The Global Graphene Market Report 2022

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Published January 2022 | 714 pages, 189 tables, 201 figures | Table of contents

The market for graphene has grown hugely in the past decade, with numerous products now on the market and more to come as graphene producers record steadily increasing revenues and OEMs witnessing significant returns in clothing, sportswear, footwear, tires, batteries etc. The market for graphene in batteries is witnessing large-scale investments. 

Graphene is attracting increasing attention from investors, researchers and industrial players due to exceptional mechanical, electronic, and thermal properties. Graphene is available in multi-ton quantities from many producers and has been identified by many industry sectors as a key materials that will drive future product development in flexible electronics, smart textiles, biosensors, drug delivery, water filtration, supercapacitors and more.

The Graphene Market Report 2022 is the most comprehensive and up-to date report on graphene currently available, by the world's leading market authority on graphene and publisher of Graphene Magazine. Profiling over 300 companies, the report provides key information for investors and executives to enable them to understand and take advantage of the opportunities provided by graphene (other 2D materials are also covered).

The Graphene Market Report 2022 contains:

  • Assessment of graphene by market including applications, key benefits, market megatrends, market drivers for graphene, technology drawbacks, competing materials, potential consumption of graphene to 2032 and main players.
  • Assessment of graphene materials (CVD graphene, graphene nano platelets, graphene oxide, etc), intermediate products (graphene masterbatches, dispersions, etc) and final products with graphene embedded (e.g. headphones, tennis racquets, etc). Tabular data on current graphene products.
  • Graphical depictions of graphene applications by market.
  • In depth-assessment of graphene producer and distributor pricing in 2021.
  • Global market for graphene in tons, by sector, historical and forecast to 2032. Global graphene market size split by market in 2021 and for each application to 2032.
  • Full list of technology collaborations, strategic partnerships, and M&As in the global graphene market including collaboration dates. 
  • In-depth profiles of more than 320 graphene producers and application/product developers including products, production capacities, manufacturing methods, collaborations, licensing, customers and target markets. Companies profiled include Directa Plus, Global Graphene Group, Anaphite Limited, Saint Jean Carbon, Huvis, SafeLi LLC, Grapheal, Graphex Group Ltd, Versarien, Talga Resources, Archer Materials, Haydale Graphene, Paragraf, Graphenea and many more.
  • List of ex-graphene producers. 
  • Detailed forecasts for key growth areas, opportunities and demand.
  • Market overview of industry developments in 2020-22. 
  • Unique market assessment tools to assess the viability of graphene, by market, and application.
  • Market assessment of other 2D materials.
  • Analysis of 2D materials market including Boron Nitride nanotubes (BNNTs), hexagonal boron-nitride (BNNS), transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDC), Mxenes, Borophene, Phosphorene, Graphitic carbon nitride, Germanene, Graphyne, graphane, Rhenium disulfide (ReS2) and diselenide (ReSe2), silicene, Stanene/tinene, Tungsten diselenide, Antimonene, diamene and indium selenide. 

 

1              EXECUTIVE SUMMARY   34

  • 1.1          Graphene properties     34
  • 1.2          Commercialization           35
  • 1.3          The graphene market to date     36
  • 1.4          Market outlook for 2022 and beyond      37
  • 1.5          The market in 2021          37
  • 1.6          Graphene commercial market developments 2020-2022 39
  • 1.7          Graphene funding and investments 2020-2022    43
  • 1.8          Publicly listed graphene companies         46
  • 1.9          Graphene global production capacities, in tons and by type          47
  • 1.10        Global demand for graphene      49
    • 1.10.1    Global graphene demand, to 2032, tons 49
    • 1.10.2    Global graphene demand, by end user market to 2032     52
    • 1.10.3    Graphene market, by region       55
      • 1.10.3.1                Asia-Pacific         55
      • 1.10.3.2                North America   58
      • 1.10.3.3                Europe 60
  • 1.11        Graphene products         61
  • 1.12        Industrial collaborations and licence agreements              64
  • 1.13        Graphene market challenges      72

 

2              OVERVIEW OF GRAPHENE            74

  • 2.1          History  74
  • 2.2          Properties           75
  • 2.3          Types of graphene           76
    • 2.3.1      Graphene materials        77
      • 2.3.1.1   CVD Graphene  77
      • 2.3.1.2   Graphene nanoplatelets               79
      • 2.3.1.3   Graphene oxide and reduced Graphene Oxide    80
      • 2.3.1.4   Graphene quantum dots (GQDs)               81
    • 2.3.2      Intermediate products  96
      • 2.3.2.1   Graphene masterbatches             96
      • 2.3.2.2   Graphene dispersions    96

 

3              GRAPHENE PRODUCTION             98

  • 3.1          Quality  99
  • 3.2          Assessment of graphene production methods    100

 

4              REGULATIONS   105

  • 4.1          Environmental, health and safety regulation        105
    • 4.1.1      Europe 105
    • 4.1.2      United States     106
    • 4.1.3      Asia-Pacific         107
  • 4.2          Workplace exposure      108

 

5              GRAPHENE PATENTS AND PUBLICATIONS             110

 

6              GRAPHENE PRODUCTION             112

  • 6.1          Commercial production capacities            113
  • 6.2          Graphene oxide and reduced Graphene Oxide production capacities        114
    • 6.2.1      By producer       114
  • 6.3          Graphene nanoplatelets production capacities   115
    • 6.3.1      By producer       116
  • 6.4          CVD graphene film           117
    • 6.4.1      By producer       117
  • 6.5          Graphene production issues and challenges         118
    • 6.5.1      Oversupply         118
    • 6.5.2      Quality  118
    • 6.5.3      Large-volume markets   119
    • 6.5.4      Commoditisation             119
    • 6.5.5      Industrial end-user perspective 120

 

