The Global Market for Bio- and CO2- based Plastics and Polymers

0

Published February 2023 | 782 pages, 239 figures, 150 tables | Download table of contents

Bio-based polymers are sustainable polymers synthesized from renewable resources such as biomass (e.g. plant waste, algae) rather than conventional petroleum feedstocks such as oil and gas. They offer significant advantages over traditional plastic 

CO2 demonstrates the potential to be a renewable and inexhaustible platform chemical for the synthesis of commodities (methanol, urea, (in)organic carbonates, formic acid), fuel (methane, alcanes) and polymers. R&D is progressing to produce polymers and high-value chemicals utilising CO2 as a feedstock. The technology transforms CO2 into polycarbonates such as polypropylene carbonate (PPC) and polyethylene carbonate (PEC) using catalysts in a reaction with an epoxide, a chemical compound used as a reagent. Polymers and plastics generated utilising CO2 include:

  1. Polymers incorporating CO2 directly into their structure, such as polycarbonates.
  2. Polymers formed from monomers created by the hydrogenation of CO2, such as ethylene and propylene.

A number of companies are currently operating polymer plants using CO2 as a raw material. For the production of polymers, the utilization potential of CO2 is estimated to be 10 to 50 Mt yr−1 in 2050.

Report contents include:

  • Analysis of the Global Bio-based and Biodegradable Plastics and Polymers market. 
  • Global production capacities, market demand and trends 2019-2033 for Bio-based and Biodegradable Plastics and Polymers.
  • Analysis of bio-based feedstock chemicals including:
    • Bio-based adipic acid
    • 11-Aminoundecanoic acid (11-AA)
    • 1,4-Butanediol (1,4-BDO)
    • Dodecanedioic acid (DDDA)
    • Epichlorohydrin (ECH)
    • Ethylene 
    • Furfural
    • 5-Chloromethylfurfural (5-CMF)
    • 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) 
    • 2,5-Furandicarboxylic acid (2,5-FDCA)
    • Furandicarboxylic methyl ester (FDME)
    • Isosorbide 
    • Itaconic acid
    • 3-Hydroxypropionic acid (3-HP)
    • 5 Hydroxymethyl furfural (HMF)
    • Lactic acid (D-LA) 
    • Lactic acid – L-lactic acid (L-LA)
    • Lactide
    • Levoglucosenone
    • Levulinic acid
    • Monoethylene glycol (MEG)
    • Monopropylene glycol (MPG)
    • Muconic acid
    • Naphtha
    • Pentamethylene diisocyanate
    • 1,3-Propanediol (1,3-PDO)
    • Sebacic acid
    • Succinic acid (SA)
  • Analysis of synthetic Bio-based plastics and Polymers market including:
    • Polylactic acid (Bio-PLA)
    • Polyethylene terephthalate (Bio-PET)
    • Polytrimethylene terephthalate (Bio-PTT)
    • Polyethylene furanoate (Bio-PEF)
    • Polyamides (Bio-PA)
    • Poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (Bio-PBAT)
    • Polybutylene succinate (PBS) and copolymers, Polyethylene (Bio-PE), Polypropylene (Bio-PP)
  • Analysis of naturally produced bio-based polymers including
    • Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA)
    • Polysaccharides
    • Microfibrillated cellulose (MFC)
    • Cellulose nanocrystals
    • Cellulose nanofibers,
    • Protein-based bioplastics
    • Algal and fungal based bioplastics and biopolymers. 
    • Analysis of types of natural fibers including plant fibers, animal fibers including alternative leather, wool, silk fiber and down and polysaccharides. 
    • Markets for natural fibers, including polymer composites, aerospace, automotive, construction & building, sports & leisure, textiles, consumer products and plastics & packaging.
    • The market for lignin-based plastics and polymers.
    • Production capacities of lignin producers. 
    • In depth analysis of biorefinery lignin production. 
  • Market segmentation analysis for bio-based plastics and polymers. Markets analysed include rigid & flexible packaging, consumer goods, automotive, building & construction, textiles, electronics, agriculture & horticulture. 
  • Emerging technologies in synthetic and natural produced bio-based plastics and biopolymers. 
  • 492 company profiled including products and production capacities. Companies profiled include  NatureWorks, Total Corbion, Danimer Scientific, Novamont, Mitsubishi Chemicals, Indorama, Braskem, Avantium, Borealis, Cathay, Dupont, BASF, Arkema, DuPont, BASF, AMSilk GmbH, Notpla, Loliware, Bolt Threads, Ecovative, Bioform Technologies, Algal Bio, Kraig Biocraft Laboratories, Biotic Circular Technologies Ltd., Full Cycle Bioplastics, Stora Enso Oyj, Spiber, Traceless Materials GmbH, CJ Biomaterials, Natrify, Plastus, Humble Bee Bio and many more. 
  • Analysis of the global market for carbon capture, utilization, and storage (CCUS) technologies.
  • Market developments, funding and investment in carbon capture, utilization, and storage (CCUS) 2020-2023.
  • Analysis of key market dynamics, trends, opportunities and factors influencing the global carbon, capture utilization & storage technologies market and its subsegments.
  • Latest developments in carbon capture, storage and utilization technologies
  • Market analysis of CO2-derived plastics and polymer products.
  • Profiles of 30 companies in CO2-dervied polymer and plastics products producers. Companies profiled include Algal Bio Co., Ltd., C4X Technologies Inc., Carbonova, CarbonMeta Research, Chiyoda Corporation, CERT Systems, Inc., Covestro A.G., Mars Materials and Twelve. 

 

 

1              RESEARCH METHODOLOGY         39

 

