The Nanocellulose Market, Production and Pricing Report 2020

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Published October 2020, 308 pages, 113 tables, 175 figures

Cellulose nanofibers, cellulose nanocrystals and bacterial nanocellulose

Nanocellulose (NC) is a novel biomaterial with multiple industrial uses for replacing fossil derived raw materials. It is renewable, eco-friendly, has excellent mechanical properties, good biocompatibility, and tailorable surface chemistry. The addition of NC into polymers can enhance mechanical strength and reduce weight compared to fiber-reinforced plastics (FRP).

The market mainly consists of cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) production at present as alternatives to resins, synthetic thickeners, strengtheners, and plastics. Cellulose nanofiber products have already hit the market, mainly in Japan, and are viewed as important advanced biomaterials solutions in the packaging and composites markets.

Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) possess many desirable properties such as high surface area, hydroxyl groups for functionalization, colloidal stability, low toxicity, chirality and mechanical strength. Recent increases in production capacities are bringing CNCs to market in oil and gas fluids, adhesives, paper products, textiles, cement, plastics and composites, paints and coatings, personal care, healthcare, food and beverages and electronics.

Current production capacity for nanocellulose exceeds the market demand at present, but this is likely to change as prices drop in the next few years, and there is less distance to fall than with other nanomaterials as cellulose nanofibers are broadly cost competitive. Producers have already begun to produce additives that are competitive with conventional polymer composites (e.g. carbon fibers). The growth in interest in sustainable products will also greatly drive demand. 

The Nanocellulose Market, Production and Pricing Report 2020 report includes:

  • Pricing landscape for nanocellulose (Cellulose nanofibers, cellulose nanocrystals and bacterial cellulose), by types and producers.
  • Production volumes by nanocellulose producer (current and planned).
  • Over 100 company profiles including production processes, products and pricing, target markets and collaborations.
  • Profiles of all the major players in nanocellulose production. Companies profiled include Asahi Kasei, Borregaard, CelluComp Ltd., Celluforce, Chuetsu Pulp & Paper Co., Ltd., Daicel, Daio Paper Corporation, SAPPI, DKS Co. Ltd. and Imerys Minerals Ltd.
  • Profiles of all the major application developers including current and planned products.
  • Industry developments in 2020.
  • Market impacts from COVID-19 response. 

1              EXECUTIVE SUMMARY   21

  • 1.1          Why nanocellulose?       21
  • 1.2          The market in 2019          23
  • 1.3          Future global market outlook     27
  • 1.4          Global nanocellulose production               29
    • 1.4.1      Total global production capacity 2019, by type   29
    • 1.4.2      Cellulose nanofibers (CNF) production capacities 2019, by producer          30
    • 1.4.3      Microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) production capacities 2019           31
    • 1.4.4      Cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) production capacities 2019 32
  • 1.5          Global nanocellulose market demand, 2018–2030, tons  33
  • 1.6          Market impact from COVID-19 pandemic              38

 

2              OVERVIEW OF NANOCELLULOSE               39

  • 2.1          Cellulose              39
  • 2.2          Nanocellulose   39
  • 2.3          Properties of nanocellulose         40
  • 2.4          Advantages of nanocellulose      41
  • 2.5          Manufacture of nanocellulose    42
  • 2.6          Production methods       43
  • 2.7          Types of nanocellulose  44
    • 2.7.1      Microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) 46
    • 2.7.2      Cellulose nanofibers (CNF)           47
      • 2.7.2.1   Applications       48
    • 2.7.3      Cellulose nanocrystals (CNC)       48
      • 2.7.3.1   Synthesis             49
      • 2.7.3.2   Properties           51
      • 2.7.3.3   Applications       52
    • 2.7.4      Bacterial Nanocellulose (BNC)    53
      • 2.7.4.1   Applications       54
  • 2.8          Synthesis             55

 

3              NANOCELLULOSE PRICING           58

  • 3.1          Cellulose nanofiber (CNF)             58
  • 3.2          Cellulose nanocrystal (CNC)         59
  • 3.3          Bacterial nanocellulose (BNC)     60

 

4              NANOCELLULOSE IN COMPOSITES            61

  • 4.1          Market overview             61
  • 4.2          Market assessment        62
  • 4.3          Applications map             67
  • 4.4          Global market in tons, historical and forecast to 2030       67

 