7              GRAPHENE PRICING       121

  • 7.1          Pristine graphene flakes pricing/CVD graphene  123
  • 7.2          Few-Layer graphene pricing        124
  • 7.3          Graphene nanoplatelets pricing 125
  • 7.4          Graphene oxide (GO) and reduced Graphene Oxide (rGO) pricing               126
  • 7.5          Graphene quantum dots pricing 128
  • 7.6          Multilayer graphene (MLG) pricing           129
  • 7.7          Graphene ink     130

 

8              MARKETS FOR GRAPHENE            131

  • 8.1          3D PRINTING     131
    • 8.1.1      Graphene in 3D printing 131
    • 8.1.2      Market outlook 131
    • 8.1.3      Market drivers, trends and applications  132
    • 8.1.4      Global market in tons, historical and forecast to 2032       135
    • 8.1.5      Product developers        137
  • 8.2          ADHESIVES         139
    • 8.2.1      Graphene in adhesives  139
    • 8.2.2      Market outlook 140
    • 8.2.3      Market drivers, trends and applications  140
    • 8.2.4      Global market in tons, historical and forecast to 2032       143
    • 8.2.5      Product developers        144
  • 8.3          GRAPHENE IN AEROSPACE           146
      • 8.3.1      Market overview             146
      • 8.3.2      Market prospects            146
      • 8.3.3      Market assessment        147
      • 8.3.4      Applications Map             149
      • 8.3.5      Global market in tons, historical and forecast to 2032       150
      • 8.3.6      Product developers        151
  • 8.4          AUTOMOTIVE   154
    • 8.4.1      Graphene in the automotive sector          154
    • 8.4.2      Market outlook 155
    • 8.4.3      Market drivers, trends and applications  156
    • 8.4.4      Global market in tons, historical and forecast to 2032       159
    • 8.4.5      Product developers        160
  • 8.5          BATTERIES           164
    • 8.5.1      Graphene in batteries    164
      • 8.5.1.1   Battery market megatrends        165
    • 8.5.2      Market outlook 170
      • 8.5.2.1   Flexible and stretchable batteries             172
    • 8.5.3      Market drivers, trends and applications  173
    • 8.5.4      Global market in tons, historical and forecast to 2032       178
    • 8.5.5      Product developers        179
  • 8.6          COMPOSITES     185
    • 8.6.1      Graphene in composites               185
    • 8.6.2      Fiber-based polymer composite parts     185
      • 8.6.2.1   Market outlook 185
      • 8.6.2.2   Market drivers, trends and applications  186
    • 8.6.3      Metal-matrix composites             190
      • 8.6.3.1   Market drivers, trends and applications  190
    • 8.6.4      Global market in tons, historical and forecast to 2032       191
    • 8.6.5      Product developers        192
  • 8.7          CONDUCTIVE INKS          198
    • 8.7.1      Graphene in conductive inks       198
    • 8.7.2      Market outlook 198
    • 8.7.3      Market drivers, trends and applications  199
    • 8.7.4      Global market in tons, historical and forecast to 2032       203
    • 8.7.5      Product developers        205
  • 8.8          CONSTRUCTION AND BUILDINGS              208
    • 8.8.1      Graphene in construction and buildings  208
    • 8.8.2      Market outlook 208
    • 8.8.3      Market drivers, trends and applications  209
      • 8.8.3.1   Cement 209
      • 8.8.3.2   Asphalt bitumen               211
      • 8.8.3.3   Aerogels              212
    • 8.8.4      Global market in tons, historical and forecast to 2032       213
    • 8.8.5      Product developers        214
  • 8.9          ELECTRONICS     217
    • 8.9.1      WEARABLE ELECTRONICS AND DISPLAYS 217
      • 8.9.1.1   Graphene in wearable electronics and displays   217
      • 8.9.1.2   Market outlook 218
      • 8.9.1.3   Market drivers, trends and applications  218
      • 8.9.1.4   Global market, historical and forecast to 2032      221
      • 8.9.1.5   Product developers        222
    • 8.9.2      TRANSISTORS AND INTEGRATED CIRCUITS            224
      • 8.9.2.1   Graphene in transistors and integrated circuits    224
      • 8.9.2.2   Market outlook 224
      • 8.9.2.3   Market drivers, trends and applications  225
      • 8.9.2.4   Global market, historical and forecast to 2032      228
      • 8.9.2.5   Product developers        229
    • 8.9.3      MEMORY DEVICES           231
      • 8.9.3.1   Graphene in memory devices     231
      • 8.9.3.2   Market outlook 231
      • 8.9.3.3   Market drivers, trends and applications  232
      • 8.9.3.4   Global market in tons, historical and forecast to 2031       233
      • 8.9.3.5   Product developers        235
  • 8.10        FILTER MEDIA    236
