The Global Market for Printable, Flexible and Stretchable Electronics to 2030

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Potential applications for the printed, flexible and stretchable electronics industry appear endless. The rapid boom in smart wearable and integrated electronic devices has stimulated demand for advanced intelligent systems with high performance, micro size, mechanical flexibility, and high-temperature stability. These systems must also be able to conform to the shape of and survive the environment in which they must operate. They are typically fabricated on flexible plastic substrates or are printed/woven into fabrics.

Based on a new generation of advanced materials, printed, flexible and stretchable sensors and electronics will enable new possibilities in a diverse range of industries from healthcare to automotive to buildings. These technologies will drive innovation in smart medical technology, automotive, smart manufacturing, Internet of Things (IoT) and consumer electronics.

The development of flexible or stretchable wearable electronic devices that maintain a high level of performance is a major electronics industry and research driver. Recent advances in stimuli-responsive surfaces and interfaces, sensors and actuators, flexible electronics, nanocoatings and conductive nanomaterials has led to the development of a new generation of smart and adaptive electronic fibers, yarns and fabrics for application in E-textiles. Wearable low-power silicon electronics, light-emitting diodes (LEDs) fabricated on fabrics, textiles with integrated Lithium-ion batteries (LIB) and electronic devices such as smart glasses, watches and lenses have been widely investigated and commercialized.

In the flexible displays market, Manufacturers such as Royole and Samsung are brining flexible display products to the market in 2018. Other companies have developed prototypes for smartphones, advertising and other wearables that they expect to bring to the market soon. The automotive industry is also heavily involved in research on flexible screens.

Wearable and mobile health monitoring technologies have recently received enormous interest worldwide due to the rapidly aging global populations and the drastically increasing demand for in-home healthcare. Commercially available and near commercial wearable devices facilitate the transmission of biomedical informatics and personal health recording. Body worn sensors, which can provide real-time continuous measurement of pertinent physiological parameters noninvasively and comfortably for extended periods of time, are of crucial importance for emerging applications of mobile medicine. Wearable sensors that can wirelessly provide pertinent health information while remaining unobtrusive, comfortable, low cost, and easy to operate and interpret, play an essential role.

Advancements over the last few years in electronics have led to the development of electronic (E-textiles) or smart textiles. Smart textiles and garments can sense environmental stimuli and react or adapt in a predetermined way. This involves either embedding or integrating sensors/actuators ad electronic components into textiles for use in applications such as medical diagnostics and health monitoring, consumer electronics, safety instruments and automotive textiles.

Battery and electronics producers require thin, flexible energy storage and conversion devices to power their wearable technology. The growth in flexible electronics has resulted in increased demand for flexible, stretchable, bendable, rollable and foldable batteries and supercapacitors as power sources for application in flexible and wearable devices.

Many major companies have integrated conductive and electronic ink and materials in applications ranging from photovoltaics to smart packaging. There are over 100 companies with products in this space for RFID, smart clothing, sensors, antennas and transistors.

Report contents include:

  • Current and developmental printable, flexible and stretchable products.
  • Advanced materials used in printable, flexible and stretchable electronics and sensors.
  • Stage of commercialization for applications, from basic research to market entry. Markets covered include conductive inks, wearables and IoT, medical & healthcare sensors, electronic clothing & smart apparel, energy harvesting & storage, electronics components and flexible displays.
  • Market drivers and trends.
  • Market figures for printable, flexible and stretchable electronics, by markets, materials and applications to 2030.
  • Profiles of over 300 producers and product developers.

Published October 2018 | 415 pages | 71 tables, 123 figures | Table of contents

The Global Market for Printable, Flexible and Stretchable Electronics to 2030
The Global Market for Printable, Flexible and Stretchable Electronics to 2030
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The Global Market for Printable, Flexible and Stretchable Electronics to 2030
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The Global Market for Printable, Flexible and Stretchable Electronics to 2030
The Global Market for Printable, Flexible and Stretchable Electronics to 2030
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TABLE OF CONTENTS

1    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY…………………………………………………………. 33

  • 1.1    The evolution of electronics……………………………………………………………………………………………. 33
    • 1.1.1     The wearables revolution……………………………………………………………………………………….. 34
    • 1.1.2     Flexible, thin, and large-area form factors………………………………………………………………. 36
  • 1.2    What are flexible and stretchable electronics?……………………………………………………………….. 37
    • 1.2.1     From rigid to flexible and stretchable……………………………………………………………………… 37
    • 1.2.2     Organic and printed electronics……………………………………………………………………………… 39
    • 1.2.3     New conductive materials………………………………………………………………………………………. 40
  • 1.3    Growth in flexible and stetchable electronics market……………………………………………………… 44

