Organization (ISO)……………………………………………………………………….. 77
    • 6.1.2       American National Standards…………………………………………………………………………………………. 77
    • 6.1.3       CSA Group…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 77
  • 6.2     TOXICITY…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 77
  • 6.3     REGULATION…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 79

7    REGIONAL INITIATIVES AND GOVERNMENT FUNDING………….. 81

8    CELLULOSE NANOFIBER (CNF) APPLICATIONS……………………. 82

  • 8.1     High volume, medium volume and low volume cellulose NANOFIBER applications…………………………….. 82

9    CELLULOSE NANOFIBER TECHNOLOGY READINESS LEVEL (TRL)………………………………………………………………………………………… 83

10 CELLULOSE NANOFIBER SUPPLY CHAIN…………………………….. 84

11 CELLULOSE NANOFIBER PRICES…………………………………………. 86

12 CELLULOSE NANOFIBER PATENTS & PUBLICATIONS………….. 88

13 ANALYSIS OF CELLULOSE NANOFIBERS APPLICATIONS VERSUS COMPETITIVE MATERIALS………………………………………….. 92

  • 13.1        Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT)……………………………………………………………………………… 92
    • 13.1.1     Brief description…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 92
    • 13.1.2     Volumes, values and growth…………………………………………………………………………………………… 92
    • 13.1.3     Key Trends…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 92
  • 13.2        Graphene………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 93
    • 13.2.1     Brief description…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 93
    • 13.2.2     Volumes, values and growth…………………………………………………………………………………………… 93
    • 13.2.3     Key Trends…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 93
  • 13.3        Carbon fibers………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 94
    • 13.3.1     Brief description…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 94
    • 13.3.2     Volumes, values and growth…………………………………………………………………………………………… 94
    • 13.3.3     Key Trends…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 94
    • 13.3.4     Growth………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 94

14 GLOBAL MARKETS FOR CELLULOSE NANOFIBERS (CNF)……. 96

14.1        COMPOSITES MARKET SUMMARY…………………………………………………………………………………… 96

  • 14.1.1     Trends in the composites market and CNF solutions……………………………………………………………. 96
  • 14.1.2     Comparison of CNF to other composite materials……………………………………………………………….. 97
  • 14.1.3     Applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 98
    • 14.1.3.1       By cellulose type…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 98
    • 14.1.3.2       Applications roadmap…………………………………………………………………………………………… 99

14.2        PACKAGING………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 99

  • 14.2.1     Market trends and CNF solution………………………………………………………………………………………. 99
  • 14.2.2     Applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 104
    • 14.2.2.1       Anti-bacterial…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 104
    • 14.2.2.2       Gas barrier……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 104
  • 14.2.3     CNF market in packaging…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 105
    • 14.2.3.1       Applications market readiness and market acceptability analysis………………………………….. 107
    • 14.2.3.2       Global demand in tons for CNF in packaging……………………………………………………………. 107
  • 14.2.4     Market challenges………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 108
  • 14.2.5     Product developer profiles……………………………………………………………………………………………. 109

14.3        AIRCRAFT AND AEROSPACE…………………………………………………………………………………………. 110

  • 14.3.1     Market trends and CNF solution…………………………………………………………………………………….. 110
  • 14.3.2     Applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 111
    • 14.3.2.1       Composites………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 111
  • 14.3.3     CNF market in aircraft and aerospace…………………………………………………………………………….. 112
    • 14.3.3.1       Applications market readiness and market acceptability analysis………………………………….. 112
    • 14.3.3.2       Global demand in tons in aircraft and aerospace………………………………………………………. 113
  • 14.3.4     Market challenges………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 114
  • 14.3.5     Product developer profiles……………………………………………………………………………………………. 114

14.4        AUTOMOTIVE………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 114

  • 14.4.1     Market trends and CNF solution…………………………………………………………………………………….. 114
  • 14.4.2     Applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 117
    • 14.4.2.1       Composites………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 118
  • 14.4.3     CNF market in automotive……………………………………………………………………………………………. 118
    • 14.4.3.1       Polymer composites…………………………………………………………………………………………… 118
    • 14.4.3.2       Tires……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 120
    • 14.4.3.3       Applications market readiness and market acceptability analysis………………………………….. 121
    • 14.4.3.4       Global demand in tons in automotive……………………………………………………………………… 121
  • 14.4.4     Market challenges………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 122
  • 14.4.5     Product developer profiles……………………………………………………………………………………………. 123

