The Global Market for Flexible, Printed and Thin Film Batteries 2023-2033

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Published September 2022 | 310 pages, 128 figures, 42 tables | Download table of contents

Demand for advanced batteries has increased greatly in recent years and the market for Flexible, Printed, and Solid-State Thin Film batteries will explode in the next decade in Internet of Things (IoT), wearables, flexible electronics, sensors and electric vehicle applications.  

Given the increasing demands for flexible and wearable electronics, it is necessary to develop corresponding energy storage devices that are mechanically flexible, foldable and even stretchable. These emerging energy storage devices also need to be lightweight and have high electrochemical performance with a high energy density, high rate capability, and long cycling life.

Mass manufacturing of solid-state batteries, while in its infancy, will have a huge impact on the market for electric vehicles, allowing for enhanced safety, range and performance. As well as requiring characteristics such as low cost and high energy density and power density, battery requirements for new technologies include:

  • small footprint (conventional batteries take up to 40% of the space of wearables and mobile phones)
  • flexibility
  • various form factors
  • shape conformability
  • easy integration with devices.

 

The Global Market for Flexible, Printed, and Thin Film Batteries 2023-2033 covers all the latest developments, key player activities, end user market applications and current and future trends. 

Report content includes: 

  • State of market and technology developments for Flexible, Printed, and Solid-State Thin Film batteries, applications, future trends & opportunities and global players products and activities. 
  • Technologies covered include printed batteries, solid-state batteries, thin-film lithium batteries, 2D and 3D Micro-batteries, carbon-zinc batteries, stretchable batteries, rollable batteries, Fiber-shaped lithium-ion batteries, foldable batteries, cable-shaped batteries, thin flexible supercapacitors, transparent batteries.
  • Global revenues by battery types and markets 2020-2033.
  • Markets covered include wearables, electronic textiles, medical devices, diagnostics, implantables and skin patches, cosmetic, portable electronics, internet of things wireless sensor and connected device, radio-frequency identification (RFID) tags, smart cards, and smart labels for food packaging, supply-chain logistics etc.  
  • 124 in depth company profiles. Companies profiled include Addionics, Ateios Systems, Blackstone Resources AG,  Blue Solutions, Blue Spark Technologies, Inc., Britishvolt, Factorial Energy, Ilika, ProLogium,  QuantumScape, Sakuu, Solid Power, and Sparkz.

1              RESEARCH SCOPE AND METHODOLOGY 17

  • 1.1          Report scope     17
  • 1.2          Market coverage              17
  • 1.3          Research methodology 18
  • 1.4          Primary research              18
  • 1.5          Secondary research        18

 

2              EXECUTIVE SUMMARY   19

  • 2.1          Current market for batteries       19
  • 2.2          Market drivers  23
  • 2.3          Flexible and stretchable batteries for electronics                25
  • 2.4          Flexible and stretchable supercapacitors               28
  • 2.5          Battery market megatrends        29
  • 2.6          The global market for thin film, printed, flexible & stretchable, batteries 32
    • 2.6.1      Global market to 2033, by types and markets (revenues) 32
      • 2.6.1.1   Solid-state batteries segment     33
  • 2.7          Market challenges           34
  • 2.8          Industry developments 2020-2022            36

 

3              SOLID-STATE THIN FILM BATTERIES          37

  • 3.1          Introduction       38
    • 3.1.1      Features and advantages              39
    • 3.1.2      Technical specifications 40
    • 3.1.3      Types    41
    • 3.1.4      Microbatteries  43
      • 3.1.4.1   Introduction       43
      • 3.1.4.2   Materials             43
      • 3.1.4.3   Applications       44
      • 3.1.4.4   3D designs          44
    • 3.1.5      Bulk type solid-state batteries    45
  • 3.2          Shortcomings and market challenges for solid-state thin film batteries     45

 