2    RESEARCH METHODOLOGY………………………………………………… 49

3    PRINTABLE, FLEXIBLE AND STRETCHABLE ELECTRONIC MATERIALS AND COMPOSITES………………………………………………… 50

  • 3.1    CARBON NANOTUBES…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 50
    • 3.1.1     Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 50
    • 3.1.2     Properties utilized in printable, flexible and stretchable electronics………………………… 51
      • 3.1.2.1       Single-walled carbon nanotubes……………………………………………………………………. 52
    • 3.1.3     Applications in printable, flexible and stretchable electronics…………………………………. 53
  • 3.2    CONDUCTIVE POLYMERS (CP)…………………………………………………………………………………… 55
    • 3.2.1     Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 56
      • 3.2.1.1       PDMS…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 56
      • 3.2.1.2       PEDOT: PSS…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 56
    • 3.2.2     Properties utilized in printable, flexible and stretchable electronics………………………… 57
    • 3.2.3     Applications in printable, flexible and stretchable electronics…………………………………. 58
  • 3.3    GRAPHENE…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 58
    • 3.3.1     Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 58
    • 3.3.2     Properties utilized in printable, flexible and stretchable electronics………………………… 60
    • 3.3.3     Applications in printable, flexible and stretchable electronics…………………………………. 61
  • 3.4    METAL MESH………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 63
    • 3.4.1     Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 63
    • 3.4.2     Properties utilized in printable, flexible and stretchable electronics………………………… 65
    • 3.4.3     Applications in printable, flexible and stretchable electronics…………………………………. 65
  • 3.5    SILVER INK (Flake, nanoparticles, nanowires, ion)……………………………………………………….. 66
    • 3.5.1     Silver flake……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 66
    • 3.5.2     Silver (Ag) nanoparticle ink…………………………………………………………………………………….. 67
      • 3.5.2.1       Conductivity…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 68
    • 3.5.3     Silver nanowires…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 68
    • 3.5.4     Prices……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 70
    • 3.5.4.1       Cost for printed area………………………………………………………………………………………. 70
  • 3.6    COPPER INK…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 71
    • 3.6.1     Silver-coated copper………………………………………………………………………………………………. 72
    • 3.6.2     Copper (Cu) nanoparticle ink…………………………………………………………………………………. 72
    • 3.6.3     Prices……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 72
  • 3.7    NANOCELLULOSE………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 73
    • 3.7.1     Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 73
    • 3.7.2     Properties utilized in printable, flexible and stretchable electronics………………………… 75
    • 3.7.3     Applications in printable, flexible and stretchable electronics…………………………………. 76
      • 3.7.3.1       Nanopaper…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 77
      • 3.7.3.2       Paper memory……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 79
  • 3.8    NANOFIBERS/WIRES………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 80
    • 3.8.1     Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 80
    • 3.8.2     Properties utilized in printable, flexible and stretchable electronics………………………… 80
    • 3.8.3     Applications in printable, flexible and stretchable electronics…………………………………. 81
  • 3.9    QUANTUM DOTS………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 81
    • 3.9.1     Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 81
    • 3.9.2     Properties utilized in printable, flexible and stretchable electronics………………………… 83
    • 3.9.3     Applications in printable, flexible and stretchable electronics…………………………………. 83
  • 3.10      GRAPHENE AND CARBON QUANTUM DOTS………………………………………………………… 85
    • 3.10.1        Properties…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 86
    • 3.10.2        Applications in printable, flexible and stretchable electronics…………………………….. 87
  • 3.11      OTHER TYPES………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 87
    • 3.11.1        Gold (Au) nanoparticle ink………………………………………………………………………………….. 87
    • 3.11.2        Siloxane inks……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 88
  • 3.12      OTHER 2-D MATERIALS…………………………………………………………………………………………… 88
    • 3.12.1        Black phosphorus/Phosphorene………………………………………………………………………… 88
      • 3.12.1.1     Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 88
      • 3.12.1.2     Applications in printable, flexible and stretchable electronics………………………… 90
    • 3.12.2        Graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4)………………………………………………………………………. 91
      • 3.12.2.1     Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 91
      • 3.12.2.2     Applications in printable, flexible and stretchable electronics………………………… 92
    • 3.12.3        Germanene………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 92
      • 3.12.3.1     Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 93
      • 3.12.3.2     Applications in printable, flexible and stretchable electronics………………………… 93
    • 3.12.4        Graphdiyne………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 94
      • 3.12.4.1     Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 94
      • 3.12.4.2     Applications in printable, flexible and stretchable electronics………………………… 95
    • 3.12.5        Graphane…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 95
      • 3.12.5.1     Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 95
      • 3.12.5.2     Applications in printable, flexible and stretchable electronics………………………… 96
    • 3.12.6        Hexagonal boron nitride…………………………………………………………………………………….. 96
      • 3.12.6.1     Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 97
      • 3.12.6.2     Applications in printable, flexible and stretchable electronics………………………… 98
    • 3.12.7        Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2)…………………………………………………………………………….. 98
      • 3.12.7.1     Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 99
      • 3.12.7.2     Applications in printable, flexible and stretchable electronics………………………. 100
    • 3.12.8        Rhenium disulfide (ReS2) and diselenide (ReSe2)………………………………………….. 101
      • 3.12.8.1     Properties…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 102
      • 3.12.8.2     Applications in printable, flexible and stretchable electronics………………………. 102
    • 3.12.9        Silicene…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 103
      • 3.12.9.1     Properties…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 103
      • 3.12.9.2     Applications in printable, flexible and stretchable electronics………………………. 104
    • 3.12.10      Stanene/tinene…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 105
      • 3.12.10.1       Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………… 105
      • 3.12.10.2       Applications in printable, flexible and stretchable electronics…………………… 106
    • 3.12.11      Tungsten diselenide…………………………………………………………………………………………. 106
      • 3.12.11.1       Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………… 107
      • 3.12.11.2       Applications in printable, flexible and stretchable electronics…………………… 107
    • 3.12.12      Antimonene……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 107
      • 3.12.12.1       Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………… 108
      • 3.12.12.2       Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………… 108
    • 3.12.13      Indium selenide………………………………………………………………………………………………… 108
      • 3.12.13.1       Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………… 108
      • 3.12.13.2       Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………… 109