2              BIO-BASED CHEMICALS AND FEEDSTOCKS             40

  • 2.1          Types    40
  • 2.2          Production capacities     41
  • 2.3          Bio-based adipic acid      42
    • 2.3.1      Applications and production       43
  • 2.4          11-Aminoundecanoic acid (11-AA)            43
    • 2.4.1      Applications and production       44
  • 2.5          1,4-Butanediol (1,4-BDO)              45
    • 2.5.1      Applications and production       45
  • 2.6          Dodecanedioic acid (DDDA)         46
    • 2.6.1      Applications and production       47
  • 2.7          Epichlorohydrin (ECH)    48
    • 2.7.1      Applications and production       48
  • 2.8          Ethylene              48
    • 2.8.1      Applications and production       49
  • 2.9          Furfural 49
    • 2.9.1      Applications and production       50
  • 2.10        5-Hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) 50
    • 2.10.1    Applications and production       51
  • 2.11        5-Chloromethylfurfural (5-CMF) 51
    • 2.11.1    Applications and production       51
  • 2.12        2,5-Furandicarboxylic acid (2,5-FDCA)     51
    • 2.12.1    Applications and production       52
  • 2.13        Furandicarboxylic methyl ester (FDME)  52
  • 2.14        Isosorbide           52
    • 2.14.1    Applications and production       53
  • 2.15        Itaconic acid       53
    • 2.15.1    Applications and production       53
  • 2.16        3-Hydroxypropionic acid (3-HP) 53
    • 2.16.1    Applications and production       54
  • 2.17        5 Hydroxymethyl furfural (HMF) 55
    • 2.17.1    Applications and production       55
  • 2.18        Lactic acid (D-LA)             55
    • 2.18.1    Applications and production       56
  • 2.19        Lactic acid – L-lactic acid (L-LA)   56
    • 2.19.1    Applications and production       56
  • 2.20        Lactide  57
    • 2.20.1    Applications and production       58
  • 2.21        Levoglucosenone             59
    • 2.21.1    Applications and production       59
  • 2.22        Levulinic acid      60
    • 2.22.1    Applications and production       60
  • 2.23        Monoethylene glycol (MEG)       60
    • 2.23.1    Applications and production       60
  • 2.24        Monopropylene glycol (MPG)    61
    • 2.24.1    Applications and production       62
  • 2.25        Muconic acid      62
    • 2.25.1    Applications and production       63
  • 2.26        Bio-Naphtha      63
    • 2.26.1    Applications and production       64
    • 2.26.2    Production capacities     64
    • 2.26.3    Bio-naptha producers    65
  • 2.27        Pentamethylene diisocyanate    66
    • 2.27.1    Applications and production       67
  • 2.28        1,3-Propanediol (1,3-PDO)           67
    • 2.28.1    Applications and production       67
  • 2.29        Sebacic acid        68
    • 2.29.1    Applications and production       69
  • 2.30        Succinic acid (SA)             69
    • 2.30.1    Applications and production       70

 