5              NANOCELLULOSE IN AUTOMOTIVE          69

  • 5.1          Market overview             69
  • 5.2          Market assessment        70
  • 5.3          Applications map             72
  • 5.4          Global market in tons, historical and forecast to 2030       73

 

6              NANOCELLULOSE IN CONSTRUCTION      74

  • 6.1          Market overview             74
  • 6.2          Market assessment        74
  • 6.3          Applications map             77
  • 6.4          Global market in tons, historical and forecast to 2030       78

 

7              NANOCELLULOSE IN PAPER AND BOARD PACKAGING      79

  • 7.1          Market prospects            79
  • 7.2          Market assessment        80
  • 7.3          Applications map             85
  • 7.4          Global market in tons, historical and forecast to 2030       86

 

8              NANOCELLULOSE TEXTILES AND APPAREL             87

  • 8.1          Market overview             87
  • 8.2          Market assessment        87
  • 8.3          Applications map             91
  • 8.4          Global market in tons, historical and forecast to 2030       91

 

9              NANOCELLULOSE IN MEDICINE AND HEALTHCARE             93

  • 9.1          Market overview             93
  • 9.2          Market assessment        94
  • 9.3          Applications map             99
  • 9.4          Global market in tons, historical and forecast to 2030       99

 

10           NANOCELLULOSE IN PAINTS AND COATINGS        102

  • 10.1        Market overview             102
  • 10.2        Market assessment        102
  • 10.3        Applications map             105
  • 10.4        Global market in tons, historical and forecast to 2030       106

 

11           NANOCELLULOSE IN AEROGELS 107

  • 11.1        Market overview             107
  • 11.2        Market assessment        107
  • 11.3        Global market in tons, historical and forecast to 2030       109

 

12           NANOCELLULOSE IN OIL AND GAS            110

  • 12.1        Market overview             111
  • 12.2        Market assessment        111
  • 12.3        Global market in tons, historical and forecast to 2030       113
  • 12.4        Product developer profiles          114

 

13           NANOCELLULOSE IN FILTRATION               116

  • 13.1        Market overview             116
  • 13.2        Market assessment        118
  • 13.3        Applications map             121
  • 13.4        Global market in tons, historical and forecast to 2030       121

 

14           NANOCELLULOSE IN RHEOLOGY MODIFIERS FOR COSMETICS, PHARMA AND FOOD ADDITIVES      123

  • 14.1        Market overview             123
  • 14.2        Market assessment        124
  • 14.3        Applications map             126
  • 14.4        Global market in tons, historical and forecast to 2030       126

 

15           OTHER MARKETS FOR NANOCELLULOSE 128

  • 15.1        PRINTED, STRETCHABLE AND FLEXIBLE ELECTRONICS        128
  • 15.2        3D PRINTING     132
  • 15.3        AEROSPACE        134

 

16           CELLULOSE NANOFIBER COMPANY PROFILES       137 (82 COMPANY PROFILES)

17           CELLULOSE NANOCRYSTAL (CNC) PRODUCER ANALYSIS  267

18           CELLULOSE NANOCRYSTAL (CNC) COMPANY PROFILES    269 (14 COMPANY PROFILES)

19           BACTERIAL CELLULOSE (BC) COMPANY PROFILES 294 (9 COMPANY PROFILES)

20           RESEARCH SCOPE AND METHODOLOGY 302

  • 20.1        Report scope     302
  • 20.2        Research methodology 302

 

21           REFERENCES       304

 