14.5        CONSTRUCTION…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 125

  • 14.5.1     Market drivers and trends…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 125
  • 14.5.2     Applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 126
  • 14.5.3     CNF market in construction………………………………………………………………………………………….. 127
    • 14.5.3.1       Applications market readiness and market acceptability analysis………………………………….. 127
    • 14.5.3.2       Global demand in tons in construction…………………………………………………………………….. 128
  • 14.5.4     Market challenges………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 129
  • 14.5.5     Product developer profiles……………………………………………………………………………………………. 130

14.6        PAPER AND BOARD……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 130

  • 14.6.1     Market drivers and trends…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 130
  • 14.6.2     Applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 131
  • 14.6.3     Properties…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 131
    • 14.6.3.1       Reinforcing agents……………………………………………………………………………………………… 132
    • 14.6.3.2       Transparency and flexibility………………………………………………………………………………….. 132
    • 14.6.3.3       Paper packaging……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 132
    • 14.6.3.4       Paper coatings………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 132
    • 14.6.3.5       Anti-microbials…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 132
  • 14.6.4     CNF market in paper & board……………………………………………………………………………………….. 133
    • 14.6.4.1       Applications market readiness and market acceptability analysis………………………………….. 133
    • 14.6.4.2       Global demand in tons in paper & board…………………………………………………………………. 134
  • 14.7        Market challenges………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 134
  • 14.8        Product developer profiles………………………………………………………………………………………………… 135

15 TEXTILES……………………………………………………………………………. 137

  • 15.1        Market drivers and trends…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 137
  • 15.2        Applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 138
    • 15.2.1     Sanitary products……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 138
  • 15.3        CNF market in textiles……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 138
    • 15.3.1     Applications market readiness and market acceptability analysis…………………………………………… 138
    • 15.3.2     Global demand in tons in textiles……………………………………………………………………………………. 139
  • 15.4        Market challenges………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 140
  • 15.5        Product developer profiles………………………………………………………………………………………………… 141

16 MEDICINE & HEALTHCARE…………………………………………………. 142

  • 16.1        Market drivers and trends…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 142
  • 16.2        Applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 143
    • 16.2.1     Drug delivery…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 143
    • 16.2.2     Medical implants………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 144
    • 16.2.3     Tissue engineering……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 144
    • 16.2.4     Wound dressings……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 145
    • 16.2.5     Lateral flow immunoassay labels………………………………………………………………………………………. 145
  • 16.3        CNF market in medical & healthcare…………………………………………………………………………………… 145
    • 16.3.1.1       Applications market readiness and market acceptability analysis………………………………….. 145
    • 16.3.1.2       Global demand in tons in medical & healthcare………………………………………………………… 146
  • 16.4        Product developer profiles………………………………………………………………………………………………… 147

17 COATINGS………………………………………………………………………….. 148

  • 17.1        Market drivers and trends…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 148
  • 17.2        Applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 150
    • 17.2.1     Abrasion and scratch resistance……………………………………………………………………………………. 150
    • 17.2.2     Wood coatings…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 150
    • 17.2.3     Anti-counterfeiting films……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 151
    • 17.2.4     Gas barriers………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 151
  • 17.3        CNF market in coatings……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 151
    • 17.3.1     Applications market readiness and market acceptability analysis…………………………………………… 153
    • 17.3.2     Global demand in tons in paints and coatings…………………………………………………………………… 153
  • 17.4        Market challenges………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 154
  • 17.5        Product developer profiles………………………………………………………………………………………………… 156

18 AEROGELS…………………………………………………………………………. 157

  • 18.1        Market drivers and trends…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 157
  • 18.2        Applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 157
    • 18.2.1     Thermal insulation………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 158
    • 18.2.2     Shape memory………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 158
  • 18.3        CNF market in aerogels…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 158
    • 18.3.1.1       Global demand in tons in aerogels…………………………………………………………………………. 159
  • 18.4        Product developer profiles………………………………………………………………………………………………… 160

19 OIL AND GAS EXPLORATION………………………………………………. 161

  • 19.1        Market drivers and trends…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 161
  • 19.2        Applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 162
    • 19.2.1     Oil and fracking drilling fluids………………………………………………………………………………………… 163
      • 19.2.1.1       Water-based drilling fluids……………………………………………………………………………………. 163
    • 19.2.2     Extraction…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 164
  • 19.3        CNF market in oil and gas………………………………………………………………………………………………… 164
    • 19.3.1     Market assessment for cellulose nanofibers in oil and gas…………………………………………………… 165
    • 19.3.2     Global demand in tons in oil and gas………………………………………………………………………………. 166
  • 19.4        Market challenges………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 166
  • 19.5        Product developer profiles………………………………………………………………………………………………… 167