4              FLEXIBLE BATTERIES (including stretchable, rollable, bendable and foldable)          47

  • 4.1          Technical specifications 49
    • 4.1.1      Approaches to flexibility                50
  • 4.2          Flexible electronics          53
    • 4.2.1      Flexible materials             54
  • 4.3          Flexible and wearable Metal-sulfur batteries       55
  • 4.4          Flexible and wearable Metal-air batteries              56
  • 4.5          Flexible Lithium-ion Batteries     56
    • 4.5.1      Electrode designs             59
    • 4.5.2      Fiber-shaped Lithium-Ion batteries          62
    • 4.5.3      Stretchable lithium-ion batteries               63
    • 4.5.4      Origami and kirigami lithium-ion batteries            65
  • 4.6          Flexible Li/S batteries     66
    • 4.6.1      Components      66
    • 4.6.2      Carbon nanomaterials    66
  • 4.7          Flexible lithium-manganese dioxide (Li–MnO2) batteries 67
  • 4.8          Flexible zinc-based batteries       68
    • 4.8.1      Components      68
      • 4.8.1.1   Anodes 68
      • 4.8.1.2   Cathodes             69
    • 4.8.2      Challenges          69
    • 4.8.3      Flexible zinc-manganese dioxide (Zn–Mn) batteries          70
    • 4.8.4      Flexible silver–zinc (Ag–Zn) batteries       71
    • 4.8.5      Flexible Zn–Air batteries               71
    • 4.8.6      Flexible zinc-vanadium batteries               72
  • 4.9          Fiber-shaped batteries  73
    • 4.9.1      Carbon nanotubes           73
    • 4.9.2      Types    73
    • 4.9.3      Applications       75
    • 4.9.4      Challenges          75
  • 4.10        Transparent batteries    76
    • 4.10.1    Components      77
  • 4.11        Degradable batteries      78
    • 4.11.1    Components      79
  • 4.12        Flexible and stretchable supercapacitors               80
    • 4.12.1    Nanomaterials for electrodes     81
  • 4.13        Energy harvesting combined with wearable energy storage devices          83

 

5              PRINTED BATTERIES        86

  • 5.1          Technical specifications 86
    • 5.1.1      Components      87
      • 5.1.1.1   Design  88
    • 5.1.2      Key features      89
    • 5.1.3      Printable current collectors          90
    • 5.1.4      Printable electrodes       90
    • 5.1.5      Materials             90
    • 5.1.6      Applications       91
    • 5.1.7      Printing techniques         93
    • 5.1.8      Applications       95
  • 5.2          Lithium-ion (LIB) printed batteries            95
  • 5.3          Zinc-based printed batteries       96
  • 5.4          3D Printed batteries       99
    • 5.4.1      3D Printing techniques for battery manufacturing             101
    • 5.4.2      Materials for 3D printed batteries            102
      • 5.4.2.1   Electrode materials         102
      • 5.4.2.2   Electrolyte Materials      103
  • 5.5          Printed supercapacitors 103
  • 5.5.1      Electrode materials         105
  • 5.5.2      Electrolytes        106

 

6              MARKETS FOR FLEXIBLE, PRINTED AND THIN FILM BATTERIES       111

  • 6.1          Internet of Things (IoT)  111
  • 6.2          Health and wellness monitoring devices 113
  • 6.3          Medical implantables     123
  • 6.4          Skin patches       124
    • 6.4.1      Minimally-invasive and non-invasive glucose monitoring products             125
    • 6.4.2      Cardiovascular monitoring           129
    • 6.4.3      Temperature monitoring              131
  • 6.5          Smart Cards        133
  • 6.6          RFID tags             134
    • 6.6.1      Low-frequency (LF) RFID tags: 30 KHz to 300 KHz                135
    • 6.6.2      High-frequency (HF) RFID tags: 3 to 30 MHz          135
    • 6.6.3      Ultra-high-frequency (UHF) RFID tags: 300 MHz to 3GHz 135
    • 6.6.4      Active, passive and semi-passive RFID tags            136
  • 6.7          Wearables          137
    • 6.7.1      Energy sources for wearable sensors       141
    • 6.7.2      Wrist-worn wearables   142
    • 6.7.3      Smart watches  142
      • 6.7.3.1   Health monitoring           142
      • 6.7.3.2   Energy harvesting for powering smartwatches    143
      • 6.7.3.3   Main smart watch producers and products           143
    • 6.7.4      Sports and fitness trackers           144
      • 6.7.4.1   Built in function in smart watches and fitness trackers     147
    • 6.7.5      Foot-worn wearables     147
      • 6.7.5.1   Companies and products              148
  • 6.8          E-textiles             149
    • 6.8.1      Textile-based batteries 149
    • 6.8.2      Energy harvesting            149
    • 6.8.3      Powering E-textiles         150
    • 6.8.4      Advantages and disadvantages of main battery types for E-textiles            151
    • 6.8.5      Bio-batteries      151
    • 6.8.6      Challenges for battery integration in smart textiles           152
  • 6.9          Automotive, Transport  153
  • 6.10        Micro/Nano Electromechanical Systems (MEMS/NEMS) 154
  • 6.11        Smart packaging               155
  • 6.12        Foldable smartphones and displays          155

