The Graphene Market Report 2022

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Published January 2022 | 700 pages, 185 tables, 197 figures | Table of contents

The market for graphene has grown hugely in the past decade, with numerous products now on the market and more to come as graphene producers record steadily increasing revenues and OEMs witnessing significant returns in clothing, sportswear, footwear, tires, batteries etc. The market for graphene in batteries is witnessing large-scale investments. 

Graphene is attracting increasing attention from investors, researchers and industrial players due to exceptional mechanical, electronic, and thermal properties. Graphene is available in multi-ton quantities from many producers and has been identified by many industry sectors as a key materials that will drive future product development in flexible electronics, smart textiles, biosensors, drug delivery, water filtration, supercapacitors and more.

The Graphene Market Report 2022 is the most comprehensive and up-to date report on graphene currently available, by the world's leading market authority on graphene and publisher of Graphene Magazine. Profiling over 300 companies, the report provides key information for investors and executives to enable them to understand and take advantage of the opportunities provided by graphene (other 2D materials are also covered).

The Graphene Market Report 2022 contains:

  • Assessment of graphene by market including applications, key benefits, market megatrends, market drivers for graphene, technology drawbacks, competing materials, potential consumption of graphene to 2032 and main players.
  • Assessment of graphene materials (CVD graphene, graphene nano platelets, graphene oxide, etc), intermediate products (graphene masterbatches, dispersions, etc) and final products with graphene embedded (e.g. headphones, tennis racquets, etc). Tabular data on current graphene products.
  • Graphical depictions of graphene applications by market.
  • In depth-assessment of graphene producer and distributor pricing in 2021.
  • Global market for graphene in tons, by sector, historical and forecast to 2032. Global graphene market size split by market in 2021 and for each application to 2032.
  • Full list of technology collaborations, strategic partnerships, and M&As in the global graphene market including collaboration dates. 
  • In-depth profiles of more than 300 graphene producers and application/product developers including products, production capacities, manufacturing methods, collaborations, licensing, customers and target markets. Companies profiled include Directa Plus, Global Graphene Group, Anaphite Limited, Saint Jean Carbon, Huvis, SafeLi LLC, Grapheal, Graphex Group Ltd, Versarien, Talga Resources, Archer Materials, Haydale Graphene, Paragraf, Graphenea and many more.
  • List of ex-graphene producers. 
  • Detailed forecasts for key growth areas, opportunities and demand.
  • Market overview of industry developments in 2020-22. 
  • Unique market assessment tools to assess the viability of graphene, by market, and application.
  • Market assessment of other 2D materials.
  • Analysis of 2D materials market including Boron Nitride nanotubes (BNNTs), hexagonal boron-nitride (BNNS), transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDC), Mxenes, Borophene, Phosphorene, Graphitic carbon nitride, Germanene, Graphyne, graphane, Rhenium disulfide (ReS2) and diselenide (ReSe2), silicene, Stanene/tinene, Tungsten diselenide, Antimonene, diamene and indium selenide. 

 

1              EXECUTIVE SUMMARY   33

  • 1.1          Graphene properties     34
  • 1.2          Commercialization           34
  • 1.3          The graphene market to date     35
  • 1.4          The market in 2021          36
  • 1.5          Market outlook for 2022 and beyond      38
  • 1.6          Graphene commercial market developments 2021-2022 39
  • 1.7          Graphene funding and investments 2020-2022    41
  • 1.8          Publicly listed graphene companies         45
  • 1.9          Graphene global production capacities, in tons and by type          46
  • 1.10        Global demand for graphene      48
    • 1.10.1    Global graphene demand, to 2032, tons 48
    • 1.10.2    Global graphene demand, by end user market to 2032     50
    • 1.10.3    Graphene market, by region       54
      • 1.10.3.1                Asia-Pacific         54
      • 1.10.3.2                North America   58
      • 1.10.3.3                Europe 60
  • 1.11        Graphene products         62
  • 1.12        Industrial collaborations and licence agreements              65
  • 1.13        Graphene market challenges      72

 

2              OVERVIEW OF GRAPHENE            74

  • 2.1          History  74
  • 2.2          Properties           75
  • 2.3          Types of graphene           76
  • 2.3.1      Graphene materials        77
    • 2.3.1.1   CVD Graphene  77
    • 2.3.1.2   Graphene nanoplatelets               78
    • 2.3.1.3   Graphene oxide and reduced Graphene Oxide    79
    • 2.3.1.4   Graphene quantum dots (GQDs)               79
  • 2.3.2      Intermediate products  93
    • 2.3.2.1   Graphene masterbatches             93
    • 2.3.2.2   Graphene dispersions    94

 

3              GRAPHENE PRODUCTION             95

  • 3.1          Quality  96
  • 3.2          Assessment of graphene production methods    97

 

4              REGULATIONS   102

  • 4.1          Environmental, health and safety regulation        102
    • 4.1.1      Europe 102
    • 4.1.2      United States     103
    • 4.1.3      Asia-Pacific         104
  • 4.2          Workplace exposure      105

 

5              GRAPHENE PATENTS AND PUBLICATIONS             107

 

6              GRAPHENE PRODUCTION             109

  • 6.1          Commercial production capacities            110
  • 6.2          Graphene oxide and reduced Graphene Oxide production capacities        111
    • 6.2.1      By producer       111
    • 6.2.2      By region             112
  • 6.3          Graphene nanoplatelets production capacities   113
    • 6.3.1      By producer       114
    • 6.3.2      Production capacity by region     115
  • 6.4          CVD graphene film           116
    • 6.4.1      By producer       116
  • 6.5          Graphene production issues and challenges         117
    • 6.5.1      Oversupply         117
    • 6.5.2      Quality  117
    • 6.5.3      Large-volume markets   118
    • 6.5.4      Commoditisation             118
    • 6.5.5      Industrial end-user perspective 119

 