3              BIO-BASED PLASTICS AND POLYMERS   71

  • 3.1          Bio-based or renewable plastics 71
    • 3.1.1      Drop-in bio-based plastics            71
    • 3.1.2      Novel bio-based plastics                72
  • 3.2          Biodegradable and compostable plastics                73
    • 3.2.1      Biodegradability               73
    • 3.2.2      Compostability  74
  • 3.3          Advantages and disadvantages  75
  • 3.4          Types of Bio-based and/or Biodegradable Plastics              75
  • 3.5          Market leaders by biobased and/or biodegradable plastic types  77
  • 3.6          Synthetic bio-based polymers    78
    • 3.6.1      Polylactic acid (Bio-PLA) 78
      • 3.6.1.1   Market analysis 79
      • 3.6.1.2   Production          80
      • 3.6.1.3   Producers and production capacities, current and planned            80
        • 3.6.1.3.1               Lactic acid producers and production capacities  80
        • 3.6.1.3.2               PLA producers and production capacities               81
        • 3.6.1.3.3               Polylactic acid (Bio-PLA) production capacities 2019-2033 (1,000 tons)     82
    • 3.6.2      Polyethylene terephthalate (Bio-PET)     83
      • 3.6.2.1   Market analysis 83
      • 3.6.2.2   Producers and production capacities       84
      • 3.6.2.3   Polyethylene terephthalate (Bio-PET) production capacities 2019-2033 (1,000 tons)          85
    • 3.6.3      Polytrimethylene terephthalate (Bio-PTT)             86
      • 3.6.3.1   Market analysis 86
      • 3.6.3.2   Producers and production capacities       87
      • 3.6.3.3   Polytrimethylene terephthalate (PTT) production capacities 2019-2033 (1,000 tons)          87
    • 3.6.4      Polyethylene furanoate (Bio-PEF)             88
      • 3.6.4.1   Market analysis 89
      • 3.6.4.2   Comparative properties to PET   90
      • 3.6.4.3   Producers and production capacities       91
        • 3.6.4.3.1               FDCA and PEF producers and production capacities           91
        • 3.6.4.3.2               Polyethylene furanoate (Bio-PEF) production capacities 2019-2033 (1,000 tons). 91
    • 3.6.5      Polyamides (Bio-PA)       92
      • 3.6.5.1   Market analysis 93
      • 3.6.5.2   Producers and production capacities       94
      • 3.6.5.3   Polyamides (Bio-PA) production capacities 2019-2033 (1,000 tons)            94
    • 3.6.6      Poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (Bio-PBAT)        95
      • 3.6.6.1   Market analysis 95
      • 3.6.6.2   Producers and production capacities       96
      • 3.6.6.3   Poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (Bio-PBAT) production capacities 2019-2033 (1,000 tons)             97
    • 3.6.7      Polybutylene succinate (PBS) and copolymers     98
      • 3.6.7.1   Market analysis 98
      • 3.6.7.2   Producers and production capacities       99
      • 3.6.7.3   Polybutylene succinate (PBS) production capacities 2019-2033 (1,000 tons)           99
    • 3.6.8      Polyethylene (Bio-PE)    100
      • 3.6.8.1   Market analysis 100
      • 3.6.8.2   Producers and production capacities       101
      • 3.6.8.3   Polyethylene (Bio-PE) production capacities 2019-2033 (1,000 tons).        101
    • 3.6.9      Polypropylene (Bio-PP) 102
    • 3.6.9.1   Market analysis 102
    • 3.6.9.2   Producers and production capacities       103
    • 3.6.9.3   Polypropylene (Bio-PP) production capacities 2019-2033 (1,000 tons)      103
  • 3.7          Natural bio-based polymers        104
    • 3.7.1      Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA)     105
      • 3.7.1.1   Technology description 105
      • 3.7.1.2   Types    107
        • 3.7.1.2.1               PHB        109
        • 3.7.1.2.2               PHBV     109
      • 3.7.1.3   Synthesis and production processes        111
      • 3.7.1.4   Market analysis 113
      • 3.7.1.5   Commercially available PHAs      115
      • 3.7.1.6   Markets for PHAs             116
        • 3.7.1.6.1               Packaging            117
        • 3.7.1.6.2               Cosmetics           119
          • 3.7.1.6.2.1           PHA microspheres           119
        • 3.7.1.6.3               Medical 119
          • 3.7.1.6.3.1           Tissue engineering          119
          • 3.7.1.6.3.2           Drug delivery     120
        • 3.7.1.6.4               Agriculture          120
          • 3.7.1.6.4.1           Mulch film           120
          • 3.7.1.6.4.2           Grow bags           120
      • 3.7.1.7   Producers and production capacities       121
      • 3.7.1.8   PHA production capacities 2019-2033 (1,000 tons)            122
    • 3.7.2      Polysaccharides 123
      • 3.7.2.1   Microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) 123
        • 3.7.2.1.1               Market analysis 124
        • 3.7.2.1.2               Producers and production capacities       124
      • 3.7.2.2   Nanocellulose   125
        • 3.7.2.2.1               Cellulose nanocrystals    125
          • 3.7.2.2.1.1           Synthesis             126
          • 3.7.2.2.1.2           Properties           127
          • 3.7.2.2.1.3           Production          129
          • 3.7.2.2.1.4           Applications       129
          • 3.7.2.2.1.5           Market analysis 130
          • 3.7.2.2.1.6           Producers and production capacities       131
      • 3.7.2.2.2               Cellulose nanofibers       132
        • 3.7.2.2.2.1           Applications       133
        • 3.7.2.2.2.2           Market analysis 134
        • 3.7.2.2.2.3           Producers and production capacities       135
      • 3.7.2.2.3               Bacterial Nanocellulose (BNC)    136
        • 3.7.2.2.3.1           Production          136
        • 3.7.2.2.3.2           Applications       139
    • 3.7.3      Protein-based bioplastics             140
      • 3.7.3.1   Types, applications and producers            140
    • 3.7.4      Algal and fungal 142
      • 3.7.4.1   Algal      142
        • 3.7.4.1.1               Advantages        142
        • 3.7.4.1.2               Production          144
        • 3.7.4.1.3               Producers           144
      • 3.7.4.2   Mycelium            144
        • 3.7.4.2.1               Properties           144
        • 3.7.4.2.2               Applications       145
        • 3.7.4.2.3               Commercialization           147
    • 3.7.5      Chitosan              147
      • 3.7.5.1   Technology description 147
  • 3.8          Production of bio-based and biodegradable plastics, by region     148
    • 3.8.1      North America   149
    • 3.8.2      Europe 150
    • 3.8.3      Asia-Pacific         151
      • 3.8.3.1   China     151
      • 3.8.3.2   Japan    151
      • 3.8.3.3   Thailand               151
      • 3.8.3.4   Indonesia            151
    • 3.8.4      Latin America    152
  • 3.9          Markets for bio-based plastic      153
    • 3.9.1      Packaging            154
      • 3.9.1.1   Processes for bioplastics in packaging      154
      • 3.9.1.2   Applications       155
      • 3.9.1.3   Flexible packaging            155
        • 3.9.1.3.1               Production volumes 2019-2033   157
      • 3.9.1.4   Rigid packaging 158
        • 3.9.1.4.1               Production volumes 2019-2033   159
    • 3.9.2      Consumer products        160
      • 3.9.2.1   Applications       161
    • 3.9.3      Automotive        161
      • 3.9.3.1   Applications       162
      • 3.9.3.2   Production capacities     162
    • 3.9.4      Building & construction 162
      • 3.9.4.1   Applications       162
      • 3.9.4.2   Production capacities     163
    • 3.9.5      Textiles 163
      • 3.9.5.1   Apparel 164
      • 3.9.5.2   Footwear            165
      • 3.9.5.3   Medical textiles 166
      • 3.9.5.4   Production capacities     167
    • 3.9.6      Electronics          167
      • 3.9.6.1   Applications       167
      • 3.9.6.2   Production capacities     168
    • 3.9.7      Agriculture and horticulture        168
      • 3.9.7.1   Production capacities     169
  • 3.10        Natural fibers    171
    • 3.10.1    Manufacturing method, matrix materials and applications of natural fibers            174
    • 3.10.2    Advantages of natural fibers       175