20 FILTRATION……………………………………………………………………….. 169

  • 20.1        Market drivers and trends…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 169
  • 20.2        Applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 170
    • 20.2.1     Nanomaterials in filtration…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 170
    • 20.2.2     CNF membranes and filters………………………………………………………………………………………….. 171
      • 20.2.2.1       Water filtration…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 171
      • 20.2.2.2       Air filtration……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 172
      • 20.2.2.3       Virus filtration……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 173
  • 20.3        CNF market in filtration and separation……………………………………………………………………………….. 174
    • 20.3.1     Market assessment for cellulose nanofibers in filtration and separation…………………………………… 174
    • 20.3.2     Global demand in tons in filtration………………………………………………………………………………….. 175
  • 20.4        Market challenges………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 176
  • 20.5        Product developer profiles………………………………………………………………………………………………… 177

21 RHEOLOGY MODIFIERS……………………………………………………… 178

  • 21.1        Applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 178
    • 21.1.1     Food……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 179
    • 21.1.2     Pharmaceuticals………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 179
    • 21.1.3     Cosmetics………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 179
  • 21.2        Product developer profiles………………………………………………………………………………………………… 179

22 PRINTED AND FLEXIBLE ELECTRONICS……………………………… 180

  • 22.1        Market drivers and trends…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 180
  • 22.2        Applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 181
    • 22.2.1     Wearable electronics…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 182
      • 22.2.1.1       Nanopaper……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 184
      • 22.2.1.2       Paper memory…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 186
    • 22.2.2     Conductive inks…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 186
  • 22.3        Global market size and opportunity…………………………………………………………………………………….. 187
    • 22.3.1     Market assessment for cellulose nanofibers in printed and flexible electronics………………………….. 189
  • 22.4        Market challenges………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 190
  • 22.5        Product developer profiles………………………………………………………………………………………………… 191

23 3D PRINTING………………………………………………………………………. 193

  • 23.1        Market drivers and trends…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 193
  • 23.2        Applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 194
  • 23.3        Global market size and opportunity…………………………………………………………………………………….. 194
    • 23.3.1     Market assessment for cellulose nanofibers in 3D printing…………………………………………………… 195
  • 23.4        Market challenges………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 195
  • 23.5        Product developer profiles………………………………………………………………………………………………… 196

24 CELLULOSE NANOFIBER COMPANY PROFILES………………….. 197

  • 24.1        Producers and types of nanocellulose produced (NCF, NCC, BCC)…………………………………………… 197
  • 24.2        Target markets for producers……………………………………………………………………………………………. 198
  • 24.3        NANOFIBRILLAR CELLULOSE (CNF) PRODUCERS……………………………………………………………. 199-265 (23 company profiles)
  • 24.4        OTHER PRODUCERS AND APPLICATION DEVELOPERS……………………………………………………. 266-289 (50 company profiles)

25 MAIN CELLULOSE NANOFIBERS RESEARCH CENTRES………. 291-300 (30 profiles)

26 REFERENCES…………………………………………………………………….. 302

 