4    WEARABLE ELECTRONICS AND IOT…………………………………… 111

  • 4.1    MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS……………………………………………………………………………… 111
  • 4.2    APPLICATIONS…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 114
    • 4.2.1     Current state of the art…………………………………………………………………………………………. 115
    • 4.2.2     Advanced materials solutions………………………………………………………………………………. 117
    • 4.2.3     Transparent conductive films……………………………………………………………………………….. 118
      • 4.2.3.1       Materials in conductive layers……………………………………………………………………… 118
      • 4.2.3.2       Nanomaterials used in TCFs……………………………………………………………………….. 123
    • 4.2.4     Wearable sensors………………………………………………………………………………………………… 130
      • 4.2.4.1       Current stage of the art………………………………………………………………………………… 130
      • 4.2.4.2       Advanced materials solutions………………………………………………………………………. 132
      • 4.2.4.3       Nanomaterials……………………………………………………………………………………………… 133
      • 4.2.4.4       Electroactive polymers (EAPs)…………………………………………………………………….. 136
      • 4.2.4.5       Wearable gas sensors…………………………………………………………………………………. 137
      • 4.2.4.6       Wearable strain sensors………………………………………………………………………………. 138
      • 4.2.4.7       Wearable tactile sensors……………………………………………………………………………… 138
      • 4.2.4.8       Industrial monitoring…………………………………………………………………………………….. 139
      • 4.2.4.9       Military…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 140
    • 4.2.5     IoT and smart packaging……………………………………………………………………………………… 141
    • 4.2.6     Augmented reality (AR) smart glasses…………………………………………………………………. 142
    • 4.2.7     Self-healing soft conductive materials………………………………………………………………….. 142
  • 4.3    GLOBAL MARKET SIZE………………………………………………………………………………………………. 144
  • 4.4    COMPANY PROFILES………………………………………………………………………………………………… 148-182 (78 company profiles)

5    PRINTABLE, FLEXIBLE AND STRETCHABLE MEDICAL AND HEALTHCARE ELECTRONICS……………………………. 184

  • 5.1    MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 184
  • 5.2    APPLICATIONS…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 186
    • 5.2.1     Current state of the art…………………………………………………………………………………………. 186
    • 5.2.2     Advanced materials solutions………………………………………………………………………………. 192
      • 5.2.2.1       Skin sensors………………………………………………………………………………………………… 192
      • 5.2.2.2       Nanomaterials-based devices……………………………………………………………………… 193
    • 5.2.3     Printable, flexible and stretchable health monitors……………………………………………….. 194
      • 5.2.3.1       Patch-type skin sensors………………………………………………………………………………. 196
      • 5.2.3.2       Skin temperature monitoring………………………………………………………………………… 200
      • 5.2.3.3       Hydration sensors………………………………………………………………………………………… 201
      • 5.2.3.4       Wearable sweat sensors……………………………………………………………………………… 202
      • 5.2.3.5       UV patches………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 203
      • 5.2.3.6       Smart footwear…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 205
  • 5.3    GLOBAL MARKET SIZE………………………………………………………………………………………………. 205
  • 5.4    COMPANY PROFILES………………………………………………………………………………………………… 207- 226 (44 company profiles)