Tables

  • Table 1: Market summary for nanocellulose-Selling grade particle diameter, usage, advantages, average price/ton, market estimates, global consumption, main current applications, future applications      22
  • Table 2. Markets and applications for nanocellulose.        23
  • Table 3. Classification of nanocellulose applications by type of industrial product ranged in terms of their potential of consumption.    27
  • Table 4: Global demand for nanocellulose in 2019, tons. 29
  • Table 5: Market segmentation by type of nanocellulose, capacities and demand 2018.      29
  • Table 6. CNF production capacities and production process, by producer.               30
  • Table 7: MFC production capacities and production process, by producer.              31
  • Table 8: Cellulose nanocrystal production capacities and production process, by producer.             32
  • Table 9: Nanocellulose market value, by end user market demand, 2018–2030 (Tons). total.          33
  • Table 10: Global demand for cellulose nanofibers/MFC by market, 2018-2030.      34
  • Table 11: Global demand for cellulose nanocrystals by market, 2018-2030.             36
  • Table 12. Assessment of impact from COVID-19 by end user market. Key: Low, little impact and market will continue to grow. Medium, market impacted to some degree affecting growth prospects over next 1-2 years. High: Market significantly impacted.   38
  • Table 13: Properties and applications of nanocellulose.   41
  • Table 14. Properties of nanocellulose, by type.   41
  • Table 15: Properties of cellulose nanofibrils relative to metallic and polymeric materials. 42
  • Table 16. Types of nanocellulose.              44
  • Table 17: Types of nanocellulose.             46
  • Table 18: Applications of cellulose nanofibers (CNF).        48
  • Table 19. Synthesis methods for cellulose nanocrystals (CNC).     49
  • Table 20: CNC sources, size and yield.     51
  • Table 21: CNC properties.            51
  • Table 22. Mechanical properties of CNC and other reinforcement materials.         52
  • Table 23: Applications of nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC).              53
  • Table 24: Applications of bacterial nanocellulose (BNC). 54
  • Table 25: Product/price/application matrix of cellulose nanofiber producers.        58
  • Table 26: Product/price/application matrix of cellulose nanocrystal producers.    59
  • Table 27: Product/price/application matrix of bacterial nanocellulose producers. 60
  • Table 28. Market overview for nanocellulose in composites.         61
  • Table 29. Comparative properties of polymer composites reinforcing materials.   61
  • Table 30. Market assessment for nanocellulose in composites-application, key benefits and motivation for use, megatrends, market drivers, technology drawbacks, competing materials, material loading, main global composites OEMs.   62
  • Table 31: Global market demand for nanocellulose in composites, 2018-2030 (tons).        67
  • Table 32. Market overview for nanocellulose in automotive.        69
  • Table 33. Market assessment for nanocellulose in automotive-application, key benefits and motivation for use, megatrends, market drivers, technology drawbacks, competing materials, material loading, main global automotive OEMs.   70
  • Table 34: Global market demand for nanocellulose in the automotive sector 2018-2030 (tons).    73
  • Table 35. Market overview for nanocellulose in construction.       74
  • Table 36. Comparison of CNC with steel and other materials.        75
  • Table 37. Market assessment for nanocellulose in construction-application, key benefits and motivation for use, megatrends, market drivers, technology drawbacks, competing materials, material loading, main global construction OEMs    75
  • Table 38: Market demand for nanocellulose in construction, 2018-2030 (tons).    78
  • Table 39. Oxygen permeability of nanocellulose films compared to those made form commercially available petroleum-based materials and other polymers. 79
  • Table 40. Scorecard for nanocellulose in paper and board packaging.        79
  • Table 41. Market assessment for nanocellulose in paper and board packaging-application, key benefits and motivation for use, megatrends, market drivers, technology drawbacks, competing materials, material loading, main global paper and board packaging OEMs.        80
  • Table 42: Global demand for nanocellulose in paper & board packaging, 2018-2030 (tons).            86