TABLES

  • Table 1: Market summary for nanocellulose-Selling grade particle diameter, usage, advantages, average price/ton, market estimates, global consumption, main current applications, future applications………………………………… 29
  • Table 2: Markets and applications for nanocellulose…………………………………………………………………………………. 31
  • Table 3: CNF producer capacities 2018…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 34
  • Table 4: MFC producer capacities 2018…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 35
  • Table 5: Cellulose nanocrystal producer capacities 2018…………………………………………………………………………… 35
  • Table 6: Market opportunity assessment for cellulose nanofibers, by application…………………………………………….. 36
  • Table 7: Nanocellulose (CNF, MFC, NCC) production plants worldwide and production status…………………………… 39
  • Table 9: Market trends in cellulose nanofibers…………………………………………………………………………………………. 40
  • Table 10: Market and technical challenges in cellulose nanofibers……………………………………………………………….. 41
  • Table 11: Properties and applications of nanocellulose……………………………………………………………………………… 55
  • Table 12: Properties of cellulose nanofibrils relative to metallic and polymeric materials……………………………………. 57
  • Table 13: Types of nanocellulose…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 59
  • Table 14: Applications of cellulose nanofibers (CNF)………………………………………………………………………………… 61
  • Table 15: Production methods of main CNF producers……………………………………………………………………………… 62
  • Table 16: CNC sources and scale………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 65
  • Table 17: CNC properties…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 65
  • Table 18: Applications of nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC)………………………………………………………………………….. 66
  • Table 19: Applications of bacterial cellulose (BC)…………………………………………………………………………………….. 67
  • Table 20: Microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) preparation methods, resulting materials and applications…………………. 68
  • Table 21: Microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) preparation methods, resulting materials and applications…………………… 68
  • Table 22: Nanofibrillated cellulose (CNF) preparation methods, resulting materials and applications……………………. 68
  • Table 23: Cellulose nanocrystals (MFC) preparation methods, resulting materials and applications…………………….. 69
  • Table 24: Cellulose nanocrystals (MFC) preparation methods, resulting materials and applications…………………….. 70
  • Table 25: Current and potential end users for cellulose nanofibers, by market and company……………………………… 72
  • Table 26: SWOT analysis of cellulose nanofibers…………………………………………………………………………………….. 75
  • Table 27: Safety of Micro/Nanofibrillated cellulose……………………………………………………………………………………. 78
  • Table 28: Identified applications of CNFs and their categorization……………………………………………………………….. 82
  • Table 29: Global cellulose nanofiber market supply chain analysis………………………………………………………………. 84
  • Table 30: Product/price/application matrix of cellulose nanofiber producers…………………………………………………… 86
  • Table 31: Published patent publications for nanocellulose, 1997-2017………………………………………………………….. 88
  • Table 33: Nanocellulose patents by organisation……………………………………………………………………………………… 89
  • Table 34: Nanocellulose patents by organisation……………………………………………………………………………………… 90
  • Table 35: Main patent assignees for NCC………………………………………………………………………………………………. 90
  • Table 36: Main patent assignees for NFC………………………………………………………………………………………………. 91
  • Table 37: Main patent assignees for BCC………………………………………………………………………………………………. 91
  • Table 38: Price comparison of CNF applications versus entry price of other materials in composites…………………… 92
  • Table 39. Main applications for carbon fibers, volumes, potential for CNF to gain market share………………………….. 95
  • Table 40: Market drivers, trends and CNF solutions in composites market…………………………………………………….. 96
  • Table 41: Comparative properties of polymer composites reinforcing materials………………………………………………. 97
  • Table 42: Applications of nanocellulose in polymer composites by cellulose type…………………………………………….. 98
  • Table 43: Nanocellulose applications timeline in the polymer composites market…………………………………………….. 99
  • Table 44: Examples of antimicrobial immobilization into cellulose nanofibers………………………………………………… 103
  • Table 45: Oxygen permeability of nanocellulose films compared to those made form commercially available petroleum based materials and other polymers……………………………………………………………………………………………… 105
  • Table 46: Market assessment for cellulose nanofibers in packaging……………………………………………………………. 105
  • Table 47: Application markets, competing materials, NFC advantages and current market size in packaging………. 106
  • Table 48: Market opportunity assessment for cellulose nanofibers in biopackaging………………………………………… 107
  • Table 49: Demand for cellulose nanofibers in the packaging market, 2015-2030 (tons)…………………………………… 108
  • Table 50: Market challenges rating for cellulose nanofibers in the biopackaging market………………………………….. 109
  • Table 51: Companies developing nanocellulose products in bio packaging, applications targeted and stage of commercialization……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 109
  • Table 52: Market drivers, trends and CNF solutions in aircraft and aerospace market…………………………………….. 110
