The development of photocatalytic processes, materials, and chemicals offers opportunities to solve environmental issues such as clean air, pollutant degradation and provide a clean and sustainable environment via environmental remediation, CO2 photoreduction to fuels, water splitting, H2 production, interior bacterial and viral disinfection and suitable organic syntheses. Photocatalytic materials and chemicals offer environmentally-friendly disinfectant methods that are safe and effective for home use.
Of the many semiconductor heterogeneous photocatalysts, titanium dioxide (TiO2) is the most widely used due to its photostability, intrinsic electronic and surface properties, non-toxicity, cost-effectiveness, and environmental friendliness. However TiO2 photocatalysis suffers from several drawback. leading to the development of other materials such as nanoscale zinc oxide, carbon nitride g-C3N4, metal-organic framework (MOF) compounds., graphene-based photocatalysts, BiOCl, black phosphorus. ZnFe2O4, all of which are covered in this report.
Applications of photocatalytic materials and coatings include:
Self-sterilising, long-lasting clear coatings that kill viruses and bacteria for application in the home, corporate offices, restaurants and bars, healthcare facilities, industrial workplaces, hospitality and retail stores.
Degradation of pollutants and maintaining air quality.
Self-cleaning architectural glass.
Processes for treating industrial emissions.
Self-cleaning automotive glass.
Roof coatings to reduce pollution through the degradation of sulfur and nitrogen oxides.
Road and tunnel coatings.
Medical (self-disinfecting coatings)
Self-cleaning exterior paints
Coatings for the elimination of VOCs and odours in public spaces.
Air purification (indoor)
Self-cleaning solar cell coatings.
Applications make use of the self-cleaning, anti-fogging, antimicrobial or water cleaving properties. Antimicrobial use of photocatalysis involves three components: exposure to light, a photosensitizer, and molecular oxygen. These three components combine to produce reactive oxygen species that effectively kill a wide variety of microorganisms. Their use is growing in household applications to provide long-term disinfection.
In indoor environments, most surfaces, e.g. ceramic tiles, windows glass or paper, are gradually covered with organic matter such as oils, dirt, and smoke residue and become fouled. Use of photocatalytic coatings that are activated under visible light irradiation can address these issues. Companies are now actively seeking solutions that kill bacteria using light sources commonly present in homes (near UV and visible light) including Photocatalytic processes that kill bacteria using light sources commonly present in homes (near UV and visible light); Photocatalytic processes that produce powerful sanitizers (e.g. ClO2); and Combinations of photocatalytic processes with other chemicals that increase antimicrobial activity, particularly substances commonly used in cleaning products like chelants and surfactants.
Report contents includes:
Market drivers and trends.
Latest product and technology developments 2020-22.
Anti-viral and anti-microbial applications.
Photocatalytic coatings in glass, building and construction, pollutant degradation, indoor air filtration, water treatment, medical facilities.
In depth assessment of photocatalytic materials including titanium dioxide, zinc oxide, metal-organic frameworks (MOF), ZnFe204, carbon nitride, silica carbide, graphene oxide, BiOCl and black phosphorus.
Global market revenues, historical and forecast to 2032.
More than 60 company profiles. Companies profiled include Advanced Materials-JTJ s.r.o., AM Technology Ltd., Daicel FineChem Ltd., Envision SQ, MACOMA Environmental Technologies, LLC, Maeda Kougyou Co Ltd., Nanoksi Finland Oy, ProfMOF AS, Pureti, Swift Coat Inc and more.