  • Table 43. Market overview for nanocellulose in textiles and apparel.         87
  • Table 44. Market assessment for nanocellulose in textiles and apparel-application, key benefits and motivation for use, megatrends, market drivers, technology drawbacks, competing materials, material loading, main global textiles and apparel OEMs.          87
  • Table 45: Demand for nanocellulose in textiles, 2018-2030 (tons).             91
  • Table 46. Market overview for nanocellulose in medicine and healthcare.              93
  • Table 47. Market assessment for nanocellulose in medicine and healthcare-application, key benefits and motivation for use, megatrends, market drivers, technology drawbacks, competing materials, material loading, main global medicine and healthcare OEMs. 94
  • Table 48: Global demand for nanocellulose in medical and healthcare, 2018-2030 (tons). 99
  • Table 49: Global demand for nanocellulose in hygiene and absorbents, 2018-2030 (tons).               100
  • Table 50. Market overview for nanocellulose in paints and coatings.          102
  • Table 51. Market assessment for nanocellulose in paints and coatings-application, key benefits and motivation for use, megatrends, market drivers, technology drawbacks, competing materials, material loading, main global paints and coatings OEMs. 102
  • Table 52: Global demand for nanocellulose in paint and coatings, 2018-2030 (tons).          106
  • Table 53. Market overview for nanocellulose in aerogels.               107
  • Table 54. Market assessment for nanocellulose in aerogels and insulation-application, key benefits and motivation for use, megatrends, market drivers, technology drawbacks, competing materials, material loading, main global aerogels OEMs.   107
  • Table 55: Global demand for nanocellulose in aerogels and insulation, 2018-2030 (tons). 110
  • Table 56. Market overview for nanocellulose in oil and gas.           111
  • Table 57. Market assessment for nanocellulose in oil and gas-application, key benefits and motivation for use, megatrends, market drivers, technology drawbacks, competing materials, material loading, main global oil and gas OEMs.   111
  • Table 58: Global demand for nanocellulose in the oil and gas market, 2018-2030 (tons).  113
  • Table 59: Nanocellulose product developers in oil and gas exploration.    114
  • Table 60. CNF membranes.          117
  • Table 61. Market overview for nanocellulose in filtration.               117
  • Table 62. Market assessment for nanocellulose in filtration-application, key benefits and motivation for use, megatrends, market drivers, technology drawbacks, competing materials, material loading, main global filtration OEMs.   118
  • Table 63: Global demand for nanocellulose in the filtration market, 2018-2030 (tons).      121
  • Table 64. Market overview for nanocellulose in rheology modifiers.          123
  • Table 65. Market assessment for nanocellulose in rheology modifiers-application, key benefits and motivation for use, megatrends, market drivers, technology drawbacks, competing materials, material loading, main global rheology modifier OEMs. 124
  • Table 66: Global demand for nanocellulose in the rheology modifiers market, 2018-2030 (tons).  126
  • Table 67. Properties of flexible electronics‐cellulose nanofiber film (nanopaper). 128
  • Table 68. Market assessment for nanocellulose in printed, stretchable and flexible electronics-application, key benefits and motivation for use, megatrends, market drivers, technology drawbacks, competing materials, material loading, main global printed, flexible and stretchable electronics OEMs.   129
  • Table 69. Market assessment for nanocellulose in 3D priniting-application, key benefits and motivation for use, megatrends, market drivers, technology drawbacks, competing materials, material loading, main global 3D printing OEMs.   132
  • Table 70. Market assessment for nanocellulose in aerospace-application, key benefits and motivation for use, megatrends, market drivers, technology drawbacks, competing materials, material loading, main global aerospace OEMs.   134
  • Table 109: Granbio Nanocellulose Processes.      179
  • Table 110: Oji Holdings CNF products.     221
  • Table 111: CNC producers and production capacities.       267
  • Table 112: Target market, by cellulose nanocrystal producer.       268
  • Table 113. Fibnano properties.  298