    • 3.10.3    Commercially available next-gen natural fiber  products 176
    • 3.10.4    Market drivers for next-gen natural fibers             179
    • 3.10.5    Challenges          181
    • 3.10.6    Plants (cellulose, lignocellulose) 182
      • 3.10.6.1                Seed fibers         182
        • 3.10.6.1.1             Cotton  182
          • 3.10.6.1.1.1         Production volumes 2018-2033   183
        • 3.10.6.1.2             Kapok   183
          • 3.10.6.1.2.1         Production volumes 2018-2033   184
        • 3.10.6.1.3             Luffa      185
      • 3.10.6.2                Bast fibers           185
        • 3.10.6.2.1             Jute       186
        • 3.10.6.2.2             Production volumes 2018-2033   187
          • 3.10.6.2.2.1         Hemp    187
            • 3.10.6.2.2.2         Production volumes 2018-2033   188
        • 3.10.6.2.3             Flax        189
          • 3.10.6.2.3.1         Production volumes 2018-2033   190
        • 3.10.6.2.4             Ramie   190
          • 3.10.6.2.4.1         Production volumes 2018-2033   191
        • 3.10.6.2.5             Kenaf    192
          • 3.10.6.2.5.1         Production volumes 2018-2033   193
    • 3.10.6.3                Leaf fibers           193
      • 3.10.6.3.1             Sisal       194
        • 3.10.6.3.1.1         Production volumes 2018-2033   194
      • 3.10.6.3.2             Abaca    195
        • 3.10.6.3.2.1         Production volumes 2018-2033   196
    • 3.10.6.4                Fruit fibers          196
      • 3.10.6.4.1             Coir        196
        • 3.10.6.4.1.1         Production volumes 2018-2033   197
      • 3.10.6.4.2             Banana 198
        • 3.10.6.4.2.1         Production volumes 2018-2033   199
      • 3.10.6.4.3             Pineapple            200
    • 3.10.6.5                Stalk fibers from agricultural residues     201
      • 3.10.6.5.1             Rice fiber             201
      • 3.10.6.5.2             Corn      202
    • 3.10.6.6                Cane, grasses and reed  202
      • 3.10.6.6.1             Switch grass       202
      • 3.10.6.6.2             Sugarcane (agricultural residues)              203
      • 3.10.6.6.3             Bamboo               204
        • 3.10.6.6.3.1         Production volumes 2018-2033   204
      • 3.10.6.6.4             Fresh grass (green biorefinery)  205
    • 3.10.6.7                Modified natural polymers          205
      • 3.10.6.7.1             Mycelium            205
      • 3.10.6.7.2             Chitosan              208
      • 3.10.6.7.3             Alginate               209
    • 3.10.7    Animal (fibrous protein) 211
      • 3.10.7.1                Wool     211
        • 3.10.7.1.1             Alternative wool materials           212
        • 3.10.7.1.2             Producers           212
      • 3.10.7.2                Silk fiber              212
      • 3.10.7.2.1             Alternative silk materials               213
        • 3.10.7.2.1.1         Producers           213
      • 3.10.7.3                Leather 213
        • 3.10.7.3.1             Alternative leather materials       214
          • 3.10.7.3.1.1         Producers           214
      • 3.10.7.4                Fur         216
        • 3.10.7.4.1             Producers           216
      • 3.10.7.5                Down    216
        • 3.10.7.5.1             Alternative down materials          216
          • 3.10.7.5.1.1         Producers           216
    • 3.10.8    Natural fiber polymer composites and plastics     217
      • 3.10.8.1                Applications       217
      • 3.10.8.2                Natural fiber injection moulding compounds       218
        • 3.10.8.2.1             Properties           219
        • 3.10.8.2.2             Applications       219
      • 3.10.8.3                Non-woven natural fiber mat composites              219
        • 3.10.8.3.1             Automotive        219
        • 3.10.8.3.2             Applications       220
      • 3.10.8.4                Aligned natural fiber-reinforced composites        220
      • 3.10.8.5                Natural fiber biobased polymer compounds         221
      • 3.10.8.6                Natural fiber biobased polymer non-woven mats              222
        • 3.10.8.6.1             Flax        222
        • 3.10.8.6.2             Kenaf    222
      • 3.10.8.7                Natural fiber thermoset bioresin composites       222
      • 3.10.8.8                Aerospace          223
        • 3.10.8.8.1             Market overview             223
      • 3.10.8.9                Automotive        223
        • 3.10.8.9.1             Market overview             223
        • 3.10.8.9.2             Applications of natural fibers      228
      • 3.10.8.10              Sports and leisure            229
        • 3.10.8.10.1          Market overview             229
      • 3.10.8.11              Packaging            229
        • 3.10.8.11.1          Market overview             230
    • 3.10.9    Global production of natural fibers           232
      • 3.10.9.1                Overall global fibers market        232
      • 3.10.9.2                Plant-based fiber production      234
      • 3.10.9.3                Animal-based natural fiber production   235
  • 3.11        Lignin    236
    • 3.11.1    Introduciton       236
      • 3.11.1.1                What is lignin?   236
        • 3.11.1.1.1             Lignin structure 237
      • 3.11.1.2                Types of lignin    237
        • 3.11.1.2.1             Sulfur containing lignin  240
        • 3.11.1.2.2             Sulfur-free lignin from biorefinery process            240
      • 3.11.1.3                Properties           241
      • 3.11.1.4                The lignocellulose biorefinery     243
      • 3.11.1.5                Markets and applications              244
      • 3.11.1.6                Challenges for using lignin            245
    • 3.11.2    Lignin production processes        245
      • 3.11.2.1                Lignosulphonates            247
      • 3.11.2.2                Kraft Lignin          248
        • 3.11.2.2.1             LignoBoost process         248
        • 3.11.2.2.2             LignoForce method         249
        • 3.11.2.2.3             Sequential Liquid Lignin Recovery and Purification             250
        • 3.11.2.2.4             A-Recovery+      250
      • 3.11.2.3                Soda lignin          251
      • 3.11.2.4                Biorefinery lignin              252
        • 3.11.2.4.1             Commercial and pre-commercial biorefinery lignin production facilities and  processes    253
      • 3.11.2.5                Organosolv lignins            255
      • 3.11.2.6                Hydrolytic lignin                255
    • 3.11.3    Markets for lignin    256
      • 3.11.3.1                Market drivers and trends for lignin         256
      • 3.11.3.2                Production capacities     257
        • 3.11.3.2.1             Technical lignin availability (dry ton/y)    257
        • 3.11.3.2.2             Biomass conversion (Biorefinery)             258
      • 3.11.3.3                Estimated consumption of lignin                258
      • 3.11.3.4                Prices    260
      • 3.11.3.5                Aromatic compounds     260
        • 3.11.3.5.1             Benzene, toluene and xylene      261
        • 3.11.3.5.2             Phenol and phenolic resins          261
        • 3.11.3.5.3             Vanillin 262
      • 3.11.3.6                Lignin-based plastics and polymers          262
        • 3.11.3.6.1             Lignin-based thermoplastics        263
        • 3.11.3.6.2             Lignin-based thermosets              264
        • 3.11.3.6.3             Epoxy resins       265
        • 3.11.3.6.4             Packaging board               266
        • 3.11.3.6.5             MDF and plywood           267
        • 3.11.3.6.6             Polyurethanes (PU) and foams   268
        • 3.11.3.6.7             Carbon materials              269
        • 3.11.3.6.8             Carbon fiber       269
        • 3.11.3.6.9             Automotive composites 271
        • 3.11.3.6.10          Fire retardants  271
  • 3.12        Bio-based polymers company profiles     272 (492 company profiles)