7              GRAPHENE PRICING       120

  • 7.1          Pristine graphene flakes pricing/CVD graphene  122
  • 7.2          Few-Layer graphene pricing        123
  • 7.3          Graphene nanoplatelets pricing 124
  • 7.4          Graphene oxide (GO) and reduced Graphene Oxide (rGO) pricing               125
  • 7.5          Graphene quantum dots pricing 127
  • 7.6          Multilayer graphene (MLG) pricing           128
  • 7.7          Graphene ink     129

 

8              MARKETS FOR GRAPHENE            129

  • 8.1          3D PRINTING     129
    • 8.1.1      Graphene in 3D printing 129
    • 8.1.2      Market outlook 130
    • 8.1.3      Market drivers, trends and applications  130
    • 8.1.4      Global market in tons, historical and forecast to 2031       134
    • 8.1.5      Product developers        135
  • 8.2          ADHESIVES         137
    • 8.2.1      Graphene in adhesives  137
    • 8.2.2      Market outlook 138
    • 8.2.3      Market drivers, trends and applications  139
    • 8.2.4      Global market in tons, historical and forecast to 2031       142
    • 8.2.5      Product developers        143
  • 8.3          AUTOMOTIVE   145
    • 8.3.1      Graphene in the automotive sector          145
    • 8.3.2      Market outlook 146
    • 8.3.3      Market drivers, trends and applications  147
    • 8.3.4      Global market in tons, historical and forecast to 2031       150
    • 8.3.5      Product developers        151
  • 8.4          BATTERIES           155
    • 8.4.1      Graphene in batteries    155
      • 8.4.1.1   Battery market megatrends        156
    • 8.4.2      Market outlook 161
      • 8.4.2.1   Flexible and stretchable batteries             163
    • 8.4.3      Market drivers, trends and applications  164
    • 8.4.4      Global market in tons, historical and forecast to 2031       169
    • 8.4.5      Product developers        170
  • 8.5          COMPOSITES     176
    • 8.5.1      Graphene in composites               176
    • 8.5.2      Fiber-based polymer composite parts     176
      • 8.5.2.1   Market outlook 176
      • 8.5.2.2   Market drivers, trends and applications  177
    • 8.5.3      Metal-matrix composites             181
      • 8.5.3.1   Market drivers, trends and applications  181
    • 8.5.4      Global market in tons, historical and forecast to 2031       182
    • 8.5.5      Product developers        183
  • 8.6          CONDUCTIVE INKS          189
    • 8.6.1      Graphene in conductive inks       189
    • 8.6.2      Market outlook 189
    • 8.6.3      Market drivers, trends and applications  190
    • 8.6.4      Global market in tons, historical and forecast to 2031       194
    • 8.6.5      Product developers        196
  • 8.7          CONSTRUCTION AND BUILDINGS              199
    • 8.7.1      Graphene in construction and buildings  199
    • 8.7.2      Market outlook 199
    • 8.7.3      Market drivers, trends and applications  200
      • 8.7.3.1   Cement 200
      • 8.7.3.2   Asphalt bitumen               202
      • 8.7.3.3   Aerogels              203
    • 8.7.4      Global market in tons, historical and forecast to 2031       204
    • 8.7.5      Product developers        205
  • 8.8          ELECTRONICS     208
    • 8.8.1      WEARABLE ELECTRONICS AND DISPLAYS 208
      • 8.8.1.1   Graphene in wearable electronics and displays   208
      • 8.8.1.2   Market outlook 209
      • 8.8.1.3   Market drivers, trends and applications  209
      • 8.8.1.4   Global market, historical and forecast to 2031      212
      • 8.8.1.5   Product developers        213
    • 8.8.2      TRANSISTORS AND INTEGRATED CIRCUITS            215
      • 8.8.2.1   Graphene in transistors and integrated circuits    215
      • 8.8.2.2   Market outlook 215
      • 8.8.2.3   Market drivers, trends and applications  216
      • 8.8.2.4   Global market, historical and forecast to 2031      219
      • 8.8.2.5   Product developers        220
    • 8.8.3      MEMORY DEVICES           222
      • 8.8.3.1   Graphene in memory devices     222
      • 8.8.3.2   Market outlook 222
      • 8.8.3.3   Market drivers, trends and applications  223
      • 8.8.3.4   Global market in tons, historical and forecast to 2031       224
      • 8.8.3.5   Product developers        225
  • 8.9          FILTER MEDIA    227
    • 8.9.1      Graphene in filter media               227
    • 8.9.2      Market prospects            227
    • 8.9.3      Market drivers, trends and applications  228
    • 8.9.4      Global market in tons, historical and forecast to 2031       232
    • 8.9.5      Product developers        234
  • 8.10        FUEL CELLS          237
    • 8.10.1    Graphene in fuel cells     237
    • 8.10.2    Market outlook 237
    • 8.10.3    Market drivers, trends and applications  238
    • 8.10.4    Global market in tons, historical and forecast to 2031       242
    • 8.10.5    Product developers        243
  • 8.11        LIFE SCIENCES AND MEDICINE    244
    • 8.11.1    Graphene in life sciences and medicine  244
    • 8.11.2    Market outlook 245
      • 8.11.2.1                Drug delivery     245
      • 8.11.2.2                Imaging and diagnostics 246
      • 8.11.2.3                Implants              246
      • 8.11.2.4                Medical biosensors         247
      • 8.11.2.5                Woundcare        248
      • 8.11.2.6                Medical wearables          248
      • 8.11.2.7                Gene delivery    249
    • 8.11.3    Market drivers, trends and applications  250
    • 8.11.4    Global market in tons, historical and forecast to 2031       254
    • 8.11.5    Product developers        256
  • 8.12        LIGHTING            260
    • 8.12.1    Graphene in lighting        260
    • 8.12.2    Market outlook 260
    • 8.12.3    Market drivers, trends and applications  261
    • 8.12.4    Global market in tons, historical and forecast to 2031       263
    • 8.12.5    Product developers        264
  • 8.13        LUBRICANTS      266
    • 8.13.1    Graphene in lubricants. 266
    • 8.13.2    Market outlook 267
    • 8.13.3    Market drivers, trends and applications  268
    • 8.13.4    Global market in tons, historical and forecast to 2031       270
    • 8.13.5    Product developers        271
  • 8.14        OIL AND GAS      274
    • 8.14.1    Graphene in oil and gas 274
    • 8.14.2    Market outlook 274
    • 8.14.3    Market drivers, trends and applications  275
    • 8.14.4    Global market in tons, historical and forecast to 2031       277
    • 8.14.5    Product developers        278
  • 8.15        PAINTS AND COATINGS 280
    • 8.15.1    Graphene in paints and coatings                280
    • 8.15.2    Market outlook 280
    • 8.15.3    Market drivers, trends and applications  281
    • 8.15.4    Global market in tons, historical and forecast to 2031       284
    • 8.15.5    Product developers        286
  • 8.16        PHOTONICS        291
    • 8.16.1    Graphene in paints and coatings.              291
    • 8.16.2    Market outlook 291
    • 8.16.3    Market drivers, trends and applications  292
    • 8.16.4    Global market in tons, historical and forecast to 2031       295
    • 8.16.5    Product developers        296
  • 8.17        PHOTOVOLTAICS             298
    • 8.17.1    Graphene in photovoltaics           298
    • 8.17.2    Market outlook 299
    • 8.17.3    Market drivers, trends and applications  299
    • 8.17.4    Global market in tons, historical and forecast to 2031       302
    • 8.17.5    Product developers        303
  • 8.18        RUBBER AND TIRES          305
    • 8.18.1    Graphene in rubber and tires.     305
    • 8.18.2    Market outlook 305
    • 8.18.3    Market drivers, trends and applications  306
    • 8.18.4    Global market in tons, historical and forecast to 2031       309
    • 8.18.5    Product developers        311
  • 8.19        SENSORS             313
    • 8.19.1    Graphene in sensors.     313
    • 8.19.2    Market outlook 314
    • 8.19.3    Market drivers, trends and applications  314
    • 8.19.4    Global market in tons, historical and forecast to 2031       318
    • 8.19.5    Product developers        320
  • 8.20        TEXTILES AND APPAREL 324
    • 8.20.1    Graphene in textiles and apparel.             324
    • 8.20.2    Market outlook 324
    • 8.20.3    Market drivers, trends and applications  325
    • 8.20.4    Global market in tons, historical and forecast to 2031       330
    • 8.20.5    Product developers        331
  • 8.21        SUPERCAPACITORS         336
    • 8.21.1    Graphene in supercapacitors.     336
    • 8.21.2    Market outlook 336
    • 8.21.3    Market drivers, trends and applications  337
      • 8.21.3.1                Flexible and stretchable supercapacitors               339
    • 8.21.4    Global market in tons, historical and forecast to 2031       340
    • 8.21.5    Product developers        341
  • 8.22        OTHER MARKETS              344
    • 8.22.1    Audio equipment             344
    • 8.22.2    Sporting goods and apparel         344