 

Figures

  • Figure 1: Market segmentation by type of nanocellulose, capacities and demand 2019.     30
  • Figure 2: Nanocellulose market value, by end user market demand, 2018–2030 (Tons). total.        34
  • Figure 3: Global demand for cellulose nanofibers/MFC by market, 2018-2030.       35
  • Figure 4: Global demand for cellulose nanocrystals by market, 2018-2030.              37
  • Figure 5: Schematic diagram of partial molecular structure of cellulose chain with numbering for carbon atoms and n= number of cellobiose repeating unit.       39
  • Figure 6: Scale of cellulose materials.       40
  • Figure 7: Types of nanocellulose.              45
  • Figure 8: Relationship between different kinds of nanocelluloses.              45
  • Figure 9: CNF gel.             47
  • Figure 10. TEM image of cellulose nanocrystals. 49
  • Figure 11. CNC preparation.        49
  • Figure 12: Extracting CNC from trees.      50
  • Figure 13: CNC slurry.     52
  • Figure 14. Nanocellulose preparation methods and resulting materials.   55
  • Figure 15. Various preparation methods for nanocellulose.           57
  • Figure 16. Applications of nanocellulose in composites.  67
  • Figure 17: Global market demand for nanocellulose in composites, 2018-2030 (tons).       68
  • Figure 18. Interior of NCV concept car.    69
  • Figure 19. Applications of nanocellulose in automotive.  72
  • Figure 20: Global demand for nanocellulose in the automotive sector, 2018-2030 (tons). 73
  • Figure 21. Comparison of nanofillers with supplementary cementitious materials and aggregates in concrete.       75
  • Figure 22. Applications of nanocellulose in construction. 78
  • Figure 23: Demand for nanocellulose in construction, 2018-2030 (tons). 78
  • Figure 24. Applications of nanocellulose in paper and board packaging.   86
  • Figure 25: Global demand for nanocellulose in the paper & board/packaging, 2018-2030 (tons).  86
  • Figure 26. Applications of nanocellulose in textiles and apparel.  91
  • Figure 27: Demand for nanocellulose in the textiles, 2018-2030 (tons).    92
  • Figure 28. Applications of nanocellulose in medicine and healthcare.        99
  • Figure 29: Global demand for nanocellulose in medical and healthcare, 2018-2030 (tons).              100
  • Figure 30: Global demand for nanocellulose in hygiene and absorbents 2018-2030 (tons).              101
  • Figure 31. Applications of nanocellulose in paints and coatings.   106
  • Figure 32: Global demand for nanocellulose in paint and coatings, 2018-2030 (tons).        106
  • Figure 33: Global demand for nanocellulose in aerogels and insulation, 2018-2030 (tons).               110
  • Figure 34: Global demand for nanocellulose in the oil and gas market, 2018-2030 (tons). 114
  • Figure 35. Nanocellulose sponge developed by EMPA for potential applications in oil recovery.    115
  • Figure 36. Applications of nanocellulose in filtration.        121
  • Figure 37: Global demand for nanocellulose in the filtration market, 2018-2030 (tons).    122
  • Figure 38. Applications of nanocellulose in rheology modifers.     126
  • Figure 39: Global demand for nanocellulose in the rheology modifiers market, 2018-2030 (tons). 127
  • Figure 40: Foldable nanopaper antenna. 129
  • Figure 70: Anpoly cellulose nanofiber hydrogel.  138
  • Figure 71. MEDICELLU™.               138
  • Figure 72: Ashai Kasei CNF production process.  140
  • Figure 73: Asahi Kasei CNF fabric sheet. 141
  • Figure 74: Properties of Asahi Kasei cellulose nanofiber nonwoven fabric.              141
  • Figure 75: CNF nonwoven fabric.               142
  • Figure 76. Borregaard Chemcell CNF production process.               146
  • Figure 77. nanoforest products. 154
  • Figure 78. Chuetsu Pulp & Paper CNF production process.             155
  • Figure 79. nanoforest-S. 155
  • Figure 80. nanoforest-PDP.         156
  • Figure 81. nanoforest-MB.           156
  • Figure 82. Daicel Corporation CNF production process.    158
  • Figure 83. Celish.              158
  • Figure 84: Trunk lid incorporating CNF.   159
  • Figure 85. Daio Paper CNF production process.   161
  • Figure 86. ELLEX products.           162
  • Figure 87. CNF-reinforced PP compounds.            163
  • Figure 88. Kirekira! toilet wipes. 163
  • Figure 89. Color CNF.      164
  • Figure 90. DIC Products CNF production process.               166
  • Figure 91. DKS Co. Ltd. CNF production process. 168
  • Figure 92: Rheocrysta spray.       169
  • Figure 93. DKS CNF products.      169
  • Figure 94: CNF based on citrus peel.        171
  • Figure 95. Citrus cellulose nanofiber.       171
  • Figure 96. Imerys CNF production process.           173
  • Figure 97. Filler Bank CNC products.         175
  • Figure 98: Cellulose Nanofiber (CNF) composite with polyethylene (PE).  176
  • Figure 99: CNF products from Furukawa Electric.                177
  • Figure 100. Granbio CNF production process.      180