 

4              CARBON (CO2) CAPTURE AND UTILIZATION FOR POLYMERS          679

  • 4.1          Main sources of carbon dioxide emissions             679
  • 4.2          CO2 as a commodity       680
  • 4.3          Meeting climate targets 682
  • 4.4          Market drivers and trends            683
  • 4.5          The current market and future outlook  684
  • 4.6          CCUS Industry developments 2020-2023                685
  • 4.7          CCUS investments           690
    • 4.7.1      Venture Capital Funding                690
  • 4.8          Market map       691
  • 4.9          Commercial CCUS facilities and projects 692
    • 4.9.1      Facilities               694
      • 4.9.1.1   Operational        694
      • 4.9.1.2   Under development/construction            696
  • 4.10        CCUS Value Chain             702
  • 4.11        Key market barriers for CCUS      703
  • 4.12        Carbon Capture, Utilization and Storage (CCUS) technologies       704
    • 4.12.1    Carbon Capture 709
      • 4.12.1.1                Source Characterization 709
      • 4.12.1.2                Purification         710
      • 4.12.1.3                CO2 capture technologies            711
    • 4.12.2    Carbon Utilization            714
      • 4.12.2.1                CO2 utilization pathways              715
    • 4.12.3    Carbon storage 716
      • 4.12.3.1                Passive storage 716
      • 4.12.3.2                Enhanced oil recovery   717
  • 4.13        Products from CO2 capture         718
    • 4.13.1    Current market status    718
    • 4.13.2    Benefits of carbon utilization       722
    • 4.13.3    Market challenges           724
    • 4.13.4    Co2 utilization pathways               725
    • 4.13.5    Conversion processes    728
      • 4.13.5.1                Thermochemical              728
        • 4.13.5.1.1             Process overview             728
        • 4.13.5.1.2             Plasma-assisted CO2 conversion 731
      • 4.13.5.2                Electrochemical conversion of CO2           732
        • 4.13.5.2.1             Process overview             733
      • 4.13.5.3                Photocatalytic and photothermal catalytic conversion of CO2       735
      • 4.13.5.4                Catalytic conversion of CO2         735
      • 4.13.5.5                Biological conversion of CO2       736
      • 4.13.5.6                Copolymerization of CO2              740
      • 4.13.5.7                Mineral carbonation       741
    • 4.13.6    CO₂-derived polymers   745
      • 4.13.6.1                CO2 for the development of polymer materials  746
      • 4.13.6.2                Polycarbonate from CO₂                746
      • 4.13.6.3                Scalability            747
      • 4.13.6.4                Carbon nanotubes as by- products of CO2 conversion and sequestration 748
  • 4.14        CO2-derived polymer producer profiles 750 (30 company profiles)

 

5              REFERENCES       774

 