    • 8.10.1    Graphene in filter media               236
    • 8.10.2    Market prospects            236
    • 8.10.3    Market drivers, trends and applications  237
    • 8.10.4    Global market in tons, historical and forecast to 2032       241
    • 8.10.5    Product developers        243
  • 8.11        FUEL CELLS          246
    • 8.11.1    Graphene in fuel cells     246
    • 8.11.2    Market outlook 246
    • 8.11.3    Market drivers, trends and applications  247
    • 8.11.4    Global market in tons, historical and forecast to 2032       251
    • 8.11.5    Product developers        252
  • 8.12        LIFE SCIENCES AND MEDICINE    253
    • 8.12.1    Graphene in life sciences and medicine  253
    • 8.12.2    Market outlook 254
      • 8.12.2.1                Drug delivery     254
      • 8.12.2.2                Imaging and diagnostics 255
      • 8.12.2.3                Implants              255
      • 8.12.2.4                Medical biosensors         256
      • 8.12.2.5                Woundcare        257
      • 8.12.2.6                Medical wearables          257
      • 8.12.2.7                Gene delivery    258
    • 8.12.3    Market drivers, trends and applications  259
    • 8.12.4    Global market in tons, historical and forecast to 2032       263
    • 8.12.5    Product developers        265
  • 8.13        LIGHTING            269
    • 8.13.1    Graphene in lighting        269
    • 8.13.2    Market outlook 269
    • 8.13.3    Market drivers, trends and applications  270
    • 8.13.4    Global market in tons, historical and forecast to 2032       272
    • 8.13.5    Product developers        273
  • 8.14        LUBRICANTS      275
    • 8.14.1    Graphene in lubricants. 275
    • 8.14.2    Market outlook 276
    • 8.14.3    Market drivers, trends and applications  277
    • 8.14.4    Global market in tons, historical and forecast to 2032       279
    • 8.14.5    Product developers        280
  • 8.15        OIL AND GAS      283
    • 8.15.1    Graphene in oil and gas 283
    • 8.15.2    Market outlook 283
    • 8.15.3    Market drivers, trends and applications  284
    • 8.15.4    Global market in tons, historical and forecast to 2032       286
    • 8.15.5    Product developers        287
  • 8.16        PAINTS AND COATINGS 289
    • 8.16.1    Graphene in paints and coatings                289
    • 8.16.2    Market outlook 289
    • 8.16.3    Market drivers, trends and applications  290
    • 8.16.4    Global market in tons, historical and forecast to 2031       293
    • 8.16.5    Product developers        295
  • 8.17        PHOTONICS        300
    • 8.17.1    Graphene in paints and coatings.              300
    • 8.17.2    Market outlook 300
    • 8.17.3    Market drivers, trends and applications  301
    • 8.17.4    Global market in tons, historical and forecast to 2031       304
    • 8.17.5    Product developers        306
  • 8.18        PHOTOVOLTAICS             307
    • 8.18.1    Graphene in photovoltaics           307
    • 8.18.2    Market outlook 308
    • 8.18.3    Market drivers, trends and applications  308
    • 8.18.4    Global market in tons, historical and forecast to 2031       311
    • 8.18.5    Product developers        312
  • 8.19        RUBBER AND TIRES          314
    • 8.19.1    Graphene in rubber and tires.     314
    • 8.19.2    Market outlook 314
    • 8.19.3    Market drivers, trends and applications  315
    • 8.19.4    Global market in tons, historical and forecast to 2031       318
    • 8.19.5    Product developers        320
  • 8.20        SENSORS             323
    • 8.20.1    Graphene in sensors.     323
    • 8.20.2    Market outlook 324
    • 8.20.3    Market drivers, trends and applications  324
    • 8.20.4    Global market in tons, historical and forecast to 2031       328
    • 8.20.5    Product developers        330
  • 8.21        TEXTILES AND APPAREL 334
    • 8.21.1    Graphene in textiles and apparel.             334
    • 8.21.2    Market outlook 334
    • 8.21.3    Market drivers, trends and applications  335
    • 8.21.4    Global market in tons, historical and forecast to 2031       340
    • 8.21.5    Product developers        341
  • 8.22        SUPERCAPACITORS         346
    • 8.22.1    Graphene in supercapacitors.     346
    • 8.22.2    Market outlook 346
    • 8.22.3    Market drivers, trends and applications  347
      • 8.22.3.1                Flexible and stretchable supercapacitors               349
    • 8.22.4    Global market in tons, historical and forecast to 2031       350
    • 8.22.5    Product developers        351
  • 8.23        OTHER MARKETS              354
    • 8.23.1    Audio equipment             354
    • 8.23.2    Sporting goods and apparel         354