 

9              GRAPHENE PRODUCER ASSESSMENT      346

  • 9.1          Types of graphene produced, by producer            346
  • 9.2          Markets targeted, by producer  350
  • 9.3          Graphene product developers target markets     353

 

10           GRAPHENE COMPANY PROFILES 357 (308 company profiles)

 

11           GRAPHENE EX-PRODUCERS AND PRODUCT DEVELOPERS 596

 

12           OTHER 2-D MATERIALS  611

  • 12.1        Comparative analysis of graphene and other 2D materials              614
  • 12.2        2D MATERIALS PRODUCTION METHODS 616
    • 12.2.1    Top-down exfoliation     616
      • 12.2.1.1                Mechanical exfoliation method 617
      • 12.2.1.2                Liquid exfoliation method            617
    • 12.2.2    Bottom-up synthesis      618
      • 12.2.2.1                Chemical synthesis in solution    618
      • 12.2.2.2                Chemical vapor deposition           618
  • 12.3        TYPES OF 2D MATERIALS              620
    • 12.3.1    Hexagonal boron-nitride (h-BN)/Bboron nitride nanosheets (BNNSs)        620
      • 12.3.1.1                Properties           620
      • 12.3.1.2                Applications and markets             621
    • 12.3.2    MXenes               624
      • 12.3.2.1                Properties           624
      • 12.3.2.2                Applications       625
    • 12.3.3    Transition metal dichalcogenides (TMD) 627
      • 12.3.3.1                Properties           627
      • 12.3.3.2                Applications       629
    • 12.3.4    Borophene         632
      • 12.3.4.1                Properties           632
      • 12.3.4.2                Applications       632
    • 12.3.5    Phosphorene/ Black phosphorus              634
      • 12.3.5.1                Properties           634
      • 12.3.5.2                Applications       635
    • 12.3.6    Graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4)             639
      • 12.3.6.1                Properties           639
      • 12.3.6.2                C2N        639
      • 12.3.6.3                Applications       640
    • 12.3.7    Germanene       641
      • 12.3.7.1                Properties           641
      • 12.3.7.2                Applications       642
    • 12.3.8    Graphdiyne        644
      • 12.3.8.1                Properties           644
      • 12.3.8.2                Applications       645
    • 12.3.9    Graphane            647
      • 12.3.9.1                Properties           647
      • 12.3.9.2                Applications       647
    • 12.3.10  Rhenium disulfide (ReS2) and diselenide (ReSe2)               649
      • 12.3.10.1              Properties           649
      • 12.3.10.2              Applications       649
    • 12.3.11  Silicene 650
      • 12.3.11.1              Properties           650
      • 12.3.11.2              Applications       651
    • 12.3.12  Stanene/tinene 653
      • 12.3.12.1              Properties           653
      • 12.3.12.2              Applications       654
    • 12.3.13  Antimonene      655
      • 12.3.13.1              Properties           655
      • 12.3.13.2              Applications       655
    • 12.3.14  Indium selenide 656
      • 12.3.14.1              Properties           656
      • 12.3.14.2              Applications       656
    • 12.3.15  Layered double hydroxides (LDH)             657
      • 12.3.15.1              Properties           657
      • 12.3.15.2              Applications       657
  • 12.4        2D MATERIALS PRODUCER AND SUPPLIER PROFILES         660
    • 12.4.1    2D fab AB            660
    • 12.4.2    2D Fluidics Pty Ltd            660
    • 12.4.3    2D Layer              661
    • 12.4.4    2D Semiconductors         662
    • 12.4.5    Advanced Material Development (AMD) 663
    • 12.4.6    Applied Nanolayers BV  663
    • 12.4.7    Bedimensional S.p.A       664
    • 12.4.8    Cambridge Graphene Ltd.            665
    • 12.4.9    Evercloak, Inc.   666
    • 12.4.10  FlexeGRAPH       668
    • 12.4.11  HQ Graphene    669
    • 12.4.12  Merck   669
    • 12.4.13  Ossila Limited    670
    • 12.4.14  Paragraf Ltd.      672
    • 12.4.15  Planartech LLC   673
    • 12.4.16  Rusgraphene     674
    • 12.4.17  Smart Elements GmbH  674
    • 12.4.18  SPI Supplies        675
    • 12.4.19  XlynX Materials Inc.         675