List of Tables

  • Table 1. List of Bio-based chemicals.        40
  • Table 2. Lactide applications.      58
  • Table 3. Biobased MEG producers capacities.       61
  • Table 4. Bio-naphtha market value chain.              63
  • Table 5. Bio-naptha producers and production capacities.              65
  • Table 6. Type of biodegradation.               74
  • Table 7. Advantages and disadvantages of biobased plastics compared to conventional plastics.   75
  • Table 8. Types of Bio-based and/or Biodegradable Plastics, applications. 76
  • Table 9. Market leader by Bio-based and/or Biodegradable Plastic types. 77
  • Table 10. Polylactic acid (PLA) market analysis-manufacture, advantages, disadvantages and applications.               79
  • Table 11. Lactic acid producers and production capacities.             80
  • Table 12. PLA producers and production capacities.          81
  • Table 13. Planned PLA capacity expansions in China.         81
  • Table 14. Bio-based Polyethylene terephthalate (Bio-PET) market analysis- manufacture, advantages, disadvantages and applications.              83
  • Table 15. Bio-based Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) producers and production capacities,           84
  • Table 16. Polytrimethylene terephthalate (PTT) market analysis-manufacture, advantages, disadvantages and applications.       87
  • Table 17. Production capacities of Polytrimethylene terephthalate (PTT), by leading producers.   87
  • Table 18. Polyethylene furanoate (PEF) market analysis-manufacture, advantages, disadvantages and applications.                89
  • Table 19. PEF vs. PET.     90
  • Table 20. FDCA and PEF producers.          91
  • Table 21. Bio-based polyamides (Bio-PA) market analysis - manufacture, advantages, disadvantages and applications.                93
  • Table 22. Leading Bio-PA producers production capacities.            94
  • Table 23. Poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (PBAT) market analysis- manufacture, advantages, disadvantages and applications.              95
  • Table 24. Leading PBAT producers, production capacities and brands.      96
  • Table 25. Bio-PBS market analysis-manufacture, advantages, disadvantages and applications.       98
  • Table 26. Leading PBS producers and production capacities.          99
  • Table 27. Bio-based Polyethylene (Bio-PE) market analysis- manufacture, advantages, disadvantages and applications.                100
  • Table 28. Leading Bio-PE producers.        101
  • Table 29. Bio-PP market analysis- manufacture, advantages, disadvantages and applications.        103
  • Table 30. Leading Bio-PP producers and capacities.           103
  • Table 31.Types of PHAs and properties. 108
  • Table 32. Comparison of the physical properties of different PHAs with conventional petroleum-based polymers. 110
  • Table 33. Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) extraction methods.          112
  • Table 34. Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) market analysis. 114
  • Table 35. Commercially available PHAs.  115
  • Table 36. Markets and applications for PHAs.       116
  • Table 37. Applications, advantages and disadvantages of PHAs in packaging.         118
  • Table 38. Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) producers.           121
  • Table 39. Microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) market analysis-manufacture, advantages, disadvantages and applications.                124
  • Table 40. Leading MFC producers and capacities.               124
  • Table 41. Synthesis methods for cellulose nanocrystals (CNC).     126
  • Table 42. CNC sources, size and yield.      127
  • Table 43. CNC properties.             128
  • Table 44. Mechanical properties of CNC and other reinforcement materials.         128
  • Table 45. Applications of nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC).               129
  • Table 46. Cellulose nanocrystals analysis.               130
  • Table 47: Cellulose nanocrystal production capacities and production process, by producer.          132
  • Table 48. Applications of cellulose nanofibers (CNF).        133
  • Table 49. Cellulose nanofibers market analysis.   134
  • Table 50. CNF production capacities (by type, wet or dry) and production process, by producer, metric tonnes.    135
  • Table 51. Applications of bacterial nanocellulose (BNC). 139
  • Table 52. Types of protein based-bioplastics, applications and companies.             140
  • Table 53. Types of algal and fungal based-bioplastics, applications and companies.             142
  • Table 54. Overview of alginate-description, properties, application and market size.          142
  • Table 55. Companies developing algal-based bioplastics. 144
  • Table 56. Overview of mycelium fibers-description, properties, drawbacks and applications.          144
  • Table 57. Companies developing mycelium-based bioplastics.      147
  • Table 58. Overview of chitosan-description, properties, drawbacks and applications.         147
  • Table 59. Global production capacities of biobased and sustainable plastics in 2019-2033, by region, tons.              148
  • Table 60. Biobased and sustainable plastics producers in North America. 150
  • Table 61. Biobased and sustainable plastics producers in Europe.               150
  • Table 62. Biobased and sustainable plastics producers in Asia-Pacific.       151
  • Table 63. Biobased and sustainable plastics producers in Latin America.  152
  • Table 64. Processes for bioplastics in packaging. 154
  • Table 65. Comparison of bioplastics’ (PLA and PHAs) properties to other common polymers used in product packaging.                156
  • Table 66. Typical applications for bioplastics in flexible packaging.              157
  • Table 67. Typical applications for bioplastics in rigid packaging.   159
  • Table 68. Types of next-gen natural fibers.            171
  • Table 69. Application, manufacturing method, and matrix materials of natural fibers.        174
  • Table 70. Typical properties of natural fibers.      176
  • Table 71. Commercially available next-gen natural fiber products.              176
  • Table 72. Market drivers for natural fibers.           180
  • Table 73. Overview of cotton fibers-description, properties, drawbacks and applications. 182
  • Table 74. Overview of kapok fibers-description, properties, drawbacks and applications. 183
  • Table 75. Overview of luffa fibers-description, properties, drawbacks and applications.    185
  • Table 76. Overview of jute fibers-description, properties, drawbacks and applications.     186
  • Table 77. Overview of hemp fibers-description, properties, drawbacks and applications.  187
  • Table 78. Overview of flax fibers-description, properties, drawbacks and applications.      189
  • Table 79. Overview of ramie fibers- description, properties, drawbacks and applications. 190
  • Table 80. Overview of kenaf fibers-description, properties, drawbacks and applications.  192
  • Table 81. Overview of sisal leaf fibers-description, properties, drawbacks and applications.            194
  • Table 82. Overview of abaca fibers-description, properties, drawbacks and applications.  195
  • Table 83. Overview of coir fibers-description, properties, drawbacks and applications.      197
  • Table 84. Overview of banana fibers-description, properties, drawbacks and applications.               198
  • Table 85. Overview of pineapple fibers-description, properties, drawbacks and applications.         200
  • Table 86. Overview of rice fibers-description, properties, drawbacks and applications.      201
  • Table 87. Overview of corn fibers-description, properties, drawbacks and applications.    202
  • Table 88. Overview of switch grass fibers-description, properties and applications.             203
  • Table 89. Overview of sugarcane fibers-description, properties, drawbacks and application and market size.           203
  • Table 90. Overview of bamboo fibers-description, properties, drawbacks and applications.             204
  • Table 91. Overview of mycelium fibers-description, properties, drawbacks and applications.          208
  • Table 92. Overview of chitosan fibers-description, properties, drawbacks and applications.            209
  • Table 93. Overview of alginate-description, properties, application and market size.          210
  • Table 94. Overview of wool fibers-description, properties, drawbacks and applications.   211
  • Table 95. Alternative wool materials producers. 212
  • Table 96. Overview of silk fibers-description, properties, application and market size.       212
  • Table 97. Alternative silk materials producers.    213
  • Table 98. Alternative leather materials producers.            214
  • Table 99. Next-gen fur producers.            216
  • Table 100. Alternative down materials producers.             216
  • Table 101. Applications of natural fiber composites.         217
  • Table 102. Typical properties of short natural fiber-thermoplastic composites.     219
  • Table 103. Properties of non-woven natural fiber mat composites.            220
  • Table 104. Properties of aligned natural fiber composites.             221
  • Table 105. Properties of natural fiber-bio-based polymer compounds.     221
  • Table 106. Properties of natural fiber-bio-based polymer non-woven mats.           222
  • Table 107. Natural fibers in the aerospace sector-market drivers, applications and challenges for NF use. 223
  • Table 108. Natural fiber-reinforced polymer composite in the automotive market.             225
  • Table 109. Natural fibers in the aerospace sector- market drivers, applications and challenges for NF use. 226
  • Table 110. Applications of natural fibers in the automotive industry.         228
  • Table 111. Natural fibers in the sports and leisure sector-market drivers, applications and challenges for NF use.  229
  • Table 112. Natural fibers in the packaging sector-market drivers, applications and challenges for NF use. 230
  • Table 113. Technical lignin types and applications.             238
  • Table 114. Classification of technical lignins.         240
  • Table 115. Lignin content of selected biomass.   241
  • Table 116. Properties of lignins and their applications.     242
  • Table 117. Example markets and applications for lignin.  244
  • Table 118. Processes for lignin production.           246
  • Table 119. Biorefinery feedstocks.           252
  • Table 120. Comparison of pulping and biorefinery lignins.              252
  • Table 121. Commercial and pre-commercial biorefinery lignin production facilities and  processes              253
  • Table 122. Market drivers and trends for lignin.  257
  • Table 123. Production capacities of technical lignin producers.    258
  • Table 124. Production capacities of biorefinery lignin producers. 258
  • Table 125. Estimated consumption of lignin, 2019-2033 (000 MT).             259
  • Table 126. Prices of benzene, toluene, xylene and their derivatives.          261
  • Table 127. Application of lignin in plastics and polymers. 262
  • Table 128. Lactips plastic pellets.              476
  • Table 129. Oji Holdings CNF products.     547
  • Table 130. Carbon Capture, Utilisation and Storage (CCUS) market drivers and trends.      683
  • Table 131. Carbon capture, usage, and storage (CCUS) industry developments 2020-2023.              685
  • Table 132. Global commercial CCUS facilities-in operation.            694
  • Table 133. Global commercial CCUS facilities-under development/construction.  696
  • Table 134. Key market barriers for CCUS.               703
  • Table 135. CO2 utilization and removal pathways              706
  • Table 136. Approaches for capturing carbon dioxide (CO2) from point sources.    709
  • Table 137. CO2 capture technologies.     711
  • Table 138. Advantages and challenges of carbon capture technologies.   712
  • Table 139. Overview of commercial materials and processes utilized in carbon capture.   713
  • Table 140. Carbon utilization revenue forecast by product (US$). 722
  • Table 141. CO2 utilization and removal pathways.             722
  • Table 142. Market challenges for CO2 utilization.               724
  • Table 143. Example CO2 utilization pathways.     725
  • Table 144. CO2 derived products via Thermochemical conversion-applications, advantages and disadvantages.    728
  • Table 145. Electrochemical CO₂ reduction products.         732
  • Table 146. CO2 derived products via electrochemical conversion-applications, advantages and disadvantages.      733
  • Table 147. CO2 derived products via biological conversion-applications, advantages and disadvantages.  737
  • Table 148. Companies developing and producing CO2-based polymers.   740
  • Table 149. Companies developing mineral carbonation technologies.       744
  • Table 150. Commodity chemicals and fuels manufactured from CO2.        747