 

9              GRAPHENE PRODUCER ASSESSMENT      356

  • 9.1          Types of graphene produced, by producer            356
  • 9.2          Markets targeted, by producer  360
  • 9.3          Graphene product developers target markets     363

 

10           GRAPHENE COMPANY PROFILES 367 (320 company profiles)

 

11           GRAPHENE EX-PRODUCERS AND PRODUCT DEVELOPERS 610

 

12           OTHER 2-D MATERIALS  625

  • 12.1        Comparative analysis of graphene and other 2D materials              628
  • 12.2        2D MATERIALS PRODUCTION METHODS 630
    • 12.2.1    Top-down exfoliation     630
      • 12.2.1.1                Mechanical exfoliation method 631
      • 12.2.1.2                Liquid exfoliation method            631
    • 12.2.2    Bottom-up synthesis      632
      • 12.2.2.1                Chemical synthesis in solution    632
      • 12.2.2.2                Chemical vapor deposition           632
  • 12.3        TYPES OF 2D MATERIALS              634
    • 12.3.1    Hexagonal boron-nitride (h-BN)/Bboron nitride nanosheets (BNNSs)        634
      • 12.3.1.1                Properties           634
      • 12.3.1.2                Applications and markets             635
    • 12.3.2    MXenes               638
      • 12.3.2.1                Properties           638
      • 12.3.2.2                Applications       639
    • 12.3.3    Transition metal dichalcogenides (TMD) 641
      • 12.3.3.1                Properties           641
      • 12.3.3.2                Applications       643
    • 12.3.4    Borophene         646
      • 12.3.4.1                Properties           646
      • 12.3.4.2                Applications       646
    • 12.3.5    Phosphorene/ Black phosphorus              648
      • 12.3.5.1                Properties           648
      • 12.3.5.2                Applications       649
    • 12.3.6    Graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4)             653
      • 12.3.6.1                Properties           653
      • 12.3.6.2                C2N        653
      • 12.3.6.3                Applications       654
    • 12.3.7    Germanene       655
      • 12.3.7.1                Properties           655
      • 12.3.7.2                Applications       656
    • 12.3.8    Graphdiyne        658
      • 12.3.8.1                Properties           658
      • 12.3.8.2                Applications       659
    • 12.3.9    Graphane            661
      • 12.3.9.1                Properties           661
      • 12.3.9.2                Applications       661
    • 12.3.10  Rhenium disulfide (ReS2) and diselenide (ReSe2)               663
      • 12.3.10.1              Properties           663
      • 12.3.10.2              Applications       663
    • 12.3.11  Silicene 664
      • 12.3.11.1              Properties           664
      • 12.3.11.2              Applications       665
    • 12.3.12  Stanene/tinene 667
      • 12.3.12.1              Properties           667
      • 12.3.12.2              Applications       668
    • 12.3.13  Antimonene      669
      • 12.3.13.1              Properties           669
      • 12.3.13.2              Applications       669
    • 12.3.14  Indium selenide 670
      • 12.3.14.1              Properties           670
      • 12.3.14.2              Applications       670
    • 12.3.15  Layered double hydroxides (LDH)             671
      • 12.3.15.1              Properties           671
      • 12.3.15.2              Applications       671
  • 12.4        2D MATERIALS PRODUCER AND SUPPLIER PROFILES         674
    • 12.4.1    2D fab AB            674
    • 12.4.2    2D Fluidics Pty Ltd            674
    • 12.4.3    2D Layer              675
    • 12.4.4    2D Semiconductors         676
    • 12.4.5    Advanced Material Development (AMD) 677
    • 12.4.6    Applied Nanolayers BV  677
    • 12.4.7    Bedimensional S.p.A       678
    • 12.4.8    Cambridge Graphene Ltd.            679
    • 12.4.9    Evercloak, Inc.   680
    • 12.4.10  FlexeGRAPH       682
    • 12.4.11  HQ Graphene    683
    • 12.4.12  Merck   683
    • 12.4.13  Ossila Limited    684
    • 12.4.14  Paragraf Ltd.      686
    • 12.4.15  Planartech LLC   687
    • 12.4.16  Rusgraphene     688
    • 12.4.17  Smart Elements GmbH  688
    • 12.4.18  SPI Supplies        689
    • 12.4.19  XlynX Materials Inc.         689