 

7              COMPANY PROFILES       162 (124 company profiles)

 

8              REFERENCES       284

 

List of Tables

  • Table 1. Market drivers for use of advanced technologies in batteries.     23
  • Table 2. Battery market megatrends.      29
  • Table 3. Market challenges for flexible, printed and thin film batteries.    34
  • Table 4. Flexible, printed and thin film batteries industry developments 2020-2022.           37
  • Table 5. Market segmentation and status for solid-state batteries.             38
  • Table 6. Shortcoming of solid-state thin film batteries.    46
  • Table 7. Flexible battery applications and technical requirements.             49
  • Table 8. Flexible Li-ion battery prototypes.           57
  • Table 9. Electrode designs in flexible lithium-ion batteries.            59
  • Table 10. Summary of fiber-shaped lithium-ion batteries.              62
  • Table 11. Types of fiber-shaped batteries.            73
  • Table 12. Components of transparent batteries. 77
  • Table 13. Components of degradable batteries. 79
  • Table 14. Applications of nanomaterials in flexible and stretchable supercapacitors, by advanced materials type and benefits thereof.              82
  • Table 15. Main components and properties of different printed battery types.     88
  • Table 16. Applications of printed batteries and their physical and electrochemical requirements. 91
  • Table 17. 2D and 3D printing techniques.              93
  • Table 18. Printing techniques applied to printed batteries.            95
  • Table 19. Main components and corresponding electrochemical values of lithium-ion printed batteries.   95
  • Table 20. Printing technique, main components and corresponding electrochemical values of printed batteries based on Zn–MnO2 and other battery types.    97
  • Table 21. Main 3D Printing techniques for battery manufacturing.             101
  • Table 22. Electrode Materials for 3D Printed Batteries.    102
  • Table 23. Methods for printing supercapacitors. 104
  • Table 24. Electrode Materials for printed supercapacitors.             105
  • Table 25. Electrolytes for printed supercapacitors.            106
  • Table 26. Main properties and components of printed supercapacitors.   107
  • Table 27. Devices for IoT power sources.               111
  • Table 28. Examples of wearable medical device products.              114
  • Table 29. Wearable bio-signal monitoring devices.            116
  • Table 30. Minimally-invasive and non-invasive glucose monitoring products.         126
  • Table 31. Types of RFID tags.       134
  • Table 32. Market requirements for energy storage in wearables. 139
  • Table 33. Flexible batteries types in wearable sensors.    142
  • Table 34. Wearable health monitors.       142
  • Table 35. Main smart watch producers and products.      143
  • Table 36. Wearable sensor products for monitoring sport performance.  145
  • Table 37. Companies and products in smart footwear.    148
  • Table 38. Advantages and disadvantages of batteries for E-textiles.           151
  • Table 39. Comparison of prototype batteries (flexible, textile, and other) in terms of area-specific performance.  152
  • Table 40. Foldable smartphones, laptops and tablets, on or near market. 157
  • Table 41. 3DOM separator.          165
  • Table 42. Battery performance test specifications of J. Flex batteries.       228

 