  • Table 53. Application of CNF in aircraft and aerospace composites-usage, motivating, competing materials, overall market size, potential market for CNF……………………………………………………………………………………………. 111
  • Table 54: Market opportunity assessment for cellulose nanofibers in aircraft and aerospace……………………………. 112
  • Table 55: Demand for cellulose nanofibers in the aerospace and aviaton market, 2015-2030 (tons)…………………… 113
  • Table 56: Market challenges rating for cellulose nanofibers in the aircraft and aerospace market………………………. 114
  • Table 57: Companies developing CNF products aircraft and aerospace, applications targeted and stage of commercialization……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 114
  • Table 58: Applications of natural fiber composites in vehicles by manufacturers……………………………………………. 116
  • Table 59. Application of CNFs in polymer composites in automotive…………………………………………………………… 118
  • Table 60. Application of CNFs in tires in automotive tyres………………………………………………………………………… 120
  • Table 61: Market opportunity assessment for cellulose nanofibers in the automotive industry…………………………… 121
  • Table 62: Demand for cellulose nanofibers in the automotive market, 2015-2030 (tons)………………………………….. 122
  • Table 63: Applications and commercilization challenges for cellulose nanofibers in the automotive market………….. 122
  • Table 64: Market challenges rating for cellulose nanofibers in the automotive market…………………………………….. 122
  • Table 65: Companies developing cellulose nanofibers products in the automotive industry, applications targeted and stage of commercialization………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 123
  • Table 66: Market drivers, trends and CNF solutions in construction market………………………………………………….. 125
  • Table 67: Comparison of nanocellulose with steel and other materials………………………………………………………… 126
  • Table 68: Market opportunity assessment for cellulose nanofibers in the construction industry…………………………. 127
  • Table 69. Application of CNFs in cement………………………………………………………………………………………………. 127
  • Table 70. Application of CNFs in ultra-high performance concrete……………………………………………………………… 128
  • Table 71: Demand for cellulose nanofibers in the construction and building market, 2015-2030 (tons)……………….. 129
  • Table 72: Market challenges rating for cellulose nanofibers in the construction, building protection and architectural exterior coatings market……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 129
  • Table 73: Cellulose nanofibers in construction-Companies and products……………………………………………………… 130
  • Table 74: Market drivers, trends and CNF solutions in the paper and board market……………………………………….. 130
  • Table 75: Cellulose nanofibers applications timeline in the paper and board markets……………………………………… 131
  • Table 76: Market opportunity assessment for cellulose nanofibers in paper and board……………………………………. 133
  • Table 77: Demand for cellulose nanofibers in the paper and board market, 2015-2030 (tons)…………………………… 134
  • Table 78: Market challenges rating for cellulose nanofibers in the paper and board market……………………………… 135
  • Table 79: Companies developing cellulose nanofibers products in paper and board, applications targeted and stage of commercialization……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 135
  • Table 80: Market drivers, trends and CNF solutions in the textiles market……………………………………………………. 137
  • Table 81: Market opportunity assessment for cellulose nanofibers in textiles………………………………………………… 138
  • Table 82: Demand for cellulose nanofibers in the paper and board market, 2015-2030 (tons)…………………………… 139
  • Table 83: Market challenges rating for cellulose nanofibers in the textiles market………………………………………….. 140
  • Table 84: Companies developing cellulose nanofibers products in textiles, applications targeted and stage of commercialization……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 141
  • Table 85: Market drivers, trends and CNF solutions in the medicine and healthcare market…………………………….. 142
  • Table 86: Cellulose nanofiber applications timeline in the medicine and healthcare markets…………………………….. 143
  • Table 87: Market opportunity assessment for cellulose nanofibers in medicine and healthcare…………………………. 145
  • Table 88: Demand for cellulose nanofibers in the medical and healthcare market, 2015-2030 (tons)………………….. 146
  • Table 89: Cellulose nanofibers product developers in medical and healthcare applications………………………………. 147
  • Table 90: Market drivers, trends and CNF solutions in the coatings market………………………………………………….. 148
  • Table 91: Nanocellulose applications timeline in the coatings and paints markets………………………………………….. 150
  • Table 92: Market assessment for cellulose nanofibers in coatings……………………………………………………………… 152
  • Table 93: Application markets, competing materials, cellulose nanofibers advantages and current market size in coatings and films……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 152
  • Table 94: Market opportunity assessment for cellulose nanofibers in coatings………………………………………………. 153
  • Table 95: Demand for cellulose nanofibers in the paint and coatings market, 2015-2030 (tons)………………………… 154
  • Table 96: Market challenges for CNF in coatings……………………………………………………………………………………. 154