 

13           RESEARCH METHODOLOGY         677

 

14           REFERENCES       680

 

List of Tables

  • Table 1. Graphene commercial market developments 2021-2022.               39
  • Table 2. Graphene funding and investments 2020-2022.  41
  • Table 3. Publicly listed graphene companies.       45
  • Table 4. Main graphene producers by country, annual production capacities, types and main markets they sell to.                46
  • Table 5. Demand for graphene (tons), 2018-2032.              48
  • Table 6. Main graphene producers in North America.       58
  • Table 7. Main graphene producers in Europe.      60
  • Table 8. Commercial products incorporating graphene.  62
  • Table 9. Graphene industrial collaborations, licence agreements and target markets.        65
  • Table 10. Graphene market challenges. 72
  • Table 11. Properties of graphene, properties of competing materials, applications thereof.            75
  • Table 12. Comparison of graphene QDs and semiconductor QDs. 80
  • Table 13. Advantages and disadvantages of methods for preparing GQDs.              83
  • Table 14. Applications of graphene quantum dots.            84
  • Table 15. Markets and applications for graphene quantum dots in electronics and photonics.        85
  • Table 16. Markets and applications for graphene quantum dots in energy storage and conversion.             86
  • Table 17. Markets and applications for graphene quantum dots in sensors.           87
  • Table 18. Markets and applications for graphene quantum dots in biomedicine and life sciences. 88
  • Table 19. Markets and applications for graphene quantum dots in electronics.     89
  • Table 20. Market and technology challenges for graphene quantum dots.              90
  • Table 21. Prices for graphene quantum dots.       92
  • Table 22. Assessment of graphene production methods. 99
  • Table 23. Regulations and rulings related to graphene in Europe. 102
  • Table 24. Regulations and rulings related to graphene in North America. 103
  • Table 25. Regulations and rulings related to graphene in Asia-Pacific.        104
  • Table 26. Accumulated number of patent publications for graphene, 2004-2021. 107
  • Table 27. Demand for graphene (tons), 2018-2032.            109
  • Table 28. Graphene oxide production capacity by producer, 2010-2022.   111
  • Table 29. Graphene oxide production capacity in tons by region, 2010-2022.          112
  • Table 30. Graphene nanoplatelets capacity in tons by producer, 2010-2022.           114
  • Table 31. Graphene nanoplatelets capacity in tons by region, 2010-2022.                 115
  • Table 32. CVD graphene film capacity by producer, 2010-2022 in 000s m2.             116
  • Table 33. Types of graphene and typical prices.   120
  • Table 34. Pristine graphene flakes pricing by producer.   123
  • Table 35. Few-layer graphene pricing by producer.           124
  • Table 36. Graphene nanoplatelets pricing by producer.   124
  • Table 37. Graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide pricing, by producer.        125
  • Table 38. Graphene quantum dots pricing by producer.  127
  • Table 39. Multi-layer graphene pricing by producer.         128
  • Table 40. Graphene ink pricing by producer.        129
  • Table 41. Market overview for graphene in 3D printing.  129
  • Table 42. Market outlook for graphene in 3D printing.     130
  • Table 43. Market and applications for graphene in 3D printing.    131
  • Table 44. Demand for graphene in 3-D printing (tons), 2018-2032.              134
  • Table 45. Product developers in graphene 3D printing.    135
  • Table 46. Market overview for graphene in adhesives.    138
  • Table 47. Market outlook for graphene in adhesives.       138
  • Table 48. Market and applications for graphene in adhesives.      139
  • Table 49. Demand for graphene in adhesives (tons), 2018-2032.  142
  • Table 50. Product developers in graphene adhesives.      143
  • Table 51. Market overview for graphene in the automotive market.          146
  • Table 52. Market outlook for graphene in automotive.    146
  • Table 53. Market and applications for graphene in automotive.   147
  • Table 54. Demand for graphene in automotive (tons), 2018-2032.               150
  • Table 55. Product developers in the graphene automotive market.           151
  • Table 56. Applications of nanomaterials in batteries.        155
  • Table 57. Market overview for graphene in batteries.      160
  • Table 58. Market outlook for graphene in batteries.         161
  • Table 59. Market drivers for use of nanomaterials in batteries.    161
  • Table 60. Applications of nanomaterials in flexible and stretchable batteries, by materials type and benefits thereof.                164
  • Table 61. Market and applications for graphene in batteries.        164
  • Table 62. Estimated demand for graphene in batteries (tons), 2018-2032.               169
  • Table 63. Product developers in graphene batteries.        170
  • Table 64. Market overview for graphene in composites. 176
  • Table 65. Market outlook for graphene in fiber-based polymer composite parts. 176
  • Table 66. Market and applications for graphene in fiber-based composite parts.  177
  • Table 67. Market and applications for graphene in metal matrix composites.        181
  • Table 68. Global market for graphene in composites 2018-2032, tons.      182
  • Table 69. Product developers in graphene composites.   183
  • Table 70. Market overview for graphene in conductive inks.          189
  • Table 71. Market outlook for graphene in conductive inks.            189
  • Table 72. Market and applications for graphene in conductive inks.           190
  • Table 73. Comparative properties of conductive inks.       193
  • Table 74. Demand for graphene in conductive ink (tons), 2018-2032.         194
  • Table 75. Product developers in graphene conductive inks.           196
  • Table 76. Market overview for graphene in construction and buildings.    199
  • Table 77. Market outlook for graphene in construction.  199
  • Table 78. Graphene for cement. 200
  • Table 79. Graphene for asphalt bitumen.               202
  • Table 80. Demand for graphene in construction (tons), 2018-2032.             204
  • Table 81: Graphene product developers in construction. 205
  • Table 82. Market overview for graphene in wearable electronics and displays.      208
  • Table 83. Market outlook for graphene in wearable electronics and displays.        209
  • Table 84. Market and applications for graphene in electronics.    209
  • Table 85. Comparison of ITO replacements.         211
  • Table 86. Demand for graphene in wearable, flexible and stretchable electronics, 2018-2032.         212
  • Table 87. Product developers in graphene-based electronics.       213
  • Table 88. Market overview for graphene in transistors and integrated circuits.      215
  • Table 89. Comparative properties of silicon and graphene transistors.      215
  • Table 90. Market outlook for graphene in transistors and integrated circuits.         215
  • Table 91. Market and applications for graphene in transistors and integrated circuits.       216