List of Figures

  • Figure 1. Annual sales of battery electric vehicles and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles.       20
  • Figure 2. Global battery market 2015-2033, billions USD.                22
  • Figure 3. Flexible batteries on the market.            26
  • Figure 4. Examples of flexible electronics devices.             28
  • Figure 5. Stretchable graphene supercapacitor.  29
  • Figure 6. Costs of batteries to 2030.          32
  • Figure 7.  Revenues for thin film, flexible and printed batteries 2021-2033, by market, millions USD (excluding thin film solid-state batteries).     33
  • Figure 8. The global market for solid-state batteries, 2018-2033, millions USD.     34
  • Figure 9. ULTRALIFE thin film battery.     38
  • Figure 10. Examples of applications of thin film batteries.              40
  • Figure 11. Capacities and voltage windows of various cathode and anode materials.          41
  • Figure 12. Traditional lithium-ion battery (left), solid state battery (right).               42
  • Figure 13. Bulk type compared to thin film type SSB.        45
  • Figure 14. Ragone plots of diverse batteries and the commonly used electronics powered by flexible batteries.    48
  • Figure 15. Flexible, rechargeable battery.              50
  • Figure 16. Various architectures for flexible and stretchable electrochemical energy storage.        51
  • Figure 17. Types of flexible batteries.      53
  • Figure 18. Flexible label and printed paper battery.           53
  • Figure 19. Materials and design structures in flexible lithium ion batteries.             57
  • Figure 20. Flexible/stretchable LIBs with different structures.      59
  • Figure 21. Schematic of the structure of stretchable LIBs.               60
  • Figure 22. Electrochemical performance of materials in flexible LIBs.         60
  • Figure 23. a–c) Schematic illustration of coaxial (a), twisted (b), and stretchable (c) LIBs.  63
  • Figure 24. a) Schematic illustration of the fabrication of the superstretchy LIB based on an MWCNT/LMO composite fiber and an MWCNT/LTO composite fiber. b,c) Photograph (b) and the schematic illustration (c) of a stretchable fiber-shaped battery under stretching conditions. d) Schematic illustration of the spring-like stretchable LIB. e) SEM images of a fiberat different strains. f) Evolution of specific capacitance with strain. d–f) 64
  • Figure 25. Origami disposable battery.    65
  • Figure 26. Zn–MnO2 batteries produced by Brightvolt.    68
  • Figure 27. Charge storage mechanism of alkaline Zn-based batteries and zinc-ion batteries.           70
  • Figure 28. Zn–MnO2 batteries produced by Blue Spark.   70
  • Figure 29. Ag–Zn batteries produced by Imprint Energy. 71
  • Figure 30. Transparent batteries.              76
  • Figure 31. Degradable batteries. 78
  • Figure 32. Schematic of supercapacitors in wearables.     80
  • Figure 33. (A) Schematic overview of a flexible supercapacitor as compared to conventional supercapacitor.          81
  • Figure 34. Stretchable graphene supercapacitor. 82
  • Figure 35.  Wearable self-powered devices.         84
  • Figure 36. Various applications of printed paper batteries.             87
  • Figure 37.Schematic representation of the main components of a battery.             87
  • Figure 38. Schematic of a printed battery in a sandwich cell architecture, where the anode and cathode of the battery are stacked together.     89
  • Figure 39. Manufacturing Processes for Conventional Batteries (I), 3D Microbatteries (II), and 3D-Printed Batteries (III).                100
  • Figure 40. Main printing methods for supercapacitors.    104
  • Figure 41. Capacitech Energy cable-based capacitor.        112
  • Figure 42. Cable-Based Capacitor integrated with wiring of an indoor solar cell.    113
  • Figure 43. Companies and products in wearable health monitoring and rehabilitation devices and products.           118
  • Figure 44. Flexible, implantable battery concept.               123
  • Figure 45. Schematic of non-invasive CGM sensor.            126
  • Figure 46. Adhesive wearable CGM sensor.          126
  • Figure 47. VitalPatch.     129
  • Figure 48. Wearable ECG-textile.              130
  • Figure 49. Wearable ECG recorder.           131
  • Figure 50. Nexkin™.        131
  • Figure 51. Enfucell wearable temperature tag.    133
  • Figure 52. TempTraQ wearable wireless thermometer.   133
  • Figure 53. Smart card incorporating an ultra-thin battery.              134
  • Figure 54. RFID ultra micro battery.          136
  • Figure 55. Applications of wearable flexible sensors worn on various body parts. 137