 

List of Figures

  • Figure 1. Bio-based chemicals and feedstocks production capacities, 2018-2033.  42
  • Figure 2. Overview of Toray process. Overview of process             43
  • Figure 3. Production capacities for 11-Aminoundecanoic acid (11-AA).     44
  • Figure 4. 1,4-Butanediol (BDO) production capacities, 2018-2033 (tonnes).            46
  • Figure 5. Dodecanedioic acid (DDDA) production capacities, 2018-2033 (tonnes). 47
  • Figure 6. Epichlorohydrin production capacities, 2018-2033 (tonnes).      48
  • Figure 7. Ethylene production capacities, 2018-2033 (tonnes).     49
  • Figure 8. Potential industrial uses of 3-hydroxypropanoic acid.     54
  • Figure 9. L-lactic acid (L-LA) production capacities, 2018-2033 (tonnes).  57
  • Figure 10. Lactide production capacities, 2018-2033 (tonnes).     59
  • Figure 11. Bio-MEG production capacities, 2018-2033.      61
  • Figure 12. Bio-MPG production capacities, 2018-2033 (tonnes).  62
  • Figure 13. Biobased naphtha production capacities, 2018-2033 (tonnes). 65
  • Figure 14. 1,3-Propanediol (1,3-PDO) production capacities, 2018-2033 (tonnes). 68
  • Figure 15. Sebacic acid production capacities, 2018-2033 (tonnes).           69
  • Figure 16.  Coca-Cola PlantBottle®.           72
  • Figure 17. Interrelationship between conventional, bio-based and biodegradable plastics.              73
  • Figure 18. Polylactic acid (Bio-PLA) production capacities 2019-2033 (1,000 tons).              83
  • Figure 19. Polyethylene terephthalate (Bio-PET) production capacities 2019-2033 (1,000 tons)     86
  • Figure 20. Polytrimethylene terephthalate (PTT) production capacities 2019-2033 (1,000 tons).   88
  • Figure 21. Production capacities of Polyethylene furanoate (PEF) to 2025.               91
  • Figure 22. Polyethylene furanoate (Bio-PEF) production capacities 2019-2033 (1,000 tons).            92
  • Figure 23. Polyamides (Bio-PA) production capacities 2019-2033 (1,000 tons).      95
  • Figure 24. Poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (Bio-PBAT) production capacities 2019-2033 (1,000 tons).       97
  • Figure 25. Polybutylene succinate (PBS) production capacities 2019-2033 (1,000 tons).    100
  • Figure 26. Polyethylene (Bio-PE) production capacities 2019-2033 (1,000 tons).   102
  • Figure 27. Polypropylene (Bio-PP) production capacities 2019-2033 (1,000 tons). 104
  • Figure 28. PHA family.    108
  • Figure 29. PHA production capacities 2019-2033 (1,000 tons).     123
  • Figure 30. TEM image of cellulose nanocrystals. 125
  • Figure 31. CNC preparation.        126
  • Figure 32. Extracting CNC from trees.      127
  • Figure 33. CNC slurry.     129
  • Figure 34. CNF gel.           132
  • Figure 35. Bacterial nanocellulose shapes              138
  • Figure 36. BLOOM masterbatch from Algix.           143
  • Figure 37. Typical structure of mycelium-based foam.     146
  • Figure 38. Commercial mycelium composite construction materials.          146
  • Figure 39. Global production capacities of biobased and sustainable plastics 2020.              149
  • Figure 40. Global production capacities of biobased and sustainable plastics 2025.              149
  • Figure 41. Global production capacities for biobased and sustainable plastics by end user market 2019-2033, 1,000 tons.      153
  • Figure 42. PHA bioplastics products.        155
  • Figure 43. The global market for biobased and biodegradable plastics for flexible packaging 2019–2033 (‘000 tonnes).                158
  • Figure 44. Bioplastics for rigid packaging, 2019–2033 (‘000 tonnes).          160
  • Figure 45. Global production capacities for biobased and biodegradable plastics in consumer products 2019-2033, in 1,000 tons.         161
  • Figure 46. Global production capacities for biobased and biodegradable plastics in automotive 2019-2033, in 1,000 tons.      162
  • Figure 47. Global production capacities for biobased and biodegradable plastics in building and construction 2019-2033, in 1,000 tons.        163
  • Figure 48. AlgiKicks sneaker, made with the Algiknit biopolymer gel.         165
  • Figure 49. Reebok's [REE]GROW running shoes. 165
  • Figure 50. Camper Runner K21.  166
  • Figure 51. Global production capacities for biobased and biodegradable plastics in textiles 2019-2033, in 1,000 tons.                167
  • Figure 52. Global production capacities for biobased and biodegradable plastics in electronics 2019-2033, in 1,000 tons.      168
  • Figure 53. Biodegradable mulch films.     169
  • Figure 54. Global production capacities for biobased and biodegradable plastics in agriculture 2019-2033, in 1,000 tons.      170
  • Figure 55. Types of natural fibers.             174
  • Figure 56. Absolut natural based fiber bottle cap.              177
  • Figure 57. Adidas algae-ink tees.               177
  • Figure 58. Carlsberg natural fiber beer bottle.     177
  • Figure 59. Miratex watch bands. 177
  • Figure 60. Adidas Made with Nature Ultraboost 22.           178
  • Figure 61. PUMA RE:SUEDE sneaker        178
  • Figure 62. Cotton production volume 2018-2033 (Million MT).     183
  • Figure 63. Kapok production volume 2018-2033 (MT).     184
  • Figure 64.  Luffa cylindrica fiber. 185
  • Figure 65. Jute production volume 2018-2033 (Million MT).          187
  • Figure 66. Hemp fiber production volume 2018-2033 ( MT).          189
  • Figure 67. Flax fiber production volume 2018-2033 (MT).               190
  • Figure 68. Ramie fiber production volume 2018-2033 (MT).          192
  • Figure 69. Kenaf fiber production volume 2018-2033 (MT).           193
  • Figure 70. Sisal fiber production volume 2018-2033 (MT).              195
  • Figure 71. Abaca fiber production volume 2018-2033 (MT).          196
  • Figure 72. Coir fiber production volume 2018-2033 (MILLION MT).            198
  • Figure 73. Banana fiber production volume 2018-2033 (MT).        199
  • Figure 74. Pineapple fiber.           200
  • Figure 75. A bag made with pineapple biomaterial from the H&M Conscious Collection 2019.         201
  • Figure 76. Bamboo fiber production volume 2018-2033 (MILLION MT).    205
  • Figure 77. Typical structure of mycelium-based foam.     206
  • Figure 78. Commercial mycelium composite construction materials.          207
  • Figure 79. Frayme Mylo™️.            207
  • Figure 80. BLOOM masterbatch from Algix.           210
  • Figure 81. Conceptual landscape of next-gen leather materials.   214
  • Figure 82. Hemp fibers combined with PP in car door panel.         223
  • Figure 83. Car door produced from Hemp fiber.  224
  • Figure 84. Mercedes-Benz components containing natural fibers.               225
  • Figure 85. Global fiber production in 2022, by fiber type, million MT and %.           232
  • Figure 86. Global fiber production (million MT) to 2020-2033.       233
  • Figure 87. Plant-based fiber production 2018-2033, by fiber type, MT.     234
  • Figure 88. Animal based fiber production 2018-2033, by fiber type, million MT.    235
  • Figure 89. High purity lignin.        236
  • Figure 90. Lignocellulose architecture.    237
  • Figure 91. Extraction processes to separate lignin from lignocellulosic biomass and corresponding technical lignins.                238
  • Figure 92. The lignocellulose biorefinery.              243
  • Figure 93. LignoBoost process.   249
  • Figure 94. LignoForce system for lignin recovery from black liquor.             250
  • Figure 95. Sequential liquid-lignin recovery and purification (SLPR) system.           250
  • Figure 96. A-Recovery+ chemical recovery concept.          251
  • Figure 97.  Schematic of a biorefinery for production of carriers and chemicals.    253
  • Figure 98. Organosolv lignin.       255
  • Figure 99. Hydrolytic lignin powder.        256
  • Figure 100. Estimated consumption of lignin, 2019-2033 (000 MT).            260
  • Figure 101. Schematic of WISA plywood home.   262
  • Figure 102. Lignin based activated carbon.            269
  • Figure 103. Lignin/celluose precursor.     270
  • Figure 104. Pluumo.        276
  • Figure 105. ANDRITZ Lignin Recovery process.    285
  • Figure 106. Anpoly cellulose nanofiber hydrogel.               288
  • Figure 107. MEDICELLU™.            289
  • Figure 108. Asahi Kasei CNF fabric sheet.               298