13           RESEARCH METHODOLOGY         691

  • 13.1        Technology Readiness Level (TRL)             691

 

14           REFERENCES       694

 

List of Tables

  • Table 1. Graphene commercial market developments 2020-2022.               39
  • Table 2. Graphene funding and investments 2020-2022.  43
  • Table 3. Publicly listed graphene companies.       46
  • Table 4. Main graphene producers by country, annual production capacities, types and main markets they sell to.                47
  • Table 5. Demand for graphene (tons), 2018-2032.              50
  • Table 6. Main graphene producers in North America.       58
  • Table 7. Main graphene producers in Europe.      60
  • Table 8. Commercial products incorporating graphene.  62
  • Table 9. Graphene industrial collaborations, licence agreements and target markets.        65
  • Table 10. Graphene market challenges. 72
  • Table 11. Properties of graphene, properties of competing materials, applications thereof.            75
  • Table 12. Applications of GO and rGO.    80
  • Table 13. Comparison of graphene QDs and semiconductor QDs. 83
  • Table 14. Advantages and disadvantages of methods for preparing GQDs.              86
  • Table 15. Applications of graphene quantum dots.            87
  • Table 16. Markets and applications for graphene quantum dots in electronics and photonics.        88
  • Table 17. Markets and applications for graphene quantum dots in energy storage and conversion.             89
  • Table 18. Markets and applications for graphene quantum dots in sensors.           90
  • Table 19. Markets and applications for graphene quantum dots in biomedicine and life sciences. 91
  • Table 20. Markets and applications for graphene quantum dots in electronics.     92
  • Table 21. Market and technology challenges for graphene quantum dots.              93
  • Table 22. Prices for graphene quantum dots.       95
  • Table 23. Assessment of graphene production methods. 102
  • Table 24. Regulations and rulings related to graphene in Europe. 105
  • Table 25. Regulations and rulings related to graphene in North America. 106
  • Table 26. Regulations and rulings related to graphene in Asia-Pacific.        107
  • Table 27. Accumulated number of patent publications for graphene, 2004-2019. 110
  • Table 28. Demand for graphene (tons), 2018-2032.            112
  • Table 29. Graphene oxide production capacity by producer, 2014-2022.   114
  • Table 30. Graphene nanoplatelets capacity in tons by producer, 2010-2022.           116
  • Table 31. CVD graphene film capacity by producer, 2014-2022 in 000s m2.             117
  • Table 32. Types of graphene and typical prices.   121
  • Table 33. Pristine graphene flakes pricing by producer.   124
  • Table 34. Few-layer graphene pricing by producer.           125
  • Table 35. Graphene nanoplatelets pricing by producer.   125
  • Table 36. Graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide pricing, by producer.        126
  • Table 37. Graphene quantum dots pricing by producer.  128
  • Table 38. Multi-layer graphene pricing by producer.         129
  • Table 39. Graphene ink pricing by producer.        130
  • Table 40. Market overview for graphene in 3D printing.  131
  • Table 41. Market outlook for graphene in 3D printing.     131
  • Table 42. Market and applications for graphene in 3D printing.    132
  • Table 43. Demand for graphene in 3-D printing (tons), 2018-2032.              135
  • Table 44. Product developers in graphene 3D printing.    137
  • Table 45. Market overview for graphene in adhesives.    139
  • Table 46. Market outlook for graphene in adhesives.       140
  • Table 47. Market and applications for graphene in adhesives.      140
  • Table 48. Demand for graphene in adhesives (tons), 2018-2032.  143
  • Table 49. Product developers in graphene adhesives.      144
  • Table 50. Market overview for graphene in aerospace.    146
  • Table 51. Scorecard for graphene in aerospace.  146
  • Table 52. Market and applications for graphene in aerospace.     147
  • Table 53: Demand for graphene in aerospace (tons), 2018-2030. 150
  • Table 54: Product developers in graphene for aerospace.              151
  • Table 55. Market overview for graphene in the automotive market.          155
  • Table 56. Market outlook for graphene in automotive.    155
  • Table 57. Market and applications for graphene in automotive.   156
  • Table 58. Demand for graphene in automotive (tons), 2018-2032.               159
  • Table 59. Product developers in the graphene automotive market.           160
  • Table 60. Applications of nanomaterials in batteries.        164
  • Table 61. Market overview for graphene in batteries.      169
  • Table 62. Market outlook for graphene in batteries.         170
  • Table 63. Market drivers for use of nanomaterials in batteries.    170
  • Table 64. Applications of nanomaterials in flexible and stretchable batteries, by materials type and benefits thereof.                173
  • Table 65. Market and applications for graphene in batteries.        173
  • Table 66. Estimated demand for graphene in batteries (tons), 2018-2032.               178
  • Table 67. Product developers in graphene batteries.        179
  • Table 68. Market overview for graphene in composites. 185
  • Table 69. Market outlook for graphene in fiber-based polymer composite parts. 185
  • Table 70. Market and applications for graphene in fiber-based composite parts.  186
  • Table 71. Market and applications for graphene in metal matrix composites.        190
  • Table 72. Global market for graphene in composites 2018-2032, tons.      191
  • Table 73. Product developers in graphene composites.   192
  • Table 74. Market overview for graphene in conductive inks.          198
  • Table 75. Market outlook for graphene in conductive inks.            198
  • Table 76. Market and applications for graphene in conductive inks.           199
  • Table 77. Comparative properties of conductive inks.       202
  • Table 78. Demand for graphene in conductive ink (tons), 2018-2032.         203
  • Table 79. Product developers in graphene conductive inks.           205
  • Table 80. Market overview for graphene in construction and buildings.    208
  • Table 81. Market outlook for graphene in construction.  208
  • Table 82. Graphene for cement. 209
  • Table 83. Graphene for asphalt bitumen.               211
  • Table 84. Demand for graphene in construction (tons), 2018-2032.             213
  • Table 85: Graphene product developers in construction. 214
  • Table 86. Market overview for graphene in wearable electronics and displays.      217
  • Table 87. Market outlook for graphene in wearable electronics and displays.        218
  • Table 88. Market and applications for graphene in electronics.    218
  • Table 89. Comparison of ITO replacements.         220
  • Table 90. Demand for graphene in wearable, flexible and stretchable electronics, 2018-2032.         221
  • Table 91. Product developers in graphene-based electronics.       222
  • Table 92. Market overview for graphene in transistors and integrated circuits.      224
  • Table 93. Comparative properties of silicon and graphene transistors.      224