  • Table 92. Demand for graphene in transistors and integrated circuits, 2018-2032.                219
  • Table 93. Product developers in graphene transistors and integrated circuits.        220
  • Table 94. Market overview for graphene in memory devices.       222
  • Table 95. Market outlook for graphene in memory devices.          222
  • Table 96. Market and applications for graphene in memory devices.         223
  • Table 97. Demand for graphene in memory devices, 2018-2032.  224
  • Table 98. Product developers in graphene memory devices.         225
  • Table 99. Market overview for graphene in filtration.       227
  • Table 100. Market outlook for graphene in filtration.        227
  • Table 101. Market and applications for graphene in filtration.      228
  • Table 102. Demand for graphene in filtration (tons), 2018-2032.  232
  • Table 103. Graphene companies in filtration.       234
  • Table 104. Market overview for graphene in fuel cells.     237
  • Table 105. Market outlook for graphene in fuel cells.        237
  • Table 106. Market and applications for graphene in fuel cells.      238
  • Table 107. Demand for graphene in fuel cells (tons), 2018-2032.  242
  • Table 108. Product developers in graphene fuel cells.      243
  • Table 109. Market overview for graphene in life sciences and medicine.  245
  • Table 110. Market outlook for graphene in drug delivery.              245
  • Table 111. Scorecard for graphene in imaging and diagnostics.    246
  • Table 112. Scorecard for graphene in medical implants.  246
  • Table 113. Scorecard for graphene in medical biosensors.              247
  • Table 114. Scorecard for graphene in woundcare.             248
  • Table 115. Market and applications for graphene in life sciences and medicine.   250
  • Table 116. Demand for graphene in life sciences and medical (tons), 2018-2032.  254
  • Table 117. Product developers in graphene life sciences and biomedicine.             256
  • Table 118. Market overview for graphene in lighting.       260
  • Table 119. Market outlook for graphene in lighting.          260
  • Table 120. Market and applications for graphene in lighting.         261
  • Table 121. Demand for graphene in lighting, 2018-2032.  263
  • Table 122. Product developers in graphene lighting.         264
  • Table 123. Market overview for graphene in lubricants.  266
  • Table 124. Nanomaterial lubricant products.        266
  • Table 125. Market outlook for graphene in lubricants.     267
  • Table 126. Market and applications for graphene in lubricants.    268
  • Table 127. Demand for graphene in lubricants (tons), 2018-2032.                270
  • Table 128. Product developers in graphene lubricants.    271
  • Table 129. Market overview for graphene in oil and gas. 274
  • Table 130. Market outlook for graphene in oil and gas.    274
  • Table 131. Market and applications for graphene in oil and gas.  275
  • Table 132. Demand for graphene in oil and gas (tons), 2018-2032.              277
  • Table 133. Product developers in graphene oil and gas.   278
  • Table 134. Market overview for graphene in paints and coatings.                280
  • Table 135. Market outlook for graphene in paints and coatings.  280
  • Table 136. Market and applications for graphene in paints and coatings. 281
  • Table 137. Demand for graphene in paints and coatings (tons), 2018-2032.             284
  • Table 138. Product developers in graphene paints and coatings. 286
  • Table 139. Market overview for graphene in paints and coatings.                291
  • Table 140. Market outlook for graphene in photonics.     291
  • Table 141. Market and applications for graphene in photonics.    292
  • Table 142. Demand for graphene in photonics, 2018-2032.             295
  • Table 143. Product developers in graphene photonics.    296
  • Table 144. Market overview for graphene in photovoltaics.           298
  • Table 145. Market outlook for graphene in photovoltaics.              299
  • Table 146. Market and applications for graphene in photovoltaics.            299
  • Table 147. Demand for graphene in photovoltaics (tons), 2018-2032.        302
  • Table 148. Product developers in graphene solar.              303
  • Table 149. Market overview for graphene in rubber and tires.      305
  • Table 150. Market outlook for graphene in rubber and tires.         305
  • Table 151. Market and applications for graphene in rubber and tires.       306
  • Table 152. Demand for graphene in rubber and tires (tons), 2018-2032.   309
  • Table 153. Product developers in rubber and tires.            311
  • Table 154. Market overview for graphene in sensors.      313
  • Table 155. Market outlook for graphene in sensors.         314
  • Table 156. Market and applications for graphene in sensors.        314
  • Table 157. Demand for graphene in sensors (tons), 2018-2032.    318
  • Table 158. Product developers in graphene sensors.        320
  • Table 159. Market overview for graphene in smart textiles and apparel.  324
  • Table 160. Market outlook for graphene in smart textiles and apparel.     324
  • Table 161. Market and applications for graphene in smart textiles and apparel.    325
  • Table 162. Demand for graphene in textiles (tons), 2018-2032.     330
  • Table 163. Graphene product developers in smart textiles and apparel.   331
  • Table 164. Market overview for graphene in supercapacitors.      336
  • Table 165. Market outlook for graphene in supercapacitors.         336
  • Table 166: Comparative properties of graphene supercapacitors and lithium-ion batteries.            337
  • Table 167. Market and applications for graphene in supercapacitors.        337
  • Table 168. Demand for graphene in supercapacitors (tons), 2018-2032.    340
  • Table 169. Product developers in graphene supercapacitors.        341
  • Table 170. Graphene audio equipment producers and products. 344
  • Table 171. Graphene sporting goods producers and products.      345
  • Table 172. Graphene producers and types produced.      346
  • Table 173. Graphene producers target market matrix.     350
  • Table 174. Graphene product developers and end users target market matrix.     353
  • Table 175. Performance criteria of energy storage devices.           591
  • Table 176. 2D materials types.   612
  • Table 177. Comparative analysis of graphene and other 2-D nanomaterials.           613
  • Table 178. Comparison of  top-down exfoliation methods to produce 2D materials.            615
  • Table 179. Comparison of the bottom-up synthesis methods to produce 2D materials.      618
  • Table 180. Properties of hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN). 620
  • Table 181. Electronic and mechanical properties of monolayer phosphorene, graphene and MoS2.            634
  • Table 182. Properties and applications of functionalized germanene.       641
  • Table 183. GDY-based anode materials in LIBs and SIBs   644
  • Table 184. Physical and electronic properties of Stanene.              653
  • Table 185. Technology Readiness Level (TRL) Examples.  677
  •  