6    PRINTABLE, FLEXIBLE AND STRETCHABLE ELECTRONIC TEXTILES AND APPAREL………………………………………………………… 227

  • 6.1    MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 227
  • 6.2    APPLICATIONS…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 229
    • 6.2.1     Current state of the art…………………………………………………………………………………………. 231
    • 6.2.2     Advanced materials solutions………………………………………………………………………………. 233
    • 6.2.3     Conductive yarns…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 239
    • 6.2.4     Conductive coatings…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 240
    • 6.2.5     Smart helmets………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 242
    • 6.2.6     Solar energy harvesting textiles…………………………………………………………………………… 243
    • 6.2.7     Flexible display and sensor apparel……………………………………………………………………… 244
    • 6.2.8     Electroluminescent textiles…………………………………………………………………………………… 245
  • 6.3    GLOBAL MARKET SIZE………………………………………………………………………………………………. 246
  • 6.4    COMPANY PROFILES………………………………………………………………………………………………… 249-269 (48 company profiles)

7    PRINTABLE, FLEXIBLE AND STRETCHABLE ENERGY STORAGE AND CONVERSION………………………………………………………………….. 270

  • 7.1    MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 270
  • 7.2    APPLICATIONS…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 272
    • 7.2.1     Current state of the art…………………………………………………………………………………………. 272
    • 7.2.2     Advanced materials solutions………………………………………………………………………………. 274
      • 7.2.2.1       Flexible and stretchable batteries………………………………………………………………… 274
      • 7.2.2.2       Flexible and stretchable supercapacitors…………………………………………………….. 276
      • 7.2.2.3       Fiber-shaped Lithium-Ion batteries………………………………………………………………. 279
      • 7.2.2.4       Flexible OLED lighting…………………………………………………………………………………. 279
      • 7.2.2.5       Quantum dot lighting……………………………………………………………………………………. 280
      • 7.2.2.6       Stretchable piezoelectric energy harvesting………………………………………………… 282
      • 7.2.2.7       Stretchable triboelectric energy harvesting………………………………………………….. 283
  • 7.3    GLOBAL MARKET SIZE………………………………………………………………………………………………. 283
  • 7.4    COMPANY PROFILES………………………………………………………………………………………………… 288-300 (30 company profiles)

8    PRINTABLE, FLEXIBLE AND STRETCHABLE DISPLAYS AND COMPONENTS………………………………………………………………………… 301

  • 8.1    MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 301
  • 8.2    APPLICATIONS…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 302
    • 8.2.1     Printable, flexible and stretchable circuit boards and interconnects……………………… 304
    • 8.2.2     Printable, flexible and stretchable transistors……………………………………………………….. 304
    • 8.2.3     Flexible displays…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 305
      • 8.2.3.1       Flexible LCDs………………………………………………………………………………………………. 307
      • 8.2.3.2       Flexible OLEDs (FOLED)…………………………………………………………………………….. 308
      • 8.2.3.3       Flexible AMOLED………………………………………………………………………………………… 309
      • 8.2.3.4       Flexible microLEDS……………………………………………………………………………………… 312
      • 8.2.3.5       Flexible electrophoretic displays………………………………………………………………….. 312
  • 8.3    GLOBAL MARKET SIZE………………………………………………………………………………………………. 313
  • 8.4    COMPANY PROFILES………………………………………………………………………………………………… 314-324 (30 company profiles)

9    PRINTABLE, FLEXIBLE AND STRETCHABLE CONDUCTIVE INKS     325

  • 9.1    MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 325
  • 9.2    CONDUCTIVE INK TYPES………………………………………………………………………………………….. 327
  • 9.3    PRINTING METHODS…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 328
  • 9.8    APPLICATIONS…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 334
    • 9.8.1     Current products…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 334
    • 9.8.2     Advanced materials solutions………………………………………………………………………………. 335
    • 9.8.3     RFID…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 339
    • 9.8.4     Smart labels and packaging…………………………………………………………………………………. 341
    • 9.8.5     Smart clothing………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 342
    • 9.8.6     Printable sensors…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 342
    • 9.8.7     Printed batteries…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 342
    • 9.8.8     Printable antennas……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 344
    • 9.8.9     In-mold electronics……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 345
    • 9.8.10        Printed transistors……………………………………………………………………………………………. 346
  • 9.9    GLOBAL MARKET SIZE………………………………………………………………………………………………. 347
  • 9.10      COMPANY PROFILES…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 350-396 (108 company profiles)