  • Table 94. Market outlook for graphene in transistors and integrated circuits.         224
  • Table 95. Market and applications for graphene in transistors and integrated circuits.       225
  • Table 96. Demand for graphene in transistors and integrated circuits, 2018-2032.                228
  • Table 97. Product developers in graphene transistors and integrated circuits.        229
  • Table 98. Market overview for graphene in memory devices.       231
  • Table 99. Market outlook for graphene in memory devices.          231
  • Table 100. Market and applications for graphene in memory devices.      232
  • Table 101. Demand for graphene in memory devices, 2018-2032.               233
  • Table 102. Product developers in graphene memory devices.      235
  • Table 103. Market overview for graphene in filtration.     236
  • Table 104. Market outlook for graphene in filtration.        236
  • Table 105. Market and applications for graphene in filtration.      237
  • Table 106. Demand for graphene in filtration (tons), 2018-2032.  241
  • Table 107. Graphene companies in filtration.       243
  • Table 108. Market overview for graphene in fuel cells.     246
  • Table 109. Market outlook for graphene in fuel cells.        246
  • Table 110. Market and applications for graphene in fuel cells.      247
  • Table 111. Demand for graphene in fuel cells (tons), 2018-2032.  251
  • Table 112. Product developers in graphene fuel cells.      252
  • Table 113. Market overview for graphene in life sciences and medicine.  254
  • Table 114. Market outlook for graphene in drug delivery.              254
  • Table 115. Scorecard for graphene in imaging and diagnostics.    255
  • Table 116. Scorecard for graphene in medical implants.  255
  • Table 117. Scorecard for graphene in medical biosensors.              256
  • Table 118. Scorecard for graphene in woundcare.             257
  • Table 119. Market and applications for graphene in life sciences and medicine.   259
  • Table 120. Demand for graphene in life sciences and medical (tons), 2018-2032.  263
  • Table 121. Product developers in graphene life sciences and biomedicine.             265
  • Table 122. Market overview for graphene in lighting.       269
  • Table 123. Market outlook for graphene in lighting.          269
  • Table 124. Market and applications for graphene in lighting.         270
  • Table 125. Demand for graphene in lighting, 2018-2032.  272
  • Table 126. Product developers in graphene lighting.         273
  • Table 127. Market overview for graphene in lubricants.  275
  • Table 128. Nanomaterial lubricant products.        275
  • Table 129. Market outlook for graphene in lubricants.     276
  • Table 130. Market and applications for graphene in lubricants.    277
  • Table 131. Demand for graphene in lubricants (tons), 2018-2032.                279
  • Table 132. Product developers in graphene lubricants.    280
  • Table 133. Market overview for graphene in oil and gas. 283
  • Table 134. Market outlook for graphene in oil and gas.    283
  • Table 135. Market and applications for graphene in oil and gas.  284
  • Table 136. Demand for graphene in oil and gas (tons), 2018-2032.              286
  • Table 137. Product developers in graphene oil and gas.   287
  • Table 138. Market overview for graphene in paints and coatings.                289
  • Table 139. Market outlook for graphene in paints and coatings.  289
  • Table 140. Market and applications for graphene in paints and coatings. 290
  • Table 141. Demand for graphene in paints and coatings (tons), 2018-2032.             293
  • Table 142. Product developers in graphene paints and coatings. 295
  • Table 143. Market overview for graphene in paints and coatings.                300
  • Table 144. Market outlook for graphene in photonics.     300
  • Table 145. Market and applications for graphene in photonics.    301
  • Table 146. Demand for graphene in photonics, 2018-2032.             304
  • Table 147. Product developers in graphene photonics.    306
  • Table 148. Market overview for graphene in photovoltaics.           307
  • Table 149. Market outlook for graphene in photovoltaics.              308
  • Table 150. Market and applications for graphene in photovoltaics.            308
  • Table 151. Demand for graphene in photovoltaics (tons), 2018-2032.        311
  • Table 152. Product developers in graphene solar.              312
  • Table 153. Market overview for graphene in rubber and tires.      314
  • Table 154. Market outlook for graphene in rubber and tires.         314
  • Table 155. Market and applications for graphene in rubber and tires.       315
  • Table 156. Demand for graphene in rubber and tires (tons), 2018-2032.   318
  • Table 157. Product developers in rubber and tires.            320
  • Table 158. Market overview for graphene in sensors.      323
  • Table 159. Market outlook for graphene in sensors.         324
  • Table 160. Market and applications for graphene in sensors.        324
  • Table 161. Demand for graphene in sensors (tons), 2018-2032.    328
  • Table 162. Product developers in graphene sensors.        330
  • Table 163. Market overview for graphene in smart textiles and apparel.  334
  • Table 164. Market outlook for graphene in smart textiles and apparel.     334
  • Table 165. Market and applications for graphene in smart textiles and apparel.    335
  • Table 166. Demand for graphene in textiles (tons), 2018-2032.     340
  • Table 167. Graphene product developers in smart textiles and apparel.   341
  • Table 168. Market overview for graphene in supercapacitors.      346
  • Table 169. Market outlook for graphene in supercapacitors.         346
  • Table 170: Comparative properties of graphene supercapacitors and lithium-ion batteries.            347
  • Table 171. Market and applications for graphene in supercapacitors.        347
  • Table 172. Demand for graphene in supercapacitors (tons), 2018-2032.    350
  • Table 173. Product developers in graphene supercapacitors.        351
  • Table 174. Graphene audio equipment producers and products. 354
  • Table 175. Graphene sporting goods producers and products.      355
  • Table 176. Graphene producers and types produced.      356
  • Table 177. Graphene producers target market matrix.     360
  • Table 178. Graphene product developers and end users target market matrix.     363
  • Table 179. Performance criteria of energy storage devices.           606
  • Table 180. 2D materials types.   627
  • Table 181. Comparative analysis of graphene and other 2-D nanomaterials.           628
  • Table 182. Comparison of  top-down exfoliation methods to produce 2D materials.            630
  • Table 183. Comparison of the bottom-up synthesis methods to produce 2D materials.      633
  • Table 184. Properties of hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN). 635
  • Table 185. Electronic and mechanical properties of monolayer phosphorene, graphene and MoS2.            649
  • Table 186. Properties and applications of functionalized germanene.       656
  • Table 187. GDY-based anode materials in LIBs and SIBs   659
  • Table 188. Physical and electronic properties of Stanene.              668
  • Table 189. Technology Readiness Level (TRL) Examples.  692