List of Figures

  • Figure 1. Demand for graphene, by market, 2021.              37
  • Figure 2. Demand for graphene, 2018-2032, tons.             49
  • Figure 3. Global graphene demand by market, 2018-2032 (tons). 51
  • Figure 4. Global graphene demand by market, 2018-2032 (tons). Medium estimate.         52
  • Figure 5. Global graphene demand by market, 2018-2032 (tons). High estimate. 53
  • Figure 6. Global graphene demand by region, 2018-2032 (tons). 54
  • Figure 7. Demand for graphene in China, by market, 2021.             55
  • Figure 8. Demand for graphene in Asia-Pacific, by market, 2021.  56
  • Figure 9. Main graphene producers in Asia-Pacific.            57
  • Figure 10. Demand for graphene in North America, by market, 2021.         59
  • Figure 11. Demand for graphene in Europe, by market, 2021.        61
  • Figure 12. Graphene layer structure schematic.  74
  • Figure 13. Illustrative procedure of the Scotch-tape based micromechanical cleavage of HOPG.    74
  • Figure 14. Graphite and graphene.           75
  • Figure 15. Graphene and its descendants: top right: graphene; top left: graphite = stacked graphene; bottom right: nanotube=rolled graphene; bottom left: fullerene=wrapped graphene.   77
  • Figure 16. Green-fluorescing graphene quantum dots.    79
  • Figure 17. Schematic of (a) CQDs and (c) GQDs. HRTEM images of (b) C-dots and (d) GQDs showing combination of zigzag and armchair edges (positions marked as 1–4).      80
  • Figure 18. Graphene quantum dots.        82
  • Figure 19. Top-down and bottom-up graphene QD synthesis methods.    83
  • Figure 20. Revenues for graphene quantum dots 2019-2032, millions USD              91
  • Figure 21. Fabrication methods of graphene.       95
  • Figure 22. TEM micrographs of: A) HR-CNFs; B) GANF® HR-CNF, it can be observed its high graphitic structure; C) Unraveled ribbon from the HR-CNF; D) Detail of the ribbon; E) Scheme of the structure of the HR-CNFs; F) Large single graphene oxide sheets derived from GANF.         96
  • Figure 23. (a) Graphene powder production line The Sixth Element Materials Technology Co. Ltd. (b) Graphene film production line of Wuxi Graphene Films Co. Ltd. 97
  • Figure 24. Schematic illustration of the main graphene production methods.        98
  • Figure 25. Published patent publications for graphene, 2004-2021.             108
  • Figure 26. Demand for graphene, 2018-2032, tons.           110
  • Figure 27. Graphene oxide production capacity in tons p.a. by region, 2010-2022.                113
  • Figure 28. Graphene nanoplatelets capacity in tons by region, 2010-2022.               116
  • Figure 29. CVD Graphene on Cu Foil.        122
  • Figure 30. Applications of graphene in 3D printing.            134
  • Figure 31. Demand for graphene in 3-D printing (tons), 2018-2032.             135
  • Figure 32. CNCTArch lightweight mounting for digital signalling.  136
  • Figure 33. Applications of graphene in adhesives.              142
  • Figure 34. Demand for graphene in adhesives (tons), 2018-2032. 143
  • Figure 35. Graphene Adhesives. 144
  • Figure 36. Summary of graphene in automobiles.              146
  • Figure 37. Applications of graphene in automotive.          149
  • Figure 38. Demand for graphene in automotive (tons), 2018-2032.             151
  • Figure 39. Supercar incorporating graphene.       151
  • Figure 40. Graphene anti-corrosion primer.          153
  • Figure 41. Graphene-R Brake pads.          153
  • Figure 42. Antistatic graphene tire.          153
  • Figure 43. Graphene engine oil additives.              154
  • Figure 44. Annual cobalt demand for electric vehicle batteries to 2031.    157
  • Figure 45. Annual lithium demand for electric vehicle batteries to 2031.   158
  • Figure 46. Costs of batteries to 2031.       160
  • Figure 47. Applications of graphene in batteries. 168
  • Figure 48. Demand for graphene in batteries (tons), 2018-2032.  170
  • Figure 49. Apollo Traveler graphene-enhanced USB-C / A fast charging power bank.          171
  • Figure 50. Exide Graphene Lead Acid Battery.      171
  • Figure 51. 6000mAh Portable graphene batteries.             172
  • Figure 52. Real Graphene Powerbank.    174
  • Figure 53. Graphene Functional Films - UniTran EH/FH.   175
  • Figure 54. Applications of graphene in composites.           180
  • Figure 55. Demand for graphene in composites (tons), 2018-2032.             183
  • Figure 56. Graphene bike.            184
  • Figure 57. Graphene lacrosse equipment.             185
  • Figure 58. Graphene-based suitcase made from recycled plastic. 185
  • Figure 59. Aros Create.  186
  • Figure 60. Grays graphene hockey sticks.               188
  • Figure 61. Applications of graphene in conductive inks.   194
  • Figure 62. Demand for graphene in conductive ink (tons), 2018-2032.       195
  • Figure 63. BGT Materials graphene ink product. 196
  • Figure 64. Printed graphene conductive ink.         197