10 REFERENCES…………………………………………………………………….. 397

TABLES

  • Table 1: Evolution of wearable devices, 2011-2018……………………………………………………………………. 34
  • Table 2: Advanced materials for printable, flexible and stretchable sensors and Electronics-Advantages and disadvantages……………………………………………………………………………………………. 41
  • Table 3: Sheet resistance (RS) and transparency (T) values for transparent conductive oxides and alternative materials for transparent conductive electrodes (TCE)……………………………………….. 42
  • Table 4: Markets for wearable devices and applications…………………………………………………………….. 44
  • Table 5: Properties of CNTs and comparable materials……………………………………………………………… 50
  • Table 6: Companies developing carbon nanotubes for applications in printable, flexible and stretchable electronics………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 54
  • Table 7: Types of flexible conductive polymers, properties and applications……………………………… 57
  • Table 8: Properties of graphene…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 59
  • Table 9: Companies developing graphene for applications in printable, flexible and stretchable electronics…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 61
  • Table 10: Advantages and disadvantages of fabrication techniques to produce metal mesh structures……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 64
  • Table 11: Types of flexible conductive polymers, properties and applications……………………………. 65
  • Table 12: Companies developing metal mesh for applications in printable, flexible and stretchable electronics…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 66
  • Table 13: Nanocellulose properties…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 73
  • Table 14: Properties and applications of nanocellulose………………………………………………………………. 74
  • Table 15: Properties of flexible electronics‐cellulose nanofiber film (nanopaper)……………………….. 75
  • Table 16: Properties of flexible electronics cellulose nanofiber films………………………………………….. 77
  • Table 17: Companies developing nanocellulose for applications in printable, flexible and stretchable electronics…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 79
  • Table 18: Companies developing quantum dots for applications in printable, flexible and stretchable electronics…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 84
  • Table 19: Schematic of (a) CQDs and (c) GQDs. HRTEM images of (b) C-dots and (d) GQDs showing combination of zigzag and armchair edges (positions marked as 1–4……………………. 86
  • Table 20: Properties of graphene quantum dots…………………………………………………………………………. 86
  • Table 21: Electronic and mechanical properties of monolayer phosphorene, graphene and MoS2. 90
  • Table 22: Market drivers for printable, flexible and stretchable sensors for wearable electronics and IoT………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 111
  • Table 23: Wearable electronics devices and stage of development…………………………………………. 115
  • Table 24: Transparent conductive switches-PEDOT………………………………………………………………… 119
  • Table 25: Comparison of ITO replacements……………………………………………………………………………… 119
  • Table 26: Applications in printable, flexible and stretchable sensors, by advanced materials type and benefits thereof……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 120
  • Table 27: Graphene properties relevant to application in sensors……………………………………………. 135
  • Table 28: Companies developing smart packaging for electronics…………………………………………… 141
  • Table 29: Companies developing AR smart glasses………………………………………………………………… 142
  • Table 30: Global market for wearable electronics, 2015-2030, by application, billions $………….. 145
  • Table 31: Global transparent conductive electrodes market forecast by materials type, 2012-2030, millions $…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 146
  • Table 32: Market drivers for printable, flexible and stretchable medical and healthcare sensors and wearables…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 184
  • Table 33: Wearable medical device products and stage of development…………………………………. 188
  • Table 34: Applications in flexible and stretchable health monitors, by advanced materials type and benefits thereof…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 194