 

List of Figures

  • Figure 1. Demand for graphene, by market, 2021.              38
  • Figure 2. Demand for graphene, 2018-2032, tons.             51
  • Figure 3. Global graphene demand by market, 2018-2032 (tons), conservative estimate. 52
  • Figure 4. Global graphene demand by market, 2018-2032 (tons). Medium estimate.         53
  • Figure 5. Global graphene demand by market, 2018-2032 (tons). High estimate. 54
  • Figure 6. Demand for graphene in China, by market, 2021.             55
  • Figure 7. Demand for graphene in Asia-Pacific, by market, 2021.  56
  • Figure 8. Main graphene producers in Asia-Pacific.            57
  • Figure 9. Demand for graphene in North America, by market, 2021.           59
  • Figure 10. Demand for graphene in Europe, by market, 2021.        61
  • Figure 11. Graphene layer structure schematic.  74
  • Figure 12. Illustrative procedure of the Scotch-tape based micromechanical cleavage of HOPG.    74
  • Figure 13. Graphite and graphene.           75
  • Figure 14. Graphene and its descendants: top right: graphene; top left: graphite = stacked graphene; bottom right: nanotube=rolled graphene; bottom left: fullerene=wrapped graphene.   77
  • Figure 15. Types of CVD methods.            78
  • Figure 16. Schematic of the manufacture of GnPs starting from natural graphite. 80
  • Figure 17. Green-fluorescing graphene quantum dots.    82
  • Figure 18. Schematic of (a) CQDs and (c) GQDs. HRTEM images of (b) C-dots and (d) GQDs showing combination of zigzag and armchair edges (positions marked as 1–4).      82
  • Figure 19. Graphene quantum dots.        85
  • Figure 20. Top-down and bottom-up graphene QD synthesis methods.    86
  • Figure 21. Revenues for graphene quantum dots 2019-2032, millions USD              94
  • Figure 22. Fabrication methods of graphene.       98
  • Figure 23. TEM micrographs of: A) HR-CNFs; B) GANF® HR-CNF, it can be observed its high graphitic structure; C) Unraveled ribbon from the HR-CNF; D) Detail of the ribbon; E) Scheme of the structure of the HR-CNFs; F) Large single graphene oxide sheets derived from GANF.         99
  • Figure 24. (a) Graphene powder production line The Sixth Element Materials Technology Co. Ltd. (b) Graphene film production line of Wuxi Graphene Films Co. Ltd. 100
  • Figure 25. Schematic illustration of the main graphene production methods.        101
  • Figure 26. Published patent publications for graphene, 2004-2019.             111
  • Figure 27. Demand for graphene, 2018-2032, tons.           113
  • Figure 28. CVD Graphene on Cu Foil.        123
  • Figure 29. Applications of graphene in 3D printing.            135
  • Figure 30. Demand for graphene in 3-D printing (tons), 2018-2032.             136
  • Figure 31. CNCTArch lightweight mounting for digital signalling.  137
  • Figure 32. Applications of graphene in adhesives.              143
  • Figure 33. Demand for graphene in adhesives (tons), 2018-2032. 144
  • Figure 34. Graphene Adhesives. 145
  • Figure 35. Applications of graphene in aerospace.             150
  • Figure 36: Demand for graphene in aerospace (tons), 2018-2032.                151
  • Figure 37. Orbex Prime rocket.   151
  • Figure 38: Graphene enhanced aircraft cargo container. 152
  • Figure 39: Graphene aircraft.      152
  • Figure 40. Summary of graphene in automobiles.              155
  • Figure 41. Applications of graphene in automotive.          158
  • Figure 42. Demand for graphene in automotive (tons), 2018-2032.             160
  • Figure 43. Supercar incorporating graphene.       160
  • Figure 44. Graphene anti-corrosion primer.          162
  • Figure 45. Graphene-R Brake pads.          162
  • Figure 46. Antistatic graphene tire.          162
  • Figure 47. Graphene engine oil additives.              163
  • Figure 48. Annual cobalt demand for electric vehicle batteries to 2031.    166
  • Figure 49. Annual lithium demand for electric vehicle batteries to 2031.   167
  • Figure 50. Costs of batteries to 2031.       169
  • Figure 51. Applications of graphene in batteries. 177
  • Figure 52. Demand for graphene in batteries (tons), 2018-2032.  178
  • Figure 53. Apollo Traveler graphene-enhanced USB-C / A fast charging power bank.          180
  • Figure 54. Exide Graphene Lead Acid Battery.      180
  • Figure 55. 6000mAh Portable graphene batteries.             181
  • Figure 56. Real Graphene Powerbank.    183
  • Figure 57. Graphene Functional Films - UniTran EH/FH.   184
  • Figure 58. Applications of graphene in composites.           189
  • Figure 59. Demand for graphene in composites (tons), 2018-2032.             192
  • Figure 60. Graphene bike.            193
  • Figure 61. Graphene lacrosse equipment.             194
  • Figure 62. Graphene-based suitcase made from recycled plastic. 194
  • Figure 63. Aros Create.  195
  • Figure 64. Grays graphene hockey sticks.               197
  • Figure 65. Applications of graphene in conductive inks.   203
  • Figure 66. Demand for graphene in conductive ink (tons), 2018-2032.       204
  • Figure 67. BGT Materials graphene ink product. 205
  • Figure 68. Printed graphene conductive ink.         206
  • Figure 69. Textiles covered in conductive graphene ink.  206
  • Figure 70. Comparison of nanofillers with supplementary cementitious materials and aggregates in concrete.       209
  • Figure 71. Demand for graphene in construction (tons), 2018-2032.           214
  • Figure 72. Graphene asphalt additives.   215
  • Figure 73. OG (Original Graphene) Concrete Admix Plus. 215
  • Figure 74. Demand for graphene in wearable, flexible and stretchable electronics, 2018-2032.       222
  • Figure 75. Moxi flexible film developed for smartphone application.         222
  • Figure 76. Applications of graphene in transistors and integrated circuits.               227
  • Figure 77. Demand for graphene in transistors and integrated circuits, 2018-2032.              229
  • Figure 78. Graphene IC in wafer tester.  229
  • Figure 79. Schematic cross-section of a graphene based transistor (GBT, left) and a graphene field-effect transistor (GFET, right).      230
  • Figure 80. Demand for graphene in memory devices, 2018-2032.                234
  • Figure 81. Layered structure of tantalum oxide, multilayer graphene and platinum used for resistive random-access memory (RRAM).             235
  • Figure 82. Applications of graphene in filtration. 241
  • Figure 83. Demand for graphene in filtration (tons), 2018-2032.   242
  • Figure 84. Graphene anti-smog mask.     243
  • Figure 85. Graphene filtration membrane.            244
  • Figure 86. Graphene water filer cartridge.             244
  • Figure 87. Applications of graphene in fuel cells. 250
  • Figure 88. Demand for graphene in fuel cells (tons), 2018-2032.   251
  • Figure 89. Graphene-based E-skin patch.               253
  • Figure 90. Flexible and transparent bracelet that uses graphene to measure heart rate, respiration rate etc.           258
  • Figure 91. Applications of graphene in life sciences and medicine               263
  • Figure 92. Demand for graphene in life sciences and medical (tons), 2018-2032.   264
  • Figure 93. Graphene medical biosensors for wound healing.         266
  • Figure 94. Graphene Frontiers’ Six™ chemical sensors consists of a field effect transistor (FET) with a graphene channel. Receptor molecules, such as DNA, are attached directly to the graphene channel.            266
  • Figure 95. GraphWear wearable sweat sensor.   267
  • Figure 96. BioStamp nPoint.        268
  • Figure 97. Applications of graphene in lighting.   272