  • Figure 65. Textiles covered in conductive graphene ink.  197
  • Figure 66. Comparison of nanofillers with supplementary cementitious materials and aggregates in concrete.       200
  • Figure 67. Demand for graphene in construction (tons), 2018-2032.           205
  • Figure 68. Graphene asphalt additives.   206
  • Figure 69. OG (Original Graphene) Concrete Admix Plus. 206
  • Figure 70. Demand for graphene in wearable, flexible and stretchable electronics, 2018-2032.       212
  • Figure 71. Moxi flexible film developed for smartphone application.         213
  • Figure 72. Applications of graphene in transistors and integrated circuits.               218
  • Figure 73. Demand for graphene in transistors and integrated circuits, 2018-2032.              219
  • Figure 74. Graphene IC in wafer tester.  220
  • Figure 75. Schematic cross-section of a graphene based transistor (GBT, left) and a graphene field-effect transistor (GFET, right).      221
  • Figure 76. Demand for graphene in memory devices, 2018-2032.                225
  • Figure 77. Layered structure of tantalum oxide, multilayer graphene and platinum used for resistive random-access memory (RRAM).             226
  • Figure 78. Applications of graphene in filtration. 232
  • Figure 79. Demand for graphene in filtration (tons), 2018-2032.   233
  • Figure 80. Graphene anti-smog mask.     234
  • Figure 81. Graphene filtration membrane.            235
  • Figure 82. Graphene water filer cartridge.             235
  • Figure 83. Applications of graphene in fuel cells. 241
  • Figure 84. Demand for graphene in fuel cells (tons), 2018-2032.   242
  • Figure 85. Graphene-based E-skin patch.               244
  • Figure 86. Flexible and transparent bracelet that uses graphene to measure heart rate, respiration rate etc.           249
  • Figure 87. Applications of graphene in life sciences and medicine               254
  • Figure 88. Demand for graphene in life sciences and medical (tons), 2018-2032.   255
  • Figure 89. Graphene medical biosensors for wound healing.         257
  • Figure 90. Graphene Frontiers’ Six™ chemical sensors consists of a field effect transistor (FET) with a graphene channel. Receptor molecules, such as DNA, are attached directly to the graphene channel.            257
  • Figure 91. GraphWear wearable sweat sensor.   258
  • Figure 92. BioStamp nPoint.        259
  • Figure 93. Applications of graphene in lighting.   263
  • Figure 94. Demand for graphene in lighting, 2018-2032.   264
  • Figure 95. Graphene LED bulbs. 265
  • Figure 96. Applications of graphene in lubricants.              270
  • Figure 97. Demand for graphene in lubricants (tons), 2018-2032.                 271
  • Figure 98. Tricolit spray coating. 272
  • Figure 99. Graphenoil products. 272
  • Figure 100. Applications of graphene in oil and gas.          277
  • Figure 101. Demand for graphene in oil and gas (tons), 2018-2032.             278
  • Figure 102. Directa Plus Grafysorber.      279
  • Figure 103. Applications of graphene in paints and coatings.         284
  • Figure 104. Demand for graphene in paints and coatings (tons), 2018-2032.           285
  • Figure 105. Cryorig CPU cooling system with graphene coating.   286
  • Figure 106. Four layers of graphene oxide coatings on polycarbonate.      287
  • Figure 107. 23303 ZINCTON GNC graphene paint.              288
  • Figure 108. Graphene-enhanced anti-corrosion aerosols under their Hycote brand.            288
  • Figure 109. Scania Truck head lamp brackets ACT chamber 6 weeks, equivalent to 3y field use. Piece treated with GO to the left together with different non-GO coatings.         289
  • Figure 110. Schematic of graphene heat film.       290
  • Figure 111. Applications of graphene in photonics.            295
  • Figure 112. Demand for graphene in photonics, 2018-2032.           296
  • Figure 113. All-graphene optical communication link demonstrator operating at a data rate of 25 Gb/s per channel.                297
  • Figure 114. Applications of graphene in photovoltaics.    302
  • Figure 115. Demand for graphene in photovoltaics (tons), 2018-2032.       303
  • Figure 116. Graphene coated glass.          304
  • Figure 117. Applications of graphene in rubber and tires.               309
  • Figure 118. Demand for graphene in rubber and tires (tons), 2018-2032.  310
  • Figure 119. Eagle F1 graphene tire.          311
  • Figure 120. Graphene floor mats.              312
  • Figure 121. Vittoria Corsa G+ tire.             312
  • Figure 122. Graphene-based sensors for health monitoring.          313
  • Figure 123. Applications of graphene in sensors. 318
  • Figure 124. Demand for graphene in sensors (tons), 2018-2032.   319
  • Figure 125. AGILE R100 system. 320
  • Figure 126. Graphene fully packaged linear array detector.           321
  • Figure 127. GFET sensors.            321
  • Figure 128. Graphene is used to increase sensitivity to middle-infrared light.         323