  • Figure 109. Properties of Asahi Kasei cellulose nanofiber nonwoven fabric.            299
  • Figure 110. CNF nonwoven fabric.            300
  • Figure 111. Roof frame made of natural fiber.     308
  • Figure 112. Beyond Leather Materials product.   312
  • Figure 113. BIOLO e-commerce mailer bag made from PHA.          319
  • Figure 114. Reusable and recyclable foodservice cups, lids, and straws from Joinease Hong Kong Ltd., made with plant-based NuPlastiQ BioPolymer from BioLogiQ, Inc. 320
  • Figure 115. Fiber-based screw cap.           332
  • Figure 116. formicobio™ technology.      353
  • Figure 117. nanoforest-S.             356
  • Figure 118. nanoforest-PDP.       356
  • Figure 119. nanoforest-MB.        357
  • Figure 120. sunliquid® production process.           365
  • Figure 121. CuanSave film.           368
  • Figure 122. Celish.           369
  • Figure 123. Trunk lid incorporating CNF. 371
  • Figure 124. ELLEX products.         372
  • Figure 125. CNF-reinforced PP compounds.          373
  • Figure 126. Kirekira! toilet wipes.              373
  • Figure 127. Color CNF.   374
  • Figure 128. Rheocrysta spray.     380
  • Figure 129. DKS CNF products.   381
  • Figure 130. Domsjö process.       383
  • Figure 131. Mushroom leather. 393
  • Figure 132. CNF based on citrus peel.      395
  • Figure 133. Citrus cellulose nanofiber.    395
  • Figure 134. Filler Bank CNC products.      408
  • Figure 135. Fibers on kapok tree and after processing.     410
  • Figure 136.  TMP-Bio Process.    413
  • Figure 137. Flow chart of the lignocellulose biorefinery pilot plant in Leuna.          414
  • Figure 138. Water-repellent cellulose.    416
  • Figure 139. Cellulose Nanofiber (CNF) composite with polyethylene (PE). 418
  • Figure 140. PHA production process.       419
  • Figure 141. CNF products from Furukawa Electric.              420
  • Figure 142. AVAPTM process.     430
  • Figure 143. GreenPower+™ process.       431
  • Figure 144. Cutlery samples (spoon, knife, fork) made of nano cellulose and biodegradable plastic composite materials.            434
  • Figure 145. Non-aqueous CNF dispersion "Senaf" (Photo shows 5% of plasticizer).              436
  • Figure 146. CNF gel.        443
  • Figure 147. Block nanocellulose material.              444
  • Figure 148. CNF products developed by Hokuetsu.            444
  • Figure 149. Marine leather products.      447
  • Figure 150. Inner Mettle Milk products. 451
  • Figure 151. Kami Shoji CNF products.      464
  • Figure 152. Dual Graft System.   466
  • Figure 153. Engine cover utilizing Kao CNF composite resins.        467
  • Figure 154. Acrylic resin blended with modified CNF (fluid) and its molded product (transparent film), and image obtained with AFM (CNF 10wt% blended).           468
  • Figure 155. Kel Labs yarn.             469
  • Figure 156. 0.3% aqueous dispersion of sulfated esterified CNF and dried transparent film (front side).     473
  • Figure 157. BioFlex process.        485
  • Figure 158. Nike Algae Ink graphic tee.   486
  • Figure 159. LX Process.  490
  • Figure 160. Made of Air's HexChar panels.            493
  • Figure 161. TransLeather.             494
  • Figure 162. Chitin nanofiber product.      499
  • Figure 163. Marusumi Paper cellulose nanofiber products.            501
  • Figure 164. FibriMa cellulose nanofiber powder. 502
  • Figure 165. METNIN™ Lignin refining technology.              506
  • Figure 166. IPA synthesis method.            509
  • Figure 167. MOGU-Wave panels.              513
  • Figure 168. CNF slurries.                514
  • Figure 169. Range of CNF products.          514
  • Figure 170. Reishi.           518
  • Figure 171. Compostable water pod.       536
  • Figure 172. Leather made from leaves.   537
  • Figure 173. Nike shoe with beLEAF™.      537
  • Figure 174. CNF clear sheets.      547
  • Figure 175. Oji Holdings CNF polycarbonate product.       548
  • Figure 176. Enfinity cellulosic ethanol technology process.            562
  • Figure 177. Fabric consisting of 70 per cent wool and 30 per cent Qmilk. 567
  • Figure 178. XCNF.            575
  • Figure 179: Plantrose process.    576
  • Figure 180. LOVR hemp leather. 579
  • Figure 181. CNF insulation flat plates.     582
  • Figure 182. Hansa lignin.               589
  • Figure 183. Manufacturing process for STARCEL. 593
  • Figure 184. Manufacturing process for STARCEL. 597
  • Figure 185. 3D printed cellulose shoe.    606
  • Figure 186. Lyocell process.         609
  • Figure 187. North Face Spiber Moon Parka.          614
  • Figure 188. PANGAIA LAB NXT GEN Hoodie.         615
  • Figure 189. Spider silk production.            616
  • Figure 190. Stora Enso lignin battery materials.   621
  • Figure 191. 2 wt.% CNF suspension.       622
  • Figure 192. BiNFi-s Dry Powder. 622
  • Figure 193. BiNFi-s Dry Powder and Propylene (PP) Complex Pellet.          623
  • Figure 194. Silk nanofiber (right) and cocoon of raw material.       623
  • Figure 195. Sulapac cosmetics containers.             625
  • Figure 196.  Sulzer equipment for PLA polymerization processing.              626
  • Figure 197. Teijin bioplastic film for door handles.             636
  • Figure 198. Corbion FDCA production process.    643
  • Figure 199. Comparison of weight reduction effect using CNF.     645
  • Figure 200. CNF resin products. 649
  • Figure 201. UPM biorefinery process.     651
  • Figure 202. Vegea production process.   656
  • Figure 203. The Proesa® Process.              657
  • Figure 204. Goldilocks process and applications. 659
  • Figure 205. Visolis’ Hybrid Bio-Thermocatalytic Process. 662
  • Figure 206. HefCel-coated wood (left) and untreated wood (right) after 30 seconds flame test.     665
  • Figure 207. Worn Again products.             669
  • Figure 208. Zelfo Technology GmbH CNF production process.       674
  • Figure 209. Carbon emissions by sector. 679
  • Figure 210. Overview of CCUS market     681
  • Figure 211. Pathways for CO2 use.           682
  • Figure 212. Regional capacity share 2022-2030.   684
  • Figure 213. Global investment in carbon capture 2010-2022, millions USD.            690
  • Figure 214. Carbon Capture, Utilization, & Storage (CCUS) Market Map.  692
  • Figure 215. CCS deployment projects, historical and to 2035.        693
  • Figure 216. Existing and planned CCS projects.    702
  • Figure 217. CCUS Value Chain.    702
  • Figure 218. Schematic of CCUS process. 704
  • Figure 219. Pathways for CO2 utilization and removal.     705
  • Figure 220. A pre-combustion capture system.   711
  • Figure 221. Carbon dioxide utilization and removal cycle.               715
  • Figure 222. Various pathways for CO2 utilization.               716
  • Figure 223. Example of underground carbon dioxide storage.       717
  • Figure 224. CO2 non-conversion and conversion technology, advantages and disadvantages.        718
  • Figure 225. Applications for CO2.              721
  • Figure 226. Cost to capture one metric ton of carbon, by sector. 721
  • Figure 227. Life cycle of CO2-derived products and services.         724
  • Figure 228. Co2 utilization pathways and products.           727
  • Figure 229. Plasma technology configurations and their advantages and disadvantages for CO2 conversion.           731
  • Figure 230. LanzaTech gas-fermentation process.              736
  • Figure 231. Schematic of biological CO2 conversion into e-fuels. 737
  • Figure 232. Econic catalyst systems.        740
  • Figure 233. Mineral carbonation processes.         743
  • Figure 234.  Conversion of CO2 into chemicals and fuels via different pathways.  745
  • Figure 235.  Conversion pathways for CO2-derived polymeric materials   748
  • Figure 236. Dioxycle modular electrolyzer.            764
  • Figure 237. O12 Reactor.              772
  • Figure 238. Sunglasses with lenses made from CO2-derived materials.     772
  • Figure 239. CO2 made car part.  773

 

 

 

 

The Global Market for Bio- and CO2- based Plastics and Polymers
The Global Market for Bio- and CO2- based Plastics and Polymers
PDF download.

Payment methods: Visa, Mastercard, American Express, Paypal. 

To purchase by invoice (bank transfer) or in an alternative currency please contact info@futuremarketsinc.com