  • Figure 56. Stretchable transistor.              139
  • Figure 57. Artificial skin prototype for gesture recognition.            140
  • Figure 58. Connected human body and product examples.            141
  • Figure 59. Schematic flow chart of self-powering smart wearable sensors.             141
  • Figure 60. Digitsole Smartshoe. 148
  • Figure 61. E-textile flexible, printed and thin film battery applications.      150
  • Figure 62. Power supply mechanisms for electronic textiles and wearables.           151
  • Figure 63. Toyota sports EV concept incorporating solid-state batteries.  154
  • Figure 64. Samsung foldable battery patent schematic.   156
  • Figure 65. LG Chem foldable display.        156
  • Figure 66. Asus Foldable Phone. 157
  • Figure 67. Dell Concept Ori.         157
  • Figure 68. Intel Foldable phone. 158
  • Figure 69. ThinkPad X1 Fold.        158
  • Figure 70. Motorola Razr.             158
  • Figure 71. Oppo Find N folding phone.    159
  • Figure 72. Royole FlexPai 2.          159
  • Figure 73. Galaxy Fold 3.               159
  • Figure 74. Samsung Galaxy Z Flip 3            160
  • Figure 75. TCL Tri-Fold Foldable Phone   160
  • Figure 76. TCL rollable phone.    160
  • Figure 77. Xiaomi Mi MIX Flex.   161
  • Figure 78. 24M battery. 162
  • Figure 79. 3DOM battery.             164
  • Figure 80. AC biode prototype.  166
  • Figure 81. Ampcera’s all-ceramic dense solid-state electrolyte separator sheets (25 um thickness, 50mm x 100mm size, flexible and defect free, room temperature ionic conductivity ~1 mA/cm).             171
  • Figure 82. Amprius battery products.      172
  • Figure 83. All-polymer battery schematic.             175
  • Figure 84. All Polymer Battery Module.  175
  • Figure 85. Resin current collector.             175
  • Figure 86. Ateios thin-film, printed battery.          177
  • Figure 87. 3D printed lithium-ion battery.             180
  • Figure 88. Blue Solution module.               182
  • Figure 89. TempTraq wearable patch.     183
  • Figure 90. Cymbet EnerChip™    190
  • Figure 91. E-magy nano sponge structure.             192
  • Figure 92. SoftBattery®. 193
  • Figure 93. Roll-to-roll equipment working with ultrathin steel substrate. 194
  • Figure 95. 40 Ah battery cell.       196
  • Figure 96. FDK Corp battery.       198
  • Figure 97. 2D paper batteries.    202
  • Figure 98. 3D Custom Format paper batteries.    203
  • Figure 99. Fuji carbon nanotube products.            204
  • Figure 100. Gelion Endure battery.           206
  • Figure 101. Portable desalination plant. 207
  • Figure 102. Grepow flexible battery.       212
  • Figure 103. Hitachi Zosen solid-state battery.      218
  • Figure 104. Ilika solid-state batteries.      221
  • Figure 105. ZincPoly™ technology.            222
  • Figure 94. TAeTTOOz printable battery materials.              223
  • Figure 106. Ionic Materials battery cell.  225
  • Figure 107. Schematic of Ion Storage Systems solid-state battery structure.           226
  • Figure 108. ITEN micro batteries.              227
  • Figure 109. LiBEST flexible battery.           232
  • Figure 110. 3D solid-state thin-film battery technology.  234
  • Figure 111. Lyten batteries.         236
  • Figure 112. Nanotech Energy battery.     243
  • Figure 113. Hybrid battery powered electrical motorbike concept.             244
  • Figure 114. NBD battery.              245
  • Figure 115. Schematic illustration of three-chamber system for SWCNH production.          246
  • Figure 116. TEM images of carbon nanobrush.    247
  • Figure 117. EnerCerachip.            250
  • Figure 118. Cambrian battery.    254
  • Figure 119. Printed battery.         256
  • Figure 120. Prieto Foam-Based 3D Battery.           257
  • Figure 121. Printed Energy flexible battery.          258
  • Figure 122. ProLogium solid-state battery.            259
  • Figure 123. QingTao solid-state batteries.             261
  • Figure 124. Sakuú Corporation 3Ah Lithium Metal Solid-state Battery.      263
  • Figure 125. SES Apollo batteries.               267
  • Figure 126. Sionic Energy battery cell.     271
  • Figure 127. Solid Power battery pouch cell.           273
  • Figure 128.TeraWatt Technology solid-state battery         278

 

 

 

The Global Market for Flexible, Printed and Thin Film Batteries 2023-2033
The Global Market for Flexible, Printed and Thin Film Batteries 2023-2033
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The Global Market for Flexible, Printed and Thin Film Batteries 2023-2033
The Global Market for Flexible, Printed and Thin Film Batteries 2023-2033
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