  • Figure 101: Cutlery samples (spoon, knife, fork) made of nano cellulose and biodegradable plastic composite materials.            181
  • Figure 102. Non-aqueous CNF dispersion "Senaf" (Photo shows 5% of plasticizer).              183
  • Figure 103: CNF gel.        184
  • Figure 104: Block nanocellulose material.              185
  • Figure 105: CNF products developed by Hokuetsu.           185
  • Figure 106. Innventia CNF production process.    187
  • Figure 107: Innventia AB movable nanocellulose demo plant.       188
  • Figure 108. Kami Shoji CNF products.      190
  • Figure 109. Dual Graft System.   191
  • Figure 110: Engine cover utilizing Kao CNF composite resins.        192
  • Figure 111. Acrylic resin blended with modified CNF (fluid) and its molded product (transparent film), and image obtained with AFM (CNF 10wt% blended).           193
  • Figure 112: 0.3% aqueous dispersion of sulfated esterified CNF and dried transparent film (front side).     194
  • Figure 113. Kruger Biomaterials, Inc. CNF production process.      196
  • Figure 114. CNF deodorant.         198
  • Figure 115. Chitin nanofiber product.      199
  • Figure 116. Marusumi Paper cellulose nanofiber products.            201
  • Figure 117. FibriMa cellulose nanofiber powder. 202
  • Figure 118. Cellulomix production process.           203
  • Figure 119. Nanobase versus conventional products.       204
  • Figure 120. Uni-ball Signo UMN-307.       205
  • Figure 121: CNF slurries.               206
  • Figure 122. Range of CNF products.          206
  • Figure 123: Nanocell serum product.       207
  • Figure 124: Hydrophobization facilities for raw pulp.        209
  • Figure 125: Mixing facilities for CNF-reinforced plastic.    209
  • Figure 126. Nippon Paper CNF production process.           211
  • Figure 127: Nippon Paper Industries’ adult diapers.          213
  • Figure 128. All-resin forceps incorporating CNF.  214
  • Figure 129. CNF paint product.   215
  • Figure 130: CNF wet powder.     217
  • Figure 131: CNF transparent film.              217
  • Figure 132: Transparent CNF sheets.       218
  • Figure 133. Oji Paper CNF production process.    219
  • Figure 134: CNF clear sheets.      221
  • Figure 135. Oji Holdings CNF polycarbonate product.       223
  • Figure 136: Fluorene cellulose ® powder.              224
  • Figure 137. Performance Biofilaments CNF production process.  225
  • Figure 138: XCNF.            226
  • Figure 139: CNF insulation flat plates.     228
  • Figure 140. Seiko PMC CNF production process. 231
  • Figure 141. Manufacturing process for STARCEL. 232
  • Figure 142: Rubber soles incorporating CNF.        234
  • Figure 143. CNF dispersion and powder from Starlite.      235
  • Figure 144. Stora Enso CNF production process. 236
  • Figure 145. Sugino Machine CNF production process.      238
  • Figure 146: High Pressure Water Jet Process.       238
  • Figure 147: 2 wt.% CNF suspension.       239
  • Figure 148. BiNFi-s Dry Powder. 239
  • Figure 149. BiNFi-s Dry Powder and Propylene (PP) Complex Pellet.          240
  • Figure 150: Silk nanofiber (right) and cocoon of raw material.       240
  • Figure 151: SVILOSA AD CNC products.   242
  • Figure 152: Silver / CNF composite dispersions.  246
  • Figure 153: CNF/nanosilver powder.       246
  • Figure 154: Comparison of weight reduction effect using CNF.     247
  • Figure 155: CNF resin products. 250
  • Figure 156. University of Maine CNF production process.               251
  • Figure 157. UPM-Kymmene CNF production process.      253
  • Figure 158. FibDex® wound dressing.      254
  • Figure 159. US Forest Service Products Laboratory CNF production process.          256
  • Figure 160: Flexible electronic substrate made from CNF.               257
  • Figure 161. VTT 100% bio-based stand-up pouches.         259
  • Figure 162. VTT CNF production process.               261
  • Figure 163: HefCel-coated wood (left) and untreated wood (right) after 30 seconds flame test.     262
  • Figure 164: Bio-based barrier bags prepared from Tempo-CNF coated bio-HDPE film.        263
  • Figure 165. Zelfo Technology GmbH CNF production process.       265
  • Figure 166: R3TM process technology.   272
  • Figure 167: Blue Goose CNC Production Process.               273
  • Figure 168: NCCTM Process.        275
  • Figure 169: Celluforce production process.           276
  • Figure 170: CNC produced at Tech Futures’ pilot plant; cloudy suspension (1 wt.%), gel-like (10 wt.%), flake-like crystals, and very fine powder. Product advantages include:         277
  • Figure 171: Plantrose process.    283
  • Figure 172. CNC solution.              288
  • Figure 173. University of Maine CNF production process.               289
  • Figure 174. US Forest Service Products Laboratory CNF production process.          291
  • Figure 175: Bacterial cellulose face mask sheet.  297

 

 

 

The Nanocellulose Market, Production and Pricing Report 2020
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