  • Table 35: Applications in patch-type skin sensors, by materials type and benefits thereof………. 198
  • Table 36: Companies developing electronic skin patches………………………………………………………… 199
  • Table 37: Market drivers for printable, flexible and stretchable electronic textiles and apparel…. 227
  • Table 38: Types of smart textiles………………………………………………………………………………………………. 229
  • Table 39: Examples of smart textile products…………………………………………………………………………… 230
  • Table 40: Currently available technologies for smart textiles……………………………………………………. 231
  • Table 41: E-textiles and apparel and stage of development……………………………………………………… 232
  • Table 42: Applications in textiles, by advanced materials type and benefits thereof…………………. 234
  • Table 43: Nanocoatings applied in the textiles industry-type of coating, nanomaterials utilized, benefits and applications…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 235
  • Table 44: Applications and benefits of graphene in textiles and apparel………………………………….. 240
  • Table 45: Global smart clothing, interactive fabrics and apparel market…………………………………… 246
  • Table 46: Global market for printable, flexible and stretchable electronic textiles and apparel, 2015-2030 (billion $)……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 247
  • Table 47: Market drivers for printable, flexible and stretchable electronic energy storage and converison………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 270
  • Table 48: Wearable energy and energy harvesting devices and stage of development…………… 273
  • Table 49: Applications in flexible and stretchable batteries, by materials type and benefits thereof…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 275
  • Table 50: Comanies producing flexible and stretchable batteries…………………………………………….. 276
  • Table 51: Applications in flexible and stretchable supercapacitors, by nanomaterials type and benefits thereof…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 278
  • Table 52: Applications in energy harvesting textiles, by nanomaterials type and benefits thereof. 281
  • Table 53: Potential addressable market for thin film, flexible and printed batteries…………………… 283
  • Table 54: Global market for printable, flexible and stretchable batteries, 2015-2030 (billion $)… 286
  • Table 55: Global market for printable, flexible and stretchable solar, 2015-2030 (billion $)………. 286
  • Table 56: Global market for printable, flexible and stretchable lighting, 2015-2030 (billion $)…… 287
  • Table 57: Market drivers for printable, flexible and stretchable displays and electronic components…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 301
  • Table 58: Applications in flexible and stretchable circuit boards, by advanced materials type and benefits thereof…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 304
  • Table 59: Price comparison of thin-film transistor (TFT) electronics technology……………………….. 305
  • Table 60: Global market for printable, flexible and stretchable displays, 2015-2030 (billion $)…. 313
  • Table 61: Market drivers for printable, flexible and stretchable conductive inks……………………….. 325
  • Table 62: Typical conductive ink formulation…………………………………………………………………………….. 327
  • Table 63:  Characteristics of analog printing processes for conductive inks…………………………….. 329
  • Table 64: Characteristics of digital printing processes for conductive inks……………………………….. 330
  • Table 65: Printable electronics products…………………………………………………………………………………… 334
  • Table 66: Comparative properties of conductive inks……………………………………………………………….. 335
  • Table 67: Applications in conductive inks by type and benefits thereof…………………………………….. 336
  • Table 68: Opportunities for advanced materials in printed electronics……………………………………… 341
  • Table 69: Applications in flexible and stretchable batteries, by nanomaterials type and benefits thereof………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 343
  • Table 70: Price comparison of thin-film transistor (TFT) electronics technology……………………….. 346
  • Table 71: Main markets for conductive inks, applications and revenues………………………………….. 347
  • Table 72: Conductive inks in the printable, flexible and stretchable electronics market 2017-2030 revenue forecast (million $), by ink types……………………………………………………………………………. 350