  • Figure 129. Applications of graphene in smart textiles and apparel.           329
  • Figure 130. Demand for graphene in textiles (tons), 2018-2032.   331
  • Figure 131. 878 Project One jacket display.           331
  • Figure 132. Colmar graphene ski jacket. 332
  • Figure 133. Graphene dress. The dress changes colour in sync with the wearer’s breathing.           332
  • Figure 134. G+ Graphene Aero Jersey.    333
  • Figure 135. Inov-8 graphene shoes.         333
  • Figure 136. Graphene Functional Membranes - UniTran GM.        334
  • Figure 137. Graphene jacket.      335
  • Figure 138. Applications of graphene in supercapacitors. 340
  • Figure 139. Demand for graphene in supercapacitors (tons), 2018-2032.  341
  • Figure 140. KEPCO’s graphene supercapacitors. 342
  • Figure 141. Skeleton Technologies supercapacitor.           343
  • Figure 142. Zapgo supercapacitor phone charger.              343
  • Figure 143. Callaway Chrome Soft golf and Chrome Soft X golf balls.          345
  • Figure 144. Graphene heating films.        357
  • Figure 145. Graphene flake products.     364
  • Figure 146. AIKA Black-T.              367
  • Figure 147. Printed graphene biosensors.             376
  • Figure 148. Brain Scientific electrode schematic. 393
  • Figure 149. Graphene battery schematic.              418
  • Figure 150. Dotz Nano GQD products.     419
  • Figure 151. Graphene-based membrane dehumidification test cell.           426
  • Figure 152. Proprietary atmospheric CVD production.      436
  • Figure 153. Wearable sweat sensor.        468
  • Figure 154.  InP/ZnS, perovskite quantum dots and silicon resin composite under UV illumination.               474
  • Figure 155. Sensor surface.          489
  • Figure 156. BioStamp nPoint.      504
  • Figure 157. Nanotech Energy battery.     523
  • Figure 158. Hybrid battery powered electrical motorbike concept.             525
  • Figure 159. NAWAStitch integrated into carbon fiber composite. 526
  • Figure 160. Schematic illustration of three-chamber system for SWCNH production.          527
  • Figure 161. TEM images of carbon nanobrush.    528
  • Figure 162. Test performance after 6 weeks ACT II according to Scania STD4445.  541
  • Figure 163. Quantag GQDs and sensor.  543
  • Figure 164. The Sixth Element graphene products.            555
  • Figure 165. Thermal conductive graphene film.   556
  • Figure 166. Talcoat graphene mixed with paint.  567
  • Figure 167. T-FORCE CARDEA ZERO.         569
  • Figure 168. Structures of nanomaterials based on dimensions.    610
  • Figure 169. Schematic of 2-D materials.  612
  • Figure 170. Diagram of the mechanical exfoliation method.          616
  • Figure 171. Diagram of liquid exfoliation method               617
  • Figure 172. Structure of hexagonal boron nitride.              619
  • Figure 173. BN nanosheet textiles application.    622
  • Figure 174. Structure diagram of Ti3C2Tx.              623
  • Figure 175.  Types and applications of 2D TMDCs.              626
  • Figure 176. Left: Molybdenum disulphide (MoS2). Right: Tungsten ditelluride (WTe2)       627
  • Figure 177. SEM image of MoS2.               627
  • Figure 178. Atomic force microscopy image of a representative MoS2 thin-film transistor.              629
  • Figure 179. Schematic of the molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) thin-film sensor with the deposited molecules that create additional charge.            630
  • Figure 180. Borophene schematic.           631
  • Figure 181. Black phosphorus structure. 633
  • Figure 182. Black Phosphorus crystal.      634
  • Figure 183. Bottom gated flexible few-layer phosphorene transistors with the hydrophobic dielectric encapsulation.                635
  • Figure 184: Graphitic carbon nitride.        638
  • Figure 185. Structural difference between graphene and C2N-h2D crystal: (a) graphene; (b) C2N-h2D crystal. Credit: Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology.         639
  • Figure 186. Schematic of germanene.     640
  • Figure 187. Graphdiyne structure.            643
  • Figure 188. Schematic of Graphane crystal.           646
  • Figure 189. Schematic of a monolayer of rhenium disulfide.          648
  • Figure 190. Silicene structure.    649
  • Figure 191. Monolayer silicene on a silver (111) substrate.            650
  • Figure 192. Silicene transistor.    650
  • Figure 193. Crystal structure for stanene.              652
  • Figure 194. Atomic structure model for the 2D stanene on Bi2Te3(111).   653
  • Figure 195. Schematic of Indium Selenide (InSe).               655
  • Figure 196. Application of Li-Al LDH as CO2 sensor.           657
  • Figure 197. Graphene-based membrane dehumidification test cell.           666
  •  

 

 

 

 

 

The Graphene Market Report 2022
The Graphene Market Report 2022
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The Graphene Market Report 2022
The Graphene Market Report 2022
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