  • Figure 98. Demand for graphene in lighting, 2018-2032.   273
  • Figure 99. Graphene LED bulbs. 274
  • Figure 100. Applications of graphene in lubricants.            279
  • Figure 101. Demand for graphene in lubricants (tons), 2018-2032.              280
  • Figure 102. Tricolit spray coating.              281
  • Figure 103. Graphenoil products.              281
  • Figure 104. Applications of graphene in oil and gas.          286
  • Figure 105. Demand for graphene in oil and gas (tons), 2018-2032.             287
  • Figure 106. Directa Plus Grafysorber.      288
  • Figure 107. Applications of graphene in paints and coatings.         293
  • Figure 108. Demand for graphene in paints and coatings (tons), 2018-2032.           294
  • Figure 109. Cryorig CPU cooling system with graphene coating.   295
  • Figure 110. Four layers of graphene oxide coatings on polycarbonate.      296
  • Figure 111. 23303 ZINCTON GNC graphene paint.              297
  • Figure 112. Graphene-enhanced anti-corrosion aerosols under their Hycote brand.            297
  • Figure 113. Scania Truck head lamp brackets ACT chamber 6 weeks, equivalent to 3y field use. Piece treated with GO to the left together with different non-GO coatings.         298
  • Figure 114. Schematic of graphene heat film.       299
  • Figure 115. Applications of graphene in photonics.            304
  • Figure 116. Demand for graphene in photonics, 2018-2032.           305
  • Figure 117. All-graphene optical communication link demonstrator operating at a data rate of 25 Gb/s per channel.                306
  • Figure 118. Applications of graphene in photovoltaics.    311
  • Figure 119. Demand for graphene in photovoltaics (tons), 2018-2032.       312
  • Figure 120. Graphene coated glass.          313
  • Figure 121. Applications of graphene in rubber and tires.               318
  • Figure 122. Demand for graphene in rubber and tires (tons), 2018-2032.  319
  • Figure 123. Eagle F1 graphene tire.          320
  • Figure 124. Graphene floor mats.              321
  • Figure 125. Vittoria Corsa G+ tire.             321
  • Figure 126. Graphene-based sensors for health monitoring.          323
  • Figure 127. Applications of graphene in sensors. 328
  • Figure 128. Demand for graphene in sensors (tons), 2018-2032.   329
  • Figure 129. AGILE R100 system. 330
  • Figure 130. Graphene fully packaged linear array detector.           331
  • Figure 131. GFET sensors.            331
  • Figure 132. Graphene is used to increase sensitivity to middle-infrared light.         333
  • Figure 133. Applications of graphene in smart textiles and apparel.           339
  • Figure 134. Demand for graphene in textiles (tons), 2018-2032.   340
  • Figure 135. 878 Project One jacket display.           341
  • Figure 136. Colmar graphene ski jacket. 342
  • Figure 137. Graphene dress. The dress changes colour in sync with the wearer’s breathing.           342
  • Figure 138. G+ Graphene Aero Jersey.    343
  • Figure 139. Inov-8 graphene shoes.         343
  • Figure 140. Graphene Functional Membranes - UniTran GM.        344
  • Figure 141. Graphene jacket.      345
  • Figure 142. Applications of graphene in supercapacitors. 350
  • Figure 143. Demand for graphene in supercapacitors (tons), 2018-2032.  351
  • Figure 144. KEPCO’s graphene supercapacitors. 352
  • Figure 145. Skeleton Technologies supercapacitor.           353
  • Figure 146. Zapgo supercapacitor phone charger.              353
  • Figure 147. Callaway Chrome Soft golf and Chrome Soft X golf balls.          355
  • Figure 148. Graphene heating films.        367
  • Figure 149. Graphene flake products.     373
  • Figure 150. AIKA Black-T.              376
  • Figure 151. Printed graphene biosensors.             385
  • Figure 152. Brain Scientific electrode schematic. 403
  • Figure 153. Graphene battery schematic.              428
  • Figure 154. Dotz Nano GQD products.     430
  • Figure 155. Graphene-based membrane dehumidification test cell.           436
  • Figure 156. Proprietary atmospheric CVD production.      447
  • Figure 157. Wearable sweat sensor.        478
  • Figure 158.  InP/ZnS, perovskite quantum dots and silicon resin composite under UV illumination.               485
  • Figure 159. Sensor surface.          500
  • Figure 160. BioStamp nPoint.      517
  • Figure 161. Nanotech Energy battery.     536
  • Figure 162. Hybrid battery powered electrical motorbike concept.             538
  • Figure 163. NAWAStitch integrated into carbon fiber composite. 539
  • Figure 164. Schematic illustration of three-chamber system for SWCNH production.          540
  • Figure 165. TEM images of carbon nanobrush.    541
  • Figure 166. Test performance after 6 weeks ACT II according to Scania STD4445.  554
  • Figure 167. Quantag GQDs and sensor.  556
  • Figure 168. The Sixth Element graphene products.            569
  • Figure 169. Thermal conductive graphene film.   570
  • Figure 170. Talcoat graphene mixed with paint.  581
  • Figure 171. T-FORCE CARDEA ZERO.         584
  • Figure 172. Structures of nanomaterials based on dimensions.    625
  • Figure 173. Schematic of 2-D materials.  627
  • Figure 174. Diagram of the mechanical exfoliation method.          631
  • Figure 175. Diagram of liquid exfoliation method               632
  • Figure 176. Structure of hexagonal boron nitride.              634
  • Figure 177. BN nanosheet textiles application.    637
  • Figure 178. Structure diagram of Ti3C2Tx.              638
  • Figure 179.  Types and applications of 2D TMDCs.              641
  • Figure 180. Left: Molybdenum disulphide (MoS2). Right: Tungsten ditelluride (WTe2)       642
  • Figure 181. SEM image of MoS2.               642
  • Figure 182. Atomic force microscopy image of a representative MoS2 thin-film transistor.              644
  • Figure 183. Schematic of the molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) thin-film sensor with the deposited molecules that create additional charge.            645
  • Figure 184. Borophene schematic.           646
  • Figure 185. Black phosphorus structure. 648
  • Figure 186. Black Phosphorus crystal.      649
  • Figure 187. Bottom gated flexible few-layer phosphorene transistors with the hydrophobic dielectric encapsulation.                650
  • Figure 188: Graphitic carbon nitride.        653
  • Figure 189. Structural difference between graphene and C2N-h2D crystal: (a) graphene; (b) C2N-h2D crystal. Credit: Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology.         654
  • Figure 190. Schematic of germanene.     655
  • Figure 191. Graphdiyne structure.            658
  • Figure 192. Schematic of Graphane crystal.           661
  • Figure 193. Schematic of a monolayer of rhenium disulfide.          663
  • Figure 194. Silicene structure.    664
  • Figure 195. Monolayer silicene on a silver (111) substrate.            665
  • Figure 196. Silicene transistor.    665
  • Figure 197. Crystal structure for stanene.              667
  • Figure 198. Atomic structure model for the 2D stanene on Bi2Te3(111).   668
  • Figure 199. Schematic of Indium Selenide (InSe).               670
  • Figure 200. Application of Li-Al LDH as CO2 sensor.           672
  • Figure 201. Graphene-based membrane dehumidification test cell.           681

 

 

 

 

The Global Graphene Market Report 2022
The Global Graphene Market Report 2022
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The Global Graphene Market Report 2022
The Global Graphene Market Report 2022
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