 

FIGURES

  • Figure 1: Evolution of electronics………………………………………………………………………………………………… 34
  • Figure 2: Wove Band………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 37
  • Figure 3: Wearable graphene medical sensor……………………………………………………………………………. 39
  • Figure 4: Applications timeline for organic and printed electronics……………………………………………… 40
  • Figure 5: Mimo Baby Monitor……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 47
  • Figure 6: Wearable health monitor incorporating graphene photodetectors……………………………….. 48
  • Figure 7: Schematic of single-walled carbon nanotube………………………………………………………………. 52
  • Figure 8: Stretchable SWNT memory and logic devices for wearable electronics………………………. 53
  • Figure 9: Stretchable carbon aerogel incorporating carbon nanotubes………………………………………. 55
  • Figure 10: Graphene layer structure schematic………………………………………………………………………….. 60
  • Figure 11: Flexible graphene touch screen…………………………………………………………………………………. 61
  • Figure 12: Foldable graphene E-paper……………………………………………………………………………………….. 61
  • Figure 13: Large-area metal mesh touch panel………………………………………………………………………….. 64
  • Figure 14: Silver nanocomposite ink after sintering and resin bonding of discrete electronic components………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 68
  • Figure 15: Flexible silver nanowire wearable mesh…………………………………………………………………….. 70
  • Figure 16: Copper based inks on flexible substrate……………………………………………………………………. 72
  • Figure 17:  Cellulose nanofiber films…………………………………………………………………………………………… 76
  • Figure 18: Nanocellulose photoluminescent paper…………………………………………………………………….. 76
  • Figure 19: LEDs shining on circuitry imprinted on a 5x5cm sheet of CNF………………………………….. 77
  • Figure 20: Foldable nanopaper…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 78
  • Figure 21: Foldable nanopaper antenna…………………………………………………………………………………….. 79
  • Figure 22: Paper memory (ReRAM)……………………………………………………………………………………………. 79
  • Figure 23: Quantum dot……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 82
  • Figure 24: The light-blue curve represents a typical spectrum from a conventional white-LED LCD TV. With quantum dots, the spectrum is tunable to any colours of red, green, and blue, and each Color is limited to a narrow band………………………………………………………………………………….. 82
  • Figure 25: Black phosphorus structure……………………………………………………………………………………….. 88
  • Figure 26: Black Phosphorus crystal…………………………………………………………………………………………… 89
  • Figure 27: Bottom gated flexible few-layer phosphorene transistors with the hydrophobic dielectric encapsulation……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 91
  • Figure 28: Graphitic carbon nitride……………………………………………………………………………………………… 92
  • Figure 29: Schematic of germanene…………………………………………………………………………………………… 93
  • Figure 30: Graphdiyne structure…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 94
  • Figure 31: Schematic of Graphane crystal………………………………………………………………………………….. 95
  • Figure 32: Structure of hexagonal boron nitride………………………………………………………………………….. 97
  • Figure 33: Structure of 2D molybdenum disulfide……………………………………………………………………….. 99
  • Figure 34: SEM image of MoS2………………………………………………………………………………………………… 100
  • Figure 35: Atomic force microscopy image of a representative MoS2 thin-film transistor…………. 100
  • Figure 36: Schematic of the molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) thin-film sensor with the deposited molecules that create additional charge……………………………………………………………………………… 101
  • Figure 37: Schematic of a monolayer of rhenium disulphide…………………………………………………….. 102
  • Figure 38: Silicene structure……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 103
  • Figure 39: Monolayer silicene on a silver (111) substrate…………………………………………………………. 104
  • Figure 40: Silicene transistor…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 105
  • Figure 41: Crystal structure for stanene……………………………………………………………………………………. 105
  • Figure 42: Atomic structure model for the 2D stanene on Bi2Te3(111)……………………………………. 106
  • Figure 43: Schematic of tungsten diselenide……………………………………………………………………………. 107
  • Figure 44: Schematic of Indium Selenide (InSe)………………………………………………………………………. 109
  • Figure 45: Covestro wearables…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 117
  • Figure 46: Royole flexible display……………………………………………………………………………………………… 118
  • Figure 47: Panasonic CNT stretchable Resin Film……………………………………………………………………. 120
  • Figure 48: Flexionet conductive film…………………………………………………………………………………………. 123
  • Figure 49: Bending durability of Ag nanowires………………………………………………………………………….. 126
  • Figure 50: NFC computer chip………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 127
  • Figure 51: NFC translucent diffuser schematic…………………………………………………………………………. 128
  • Figure 52: Softceptor sensor…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 130
  • Figure 53: BeBop Media Arm Controller…………………………………………………………………………………… 131
  • Figure 54: LG Innotek flexible textile pressure sensor………………………………………………………………. 131
  • Figure 55: C2Sense flexible sensor………………………………………………………………………………………….. 132
  • Figure 56: <hitoe> nanofiber conductive shirt original design(top) and current design (bottom).. 133
  • Figure 57: Garment-based printable electrodes……………………………………………………………………….. 134
  • Figure 58: Wearable gas sensor………………………………………………………………………………………………. 137
  • Figure 59: BeBop Sensors Marcel Modular Data Gloves………………………………………………………….. 139
  • Figure 60: BeBop Sensors Smart Helmet Sensor System………………………………………………………… 139
  • Figure 61: Torso and Extremities Protection (TEP) system………………………………………………………. 140
  • Figure 62: Global market for wearable electronics, 2015-2030, by application, billions $…………. 144
  • Figure 63: Global transparent conductive electrodes market forecast by materials type, 2012-2030, millions $…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 147