  • Table 97: Market challenges rating for cellulose nanofibers in the coatings and films market……………………………. 155
  • Table 98: Companies developing cellulose nanofibers products in paper coatings and non-packaging coating products, applications targeted and stage of commercialization………………………………………………………………………… 156
  • Table 99: Market drivers, trends and CNF solutions in the aerogels market………………………………………………….. 157
  • Table 100: Cellulose nanofibers applications timeline in the aerogels market………………………………………………… 157
  • Table 101: Demand for cellulose nanofibers in the aerogels market, 2015-2030 (tons)……………………………………. 159
  • Table 102: Cellulose nanofibers product developers in aerogels………………………………………………………………… 160
  • Table 103: Market drivers, trends and CNF solutions in the filtration market…………………………………………………. 161
  • Table 104: Cellulose nanofibers applications timeline in the oil market………………………………………………………… 162
  • Table 105: Application markets, competing materials, cellulose nanofibers advantages and current market size in oil and gas………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 164
  • Table 106: Market assessment for cellulose nanofibers in oil and gas…………………………………………………………. 165
  • Table 107: Cellulose nanofibers in the oil and gas market-applications, stage of commercialization and estimated economic impact………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 165
  • Table 108: Demand for cellulose nanofibers in the oil and gas exploration market, 2015-2030 (tons)…………………. 166
  • Table 109: Market challenges rating for cellulose nanofibers in the oil and gas exploration market…………………….. 167
  • Table 110: Cellulose nanofibers product developers in oil and gas exploration……………………………………………… 167
  • Table 111: Market drivers, trends and CNF solutions in the filtration market…………………………………………………. 169
  • Table 112: Nanocellulose applications timeline in the filtration market…………………………………………………………. 170
  • Table 113: Types of filtration……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 171
  • Table 114: CNF membranes……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 172
  • Table 115: Application markets, competing materials, cellulose nanofibers advantages and current market size in filtration…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 174
  • Table 116: Market assessment for cellulose nanofibers in filtration…………………………………………………………….. 174
  • Table 117: Market opportunity assessment for cellulose nanofibers in the filtration industry……………………………… 175
  • Table 118: Demand for cellulose nanofibers in the filtration market, 2015-2030 (tons)…………………………………….. 176
  • Table 119: Market challenges rating for cellulose nanofibers in the filtration market……………………………………….. 176
  • Table 120: Companies developing cellulose nanofiber products in filtration, applications targeted and stage of commercialization……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 177
  • Table 121: Cellulose nanofibers applications timeline in the rheology modifiers market…………………………………… 178
  • Table 122: Commercial activity in cellulose nanofiber rheology modifiers…………………………………………………….. 179
  • Table 123: Market drivers, trends and CNF solutions in the printed and flexible electronics market……………………. 180
  • Table 124: Cellulose nanofiber applications timeline in flexible electronics…………………………………………………… 182
  • Table 125: Properties of flexible electronics‐cellulose nanofiber film (nanopaper)…………………………………………… 182
  • Table 126: Properties of flexible electronics cellulose nanofiber films………………………………………………………….. 185
  • Table 127: Global market for wearables, 2014-2021, units and US$…………………………………………………………… 187
  • Table 128: Application markets, competing materials, Cellulose nanofibers advantages and current market size in electronics……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 189
  • Table 129: Market assessment for cellulose nanofibers in the flexible and printed electronics sector………………….. 189
  • Table 130: Market opportunity assessment for cellulose nanofibers in flexible electronics……………………………….. 190
  • Table 131: Market challenges for use of CNF in printed and flexible electronics…………………………………………….. 190
  • Table 132: Market challenges rating for cellulose nanofibers in the printed and flexible electronics market………….. 191
  • Table 133: Companies developing cellulose nanofiber products in paper electronics, applications targeted and stage of commercialization……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 191
  • Table 134: Market drivers, trends and CNF solutions in the 3D printing market……………………………………………… 193
  • Table 135: Applications of CNF in 3D printing………………………………………………………………………………………… 194
  • Table 136. Application of CNFs in 3D printing………………………………………………………………………………………… 194
  • Table 137: Market opportunity assessment for cellulose nanofibers in 3D printing…………………………………………. 195
  • Table 138: Market challenges rating for cellulose nanofibers in the 3D printing market……………………………………. 195
  • Table 139: Companies developing cellulose nanofibers 3D printing products………………………………………………… 196
  • Table 140: Nanocellulose producers and types of nanocellulose produced…………………………………………………… 197
  • Table 141: Target market, by nanocellulose producer……………………………………………………………………………… 198
  • Table 142: Oji Holdings CNF products…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 241