1 INTRODUCTION 12
1.1 Aims and objectives of the study 12
1.2 Market definition 12
2 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 14
2.1 Photocatalytic processes, materials, and chemicals 14
2.2 High performance materials and coatings 15
2.3 Nanomaterials 15
2.3.1 Advantages 15
2.3.2 Applications 17
2.3.3 Antimicrobial coatings and surfaces 17
2.4 Market drivers and trends for photocatalytic materials and coatings 19
2.4.1 New functionalities and improved properties 19
2.4.2 Reducing emissions and air pollution 20
2.4.3 Mitigating the spread of disease 21
2.4.4 Need for more effective protection and improved asset sustainability 21
2.4.5 Photocatalytic coatings to inhibit microbial contamination 22
2.4.6 Sustainable coating systems and materials 23
2.4.7 Need to improve outdoor air quality 23
2.4.8 Need to improve indoor air quality 23
2.4.9 Building protection 24
2.5 Challenges 24
2.5.1 Building materials 24
2.5.2 Self-cleaning surfaces 24
3 COATINGS REGULATIONS RELATED TO PHOTOCATALYTIC COATINGS AND NANOTITANIUM DIOXIDE 26
3.1 Europe 26
3.2 United States 27
3.3 Asia 28
4 TYPES OF PHOTOCATALYTIC MATERIALS 29
5 TITANIUM DIOXIDE PHOTOCATALYSTS 30
5.1 Nano-TiO2 based photocatalytic oxidation processes 31
5.2 Glass coatings 32
5.3 Interior coatings 33
5.4 Outdoor coatings and building materials 34
5.5 Improving indoor air quality 34
5.6 Disinfecting paints & coatings 35
6 OTHER METAL BASED PHOTOCALYSTS 38
6.1 ZNO 38
6.2 Bi-based photocatalysts 38
6.3 Binary or Ternary sulfides 38
6.4 Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) 38
6.5 WO3 40
7 METAL FREE PHOTOCATALYSTS 41
7.1 Carbon nitride g-C3N4 41
7.2 Silica carbide (SiC) 42
7.3 Graphene oxide 42
7.4 Two-dimensional (2D) layered materials 43
7.4.1 Transition-metal dichalcogenide MoS2 43
7.4.2 Germanene 43
7.4.3 Graphdiyne 45
7.4.4 Bismuth oxychloride (BiOCl) 46
7.4.5 Black phosphorus 46
8 THE MARKET FOR PHOTOCATALYTIC MATERIALS AND COATINGS 47
8.1 Market and technical summary 47
8.2 Development of photocatalytic coatings 48
8.3 Benefits of photocatalytic self-cleaning coatings 49
8.4 Applications 50
8.4.1 Coatings 51
18.104.22.168 Self-Cleaning glazing 51
22.214.171.124 Self-cleaning coatings-building and construction surfaces 52
126.96.36.199 Photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) indoor air filters 55
188.8.131.52 Self-sterilizing coatings and paints 56
8.4.2 Non-coatings applications 58
184.108.40.206 Photocatalytic wastewater treatment 58
220.127.116.11 Water Splitting 59
8.5 Global market size 60
8.5.1 Market segmentation 61
8.5.2 Market revenues 2010-2032 62
8.6 Regional demand 64
9 COMPANY PROFILES 65 (64 company profiles)
10 EX-PRODUCERS AND PRODUCTS 115
11 REFERENCES 116
Table 1. Properties of nanocoatings. 16
Table 2. Photocatalytic Paints used in pathogenic disinfections. 36
Table 3. Properties and applications of functionalized germanene. 44
Table 4. Market and technical summary. 47
Table 5. Development of photocatalytic coatings, by generation. 48
Table 6. Photocatalysts used in building materials to reduce pollution. 54
Table 7. Market assessment for self-cleaning photocatalytic coatings. 60
Table 8. Markets for photocatalytic materials and coatings. 61
Table 9. Revenues for photocatalytic materials and coatings, 2010-2032, conservative, medium and high estimates. Millions USD. 62
Table 10. Photocatalytic coatings-ex producers and products. 115
Figure 1. Schematic of anti-viral coating using nano-actives for inactivation of any adhered virus on the surfaces. 18
Figure 2. Schematic of TiO2 photocatalysis. 30
Figure 3. Organic pollutants removed from the air in the process of photocatalysis with TiO2. 33
Figure 4. Schematic indoor air filtration. 35
Figure 5. Schematic showing photocatalysis and photothermal catalysis promoted by MOFs. 39
Figure 6. MOF derived nanocomposites for photocatalytic applications. 40
Figure 7. Graphitic carbon nitride. 41
Figure 8. Schematic of germanene. 43
Figure 9. Graphdiyne structure. 45
Figure 10. Schematic of a monolayer of rhenium disulfide. 46
Figure 11. Mechanism of photocatalysis on a surface treated with TiO2 nanoparticles. 50
Figure 12. Schematic showing the self-cleaning phenomena on superhydrophilic surface. 51
Figure 13. Schematic of photocatalytic air purifying pavement. 53