  • Figure 64: BITalino systems……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 158
  • Figure 65: Connected human body…………………………………………………………………………………………… 187
  • Figure 66: Flexible, lightweight temperature sensor…………………………………………………………………. 188
  • Figure 67: Prototype ECG sensor patch…………………………………………………………………………………… 192
  • Figure 68: Graphene-based E-skin patch…………………………………………………………………………………. 193
  • Figure 69: Wearable bio-fluid monitoring system for monitoring of hydration……………………………. 195
  • Figure 70: Smart mouth guard………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 196
  • Figure 71: Smart e-skin system comprising health-monitoring sensors, displays, and ultra flexible PLEDs………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 197
  • Figure 72: Graphene medical patch………………………………………………………………………………………….. 198
  • Figure 73: TempTraQ wearable wireless thermometer…………………………………………………………….. 200
  • Figure 74: Mimo baby monitor………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 201
  • Figure 75: Nanowire skin hydration patch…………………………………………………………………………………. 201
  • Figure 76: Wearable sweat sensor…………………………………………………………………………………………… 202
  • Figure 77: GraphWear wearable sweat sensor………………………………………………………………………… 203
  • Figure 78: My UV Patch……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 204
  • Figure 79: Overview layers of L’Oreal skin patch……………………………………………………………………… 205
  • Figure 80: Global medical and healthcare smart textiles and wearables market, 2015-2030, billions $………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 206
  • Figure 81: Global medical and healthcare smart textiles and wearables market, 2015-2030, billions $………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 207
  • Figure 82: Omniphobic-coated fabric………………………………………………………………………………………… 233
  • Figure 83: Conductive yarns…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 240
  • Figure 84: Work out shirt incorporating ECG sensors, flexible lights and heating elements……… 242
  • Figure 85: Schematic illustration of the fabrication concept for textile-based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) made by sewing textile electrodes onto cloth or paper………………………………… 243
  • Figure 86:  Flexible Shirt and Flexible Top Hat…………………………………………………………………………. 244
  • Figure 87 Global smart clothing, interactive fabrics and apparel sales by market segment, 2017. 247
  • Figure 88: Global market for printable, flexible and stretchable electronic textiles and apparel, 2015-2030 (billion $)……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 248
  • Figure 89: Energy harvesting textile…………………………………………………………………………………………. 271
  • Figure 90: StretchSense Energy Harvesting Kit……………………………………………………………………….. 272
  • Figure 91: LG Chem Heaxagonal battery…………………………………………………………………………………. 273
  • Figure 92: Printed 1.5V battery…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 275
  • Figure 93: Energy densities and specific energy of rechargeable batteries………………………………. 277
  • Figure 94: Stretchable graphene supercapacitor………………………………………………………………………. 278
  • Figure 95: LG OLED flexible lighting panel……………………………………………………………………………….. 280
  • Figure 96: Flexible OLED incorporated into automotive headlight……………………………………………. 280
  • Figure 97: Flexible & stretchable LEDs based on quantum dots………………………………………………. 281
  • Figure 98: Demand for thin film, flexible and printed batteries 2015, by market……………………….. 285
  • Figure 99: Demand for thin film, flexible and printed batteries 2030, by market……………………….. 286
  • Figure 100: Global market for printable, flexible and stretchable batteries, 2015-2030 (billion $). 286
  • Figure 101: Global market for printable, flexible and stretchable solar, 2015-2030 (billion $)…… 287
  • Figure 102: Global market for printable, flexible and stretchable lighting, 2015-2030 (billion $).. 288
  • Figure 103: LG Display LG Display 77-inch flexible transparent OLED display………………………… 302
  • Figure 104: Thin film transistor incorporating CNTs………………………………………………………………….. 305
  • Figure 105:  Carbon nanotubes flexible, rechargeable yarn batteries incorporated into flexible, rechargeable yarn batteries………………………………………………………………………………………………… 306
  • Figure 106: Flexible LCD………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 307
  • Figure 107: “Full ActiveTM Flex”………………………………………………………………………………………………. 307
  • Figure 108: FOLED schematic………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 309
  • Figure 109: Foldable display…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 310
  • Figure 110: Stretchable AMOLED…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 310
  • Figure 111: LGD 12.3” FHD Automotive OLED………………………………………………………………………… 311
  • Figure 112 Paper-like foldable AMOLED screen………………………………………………………………………. 311
  • Figure 113: LECTUM® display…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 313
  • Figure 114: Global market for printable, flexible and stretchable displays, 2015-2030 (billion $). 314
  • Figure 115: BGT Materials graphene ink product……………………………………………………………………… 339
  • Figure 116: Flexible RFID tag…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 340
  • Figure 117: Enfucell Printed Battery…………………………………………………………………………………………. 344
  • Figure 118: Graphene printed antenna…………………………………………………………………………………….. 344
  • Figure 119: Printed antennas for aircraft…………………………………………………………………………………… 345
  • Figure 120: Stretchable material for formed an in-molded electronics……………………………………… 346
  • Figure 121: Wearable patch with a skin-compatible, pressure-sensitive adhesive……………………. 346
  • Figure 122: Thin film transistor incorporating CNTs………………………………………………………………….. 346
  • Figure 123: Conductive inks in the printable, flexible and stretchable electronics market 2017-2030 revenue forecast (million $), by ink types……………………………………………………………………………. 349