 

FIGURES

  • Figure 1: Market segmentation by type of nanocellulose, capacities 2018……………………………………………………… 34
  • Figure 2: Market segmentation by type of nanocellulose, percentage……………………………………………………………. 34
  • Figure 3: CNF wet powder………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 39
  • Figure 4: Cellulose nanofiber transparent sheet………………………………………………………………………………………. 43
  • Figure 5: Cellulose Nanofiber (CNF) composite with polyethylene (PE)…………………………………………………………. 43
  • Figure 6: CNF products……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 43
  • Figure 7: XCNF………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 45
  • Figure 8: CNF/MFC market value, by end user market demand, 2015–2030 (Tons)………………………………………… 46
  • Figure 9: CNF/MFC market by region, 2017……………………………………………………………………………………………. 47
  • Figure 10: CNF/MFC market by region, 2030………………………………………………………………………………………….. 48
  • Figure 11: Schematic diagram of partial molecular structure of cellulose chain with numbering for carbon atoms and n= number of cellobiose repeating unit………………………………………………………………………………………………… 54
  • Figure 12: Scale of cellulose materials…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 55
  • Figure 13: Types of nanocellulose………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 58
  • Figure 14: Relationship between different kinds of nanocelluloses……………………………………………………………….. 59
  • Figure 15: CNF gel……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 61
  • Figure 16: TEM image of cellulose nanocrystals………………………………………………………………………………………. 63
  • Figure 17: An iridescent biomimetic cellulose multilayer film remains after water that contains cellulose nanocrystals evaporates………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 64
  • Figure 18: Extracting CNC from trees……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 64
  • Figure 19: CNC slurry………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 66
  • Figure 20: Schematic of typical commercialization route for cellulose nanofiber producer………………………………….. 71
  • Figure 21: Volume of industry demand for CNF (external producer usage and external sales), 2017……………………. 72
  • Figure 22: Technology Readiness Level (TRL) for cellulose nanofibers…………………………………………………………. 83
  • Figure 23:  Nanocellulose patents by field of application……………………………………………………………………………. 89
  • Figure 24: Example process for producing NFC packaging film…………………………………………………………………. 103
  • Figure 25: Demand for cellulose nanofibers in the packaging market, 2015-2030 (tons)………………………………….. 108
  • Figure 26: Demand for cellulose nanofibers in the aerospace and aviaton market, 2015-2030 (tons)…………………. 113
  • Figure 27: Nanomaterials-based automotive components………………………………………………………………………… 117
  • Figure 28: NFC composite………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 118
  • Figure 29: Demand for cellulose nanofibers in the automotive market, 2015-2030 (tons)…………………………………. 122
  • Figure 30: Nanowood with hierarchically aligned cellulose nanofibrils for insulation………………………………………… 126
  • Figure 31: Demand for cellulose nanofibers in the construction and building market, 2015-2030 (tons)………………. 128
  • Figure 32: Demand for cellulose nanofibers in the paper and board market, 2015-2030 (tons)………………………….. 134
  • Figure 33: CNF deoderant products…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 138
  • Figure 34: Demand for cellulose nanofibers in the textiles market, 2015-2030 (tons)………………………………………. 139
  • Figure 35: Demand for cellulose nanofibers in the medical and healthcare market, 2015-2030 (tons)…………………. 146
  • Figure 36: Demand for cellulose nanofibers in the paints and coatings market, 2015-2030 (tons)……………………… 153
  • Figure 37: Demand for cellulose nanofibers in the aerogels market, 2015-2030 (tons)……………………………………. 159
  • Figure 38: Nanocellulose sponge developed by EMPA for potential applications in oil recovery………………………… 162
  • Figure 39: Demand for cellulose nanofibers in the oil and gas exploration market, 2015-2030 (tons)………………….. 166
  • Figure 40: Nanocellulose virus filter paper…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 173
  • Figure 41: Demand for cellulose nanofibers in the filtration market, 2015-2030 (tons)…………………………………….. 175
  • Figure 42: Electronic components using NFC as insulating materials………………………………………………………….. 182
  • Figure 43:  Cellulose nanofiber films……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 183
  • Figure 44: Nanocellulose photoluminescent paper………………………………………………………………………………….. 184
  • Figure 45: LEDs shining on circuitry imprinted on a 5x5cm sheet of CNF…………………………………………………….. 184
  • Figure 46: Foldable nanopaper…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 185
  • Figure 47: Foldable nanopaper antenna……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 186
  • Figure 48: Paper memory (ReRAM)…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 186
  • Figure 49: Global market revenues for smart wearable devices 2014-2021, in US$……………………………………….. 187
  • Figure 50: Global market revenues for nanotech-enabled smart wearable devices 2014-2021 in US$, conservative estimate………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 188
  • Figure 51: Global market revenues for nanotech-enabled smart wearable devices 2014-2021 in US$, optimistic estimate………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 188
  • Figure 52: 3D printed CNFS in Paper Microfluidics devices………………………………………………………………………. 193
  • Figure 53. American Process, Inc. CNF production process……………………………………………………………………… 201
  • Figure 54: Asahi Kasei CNF fabric sheet………………………………………………………………………………………………. 203
  • Figure 55: Properties of Asahi Kasei cellulose nanofiber nonwoven fabric……………………………………………………. 203
  • Figure 56: CNF nonwoven fabric………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 204
  • Figure 57: Ashai Kasei CNF production process…………………………………………………………………………………….. 205
  • Figure 58. Borregaard Chemcell CNF production process………………………………………………………………………… 208
  • Figure 59. Chuetsu Pulp & Paper CNF production process………………………………………………………………………. 213
  • Figure 60. Daicel Corporation CNF production process……………………………………………………………………………. 215
  • Figure 61. CNF-reinforced PP compounds……………………………………………………………………………………………. 217
  • Figure 62. Kirekira! toilet wipes…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 218
  • Figure 63. Daio Paper CNF production process……………………………………………………………………………………… 219
  • Figure 64. DIC Products CNF production process…………………………………………………………………………………… 221
  • Figure 65: Rheocrysta spray……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 223
  • Figure 66. DKS Co. Ltd. CNF production process…………………………………………………………………………………… 224
  • Figure 67. Imerys CNF production process…………………………………………………………………………………………… 227
  • Figure 68: Innventia AB movable nanocellulose demo plant……………………………………………………………………… 229
  • Figure 69. Innventia CNF production process………………………………………………………………………………………… 230
  • Figure 70. Kruger Biomaterials, Inc. CNF production process……………………………………………………………………. 232
  • Figure 71: Hydrophobization facilities for raw pulp………………………………………………………………………………….. 234
  • Figure 72: Mixing facilities for CNF-reinforced plastic………………………………………………………………………………. 234
  • Figure 73. Nippon Paper CNF production process………………………………………………………………………………….. 236
  • Figure 74: Nippon Paper Industries’ adult diapers…………………………………………………………………………………… 237
  • Figure 75: CNF wet powder………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 238
  • Figure 76: CNF transparent film………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 238
  • Figure 77. Oji Paper CNF production process………………………………………………………………………………………… 240
  • Figure 78. Performance Biofilaments CNF production process………………………………………………………………….. 243
  • Figure 79. Seiko PMC CNF production process……………………………………………………………………………………… 245
  • Figure 80. Stora Enso CNF production process……………………………………………………………………………………… 247
  • Figure 81: Silk nanofiber (right) and cocoon of raw material……………………………………………………………………… 249
  • Figure 82. BiNFi-s Dry Powder…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 249
  • Figure 83. BiNFi-s Dry Powder and Propylene (PP) Complex Pellet……………………………………………………………. 249
  • Figure 84. Sugino Machine CNF production process……………………………………………………………………………….. 250
  • Figure 85. University of Maine CNF production process…………………………………………………………………………… 253
  • Figure 86. UPM-Kymmene CNF production process……………………………………………………………………………….. 255
  • Figure 87. US Forest Service Products Laboratory CNF production process………………………………………………… 258
  • Figure 88: Flexible electronic substrate made from CNF………………………………………………………………………….. 258
  • Figure 89. VTT 100% bio-based stand-up pouches…………………………………………………………………………………. 259
  • Figure 90. VTT CNF production process………………………………………………………………………………………………. 261
  • Figure 91: Bio-based barrier bags prepared from Tempo-CNF coated bio-HDPE film……………………………………… 262
  • Figure 92. Zelfo Technology GmbH CNF production process……………………………………………………………………. 264
  • Figure 93: CNF gel………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 272
  • Figure 94: Block nanocellulose material……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 273
  • Figure 95: 0.3% aqueous dispersion of sulfated esterified CNF and dried transparent film (front side)………………… 276
  • Figure 96: Fluorene cellulose ® powder……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 281
  • Figure 97: Silver / CNF composite dispersions………………………………………………………………………………………. 287
  • Figure 98: CNF/nanosilver powder……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 288
  • Figure 99: CNF resin products……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 288